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Module 2 Networking Fundamentals
• • • •
Networking terminology Some network architectures The importance of bandwidth Networking models: OSI vs TCP/IP
Relative size of network
• Bridge: convert network transmission data formats as well as perform basic data transmission management.Networking Devices • Equipment that connects directly to a network segment is referred to as a device. • Router: routing and other services . Network Devices • Repeater: regenerate a signal. • Switch: add more intelligence to data transfer management. • There are 2 type of devices: end-user devices and network devices. • Hub: concentrate connections and may regenerate a signal.
Physical Topology . which is the actual layout of the wire or media. • The logical topology. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for sending data.Network Topology • The physical topology.
first-serve. • Eg: Ethernet . • First-come.Logical Topology Broadcast Token Passing Logical Topology: Broadcast • Each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium.
Logical Topology: Token Passing • Access to media is controlled by an electronic token. • Possession of the token gives the host the right to pass data to its destination. • A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions that govern a particular aspect of how devices on a network communicate. • Eg: Token-Ring. FDDI Network Protocols • Protocol suites are collections of protocols that enable network communication from one host through the network to another host. .
which include the following: – – – – – How the physical network is built How computers connect to the network How the data is formatted for transmission How that data is sent How to deal with errors LANs • Operate within a limited geographic area • Allow many users to access high-bandwidth media • Provide full-time connectivity to local services • Connect physically adjacent devices .Functions of Protocols • Protocols control all aspects of data communication.
LAN Devices and Technology • Some common LAN technologies are: – Ethernet – Token Ring – FDDI WANs • Operate over a large geographically separated areas • Provide full-time remote resources connected to local services .
E1. . T3. • A MAN usually consists of two or more LANs in a common geographic area.WAN Technologies Include • Some common WAN technologies are: – – – – – – – Analog modems Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) T (US) and E (Europe) carrier series: T1. E3 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Metropolitan-Area Networks (MANs) • A MAN is a network that spans a metropolitan area such as a city or suburban area.
• VPN is the most costeffective method of establishing secured connection . Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) • A VPN is a private network that is constructed within a public network infrastructure such as the global Internet . high-performance network used to move data between servers and storage resources.Storage-Area Networks (SANs) • A SAN is a dedicated.
VPN Types There are three main types of VPNs: • • • Access VPNs Intranet VPNs Extranet VPNs Bandwidth .
Importance of Bandwidth Digital Bandwidth • Bandwidth is the measure of how much information. can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. . or seconds. or bits.
Bandwidth Limitations (LAN) Bandwidth Limitations (WAN) .
and while a specific set of data is transmitted on the network. at a specific time of day. • Factors that determine throughput: – – – – – – – Internetworking devices Type of data being transferred Network topology Number of users on the network User computer Server computer Power conditions Data Transfer Calculation Calculate an estimate of network performance .Throughput • Throughput refers to actual measured bandwidth. using specific Internet routes.
..... Atmosphere Atmosphere . . Where Where does does the the flow flow occur occur ? ? Cable... Protocol Protocol . Standard..... .Networking Models Analyzing network in layer What What is is flowing flowing ? ? Data Data What What different different forms forms flow flow ? ? Text. Text. Graphic. Video Video . Cable. . Graphic. .. What What rules rules govern govern flow flow ? ? Standard.
Atmosphere • Protocol – Format – Procedure . Destination address • Media – Cable. Fiber.Communication characteristics • Addresses – What are the source and the destination of a communication process? • Media – Where does the communication take place? • Protocols – How to make the communication process effectively? Packets Protocols Source Address Medium Destination Address Data Communication • Address – Source address.
Proprietary vs.Evolution of networking standards SNA Standard • Interconnection • Development • Simplification Proprietary TCP/IP DECNET OSI Model • The OSI model: model a framework within which networking standards can be developed. – It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability between the various types of network technologies that were produced by the many companies around the world. Open .
access to media a Binary transmission •All People Seem To Need Data Processing . Standardizes interfaces. Facilitates modular engineering. • Simplifies teaching and learning. Ensures technology compatibility.Why a layered model Reduces complexity. • • • • 7 layers of the OSI reference model Network processes to applications Data representation Interhost communication End-to-end connections Address and best path Direct link control. • Accelerates evolution.
– – – – File transfer Electronic mail Terminal access … 7 layers of the OSI reference model Data representation • Ensures that the information that the application layer of one system sends out is readable by the application layer of another system. it provides network services to the user’s applications.7 layers of the OSI reference model Network processes to applications • Is the OSI layer that is closest to the user. – – – – Format of data Data conversion Data compression Data encryption .
transparent transfer of data over networks. – – – – – Segments. – – – – Sessions Dialog Conversations Data exchange 7 layers of the OSI reference model End-to-end connections • Provides reliable. and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts. datagram End-to-end flow control Error detection and recovery Segmentation & reassembly … . data stream.7 layers of the OSI reference model Interhost communication • Establishes. manages.
routing table.7 layers of the OSI reference model Address and best path • Provides connectivity and path selection between two host systems that may be located on geographically separated networks. – – – – – Frames Physical address Network topology Line discipline … . – – – – – Packets Route. access to media • Provides for the reliable transfer of data cross a physical link. Logical address Fragmentation … 7 layers of the OSI reference model Direct link control.
mechanical. access to media a Binary transmission •All People Seem To Need Data Processing . – Electrical. procedural and functional specifications – Physical data rate – Distances – Physical connector 7 layers of the OSI reference model Network processes to applications Data representation Interhost communication End-to-end connections Address and best path Direct link control.7 layers of the OSI reference model Binary transmission • Transmission of an unstructured bit stream over a physical link between end systems.
. Encapsulation The lower layers use encapsulation to put the protocol data unit (PDU) from the upper layer into its data field and to add headers and trailers that the layer can use to perform its function.Peer-to-Peer Communication • The protocols of each layer exchange information. called protocol data units (PDUs). between peer layers.
thereby creating a datagram. Encapsulation example: E-mail . – It passes the datagram up to the next layer.De-Encapsulation • When the data link layer receives the frame. it does the following: – It reads the physical address and other control information provided by the directly connected peer data link layer. – It strips the control information from the frame. following the instructions that appeared in the control portion of the frame.
.Layer-to-layer communications Provide services Request services TCP/IP model development • The late-60s The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) originally developed Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to interconnect various defense department computer networks. • The Internet. an International Wide Area Network. uses TCP/IP to connect networks across the world.
Do not confuse the layers of the two models.The TCP/IP Reference Model • • • • Layer 4: Layer 3: Layer 2: Layer 1: It is important to note that some of the layers in the TCP/IP model have the same name as layers in the OSI model. TCP/IP Protocol Stack .
OSI Model and TCP/IP Model Focus of the CCNA Curriculum .
Summary • • • • • • • Networking devices Some of the common network types Intranet and extranet Bandwidth and throughput The layered communication model OSI reference model TCP/IP networking model .
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