# CCNA – Semester1

Module 4 Cable Testing

Objectives

• Basic definitions regarding cable testing • Issues relating to the testing of media

Background for Studying Frequency-Based Cable Testing Waves • A wave is energy traveling from one place to another. . light waves in optical fiber. and alternating electric and magnetic fields called electromagnetic waves. • Networking professionals are specifically interested in voltage waves on copper media.

Analog signals • • • • Continuous voltage Voltage varies as time progresses Typical of things in nature Many encodings possible Digital signals • • • • Discret. not continuous Can only have one or two voltage states Voltage jumps between 2 levels Made up of particular sine waves .

Decibels • The decibel (dB) is a measurement unit important in describing networking signals. • There are two formulas for calculating decibels: dB = 10 log10 (Pfinal / Pref) dB = 20 log10 (Vfinal / Vreference) • dB measures the loss or gain of the power of a wave. • Typically. may observe and compare 2 waves at once . light waves on optical fiber and radio waves in the air are measured using the power formula. Y-axis represents V. Viewing signals in time and frequency • Analyzing signals using an oscilloscope is called time-domain analysis • Graphs voltage over time • X-axis represents T. Electromagnetic waves on copper cables are measured using the voltage formula.

which is noise from other signals being transmitted nearby Electromagnetic interference (EMI). which is noise from nearby sources such as motors and lights Laser noise at the transmitter or receiver of an optical signal • • .Fourier synthesis Noise • • Nearby cable carrying electric signal Radio frequency interference (RFI).

Two ways of considering bandwidth that are important for the study of LANs are analog bandwidth and digital bandwidth. • Digital bandwidth measures how much information can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. • Analog bandwidth typically refers to the frequency range of an analog electronic system. • Noise that only affects small ranges of frequencies is called narrowband interference. .Narrowband Interference and white noise • Noise that affects all transmission frequencies equally is called white noise. Bandwidth • Bandwidth is an extremely important concept in communications systems.

• The voltage levels are measured with respect to a reference level of ground volt at both the transmitter and the receiver. the receiving device must be able to accurately interpret the binary ones and zeros transmitted as signal levels. • In order for the LAN to operate properly.Signals and Noise Signaling over copper and fiber optic cabling • On copper cable. • Fiber optic cable is used to transmit data signals by increasing and decreasing the intensity of light to represent binary ones and zeros. . data signals are represented by voltage levels that represent binary ones and zeros.

Attenuation loss on copper media • Attenuation is the decrease in signal amplitude over the length of a link. – Long cable lengths and high signal frequencies contribute to greater signal attenuation. – Signal energy is also lost when it leaks through the insulation of the cable and by impedance caused by defective connectors. • The combination of the effects of signal attenuation and impedance discontinuities is called insertion loss. it will have a different impedance value than the cable. Impedance Discontinuity • If a connector is improperly installed on Cat5. • Impedance mismatch cause attenuation and jitter as a portion of signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device. . This is called an impedance discontinuity or an impedance mismatch. – The resistance of the copper cable converts some of the electrical energy of the signal to heat.

Types of crosstalk • Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) • Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT) • Power Sum Near-end Crosstalk (PSNEXT) Cable testing standards • • • • • • • • • • Wire map Insertion loss Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) Power sum near-end crosstalk (PSNEXT) Equal-level far-end crosstalk (ELFEXT) Power sum equal-level far-end crosstalk (PSELFEXT) Return loss Propagation delay Cable length Delay skew .

Cable Testing Standard Wiring Fault .

• The main concern with a fiber link is the strength of the light signal that arrives at the receiver. .Other test parameters Testing optical fiber • Fiber links are subject to the optical equivalent of UTP impedance discontinuities.

called ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2. the Category 6 (or Cat 6) addition to the TIA-568 standard was published.1 Fluke 620 Cable Tester .1. • This new standard specifies the original set of performance parameters that need to be tested for Ethernet cabling as well as the passing scores for each of these tests.2-1. 2002.A new standard • On June 20.9 UTP Cable Construction • 4. Lab Companion • 3.

Summary • • • • Sine waves and square waves Analog bandwidth and digital bandwidth Signals over copper and fiber optic Attenuation loss. crosstalk • Wiring faults • Cable testing standards . impedence discontinuty.