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# Seventh Lecture

Moving Coil Instruments

**Moving Coil Instruments
**

There are two types of moving coil instruments namely, permanent magnet moving coil type which can only be used for direct current, voltage measurements and the dynamometer type which can be used on either direct or alternating current, voltage measurements.

**Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Mechanism (PMMC)
**

In PMMC meter or (D’Arsonval) meter or galvanometer all are the same instrument, a coil of fine wire is suspended in a magnetic field produced by permanent magnet. According to the fundamental law of electromagnetic force, the coil will rotate in the magnetic field when it carries an electric current by electromagnetic (EM) torque effect. A pointer which attached the movable coil will deflect according to the amount of current to be measured which applied to the coil. The (EM) torque is counterbalance by the mechanical torque of control springs attached to the movable coil also. When the torques are balanced the moving coil will stopped and its angular deflection represent the amount of electrical current to be measured against a fixed reference, called a scale. If the permanent magnet field is uniform and the spring linear, then the pointer deflection is also linear.

**Mathematical Representation of PMMC Mechanism
**

Assume there are (N) turns of wire and the coil is (L) in long by (W) in wide. The force (F) acting perpendicular to both the direction of the current flow and the direction of magnetic field is given by: where N: turns of wire on the coil I: current in the movable coil F = N ⋅B⋅I ⋅L B: flux density in the air gap L: vertical length of the coil Electromagnetic torque is equal to the multiplication of force with distance to the point of suspension W W in one side of cylinder in the other side of cylinder TI 1 = NBIL TI 2 = NBIL 2 2 The total torque for the two cylinder sides

W⎞ ⎛ where A: effective coil area TI = 2⎜ NBIL ⎟ = NBILW = NBIA 2⎠ ⎝ This torque will cause the coil to rotate until an equilibrium position is reached at an angle θ with its original orientation. At this position Electromagnetic torque = control spring torque TI = Ts Since Ts = Kθ NBA NBA So θ= I where Thus C= θ = CI K K The angular deflection proportional linearly with applied current

1

Seventh Lecture

Moving Coil Instruments

pointer

F B S I W L I B F N

1- D.c Ammeter:

An Ammeter is always connected in series with a circuit branch and measures the current flowing in it. Most d.c ammeters employ a d’Arsonval movement, an ideal ammeter would be capable of performing the measurement without changing or distributing the current in the branch but real ammeters would possess some internal resistance.

+

Im Rm

**Extension of Ammeter Range:
**

Since the coil winding in PMMC meter is small and light, they can carry only small currents (μA-1mA). Measurement of large current requires a shunt external resistor to connect with the meter movement, so only a fraction of the total current will passes through the meter.

Vm = Vsh Im Rm = IshRsh Ish = I T − Im Im Rm Rsh = I T − Im

+

I range=IT Ish Rsh Im Rm

_

2

Seventh Lecture

Moving Coil Instruments

Example: If PMMC meter have internal resistance of 10Ω and full scale range of 1mA. Assume we wish to increase the meter range to 1A. Sol. So we must connect shunt resistance with the PMMC meter of

Rsh = Im Rm I T − Im

Rsh = 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 1 − 1 × 10 − 3 = 0.01001Ω

**a) Direct D.c Ammeter Method (Ayrton Shunt):
**

The current range of d.c ammeter can be further extended by a number of shunts selected by a range switch; such ammeter is called a multirange ammeter.

Rsh∗ =

Im Rm Ir∗ − Im

+

Ish3 Rsh3

Ish2 Rsh2

Ish1 Rsh1

Im Rm

I range2 I range3 I range1

_

b) Indirect D.C Ammeter Method:

Ir∗ Rm + R = Im r∗ Where R=Ra+ Rb+ Rc And r = parallel resistors branch with the meter

Ir1

Ra Ir2 Ir3 Rb Im Rm

+

Rc

_

3

Seventh Lecture Moving Coil Instruments Example (1): Design a multirange ammeter by using direct method to give the following ranges 10mA. and 100A. 1A. 100mA.11Ω Rsh2 = Rsh 4 = 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 (100 − 10) × 10 − 3 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 10 − 1 × 10 − 3 = 0. and 10A. if PMMC meter have internal resistance of 50Ω and full scale current of 1mA. 10A.0011Ω Rsh5 = 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 100 − 1 × 10 − 3 + Rsh5 Rsh4 Rsh3 1A Rsh2 100mA Rsh1 10mA Im 1mA Rm 10Ω _ 100A Example (2): Design an Ayrton shunt by indirect method to provide an ammeter with current ranges 1A.: Rm=50Ω IFSD=Im=1mA 1A Ra 5A 10A Rb Im Rm Ir∗ Rm + R = Im r∗ Where R=Ra+ Rb+ Rc And r = parallel resistors branch with the meter + 1- For 1A Range: Rc I1 Rm + R = Im R _ 4 . Sol: Rm=10Ω Im=1mA Rsh∗ = Im Rm Ir∗ − Im Rsh1 = 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 (10 − 1) × 10 − 3 1 × 10 −3 ⋅ 10 1 − 10 × 10 − 3 = 1.101Ω Rsh3 = = 0. Sol. If d’Arsonval meter have internal resistance of 10Ω and full scale current of 1mA.00011Ω = 0.0101Ω = 0. 5A.

and they are usually much larger than Rm. 5 .c voltmeter employ PMMC meter with series resistor as shown. The series resistance should be much larger than the impedance of the circuit being measured.005x10-3 Ω = Rc 1mA Rb=0.D.005x10-3 Ω 2. Rs = RT − Rm Rs = Vrange Im − Rm + VRange Rs Im Rm Im=IFSD The ohm/volt sensitivity of a voltmeter Is given by: Rm 1 Ω Sv = = = rating V FSD I FSD V _ S Range = Rm + Rs 1 Ω = = V Range I Range V So the internal resistance of voltmeter or the input resistance of voltmeter is Rv= VFSD x sensitivity Example: We have a micro ammeter and we wish to adapted it so as to measure 1volt full scale.01001=0.01001Ω Ra=0.005x10-3= 5.04004 Ω 3- I 3 Rm + R r =Rc = Im Rc 10 A 50 + 0. the meter has internal resistance of 100Ω and IFSD of 100μA.05005 = 1mA Rb + Rc Ra=R-(Rb+Rc) For 10A Range: R=0.05-0.C Voltmeter: A voltmeter is always connect in parallel with the element being measured.01001-5.05005 Rc=5. and measures the voltage between the points across which its’ connected.Seventh Lecture 1A 50 + R = 1mA R For 5A Range: I 2 Rm + R = Im Rb + Rc 5 A 50 + 0. Most d.05005Ω Moving Coil Instruments 2- r =Rb+Rc Rb+Rc= 0.

9 KΩ Im 1mA 6 . Rs1 = Rs 2 = V1 − Rm Im V 2 − V1 Im V3 −V 2 Im Im Rm Rs1 Rs2 V2 V1 Rs3 V3 + _ O/P Rs3 = Example (1): A basic d’Arsonval movement with internal resistance of 100Ω and half scale current deflection of 0.9 KΩ Im 0. Sol: IFSD = IHSD x 2 IFSD = 0. V∗ Rs = − Rm ∗ Im Rm Rs1 Im Rs2 Rs3 V2 V1 + V3 o/p of voltmeter _ b) Indirect D. 250V. such a voltmeter is called multirange voltmeter.: Moving Coil Instruments 1 V − Rm Rs = − 100 = 9900Ω = 9.c voltmeter with voltages ranges of 10V.c Voltmeter Method: In this method one or more series resistances of multirange voltmeter is connected with PMMC meter to give the desired range.5 mA is to be converted by indirect method into a multirange d.0001 So we connect with PMMC meter a series resistance of 9.5mA x 2 =1mA 10 V1 Rs1 = − Rm Rs1 = − 100 = 9.Seventh Lecture Sol. 50V.9KΩ to convert it to voltmeter Rs = Extension of Voltmeter Range: Voltage range of d.c voltmeter can be further extended by a number of series resistance selected by a range switch.c Voltmeter Method: In this method each series resistance of multirange voltmeter is connected in direct with PMMC meter to give the desired range. a) Direct D. and 500V.

1V. 7 . Sol: V Rs∗ = ∗ − Rm Im Rs1 = V1 − Rm Im Rm Rs1 Im Rs2 Rs3 1V 100mV + o/p of voltmeter 100V _ 10mV − 100 = 0Ω 100 μA 1 Rs 2 = − 100 = 9.Ohmmeter and Resistance measurement: When a current of 1A flows through a circuit which has an impressed voltage of 1volt.9 KΩ 100 × 10 − 6 100 Rs3 = − 100 = 99. and 100V.9 KΩ 100 × 10 − 6 Rs1 = 3.Seventh Lecture Moving Coil Instruments Rs 2 = Rs 2 = Rs3 = Rs 4 = V 2 − V1 Im 50 − 10 Rs1 Rs2 Rs3 50V Rs4 1 × 10 − 3 250 − 50 −3 = 40 KΩ = 200 KΩ = 250 KΩ Rm Im 10V 250V 500V 1 × 10 500 − 250 1 × 10 − 3 + _ O/P Example (2): Design d.c voltmeter by using direct method with d’Arsonval meter of 100Ω and full scale deflection of 100μA to give the following ranges: 10mV. the circuit has a resistance of 1Ω. V R= I There are several methods used to measure unknown resistance: This method is inaccurate unless the ammeter has a small resistance and voltmeter have a high resistance. a) Indirect method by ammeter and voltmeter.

Seventh Lecture Moving Coil Instruments b) Series Ohmmeter: Rx is the unknown resistor to be measured. Series ohmmeter is the most generally used meter for resistance measurement. The switch is necessary in shunt ohmmeter to disconnect the battery when the instrument is not used. The scale of series ohmmeter is nonlinear with zero at the right and infinity at extreme left. 0 ∞ d) Voltage Divider (potentiometer): The meter of voltage divider is voltmeter that reads voltage drop across Rs which dependent on Rx. ∞ 0 c) Shunt Ohmmeter: Shunt ohmmeter are used to measure very low resistance values. The unknown resistance Rx is now shunted across the meter. R2 is variable adjusted resistance so that the pointer read zero at short circuit test. so portion of current will pass across this resistor and drop the meter deflection proportionately. This meter will read from right to left like series ohmmeter with more uniform calibration. The scale of shunt ohmmeter is nonlinear with zero at the left and infinity at extreme right. ∞ 0 8 .

0). If the value of waveform remains constant with time.y1)=(3. the signal is referred to as direct (d.Eighth Lecture A.c) waveform. Average Values: It is found by dividing the area under the curve of the waveform in one period (T) by the time of the period.. If the variation of a. Thus the time duration of one cycle per second for a.c) signal.yo)=(0. Average value= Algebraic sum of the areas under the curve Length of the curve ∑ areas ……………. If a signal is time varying and has positive and negative instantaneous values. (1) Av = T or 1 Av = T T 0 ∫ f (t )dt ……………..c signal is defined as the number of cycles traversed in one second. Such graphs are known as the waveforms of the signal.c signal is known as the period (T). The frequency of a.c Measuring Instrument Review on Alternating Signal: The instantaneous values of electrical signals can be graphed as they vary with time. such as the voltage of a battery. the waveform is known as alternating (a. and (x1. Where the complete variation of a.c signal before repeated itself is represent one cycle.c Measuring Instruments A. (2) V Vm 0 Π θ 2Π V 6 3 -3 5 7 9 t V 4 3 t 2 -2 4 6 8 10 1 Av = 2π 2π 0 ∫ VmSinθdθ 1 1 × 3 × 6 + × 4 × (− 3) 2 Av = 2 9 Av = 4 × 2 + (− 2 ) × 2 + 3 × 2 10 Vm 2π Av = − Cosθ ↑ 0 2π Vm (1 − 1) = 0 Av = − 2π The average value for the figure below by using equation (2) is: Av = 1 T T ( ) ∫ f (t )dt 0 we use the tangent equation for (xo.6) to find the function of f(t) 1 .c signal is continuously repeated then the signal is known as periodic waveform.

-2 r.s value of a waveform refers to its power capability.s = 1 (2t )2 dt 3∫ 0 3 ⎞ 4⎛ ⎜ t ↑3 ⎟ = 0 ⎟ 3⎜ ⎠ ⎝ 3 3 r.c signal because the r.0) t 3 Root Mean Square Value(effective value of a.c signal.r.s value equal to the value of a d. It is refer to the effective value of a.s = T T ∫ f (t ) 0 2 V2 16 9 4 2 f(t) 6 (3.s = 4 (3)3 − (0)3 = 9 ( ) 4 × 27 = 3.m.c signal which would deliver the same power if it replaced with a.6) 4 6 8 10 t dt 2- If f(t) = 2t then its r.s = ⎨ 4π ⎪ ⎩ 2π ⎡ 2π ⎪ ⎢ ∫ dθ − ∫ Cos 2θdθ ⎥ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎣0 ⎦⎪ ⎭ r.s = 2π 2π ⎤ Vm 2 ⎡ 1 ⎢θ − Sin 2θ ⎥ 4π ⎢ 0 2 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 .s = 2π t 3 2π 3- If f(t) = Vm Sinθdθ r.46 9 (0.m.m.m.c signal): The r.m.s value is: r.0) Vm 2 r.m.m.s value has the following aqua.m.s = ( for square waveform only) T 3 16 × 2 + 4 × 2 + 9 × 2 1.s = t 10 6 8 10 2 4 In general form the r.m.s = 1 2π 2π 0 ∫ Vm 2 Sin θdθ 1 ⎤⎫ 2 2 ∫ 0 1 − Cos 2θ dθ 2 ⎧Vm 2 ⎪ r.s= √Average f(t)2 1 r.m.m.m.Eighth Lecture y − y1 y 2 − y1 = x − x1 x 2 − x1 1 Av = ∫ (2t )dt 3 0 3 A. V area(V ) 2 ∑ 4 r.m.6) Av = 2 ⎞ 2⎛ ⎜ t ↑3 ⎟ 0 ⎟ 3⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Av = 1 (3)2 − (0)2 = 9 = 3 3 3 ( ) (0.m.c Measuring Instruments → y−0 6−0 y 6 ⇒ = = 2 ⇒⇒ y = 2 x = x − 0 3− 0 x 3 f(t) 6 f (t ) = 2t (3.

W.R) PeakValue CrestFactor = r.s FormFactor = 0 Π θ 2Π Dynamometer: This instrument is suitable for the measurement of direct and alternating current.57 (H.W.R) average F.m. voltage and power.m. The deflecting torque in dynamometer is relies by the interaction of magnetic field produced by a pair of fixed air cored coils and a third air cored coil capable of angular movement and suspended within the fixed coil.s = 2π − 0 = 4π 2 2 V Vm r.F=1. since r. Non linear scale FSD 0 pointer moving coil Fixed coil Fixed coil FSD FSD 0 N S 0 S N S S N N S N i N i i i S Ti = N Bim A .s = averagef (t ) 2 3 .s for Sine wave F.m.c Measuring Instruments Vm 2 Vm 2 Vm [ ] = r. Bα i f thus T i α i m i f A ⇒⇒ so T i α i 2 θ α average i2 .m.11 (F.Eighth Lecture A.F=1.

c dynamometer r.s = average(i ) 2 .c dynamometer 1 r.Fsine 4 .m.c d.s values PMMC dynamometer Average Responding a.s = T T a.Fsine wave (measured) O/P (r.c meters measure d.c or Av values a.57 F.c meter Rectifier + PMMC True Responding a.s) = Av x F.s ∫ f (t ) 0 2 dt Meters d. for example if (average i2) = 16 inside the measuring device.m.Ftrue (true) F.c meters measure r.R) = 1.Fsine wave(F.c Measuring Instruments The output scale is calibrated to give the r.m. O/P scale = r. Scale calibrated by O/P=Av x F.c signal by taking the square roots of the inside measured value.s) = Av x F.c Meter: O/P (r.m. the output scale of the device will indicate (4) 4 d.m.W.c i/p signal Rectifier circuit To remove the negative part PMMC Measure Av.Average Responding a.s value of a. or any thing) a. square.Eighth Lecture A.11 F.m.Fsine wave (H.m.R) = 1.c meter dynamometer Tαi B constant linear scale θα i T α i2 B varied non linear scale θα average i2 1.W.Ftrue = The form factor of any input signal (sine.

D’Arsonval meter H.m.R + PMMC meter F.W.71V 3. if an average responding a. D’Arsonval meter read Av = 3V 2.71 ⇒ Av = = 3V 4.Eighth Lecture A.W.242V H.57 1.R + PMMC meter F. Dynamometer =F.s measured = 1.F(true) x Av r.c Meter (Dynamometer): O/P (r.71 = 1.33V 4.s Example: What will be the out put of the following meters.R + PMMC meter Exercise: What will be the o/p of the following meters? D’Arsonval meter E=10V Dynamo.s(true)= 1.11 x 3 = 3. meter R 1 2 3 4 5 .71v).c Measuring Instruments 2.R + PMMC meter Dynamo.W.57 × Av 1.c signal Dynamometer O/P r. meter 1 Sol: 2 3 4 r.s) = Av x F.True Responding a.Ftrue = The form factor of any input signal I/P a.m.m.W. HWR+PMMC (Average responding of halve wave rectifier) meter = 4.c meter of half wave rectifier 4.Ftrue (true) = (measured) F. and true form factor of input waveform is (1.m. FWR+PMMC (Average responding of full wave rectifier) meter = 1.57 × Av for average responding a.414).c meter of halfwave rectifier read (4.414 x 3 = 4.

the clamp on device of the meter serves as the core of a transformer. The alternating current in the primary is coupled to the secondary winding by the core. the moving coil is shunted by a small resistance. moving Fixed Rs Fixed Clamp on Meters (Average Responding A.c meters is the clamp on meter which is used to measured a.Eighth Lecture A.C meter): One application of average responding a. while the secondary winding is in the meter. voltage in a wire with out having to break the circuit being measured.c Measuring Instruments Dynamometer As Ammeter And Voltmeter: For small current measurement (5mA to 100mA). The meter having use the transformer principle to detect the current. That is. and after being rectified the current is sensed by a d’Arsonval meter. fixed and moving coils are connect in series.c current. moving Fixed Fixed moving Fixed Fixed Rsh To convert such an instrument to a voltmeter only a rather big series resistance is connected with the moving coil. While larger current measurement (up to 20A) . The current carrying wire is the primary winding of the transformer. 6 .

11Vm × 100% Vm × 100% V(t) 100 t -100 4Sec Exer. The error in the meter indication.: Repeat the above example for saw tooth waveform shown Sol: V(t)=25t Vav.11 × Vm = 1.c Measuring Instruments Current carrying conductor Mechanism For opening clamp on meter As primary winding Secondary Winding Rectifier PMMC Example: The symmetrical square wave voltage is applied to an average responding a.F(True) = = =1 Vav. Vm Vrms( measured ) = 1.154 Error=0.m.c voltmeter with a scale calibrated in term of the r. Calculate: 1.=50V Vrms(True)=57.F(True)=1.11Vm Error = Error = Vrms(True ) − Vrms( measured ) Vrms(True) Vm − 1. Sol: V(t) T 1 Vrms(True) = V (t ) 2 dt = Vm T∫ o Vm t -Vm T 2 Vaverage(True) = ∫ V (t )dt = Vm T o T 2 Vrms Vm F . = 1. The form factor of square wave voltage.11 × Av.75V Vrms(Measured)=55.5V F. 2.Eighth Lecture Core A.0389% 7 .s value of a sine wave.

The solution is approached by converting the Wheatstone bridge to its thevenin equivalent. Bridge accuracy measurements are very high because their circuit merely compares the value of an unknown component to that of an accurately known component (a standard). and other circuit parameters directly derived from component values such as frequency. (2) and R1 + R3 R2 ….D. the fourth unknown ones can be determined.. a) Wheatstone Bridge: This is the best and commonest method of measuring medium resistance values in the range of 1Ω to the low megohm. Since we are interested in the current through the galvanometer. and temperature. 1 . it is necessary to calculate the galvanometer current for small unbalance condition. R R R4 = 3 2 R1 R3 are called the standard arm of the bridge and resistors R2 and R1 are called the ratio arms. phase angle. such as resistance. Thevenin Equivalent Circuit: To determine whether or not the galvanometer has the required sensitivity to detect an unbalance condition. (1) R1 R2 = R1 + R3 R2 + R4 V1 = E a I1 R1 I2 R2 E c I3 R3 G I4 R4 b d Thus R1 R4 = R2 R3 is the balance equation for Wheatstone bridge So.c Bridges: The basic d. 1.c bridges are generally used for the measurement of resistance values.. The current through the galvanometer depends on potential difference between point (c) and (d). (3) V2 = E R2 + R4 Substitute equations (2) & (3) in equ. if three of resistance values are known.. inductance. D. (1) Since I g = 0 so by voltage divider rule R1 …. the thevenin equivalent circuit is determined by looking into galvanometer terminals (c) and (d). capacitance. This condition occurs when Vca=Vda or Vcb=Vdb hence the bridge is balance when V 1 = V 2 …….Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application Bridges and Their Application Bridge circuit are extensively used for measuring component values. so there is no current through the galvanometer (Ig=0).c bridges consist of four resistive arms with a source of emf (a battery) and a null detector usually galvanometer or other sensitive current meter. The bridge is said to be balance when potential difference across the galvanometer is zero volts.

1. to point (m) or to point (n).Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application a R1 R3 R4 Rth d R2 c when E=0 RR R2 R 4 Rth = 1 3 + R1 + R3 R2 + R4 Eth = V1 − V2 E≠0 ER1 ER2 − Eth = R1 + R3 R2 + R4 Rth c Ig G Rg d Eth Eth Rth + Rg and galvanometer deflection (d) is: Ig = d = Ig x current sensitivity (mm/μA) b) Kelvin Bridge: Kelvin bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased accuracy in the measurement of low value resistance. generally below (1Ω).If the galvanometer connect to point (n) then R4 = R3 + R y therefore unknown resistance will be lower than its actual value by Ry 2 . Two galvanometer connections are possible. (Ry) represent the resistance of the connecting lead from R3 to R4.If the galvanometer connect to point (m) then R4 = R x + R y therefore unknown resistance will be higher than its actual value by Ry 2. It is eliminate errors due to contact and leads resistance.

we get K R2 I2 L I3 Ib R1 G Rb p Ra n R4 Ry O R3 m E ⎡ ⎤ (Ra + Rb )R y Ry R2 + R4 ⎥ I 3 ⎢ R3 + = I 3 R3 + I 3 Rb ( ) ( ) Ra Rb R + + + + Ra Rb R R + R y y 1 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3 . (1) R2 R1 G R3 m p Ry E n At balance condition R2 R x + Rnp = R1 R3 + Rmp ( ) ( ) …….(1) in to equ.. (2) and equ.(3) then substitute the result in equ. (5) in to equ.(1)..(2) we obtain ⎛ R1 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ ⎤ R1 ⎡ ⎟ ⎜ = + R R Rx + ⎜ ⎢ 3 y ⎜R +R ⎟ ⎜R +R ⎟ ⎟Ry ⎥ R 2⎠ 2 ⎣ 2⎠ ⎝ 1 ⎝ 1 ⎦ R This reduces to R x = 1 R3 R2 R4 So the effect of the resistance of the connecting lead from point (m) to point (n) has be eliminated by connecting the galvanometer to the intermediate position (p).Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application R1 R2 3. (1) R2 ………. c) Kelvin Double Bridge: Kelvin double bridge is used for measuring very low resistance values from approximately (1Ω to as low as 1x10-5Ω).. The term double bridge is used because the circuit contains a second set of ratio arms labelled Ra and Rb. If the galvanometer is connect to point (p) to eliminates the effect of (yoke resistance Ry). (4) into equ. (2) Substituting equ.equ.If the galvanometer connect to point (p) such that Rnp Rmp = ………. (3) Ry ………… (4) Ib = I3 (Ra + Rb ) + R y ⎡ ⎤ (Ra + Rb )R y + R4 ⎥ … (5) E = I 3 ⎢ R3 + (Ra + Rb ) + R y ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Sub. (2) V2 = E R1 + R2 V3 = I 3 R3 and Vb = I b Rb …. Ra R = 1 Rb R2 At balance V2 = V3 + Vb ……….

Ninth Lecture Rx = R y Rb R3 R1 + R2 Ra + Rb + R y ⎡ R1 Ra ⎤ +1−1− ⎢ ⎥ Rb ⎦ ⎣ R2 Bridges and Their Application Rx = R y Rb ⎡ R1 Ra ⎤ R3 R1 + − ⎢ ⎥ This is the balanced equation R2 Ra + Rb + R y ⎣ R2 Rb ⎦ If R R Ra R = 1 then R x = 3 1 R2 Rb R2 2.Ac Bridge and Their Application: The ac bridge is a natural outgrowth of the dc bridge and in its basic form consists of four bridge arms. For measurements at low frequencies. The balance condition is reached when the detector response is zero or indicates null. a source of excitation.∠θ1 + ∠θ 4 = ∠θ 2 + ∠θ 4 jXL Review on Ac Impedance: ZL a) In series connection R Impedance = resistance ± j reactance Z L = R + jXL and Z L = R + jωL 1 -jXC and Z C = R − j Z C = R − jXC ωC Conversion from polar to rectangular R= Z Cosθ X= Z Sinθ become Z = R ± jX Z∠θ in polar form Conversion from rectangular to polar X X Z = R ± jX in rectangular form Z = R2 + X 2 θ = tan −1 tan θ = R R 4 . Then VAC = 0 and VZ1 = VZ2 Z1 VZ 1 = Vin Z1 + Z 3 Z2 Vin thus VZ 2 = Vin Z2 + Z4 Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 is the balance equation B i1 Z i2 Z Z2 Z1 A i3 C i4 Z3 Z Z Z4 Or Y1Y4 = Y2Y3 D The balance equation can be written in complex form as: (Z1∠θ1 )(Z 4 ∠θ 4 ) = (Z 2∠θ 2 )(Z 3∠θ 3 ) And (Z1Z 4 ∠θ1 + θ 4 ) = (Z 2 Z 3∠θ 2 + θ 3 ) So two conditions must be met simultaneously when balancing an ac bridge 1. the power line may serve as the source of excitation. and a null ac detector. The null ac detector in its cheapest effective form consists of a pair of headphones or may be oscilloscope. but at higher frequencies an oscillator generally supplies the excitation voltage.Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 2.

c bridge are given as follows: jBC YC G -jBL YL Z 1= 100∠80 o (inductive impedance) Z 4 = unknown Sol: Z4 = Z 2 Z3 Z1 Z4 = 250 × 400 = 1kΩ 100 Z 2 = 250Ω Z 3 = 400∠30 o (inductive impedance) θ 4 = θ 2 + θ 3 − θ1 θ 4 = 0 + 30 − 80 = −50 o B Z 30 0 2 Z 4 = 1000∠ − 50 o (capacitive impedance) Example (2): For the following bridge find Zx? Z1 The balance equation Z1Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z1 = R = 450Ω Vin A j 1 Z2 = R + = R− 1V j ωC ωC 1KHz Z 2 = 300 − j 600 Z3 Z 3 = R + j ωL Z 3 = 200 + j100 Z 4 = Z x = unknown Z Z (300 − j 600)(200 + j100) Z4 = 2 3 Z4 = = 266.c comparison bridges are used to measure unknown inductance or capacitance by comparing it with a known inductance or capacitance. Rs in series with Cs are standard known arm.Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application b) In parallel connection Admittance = conductance ± j susceptance 1 1 YL = G − jB L and YL = − j R ωL 1 YC = G + jBC and YC = + jωC R 1 B ωC tan θ = C = Xc = = ωRC 1 1 G R R Example (1): The impedance of the basic a. j j Z1 = R1 Z 2 = R2 Z 3 = Rs − Z 4 = Rx − ωC s ωC x At balance Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z x .79μF 2πF × 200 0 20 45 0 0. and Cx represent unknown capacitance with its leakage resistance Rx.Capacitive Comparison Bridge: In capacitive comparison bridge R1 & R2 are ratio arms. 5 26 F C Z D a) Comparison Bridges: A. 1.9 15 H m 5 .6 − j 200 450 Z1 1 R = 266.6Ω C= = 0.

at balance: 1 thus Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 Z1 = Y1 B Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3Y1 Z 2 = R2 where 1 + jωC1 R1 Z 3 = R3 Y1 = Y1 C1 R1 R2 Z 4 Z3 C Z3 Z 2 Z 4 = R x + jωL x So Vin A R3 Rx Lx C ⎛ 1 ⎞ R x + jωL x = R2 R3 ⎜ ⎜ R + jωC1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 1 ⎠ R R Rx = 2 3 R1 L x = R2 R3C1 Z3 D 6 Z 4 . At balance we get R R B R x = 2 s represent resistive balance equation R1 Z Z1 2 R L L x = 2 s inductive balance equation R1 R1 R2 Vin A Rs Ls Lx Rx Z 4 D b) Maxwell bridge: This bridge measure unknown inductance in terms of a known capacitance.Ninth Lecture ⎛ ⎛ j ⎞ j ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ R1 ⎜ R R R − = − x s 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ C ω ω C x⎠ s⎠ ⎝ ⎝ jR1 jR2 = R2 R s − R1 R x − ωC x ωC s By equating the real term with the real and imaginary term with imaginary we get: R R Rx= 2 s R1 R x = R2 Rs R1 Bridges and Their Application B Z1 R1 R2 Z 2 Vin A Rs Cs Cx Rx C RC − jR1 − jR2 Cx = 1 s = R2 ωC x ωC s D We can note that the bridge is independent on frequency of applied source.Inductive Comparison Bridge: The unknown inductance is determined by comparing it with a known standard inductor. 2.

then ⎝ ⎠ 2 L x = R2 R3C1 Z 4 7 .(1) and (2) yields 2 ω C1 R1 R2 R3 Rx = 2 2 1 + ω 2 C1 R1 2 B Z1 R1 C1 Z R2 2 Vin A R3 Rx Lx C Z3 D 2 2 1 + ω 2 C1 R1 θ 1 = −θ 4 because θ 2 = θ 3 = zero Lx = R2 R3C1 1 ωL4 XC1 ωC1 1 = = = =Q tan θ1 = tan θ 4 = R4 R1 R1 ωC1 R1 1 Thus Q = ……. (3) ωR1C1 Submitted equ. (2) yield Lx = R2 R3C 1 ⎛1⎞ 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜Q⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎛1⎞ For Q> 10.. (1) C1 Rx = ωR1 L x …… … (2) ωC1 Solving equ. then ⎜ ⎜Q⎟ ⎟ << 1 and can be neglected..(3) in to equ.Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application Maxwell bridge is limited to the measurement of medium quality factor (Q) coil with range between 1<Q≤10 1 ωL4 Bc1 XC1 tan θ1 = tan θ 4 = = = = ωR1C1 = Q 1 R4 G1 R1 c) Hay Bridge: Hay bridge convening for measuring high Q coils j Z 2 = R2 Z1 = R1 − Z 3 = R3 ωC1 Z 4 = R x + j ωL x At balance Z1 Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3 ⎛ j ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ R1 − ωC ⎟ ⎟(R x + jωL x ) = R 2 R3 1⎠ ⎝ L jR R1 R x + x − x + jωR1 L x = R2 R3 C1 ωC1 Separating the real and imaginary terms L R1 R x + x = R2 R3 ….

Ninth Lecture Bridges and Their Application d) Schering Bridge: Schering bridge used extensively for capacitive measurement. (1) & (2) into (3). (1) = + R4 R3 C1 8 Z Z3 4 . or (C3) may be an air capacitor for insulation θ 1 + θ 4 = θ 2 + θ 3 but θ 1 + θ 4 = −90 measurements. (C3) is standard high mica capacitor for general measurement work. The balance condition require that Thus θ 2 + θ 3 must equal (-90) to get balance At balance Z 4 = Z 2 Z 3Y1 1 − j + jωC1 Z 2 = R2 Y1 = Z3 = ωC 3 R1 j Z 4 = Rx − B ωC x ⎛ − j ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ j ⎟ ⎜ = R2 ⎜ + jωC1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ωC x ⎠ ⎝ ωC3 ⎠⎝ R1 R C jR2 j Rx − = 2 1− ωC x C2 ωC3 R1 Rx − C R x = R2 1 C3 …… (1) Y1 A C1 R1 R2 Z 2 Vin C C3 Rx Cx R C x = C3 1 …… (2) R2 The power factor (pf): R pf = Cosθ c = x Zx The dissipation factor (D): R 1 D = Cotθ c = x = = ωR x C x …… (3) XC x Q Substitute equs. we get D = ωR1C1 D e) Wien Bridge: This bridge is used to measured unknown frequency 1 j Z 2 = R2 Y3 = + j ωC 3 Z1 = R1 − ωC1 R3 Z Z1 Z 4 = 2 Y3 Z 2 = Z1Z 4Y3 Z 4 = R4 ⎞ ⎛ j ⎞ ⎛ 1 R2 = ⎜ ⎜ R1 − ωC ⎟ ⎟ R4 ⎜ ⎜ R + j ωC 3 ⎟ ⎟ 1⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎝ ⎠ R1 R4 R4 C 3 R2 = + R3 C1 Dividing by R4 we get R2 R1 C 3 …….

(1) R4 F= 1 this is the general equation for Wien bridge 2πRC B Z1 R 1 C1 R2 Z 2 Vin A R 3 C R4 Y3 C D Variable Resistors: The variable resistance usually have three leads.Ninth Lecture Equating the imaginary terms. Z 4 3 Load Load 9 . yield R4 Since ω = 2πF ωC3 R1 R4 = ωC1 R3 1 if R1 = R3 Thus F = 2π C1C3 R1 R3 And Bridges and Their Application and C1 = C3 then R2 = 2 in equ. two fixed and one movable. it is termed a potentiometer or pot and often used as voltage dividers to control or vary voltage across a circuit branch. If the contacts are made to only two leads of the resistor (stationary lead and moving lead). the variable resistance is being employed as a rheostat which limit the current flowing in circuit branches. If all three contacts are used in a circuit.

to be displayed primarily as a function of time. The oscilloscope depends on the movement of an electron beam. Each CRT contains: a) One or more electron guns. Power supply Volt /Div Vin Vertical Amplifier Delay Line To CRT CRT H.V supply To All Circuits Trigger Circuit Time Base Generator V H Horizontal Amplifier Time/Div General Purpose Oscilloscope The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): Cathode ray tube is the heart of oscilloscope which generates the electron beam. and contains the phosphor screen where the electron beam eventually become visible. which is then made visible by allowing the beam to impinge on a phosphor surface. deflects the beam to create the image. Horizontal deflection stage 4. current. Vertical deflection stage 3. c) Phosphoresce screen. Cathode ray tube (CRT) 2. power. There are two standard type of CRT electromagnetic and electrostatic. accelerates the beam to high velocity. b) Electrostatic deflection plates.Tenth Lecture Oscilloscope Oscilloscope The cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a device that allows the amplitude of electrical signals. 1 .V supply Electron Gun V H Screen L. whether they are voltage.. which produces a visible spot Oscilloscope Block Diagram: General oscilloscope consists of the following parts: 1. etc.

Thus a spot of light is produced in outside front of the screen. The focusing and accelerating anodes form an electrostatic lens. and three anodes.The focus control adjusts the focal length of the electrostatic lens. Following the focusing anode is the accelerating anode. The amount of cathode current. while horizontal plates move it right and left. Finally. which bring the electron beam into spot focus on the screen.The astigmatism control adjusts the potential between the deflection plates and the first accelerating electrode and is used to produce a round spot. In addition to light. The preaccelerating anode is a hollow cylinder that is at potential a few hundred volts more positive than the cathode so that the electron beam will be accelerated in the electric field. 2. which gives the electron beam its last addition of energy before its journey to the deflecting plates. heat as well as secondary electrons of low energy is generating. the working parts of a CRT are enclosed in a high vacuum glass envelope to permit the electron beam moves freely from one end to other with out collision. The property of some crystalline materials such as phosphor or zinc oxide to emit light when stimulates by radiation is called fluorescence. which governs the intensity of the spot. The vertical plates move the beam up and down. When electron beam strikes the screen of CRT with considerable energy. cathode gride Preaccelerating anode Accelerating anode Electron beam + heater Focusing anode Intensity control focusing control - + -1500V +300V Astigmatism control The electrostatic deflection system consists of two sets of plates for each electron gun. focus. The two sets of plates are physically separated to prevent interaction of the field. intensity. and astigmatism 1. The position of the spot at any instant is a resultant of potentials on the two set of plates at that instant. which are accelerated to the first accelerating anode. the phosphor absorbs the kinetic energy of bombarding electrons and reemits energy at a lower frequency range in visible spectrum. A focusing anode is mounted just a head of the preaccelerating anode and is also a cylinder. Persistence is the length of time that the intensity of spot is taken to decrease to 10% of its original brightness. A heated cathode emits electrons.The intensity control varies the potential between the cathode and the control grid and simply adjusts the beam current in the tube.Tenth Lecture Oscilloscope A gun consists of a heated cathode. Three controls are associated with the operating voltages of the CRT. The viewing screen is created by phosphor coating inside front of the tube. through a small hole in the control grid. 2 . Phosphorescence refers to the property of material to continue light emission even after the source of excitation is cut off. Aquadag coating of graphite material is cover the inside surface of CRT nearly up the screen to remove these secondary electrons. control grid. can be controlled with the control grid. 3.

Av -X ⇓ Ex = Ez = 0 − Ed Єy = …… (1) Єy: electrical field in Y direction d Єx= Єz=0 ⇓ fy = − e .6x10-19 C) ay: acceleration in Y direction .Єy Fy: force generate by electrical field effect Y X Z -Y ⇓ ay = fy me e: electron charge (1.Tenth Lecture Oscilloscope Graticules is a set of horizontal and vertical lines permanently scribed on CRT face to allow easily measured the waveform values.1x10-31 Kg) ⇓ Vx = Vox = cons tan t Vz = 0 Vy = Voy + ayt Since Voy = 0 Vy: velocity in Y direction at any time fy −e Єy t Voy: initial velocity in Y direction Vy = ayt = t= me me ⇓ Y = Yo + Voy + 1 ayt 2 2 Since Yo = 0 Voy = 0 Y: distance in Y direction 3 . fx = fz = 0 ax = az = 0 me: electron mass (9. Electrostatic Deflection Equations: P Vin Av Ed l + Electron gun e l/2 e l/2 e Screen D e d (0.0) Vox Єy θ fy X y Ea - L where Vin : input voltage to channel A or B of CRO Vin ⇓ Ed: deflection voltage (potential) Ed = Vin.

(7) ⎝ 4d Ea ⎠ When the electrons leaves the region of deflecting plates.(2) give X = Xo + Voxt + Y = −1 e X2 Єy …….(6) & (1) into equ.(5) we get ⎛ 1 Ed ⎞ 2 Y =⎜ ⇐ Relation of Y with X ⎟. (3) X ………… (4) t= Vox Substitute equ.. (6) m By substituting equs.. (5) The parabolic equation of electron beam 2 me Vox 2 1 where (Ea) is the acceleration voltage (potential) mVox 2 = eEa 2 2eEa Vox = …………. (10) 2dEa By similarity ♣ The deflection sensitivity (S) of CRT is: D y D S= = …………….Tenth Lecture Y = Y = −1 e 1 Єy t 2 ayt 2 = 2 2 me Oscilloscope Yo: initial distance in Y direction Relation of Y with time −1 e Єy t 2 …………. (4) into equ.…… (9) x Substitute equ. (11) Ed x L ♣ The deflection factor (G) of CRT is: 1 Ed 2dEa …… (12) G= = = S D lL 4 .(9) into (8) give L lLEd D= ……. and the electrons travels in a straight line toward point P... The slope of parabolic curve at distance (x=l) is: dy − el Єy = tan θ = dx mVox 2 Or ⎛ 1 Ed ⎞ tan θ = ⎜ ⎟ l ……...……. X …. (2) 2 me Since ax = 0 Vx = Vox + axt Vx = Vox ⇓ Vx: velocity in X direction 1 axt 2 = 0 2 Relation of X with time Xo = 0 1 Since axt 2 2 X = Voxt …….…. the deflecting force no longer exist. (8) ⎝ 2d Ea ⎠ D The deflection on the screen (D) is y θ D = L tan θ ……….

Input attenuator. First. 5.Input coupling selector. 4. The deflection sensitivity of the CRT depends on the acceleration voltage before the deflection plates. Coupling Selector Vin a. Modern CRTs use a two step acceleration to eliminate this problem. The beam is then deflected and after deflection is further accelerated to the desired final velocity. which is usually regulated and does not depends on the post acceleration voltage after the deflection plates. For fast oscilloscope (of high frequency response greater than 100MHz).c GND Input Attenuator Vertical Amplifier Vertical Amplifier Delay Line Screen d.c to Trigger Circuit Vertical Deflection System 1 .Delay line.Eleventh Lecture Oscilloscope (2) Post Deflection Acceleration: The amount of light given off by the phosphor depends on the amount of energy that is transferred to the phosphor by the electron beam. otherwise. 2. This is done by increasing the acceleration potential but it will be difficult to deflected the fast electron beam by the deflection plates because this would required a higher deflection voltage and a higher deflection current to charge the capacitance of the plates. the electron beam is accelerated to a relatively low velocity through a potential of a few thousand volts. +25 KV CRT Electron Gun Post deflection Accelerating voltage V H Screen V H Vertical deflection system: The vertical deflection system provides an amplified signal of the proper level to derive the vertical deflection plates with out introducing any appreciable distortion into the system. 3. the light output will be drop off. This system is consists of the following elements: 1.Preamplifier.Main vertical amplifier. the velocity of electron beam must be great to respond to fast occurring events.

an a. Horizontal Deflection System: The horizontal deflection system of OSC consist of : 1. 5.Trigger circuit.c components and hence block them from entering.c signal. and GND).Delay Line: Since part of the input signal is picked off and fed to the horizontal deflection system to initiate a sweep waveform that is synchronized with the leading edge of the input signal.c component superimposed on a d.Input Coupling Selector: Its purpose is to allow the oscilloscope more flexibility in the display of certain types of signals. So the purpose of delay is to delay the vertical amplified signal from reaching the vertical plates until the horizontal signal reach the horizontal plates to begin together at the same time on CRT screen. a.c signal.c. preamplifier and main amplifier together make up the amplifying portion of the system. The function of the attenuator is to reduce the amplitude of the input signal by a selected factor and verse varies amplifier function.Input Attenuators And Amplifiers: The combine operation of the attenuator.Horizontal amplifier.Time base generator. an input signal may be a d. the beam can retrace the same path rapidly enough to make the moving spot of light appear to be a solid line.c component. For example. the capacitor appears as an open circuit to the d. 2.Eleventh Lecture Oscilloscope (2) 1. The electron beam being bent towards the more positive plate and deflected the luminous spot from left to right of the screen at constant velocity whilst the return or fly back is at a speed in excess of the maximum writing speed and hence invisible. 3. or a. 2. 2 . While the GND position ground the internal circuitry of the amplifier to remove any stored charge and recenter the electron beam.4.c.c position is chosen. To generate this type of display a saw tooth waveform is applied to horizontal plates. There are three positions switch in the coupling selector (d. CRT From Vertical Amplifier V H Screen Electron Gun V Trigger Circuit Time Base Generator Horizontal Amplifier H Time/Div Horizontal Deflection System Trigger and Time Base Generator: The most common application of an oscilloscope is the display of voltage variation versus time. The saw tooth or time base signal must be repetitively applied to the horizontal plates so that. If an a.

3 . This circuit is sensitive to the level of voltage applied to it. Horizontal Amplifier: The horizontal amplifier is used to amplify the sweep waveform to the required level of horizontal plates operation.Eleventh Lecture Oscilloscope (2) To synchronous the time base signal applied to (X-plates) with input voltage to be measured which applied to vertical or (Y-plates) a triggering circuit is used. In a practical oscilloscope the time base will be adjustable from the front panel control of scope. so that when a predetermined level of voltage is reached a pulse is passed from the trigger circuit to initiate one sweep of the time base.

which can be measured as voltage or current variation in the circuit. Passive transducer producing a variation in some electrical parameter. pressure. Active (self generating) transducers develop their output in the form of electrical voltage or current without any source of electrical excitation. 3.Twelveth Lecture Transducers Transducers The input quantity for most instrumentation system is nonelectrical. they also undergo a change in electrical resistance. such as a potentiometer.Primary and Secondary Transducers: Transducers. they can also be measured by strain gauges. 2. This energy may be electrical. Strain Gauges The strain gauge is an example of a primary passive analog transducer that converts force or small displacement into a change of resistance. may be classified into active and passive transducers. light intensity. mechanical. or control the nonelectrical quantity is converted into an electrical signal by a device called electrical transducer. thermistor (thermal resistance). manipulation. chemical. method of energy conversion. such as thermocouples. where R = δ and R = δ since the strain (σ ) = thus 2 Δl l A l (Π 4)d 1 . While. while digital transducer converts input signal into output signal in a discrete forms. and so on. while transducer that converts energy from any form to another form but not electrical energy or signal is called secondary transducer. Transducer that converts energy from any form to electrical form is called primary transducer. if the transducer is capable of producing an output signal only when it is in connection with electrical power source is called passive transducers. The change in resistance is proportional to the applied strain and is measured with a specially adopted Wheatstone bridge. Since many other quantities such as torque. may be classified into analog and digital transducer. inductance and so on. on the basis of nature of output signal. pressure. sound time. such as a photovoltaic cell. 1. mechanical force or displacement. Such as. and tension also involve force or displacement effects. which is a continuous function of time. or thermal. humidity. may be classified into primary and secondary transducers. Strain gauges are so named because when they undergo a strain (defined to be a fractional change in linear dimension tension or compression caused by an applied force). capacitance. on the basis of methods of applications. liner and angular velocity heat. temperature variation. Analog transducer converts input signal into output signal. optical (radiant). The gauge factor (k) is given by: ΔR R l Δl l k= . tacho generator. such as displacement transducer (which converts force or pressure to displacement). weight.Active and Passive Transducers: Transducers. on the basis of methods of energy conversion used. such as a resistance. Transducers may be classified according to their application. Transducers are broadly defined as devices that convert energy or information from one form to another. nature of output signal. The strain takes the form of a lengthening of the special wire from which the gauge is constructed. all are converted into electrical energy by means of electrical transducers. In order to use electrical methods and techniques for measurement.Analog and Digital Transducers: Transducers. for example.

where and ε r = relative dielectric constant A force applied to a diaphragm that function as one plate of a simple capacitor.Inductive Transducer: Static plate In the inductive transducer the measurement of force is accomplished by the change in the inductance ratio of a pair of coils or by the change of inductance in a single coil.Twelveth Lecture k= ΔR R Transducers and ΔR = kRσ σ Displacement transducers The mechanical elements that are used to convert the applied force into a displacement are called force summing devices. The ferromagnetic armature is displaced by the force being measured. change the distance between the diaphragm and static plate. The air gap is varied by a change in position of the armature. The transducer as a part of oscillator circuit will causes a change in oscillator frequency which proportional Pressure to the applied force. Deflected The resulting change in capacitance could be measured with diaphragm an ac bridge. ε o = 8. flat or corrugated b) Bellows c) Bourdon tube. circular or twisted d) Straight tube e) Mass cantilever. The force summing members generally used the following: a) Diaphragm. single or double suspension f) Pivot torque The displacement created by the action of the force summing device is converted into a change of some electrical parameter and measured by one of the following electrical principle: 1) Capacitive 2) Inductive 3) Differential transformer 4) Photoelectrical 5) Potentiometer 6) Ionization 7) Oscillation 8) Piezoelectric 9) Velocity 1.85 × 10 −12 F/m 2. varying the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. force→displacement→air gap change→permaebility(μ) → ℜ = l μA → ∂Φ → Φ = mmf ℜ = NI ℜ → L = N ∂i Diaphragm or mass E-core Bourdon tube armature Coil winding air gaps Double coil Single coil 2 . the resulting change in inductance is a measure of applied force.Capacitive Transducer: The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by ε ε A C= o r d . but it is usually measured with an oscillator circuit.

c) Similarly. the output voltage will be zero. the induced emf of the left coil is therefore larger than the induced emf of the right coil.Twelveth Lecture Transducers 3. The secondary windings have an equal number of turns but they are connected in series opposition so that the emf induced in the coil oppose each other. when the core is force to move to the right. while its magnitude again equals the difference between the two induced emfs.Oscillator Transducer: This class of oscillator uses the force summing member to change the capacitance or inductance in an (LC) oscillator circuit. The position of the moveable core determines the flux linkage between the ac excited primary winding and each of the two secondary winding. b) When the core is forced to move to the left. linkage FM o/p Oscillator Force summing member Pressure 3 . and it is in phase with the voltage of the left hand coil. Ac supply voltage Primary wind C tA Secondary winding (2) Vo Secondary winding (1) _ A Phase of coil (2) B 0 Phase of coil (1) + Vo=V1-V2 Core at A Core at 0 Core at B 4. the induced emfs in the secondaries are equal. a) With the core in the centre. or reference position. and since they oppose each other.Linear Variable Differential Transformer: It is produces an electrical signal that is linearly proportional to mechanical displacement. more flux links the left hand coil than the right hand coil. The displacements detectable by LVDTs are relatively large compared to those detectable by strain gauges. which C change the frequency of the circuit in proportional to the applied L Mechanical force. more flux links the right hand coil than the left hand coil and the result output is now in phase with the emf of the right hand coil. The magnitude of the output voltage is than equal to the difference between the two secondary voltages. LVDT consists of a single primary winding and two secondary windings which are placed on either side of the primary.

pressure Force summing member Vo crystal base 7.Piezoelectric transducer: A symmetrical crystalline material.Twelveth Lecture Transducers 5. produce an emf when they are placed under stress. entering the transducer through its pressure port. Motion of the slider results in a resistance change that may be linear. A voltage is generated by the motion of the coil in the field which is proportional to the velocity of the moving coil. applies pressure to the top of a crystal.Velocity Transducer (Tachometer): The velocity transducer essentially consists of a moving coil suspended in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet.4 0. Force summing member Vo Potentiometer 8. The large semicircular element is the photosensitive cathode and the thin wire down the centre of the tube is the anode.6 0. and barium titanate. When a constant voltage is applied between cathode and anode. When a crystal is placed between a solid base and the force summing member.Photoelectric Transducer: The photoelectric transducer makes use of the properties of photo emissive cell or phototube. logarithmic. such as quartz. an externally applied force. It is used for velocity measurement.8 0. light cathode phototube Anode volt μA Ia (μA) 20 15 10 5 Light flux(lumen) 0. the current is directly proportional to the amount of light falling on the cathode. depending on the manner in which the resistance wire is wound. This property is used in piezoelectric transducer. exponential. The phototube is a radiant energy device that controls its electron emission when exposed to incident light.2 Va (volt) 20 40 60 100 120 6. this will produce a small emf proportional to the applied force or pressure. Both elements are place in a high vacuum glass envelope. Rochelle salt. the output current is nearly independent of the applied anode voltage but depends entirely on the amount of the incident light. and so on. The output current is extremely small in (μA) and for a voltage approximately above 20V. N Moving coil S Vo 4 .Potentiometric Transducer: A Potentiometric transducer is an electromechanical device containing a resistance element that is contacted by a movable slider.

. so that all the errors are in the resistance measurements. The deviations are measured by the distances from the point to the line. The deviation could be minimizing by making their sum minimum. and use vertical distance. but this is not an adequate criterion.7 1032 Xi We want to minimize the deviations of the points from the line (errors). Thus ⎛ ∂S ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ∑ 2(Yi − aX i − b )(− X i ) = 0 ………… (1) ⎝ ∂a ⎠ i = 1 ⎛ ∂S ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ∑ 2(Yi − aX i − b )(− 1) = 0 …………. we shall assume that the error of reading the temperature is negligible.Thirteenth Lecture Curve Fitting and Approximation by LSA Curve Fitting and Approximation by Least Square Approximations Method Suppose we wish to fit a curve to an approximate set of data such as from the determination of the effects of temperature on resistance.theoretical thus e i = Yi − y i Least squares method criterion requires that the sum of errors in the reading (S) must be minimized.Fitting linear curves by Least Square Approximations (LSA) method: Let (Yi) represent an experimental value. so that (yi) predict the function values that correspond to x-values. R=aT+b Yi o T(C ) R(Ω) R (Ω) 20. the two partial derivatives ⎜ ⎟ and ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂a ⎠ ⎝ ∂b ⎠ will be zero.0 873 +e 73.5 765 -e 32. We wish to determine the best values for (a) and (b).. (2) ⎝ ∂b ⎠ i = 1 Dividing each of these equations by (-2) and expanding the summation.2 942 T (Co) 95. so 2 2 2 2 S = e1 + e2 + e3 + e4 + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + e2 N = min where N is the number of the measured points S= i =1 ∑ N e i2 = i =1 ∑ (Yi − y i ) N 2 = i =1 ∑ (Yi − aX i − b )2 = min N which reach the minimum by proper ⎛ ∂S ⎞ ⎛ ∂S ⎞ choice of parameters (a) and (b).7 826 51. we get i =1 N N ∑ (Yi X i − aX i2 − bX i ) = ∑ Yi X i − a ∑ X i2 − b ∑ X i = 0 N N N N i =1 i =1 i =1 1 . Since error= measured. we want to suitably determine the constants (a) and (b) in the equation relating resistance R and temperature T. 1. When S be a minimum. and let (yi) represent the theoretical value which get by y i = aX i + b where (Xi) is a particular value of the variable assumed free from this equation error.

ln X=w parameters.39T + 702.9 14 4. data from experimental test are not linear.8 8 3.39x70+702. ln y = ln a + b ln X Thus z=A+bw is a linear equation 2 . (1) 273.Fitting nonlinear curves by Least Square Approximations method: In many cases. (1) i =1 ∑ Yi ……………….27 a + 273. so we need to fit other function than a first degree polynomial. popular forms that are tried are the exponential forms such as y = ax b y = ae bX or The exponential forms are usually linearized by taking logarithms before determining the .17 To find R at T=70 is R(70)=3. (2) By solving these equations we obtain And hence the equation a=3.7 10 4 12 3. of course.2 942 950 95.2 18 4. so for the first equ.1 ∑Ti 2 =18607.5 24 4. ln a= A.0 873 875 73.27 ∑Ri=∑Yi=4438 ∑Ti Ri =∑YiXi=2549325 The normalized equations are then 18607.17 R=aT+b will be R= 3.4 22 4.3 Ω The measured and theoretical values are then T(Co) Rmeasured Rtheoretical 20.2 20 4.5 765 772 32.17=939. then let ln y=z .7 826 813 51.3 16 4.395 .7 1032 1026 Exercise: Find the theoretical values for linear equation (y) from the given data Xi Yi yi 6 3. we find that N=5 ∑Ti= ∑Xi=273. For the data of previous example. b=702.0445 b=3. (2) Solving these equations simultaneously gives the values for the slope and intercept (a) and (b).48 2.Thirteenth Lecture Curve Fitting and Approximation by LSA N N N i =1 ∑ (Yi − aX i − b ) = ∑ Yi − a ∑ X i − ∑ b = 0 i =1 i =1 i =1 N N N N note that: i =1 ∑ b = Nb N The normalized equations a ∑ X i2 + b ∑ X i = a ∑ X i + bN = i =1 i =1 N i =1 N i =1 ∑ Yi X i ……….1 a + 5 b = 4438 ………………….5 a=0.1 b = 254932.5 …….

…. so ln y= ln a + bx . (2) Solving these equations simultaneously gives the values of (A) and( b) and by taking the inverse ln of (A) we can get the value of (a). (2) ⎝ ∂b ⎠ i = 1 Dividing each of these equations by (-2) and expanding the summation. (1) ⎝ ∂A ⎠ i = 1 ⎛ ∂S ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ∑ 2( Z i − A − bw i )(− w i ) = 0 . we get N i =1 N ∑ (Z i − A − bw i ) = ∑ Z i − ∑ A − b ∑ w i i =1 i =1 N i =1 N i =1 i =1 N N N N = 0 ………. ln y= ln a + bx ln e . (1) N i =1 ∑ Z i ………………. Sol: Taking the logarithms for above equ. (1) N i =1 ∑ (Z i w i − Aw i − bw i2 ) = ∑ Z i w i − A ∑ w i − b ∑ w i2 = 0 …………… (2) i =1 The normalized equations b ∑ w i2 + A ∑ w i = b ∑ w i + AN = i =1 i =1 N i =1 N N N i =1 ∑ Z i w i ………. by deriving this equation the normalized equations will be 3 . since ln e =1 .Thirteenth Lecture Curve Fitting and Approximation by LSA Solving this equation to find the values of (A) and (b) then find the value of (a) ei = Z i − zi S= i =1 ∑ e i2 = N N i =1 ∑ (Z i − z i )2 = ∑ (Z i − A − bw i )2 = min i =1 N N ⎛ ∂S ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ∑ 2( Z i − A − bw i )(− 1) = 0 ……. ln a =A thus z=A+bx . let ln y=z . Home work: Derive the normalized equations for y = ae bX Example: The results obtained for some experimental measurement is: Xi Yi 1 7 2 11 3 17 4 27 The variable is varied according the function y = ae bX fit the curve by LSA method..

(1) 10 b + 4 A =10. ∑xi=10 .4965 + 0.42 ……. ∑xi2=30 .4485 A = 1.8 4 .448 X Xi Yi lnYi yi 1 7 1.5b] = 28.466 . ∑Zi=10.42 b = 0.99 2 11 2.5b 4 30b + 10[2.397 10. (2) ∑Zixi=28.466e 0. 30 b+ 10 A =28. 10..471.61775 − 2.61775 − 2.4965 a = ln −1 A = 4.42 →→→→ 30b + 26.471 − 10b A= = 2.42 N=4.833 17.1775 − 25b = 28.12 4 27 3.448 x and y = 4.Thirteenth Lecture b ∑ x i2 + A ∑ x i = i =1 i =1 N N Curve Fitting and Approximation by LSA i =1 ∑ Z i xi N …………… (1) b ∑ x i + AN = i =1 N i =1 ∑ Zi N ………. (2) Solving these equs.94 3 17 2.295 26.946 6.471 …. thus z = 1..