CCNA – Semester1

Module 6 Ethernet Fundamentals


• Ethernet fundamentals • Ethernet operation

Ethernet Fundamentals Introduction to Ethernet • The success of Ethernet is due to the following factors: – – – – – Simplicity and ease of maintenance Ability to incorporate new technologies Reliability Low cost of installation and upgrade Bandwidth can be increased without changing underlying technology .

10 Standard for Interoperable LAN Security (SILS) 801.3z .100 Mbit IEEE 802.5 Token Ring 802.7 BroadBand Technical Adv.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 802.1000 Mbit Ethernet Standards .16 Broadband Wireless Access (BBWA) RPRSG Resilient Packet Ring Study Group (RPRSG) IEEE 802.0 SEC 802.4 Token Bus 802.14 Cable-TV Based Broadband Communication Network 802.1 High Level Interface (HILI) 802.IEEE 802 Committees 802. Group (FOTAG) 802.12 Demand Priority 802.8 Fiber Optics Technical Adv.10 Mbit IEEE 802.3 .11 Wireless LAN (WLAN) 802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) 802.3 CSMA/CD Working Group 802.9 Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN) 802. Group (BBTAG) 802.3u .2 Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.

1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode optical fibers using shortwave laser optics. 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over four pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable. Also referred to as Thick Ethernet or Thicknet or Thickwire. Also referred to as Thin Ethernet or Thinnet or Thinwire. 100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode optical fibers. Ethernet and the OSI model • Divided OSI Layer 2 into two sublayers – Media Access Control (MAC) – Traditional L2 features • Transitions down to media – Logical link control (LLC) – New L2 features • Transitions up to the network layer .Ethernet Specifications Designation 10Base-2 10Base-5 10Base-T 100Base-FX 100Base-T 100Base-T4 100Base-TX 1000Base-CX 1000Base-LX 1000Base-SX 1000Base-T Description 10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over coaxial cable with a maximum distance of 185 meters. 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode or single-mode optical fibers using longwave laser optics. 10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables with a maximum length of 100 meters. 100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over four pairs of Category 3 or higher unshielded twisted pair cable. 10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over coaxial cable with a maximum distance of 500 meters. 100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cable. 100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two pairs of shielded twisted pair or Category 4 twisted pair cable. 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two pairs of 150 shielded twisted pair cable.

• Media access control rules.5 Packet . • Framing.3 Packet • Naming.LLC sublayer Packet Packet LLC PDU Frame Packet • • LLC PDU includes: – DSAP: Destination service access point – SSAP: Source service access point Supports connection control methods specified by upper protocols MAC sublayer Packet Packet 802. 802.

FFFF Layer 2 Framing • Framing helps obtain essential information that could not.0c12. otherwise. be obtained with coded bit streams alone.FFFF. Examples of such information are: – Which computers are communicating with one another – When communication between individual computers begins and when it terminates – Provides a method for detection of errors that occurred during the communication – Whose turn it is to "talk" in a computer "conversation“ . • Presentation formats: 0000.MAC address • MAC addresses are burned into read-only memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the NIC initializes.3456 or 00-00-0c-12-34-56. • Broadcast address: FFFF.

.000 Mbps. Ethernet Frame Format • • At the data link layer the frame structure is nearly identical for all speeds of Ethernet from 10 Mbps to 10.Generic Frame Format • Framing is the Layer 2 encapsulation process. A frame is the Layer 2 protocol data unit. Ethernet requires that the frame be not less than 46 octets or more than 1518 octets.

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Ethernet II .

or collision domain. • There are two broad categories of Media Access Control. deterministic (taking turns) and non-deterministic (first come. . first served).Ethernet Operation Media Access Control (MAC) • MAC refers to protocols that determine which computer on a shared-medium environment. is allowed to transmit the data.

5) – Logical ring – Physical star topology – Deterministic • Token controls traffic – Older declining technology • FDDI (IEEE 802.5) – Logical ring topology – Physical dual-ring topology – Deterministic • Token controls traffic – Near-end-of-life technology CSMA/CD Process Host wants to transmit Broadcast jam signal Is carrier sensed? attempts = attempts + 1 Attempts> too many? Too many collisions.Media Access Control (MAC) Protocols • Ethernet (IEEE 802. first-served • Token Ring (IEEE 802.3) – Logical bus topology – Physical star or extended star – Nondeterministic • First-come. abort transmission Assemble frame Wait for t seconds Algorithm calculate backoff Start transmitting Is a collision detected? Keep transmitting Is transmission done? Transmission completed .

Ethernet Transmission Mode • Full duplex : – send and receive simultaneously – no collisions occur. collision must be sensed before completing transmission of a minimum-sized frame. . • Half duplex: – only send or receive at a specific moment – transmit 64 bits of timing synchronization information that is known as the preamble to make sure collision do not occur. For this reason half duplex is not permitted in 10-Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet Timing • For CSMA/CD Ethernet to operate. • At 100 Mbps the system timing is barely able to accommodate 100 meter cables.

. all stations on a 10-Mbps Ethernet are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit-times (9.Slot time • Ethernet standard specifications limit – maximum segment length – maximum number of stations per segment – maximum number of repeaters between segments • Slot time >= round trip delay Interframe Spacing • The minimum time space between two non-colliding frames is also called the interframe spacing.6 microseconds) before any station may legally transmit the next frame. • After a frame has been sent.

• When collision occurs. Types of Collisions • The results of collisions. are partial or corrupted frames that are less than 64 octets and have an invalid FCS.Error Handling • Collisions are to resole contention for network access which results in network bandwidth loss. collision fragments. Three types of collisions are: – Local – Remote – Late . the devices with data to transmit return to a listen-before-transmit mode and no device have priority to transmit data.

• Local collision is sensed as over-voltage condition on the local cable area when two signal from different stations collide. • This sort of collision usually results from collisions occurring on the far side of a repeated connection. Remote Collison • The characteristics of a remote collision are a frame that is less than the minimum length.Local Collision • Local collision is detected on the local segment when a station detects a signal on the RX pair at the same time it is sending on the TX pair. has an invalid FCS checksum. .

a faulty version of the NIC driver. If FCS errors are associated with many stations. • Difference between late collisions and other collisions is that the Ethernet NIC will not automatically retransmit a frame that was collided late.Late Collision • Collisions occurring after the first 64 octets are called late collisions. or a bad cable connecting that station to the network. . High numbers of FCS errors from a single station usually indicates a faulty NIC and/or faulty or corrupted software drivers. also referred to as a checksum or CRC error. or induced noise in the cable system. they are generally traceable to bad cabling. differs from the original transmission by at least 1 bit. a faulty hub port. FCS and Beyond • • • A received frame that has a bad frame check sequence.

Summary • • • • • • • • The basics of Ethernet technology How Ethernet and the OSI model interact Ethernet frame field names and purposes The characteristics and function of CSMA/CD Ethernet timing The backoff algorithm and time after a collision Ethernet errors and collisions Auto-negotiation in relation to speed and duplex . • It has the additional advantage of only involving the lowest part of the physical layer.Ethernet Autonegotiation • This process defines how two link partners may automatically negotiate a configuration offering the best common performance level.

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