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(A CASE STUDY OF GOKING INTERNATIONAL LIMITED EFFURUN)
BY EMMANUEL NELSON BASSEY
COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this project work was carried out by PATIENCE ESENAKIFE in the Department of Business Administration, School of Business Studies. Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. Ikot Asurua, Ikot Ekpene.
………………………….. Project Supervisor …………………………... Date
…………………………. Centre Coordinator …………………………. Date
This research work is dedicated to the Almighty God for seeing me through the whole period of the program and granting me academic excellence despite the difficulty encountered.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost I give thank to our most high GOD for giving me the opportunity to attain my present level of education and for seeing me through this Endeavour. I want to appreciate the contributions and useful suggestions of my supervisor Mr Emmanuel N. Bassey who took his time and pain to go through the volume of work steadily.
My appreciation also goes to my lecturers and colleagues in the department of business administration and accountancy Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic.
I cannot the contribution and enthusiastic support of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson Esenakife, my loving brother Mr Blessed Esenakife, my course mates Son Efe Actor, Omorione Edirin, Eneghe M. Oghenefega, my caring cousin Okieriete Esenekife, the last but not the list, my one and only husband Mr. A. Onogwavbere. May the Almighty God reward you all for your advice, assistance, contributions and support during this program.
Our true challenge today is not debts and deficits, but the dynamic global competition of the market environment, the need to gain comparative and competitive advantages knowledge of promotion and promotional mix will bring a feeling that we are part of the moving trend that runs the market sector.
Hence, this research work has been carried out systematically and progressively to examine and ascertain the effect of promotion and cooperation in marketing strategies of business organizations, a case study of Goking International Limited. Effurun. Delta State.
This study was carried out so show the need of promotion as a means of target market and how it can be fulfilled in spite of numerous changes confronting the activities and the work consist of five chapters. Chapter one is introduction, two is literature review, three is the methodology of the study, four is data presentation and analysis and finally the five chapter is summary, conclusion and recommendation.
In carrying out the investigation, number of questionnaires designed for management staff , promoters and customers to verify how promotion effectively facilitates sales or services in markets to satisfy customers need in Nigeria were gathered, analysed and hypothesis was used to test the question.
From the available information analysed, it was cleared that promotion has significant effect in marketing strategies of sales and services in business organizations.
However, this study does not claim credit for exhaustively discussing the absolute idea of promotion, hence it has included tort for further research.
TABLE OF CONTENT Title page -
Acknowledgement Abstract -
CHAPTER ONE –INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Background of the study Statement of problem Research questionsHypothesis --
Purpose of the study
Significant of the study Scope of the study Limitation of the study Definition of terms-
CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW
CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Population design Population Instrumentation Sampling techniques Method of data collection Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR- DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 4.2 4.3 Data presentation Analysis Data interpretation
RECOMMENDATION 5.1 5.2 5.3 Summary of the findings Conclusion Recommendation
References Appendix 1 Appendix 11 Appendix 111
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
We are in the information era. Life is dynamic and interrelated and it is an intricate web of life, people are intrinsic part of it. The marketing environment is constantly changing and to take advantage of opportunities, there must be marketing strategy and strategic plans. The fast and effective access of promotion has become an indispensable factor for the success of any business project. Unity flourishes when there is co-operation. To preserve unity among intermediaries or members of who are parts of the global world, cooperation is vital.
Thus, this profound statement above amplifies that need for promoting and co-operation in marketing strategies. The application of promotion mix has played a crucial role in improving business efficiency in the marketing environment.
In our complex society today, promotion is an integral part in our social and economic system. The fragmentation of mass market, the
explosion of new technologies that are giving consumers a greater control over the communication process, the rapid growth of the internet and electronic commerce or E-commerce, the emergence of global market and economic uncertainties are all evidence of the changing market environment and its contribution to the way companies approaches marketing as well as promotion. Developing marketing communication programs that are responsible to these changes is critical to the success of every organization. In fulfilling and meeting up the market target, a well-planned and executable marketing communication strategy is very important.
Hence, this project work is aim at showing the effect of promotion and co-operation in marketing strategy of sales, using companies /firms in Delta State as a point of reference such as Gokings International Limited, Effurun
For example, Mezda company, which deals with cars and trucks in the decades of 80s and 90s excelled very well in sales. The sold nearly four thousand cars (400,000) per year in the United State. But in the mid 90s, the company fell back due to lack of focus in its marketing
and promotional mix, such as advertising. From 1994 to 1997, Mazda’s sales dropped to nearly 70 percent and reached its lowest level in 15 years. A change in marketing strategy as well as promotion mix adverting was needed to regain its strong position in the U. A. market.
However, mazda car and truck business was give to new agency. W.B. Donor and Co. now known as Donor. Their new agency then embarked on the talk of building a successful image that would capture Mazda overall objective to target younger generation of driver, thereby setting its vehicle apart from other cars in the competitive market, and develop and advertising them (which is one of the promotional tools) for Mazda brand using a powerful slogan “Get in, be moved” campaign was made several television commercial that combine computer generated background with live action and push protégé on internet with banner adverts on a number of website, MTV e.t.c. infact the promotional, strategies by Donor was so successful that buyer were attracted. There was 33 percent increase in the 4th quarter of 1998 and nearly 20 percent in 1999. Mazda was once again on the move for its positive and advance image
as a result of new strategies in marking implemented. Mazda “Get moving” (advertising and promotion by George E. Belch and Michael A Belch) (2001). The success of Mazda’s “Get In, Be Moved” campaign illustrate the importance and effects of promotion and having a well planned and executable marketing communication in marketing strategy.
Today, Mazda and thousand of companies recognized the fact that various promotional mix techniques such as websites on the Internet advert, sales promotion etc. are essential to promoting their products and services in the promoting their products and services in the constantly rapid changing market environment.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Some organizations/firms do not carry out any form of marketing promotion. They are satisfied that a good product with a network of distribution is enough. However, nowadays the picture is different. There is need for marketing promotion and it is unavoidable to be successful in the dynamic environment, a producer must not only offer a good product at a reasonable price, right time, right quality and right quantity but also inform actual and potential customers about the product and where they can buy it. Producers must tell wholesalers and retailers in the channel about their product and their marketing
mix. These intermediaries in turn must use promotion to reach their customers- therefore, arose the effect of promotion to marketing strategies. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION 1. What is the role of promotion in marketing strategies? 2. What is the role of the management with regards to promotion to marketing strategies of your organization? 3. What is the contribution of workers in promotion of marketing strategies? 4. What impact dose the company have on the promoters as well as workers with regards to promotion? 1.4 HYPOTHESIS In this research finding, there is no significant relationship between promotion and marketing strategies. 1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to find the effect of promotion in marketing strategies, since these are changes in modern world of marketing. Affecting buyers’ behaviour is a challenging job and it is the object of the promotion. As a service to exhibitor, to ensure that participants get maximal opportunity, to meet buyers and users, the promoter actively carries unique characteristics in order to take advantage of the competitors’ market environment.
SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY This research will be of great interest and benefit to the following: 1. the manager of Goking International Limited, Effurun, Warri. 2. producer, intermediaries, as well as management, organizations/firms. 3. the students of marketing and business administration. 4. likewise to aspiring businessmen and entrepreneur. 5. the diverse group of people and the dynamic marketing partners as well as the society at large. The diversified group of people above, must know how to adapt to the marketing strategies, new technologies etc.
Marketing need a broad range of skills in order to build profitable relationships with customers as well as satisfy their needs in the global competitive environment. 1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY This study investigates the effect of promotion to Gokings international Limited, Effurun. The study covers all level of promotion, from personal selling, advertising, direct marketing public relations, publicity to sales promotion. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS In order to ensure proper understanding of what the study entails, the following key words and concept are explained below:
1. PROMOTION: to boost the sales of product or service
rendered through sales promotion, advertising, personal selling, direct marketing and publicity and public relation.
2. PROMOTION MIX: an organizations total promotional
effects including personal selling, advertising etc. the promotional mix attempt to attain integrated marketing communications.
3. PROMOTIONAL PRICING: temporarily setting the price of
product below least price and sometimes even below cost price to increase sales in short term.
4. PROMOTERS: a person involved insetting up and preparing,
organization/firm. The promoters in a position of trust with regards to the new company/companies and may not make undisclosed profit or benefit at its expense.
marketing goals and objectives will be implemented in selling its product and how the objectives can be achieved.
6. MARKETING WEBSITE: this is a site designed to handle
interactive communication initiated by the company with consumers for the purpose of moving them closer to a purchase.
7. STRATEGIC PLAN: a plan describing how a firm will adapt
to take advantage of opportunities in its constantly changing environment so as to maintain the firms goals and capabilities in the market sector.
8. BME (BUSINESS MARKETING INTELIGENCE): this is
gathering, analyzing and interpreting relevant internal and
external marketing information, it enables a firm to learn, understand and deal or cope with new challenges future oriented for success in global world. 1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This work was carried out under a tight schedule of school pressure and work load which makes it absolutely necessary to devote limited time to do it, having sleepless night etc. Another problem encountered is finance, the cost of transportation in carrying out the investigation. Individual differences in responses to questionnaire are also a limitation encountered.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 MEANING OF PROMOTION Promotion is seen from dimension and different scholars, professional bodies and associates have been given various definitions of promotion. Nevertheless, it is indeed noteworthy that each definition is unique. Promotion is a vital component of marketing and an integral aspect of or complex social economic system. However, few of the definitions by some authors are as follows: According to George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch, (2001) Promotion is the “co-ordination of all seller initiated efforts to get up channel of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or promote an idea” (advertising and Promotion Fifth Edition 2001) Scoth Ogini (2005) Promotion is the marketer tool for communicating with customers for understanding and patronage. Promotion is a shortterm incentive to encourage sales of goods and services. It is indeed an organized way or plan of communicating function of marketing to customers to effect behaviour of diversified buyers-target customers and taking advantage of competition market environment. More than half of the world’s economic activities consist of exchanges between organization and most of these are commercial enterprises that exist to provide products or services to other firms or ultimate consumer. Thus, promotion plays a crucial part of any marketing mix in an organization, essential for the success of the overall marketing
strategy. The effect of promotion is to inform and create awareness that the right product is available at the right place at the right price to satisfy consumers or customers need. 2.2 METHOD/FORMS OF PROMOTION. Most companies or organization have various ways/methods of promoting their product or services. Take for example car companies uses variety of methods to promote their brands. Thus, there are several forms of promotion available as noted by William D. Perreault, E Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison and Kate Stewart (2000). They are as follows: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Personal selling . Advertising . Direct marketing or mass selling. Publicity and public relation Sales promotion.
Each of these promotional, tools has its own unique characteristics, cost, strength and limitations. However, a marketing manager uses them in combination thereby creating a promotion mix. Below is a diagrammatic basic promotion method and strategy planning.
Mass Communication or Direct Marketing
Publicity and Public Relation
William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison & Kate S (1990). Basic promotion method and strategy planning. The ultimate objectives of promotion are to effect the buyers’ behavour. The promotion objectives are. i. ii. iii. iv. Informing. Persuading Reminding. Assuring.
For a firm’s promotion to be effective, its promotion objectives must be clearing defined because the right promotion mix depends on what the firm or organization wandts to accomplish. Promotion also requires effective communication. 20
PERSONAL SELLING (Flexibility is its strength) Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buing process. A form of person-to person, face-to-face communication between seller and prospective or potential buyers so as to inform build up buyer preference, persuade to purchase the company’s product or services. However, it is the final element of an organizations promotional mix. Personal selling has three distinctive quanlitlies: i. Personal confrontation: personal selling involves an immediate and precise feedback due to interactive relationship between the seller and customer (Rention) if the feedback is unfavourable, the sales person can modify the massage accordingly. ii. Cultivation: personal selling result to a customer’s relationship as well as a deep personal selling makes the buyer or customer feel or seller’s talk.
ADVERTISING Advertising is defined as any paid from of non-personal communication of an organization, product, idea or services by an identified sponsored. Scoth Ogini (2006). The paid aspect of the definition means that the space or time for an advertising message must be bought or paid for except PSA (public service announcement whose advertising time or space is donated by the media. The non personal means of advertising which involves mass media e.g. T.V, radio, magazine and newspapers that passes information to a large number of persons at the same times. Due to advertising many forms and usages, it is difficult to make generation. Nevertheless, it has the following qualities or uniqueness. i. ii. Public presentation: its public nature legitimizes the product or services and gives a standardized offer. Pervasiveness: permits repetition of a message or information many a time. Advertising allows buyers to receive and compare the messages of various 21
competitors. For instance, large advertising conveys positive information about the seller’s size, power and success. iii. iv. Amplified expressiveness: advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its products through the artful use of print, sound and colour. Impersonality: it is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with the audience, hence the audience may feel obligated to pay attention or respond to it but it thus build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.
DIRECT MARKETING.MASS COMMUNICATION/MASS SELLING (reaching million at a price or even free) This is communicating with large number of prospective customers at the same time. Direct marketing involves a variety of activities which includes database management, direct selling, tele-marketing, direct response as through direct mail, the internet, website, various broadcast and print media. It is intended to acquire and retain customers, by contracting them without the use of any intermediary. Unlike the other forms of communication, it usually requires an immediate response which means that its effectiveness can be accessed quantitatively. Direct marketing is defined as “the distribution of products, information and promotional benefits to target consumers through interactive communication in a way that allows response to be measured. Direct marketing plays a big role in the integrated marketing communication programme of consumer-product companies and business-to-business marketers. And it has four distinctive marketers: i. ii. iii. Non-public: the message can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual. Up-to-date: a massages can be prepared very quickly, building one-to-one customers relationships-routinized. Interactive: the massage can be change depending on the person’s response.
PUBLICITY AND PUBLIC RELATION PUBLICITY: publicity according to scoth ogini (2006) means an unpaid form of communicating ideas, products , and services, 22
(publicity is free) like advert, it is no personal communication to a mass audience but it is not directly paid for by the company. The information publicized is carried out through the use of newspapers, press conference, articles, films and editor who determine the nature of the massage. The information passed could be negative or positive since it is not under the control of the organization. An advantage of publicity is that it is highly credible or crediblicity. The stories and features are more authentic and credible to reader than advert. Another advantages is its low cost. Since the company does not pay for its except the information is favourable and the company now decide to develop it by appointing a public relation officers which may incur some cast. PUBLIC RELATION: it is noteworthy to know that there is distinction between publicity and public relations. When an organization systematically plans and distributes information to control and manage the nature and posive image of publicity it receives. It is said to have engaged in public relation. Public relation is defined as the management function, which calculates public attitudes, identifies the policies and rocedure of an individual or organization with the public interest and executives a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. The purpose of public relation is to establishe an maintain a positive image of the oraganisation or firm and dramatizes a company’s product or service. SALES PROMOTION: sales promotion could be defined as various marketing activities that add extra value, incentive to the sales force, distributors or the ultimate consumer. Thus sales promotion spark immediate interest stimulates purchase by final consumers on product and services in the channel. There two major categories or sales promotion, namely; i. ii. Consumer – Oriented. Trade – Oriented.
CONSUMER – ORIENTED: is targeted to the ultimate uses of a product or services, which includes couponing premiums, consumer rebates sampling, pens and calendar and free T-shirts and cap, instore demonsration etc. and this encourages consumers purchase items immediately and stimulates short-term sales. TRADE – ORIENTED: sales promotion is targeted towards marketing intermediaries like whole sales distributors and retailers which includes promotional and merchandising allowances, price deals, trades shows, training programmes e.t.c which are various means of promotional tools used by companies or firms to promotes their product or goods and services. (Jerome McCarthy E. and William D. Perreault) Jr (1990). 2.3 IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTION IN MARKETING STRATEGIES AND ITS ADVANTAGES. The need or importance of promotion cannot be underestimated. Promotion is fourth means of marketing the others are product, place and price, an integral part of marketing process in most organization or company. The promotional mix helps in achieving more efficient and effective communication programme. More so, promotion contributes towards IMC (integrated marketing communication), which involves a rapidly changing environment in terms of technologies, consumers and media. The importance of promotion lies in six development in marketing world: the decline of the influence of commercial broadcast networks increase in programmes cast, education of management about marketing, pressure from the new technologies these influences combined bolster marketing programmes and create good image of the organization. Infact, the rapid changes in the dynamic market environment added up to increase the importance of promotion in this twendty-first century. Professionals trained in the strategies and techniques in marketing will be in great demand in the decades ahead.
THE ROLES OF PROMOTION The role of promotion in the marketing function is to convey news, to tell customers about the benefits of the products. Promotion helps to achieve the organization’s objectives of targeted market strategies. Added to promotion is marketing function. Companies ranges from large multinational corporatins to small retailers increasingly rely on promotion to help them market product and services. Promotion facilitates the sales of product, goods and services. An indispensable tool for creating and exploiting differences that is for positioning, such as persuading, assuring or convincing and reminding the targeted audience that the promotional mix activities differs substantially from its competitors.
PROMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT Promotional management has to do with co-ordinating the promotional mix element in order to develop a controlled integrated programme of effective marketing communication. Promotion is much more than selling and entertainment to the hungry public. At the heart of every thing is communication. Communication must be interesting. Effective promotion must attract attention before it can be interpreted and build constituencies etc. and with regards to this fact, there should be management. In organizing the various promotional mic, the marketer should decide on which form of promotion to use, how to combine them so as to achieve the organization’s marketing objectives. The manager must reason on what percentage of the budget to allocate to the choice of promotional mix decided on. In developing and managing of promotional mix, the following should be considered by: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Type of product The target marketer Buyers decision process Stage of product life cycle. Channels of distribution. 25
THE PROMOTIONAL PLANNING PROCESS A key success to any business function is planning. Planning is fundamental for effective promotion process or role. Promotion is not the straightforward activity that in a grossly over communicated society, the process is more complex. Setting reasonable, achievable objectives then is the first and most important step in the promotion plan. All other plans flow naturally form this producing an effective marketing plan that will give an organization competitive advantage and it requires knowledge, skill intellect and creatively and above all, time. Promotion planers must have business marketing intelligence (BMI) because it likes an organization to its external environment, thereby enabling management to develop informed and rational decisions about markets, competitors and strategy. BMI is defined as the collection, analysis and interpretation of relevant internal and external marketing information. It is a process that makes it possible for firms or organization to learn, understand and deal with new challenges. MBI is a future oriented activity that helps organization cope in the market environment. It includes all ways and use information. Today marketing intelligence tends to create changes in the global market world; hence it is essential for a promotional planner in planning process. A rational marketer must design a promotional planning process, if possible may sometimes re-evaluate the planning process to measures the progress and effectiveness of the programmes develop, implemented in marketing corrections for adjustment with regards to the promotional function of marketing strategies. Promotional planners must decide on specific role, elements of promotional mix develop strategies for each elements and plan as well as implement. In addition, the market plan of an organization should be written document that describes the overall marketing strategy to reach the target audience. Infact, promotional plan is an integral part of the marketing strategy. (Susan Tyler Eastman, Douglas A. Ferguson and Robert A. Klen (1999)
DEVELOPING PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES Besides the promotional plan process, developing promotional strategies and
activites play a pivotal role in market channel. These activities include advertising, sale promotion, and personal selling effort e.t.c which is directed towards influencing and stimulating consumer behaviour or end-user purchases, thereby having a programme to motivate channel members. And the fundamental strategy decision is “a push versus a pull” promotional strategy. A push strategy is a programme designed and focuses manufacturer promotional efforts on the members of distribution channel itself rather than the final user using trade advertising and allowances, trade promotions, and personal selling to stock manufacturers products and promote them to final user. The goal of lthe push strategy is the product to re-sellers or trades, selling and promoting the items through the channels of middlemen. It aims at convincing resellers that push the products to their customers and make profit on it. On the other hand, a pull strategy is to appetiz buyer or customers demand for a product or services by professional effort that are aimed at the ultimate customer or industrial user. The pull promotional strategies goal is to imbues or create demand of the product or service on the customer at a level and encourage them to request for the product or service form the retailers, whole sellers or distributors and the middlemen will thus be compelled to stock the products or renders services in accordance to their respective assortments. More so, push strategy uses advertising and consumer promotion element however, the push or pull promotional strategies to be use depends on the company’s choice base on its number of factors which includes: i. ii. iii. Company’s relation with trade Promotional budget Demand for the firms product or services rendered
Company that has favourable relation or channel relationship may prefer a push strategy while that which has a favourable demand out look for product or service swill prefer a pull strategy. But combination of a push and pull strategies in more beneficial and appropriate. (George E. belch and Michael A. Belch (2001). 27
CAPTER THREE\ METHODLOGY This chapter describes the research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity and reliability of the instruments method of data collection and method of data analysis. 3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY This study is designed to investigate the effect of promotion in marketing strategies of business organization. 3.2 POPULATION The population of Goking International Limited comprised at fifty staff taken as a case study for this research work. 3.3 INSTRUMENTATION The instrument used for the study is the questionnaire titled “effect of promotion in marketing strategy of business organization. The questionnaire is meant for manager, customers, promoters and distributors to get information from them on promotion and its effect on business whether it is positive or negative. 3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The researcher stratified sampling technique, which is diving the population into strata or large that is homogenous to get a simple random sampling. I divided the fifty staff into five strata and picked two from each strata to get my sample of ten. 3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Data was collected or gathered from primary data has to do with questionnaire and personal observation employed in relation to the aim of the study and hypothesis verification. The secondary source of data collection comprised of 28
published materials, textbooks, from libraries, dictionaries, magazines, and television news. 3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The chi-square statistical method was used to analyze the data and test hypothesis formulated in this study and the formula is stated below. Fo = Frequency observed Fe = Frequency expected Column total x roll total Grand total X2 = (fo – Fe) 2 Fe This is for calculated value above Table value below (C – 1) (R – 1)
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESNTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION.
DATA PRESENTATION In the course of the research findings, to determine how or the effect of promotion to marketing strategies of sales. Several question were asked and analyzed to show the proportion of those who have favourable interest towards the goods and services been promoted through the different promotional mix.
ANALYSIS The researcher administered a total of 120 questionnaires of various respondents out of which only 100 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondent. Hence this chapter deals with the analysis of responses received from answered questionnaire from manager, promoters/distributors and customers using the chisquare statistical formula/ method.
DATA INTERPRETATION The inperpretation was based on the responses received from answered questionnaire administered to the respondents from Goking International Limited, Effurun, Delta state as well as other business organization in the course of investigation. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Restatement of hypothesis Hi: there is a significant relationship between promotion and promoters in marketing strategies of business organisaion. In testing the hypothesis, the chi-square statisfied method was used to test the hypothesis formulated. a. Calculated value 30
b. Critical value/table value.
Table 1 Response on the effect of promotion in marketing strategies of sales. Does Promotion and promoters have great effect in marketing strategies of sales Manager Promoter Customers Total 20 25 10 55 17 15 13 45 37 40 23 100 Yes No Total
Fe = RT X CT OT Where R = Row RT Total, CT, = Column Total OT = Overall total.
(Fo-Fe) 2 fe
R11 R12 R21 R22 R31 R32
20 17 25 15 10 13
20.35 16.65 22 18 12.65 10.35 ∑FE = 100
-0.35 0.35 3 -3 -2.65 2.65
0.1225 0.1225 9 9 7.0225 7.0225 ∑(FO-FE)2 = 32.29
10 10 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 ∑(FO-FE)2 FE = 22.2
Expected frequency = RT X CT Overall Total
R11 = 37 x 55 100 R12 = 37 x45 100 R21 = 40 x 55 100 R22 = 40 x 55 100 R31 = 23 x 55 100 R32 = 23 x45 100 =10.35 32 =12.65 =18 =22 =16.65 =20.35
X2 = 22.2 Significant level 5% = 0.5 X2 = 0.95 DF = columns (C – 1) (R – 1) Where DF = Degree of freedom R – 1 = number of row – 1 C – 1 = Number of column – 1 DF = (C – 1) (r – 1) (2 – 1) (3 – 1) 1 2 = 1 x 2 =2 Using level of significant to get the table values 5ˆ00.05 0.05 0.45 under 2 X2 = 6.992 0.95 Therefore, calculated value = 22.2, while table or critical values form table = 6.992. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS From the calculation above, using the chi-square statistical method, we presented two values known as: a. The calculation value =22.2 b. The table/critical value = 6.992 Definitely, it is noted if calculation values is equal or greater than the table values; we reject the Null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis. However, if the calculation vaues is less than the table values, we accept the Null hypothesis. Therefore,snce the calculated value is greater than the table, we can thus reject the Null hypothesis. Conclusively it can be deduced from the hypothesis testing that promotion as well as
promoters have greater effect in marketing strategies of business organization, that is promotion and promoters have great effect in marketing strategies of sales.
CHPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMONDATIION 34
SUMMARY OF FINDING The aims of this study is to design the overall analysis of promotion and its effect
in the dynamic marketing strategies in business organization of Nigeria. Hence, the information necessary to address the study were collected, and analyzed and from the analysis, set of relation findings were brought to tight among which the following points saliently stood out; i. ii. iii. The study reveals that promotion has great effect in pushing products and services down the channel to lthe final users. Promotion is an essential tool in satisfying the need and wants of the competitive industry. Promotion through its promotional mix such as advertising helps in creating awareness that company exist and serves as a medium of communication between the company and prospects to sell product or render service of the organization. iv. During the research visits to Goking International Limited, the researcher observed that the company’s impact on the promoters and workers is vice-versa, if the promoters and workers are given incentive they tend to put in their best, which is to the benefit of the company. v. The researchers study also reveals that promotion is increasingly relied on by companies’ ranging from large Multinational Corporation to small retailers to help market their products and services. Above all, the study reveals that the ultimate object of promotion is to affect customers /consumers behavour and promotion promoters marketing of products and service. 5.2 CONCLUSION Categorically speaking from the finding it is obvious that promotion has powerfull influence in marketing strategies of products and services rendered in business organization. Although it would be misleading to think of promotion simply as a form of marketing communication, promotion does have a 35
fundamental role to play in communicating effectiveness with the market place or environment. Communicating requires the marketer to use promotional mix that fits logically into strategy being developed and the tight message selected an appropriated media and target the campaign to satisty a particular target market, In implementing and reaching the above conclusion, chapter one of the project states the problem and effect of promotion as well as previous experience of industrial along the modern day dynamic market industries for remarkable success. Chapter two, which is the literature review, discusses in detail what promotion entails, its impact in the market environment relating to the research work textbooks. Thus chapter three talks about the method of data collection chosen, while chapter four is interpretation using chi-square method to prove the importance of promotion and promoters in marketing strategies of business orgainsation. The researcher therefore, concludes that promotion has greater/powerful influence in marketing 5.3 RECOMMENDATION In the light of the above findings and the effect of promotion identified in chapter two this investigation study, the researcher put forward the following recommendations. i. In order to take advantage of the competitive industries, the company should improve in her rendering of goods and service for a high quality since high quality goods and services result to a high finished goods and service to customers satisfaction. ii. The company should endeavour to send her porters and on regular training for them to develop the right and new techniques, rapid growth of the global market to enable them improve the quality of services rendered. iii. The company should give positive impact on promoters and workers and vice-versa. They should give incentives to the workers.
Above all. Goking International Limited should continue using all the various promotional tools in creating awareness that company exist, since promotion is move flexible when it comes to targeting the market and promotion have the ability to communicate different messages to different customers groups, perhaps through the offer of a variety of prices in a competitive or through customized electromic catalogues held on computer disc being sent to different types of customers and directing response orientation.\
REFERENCES 1. F. O Egboro J. O Nomuoja (2006) Business Research Methodology. 37
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Gorege E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (2001) Advertising and Promotion, Fifth Edition. Jerome Mccarthy e. And William d. Perreault Jr (1990) Lecture Guide to Coming Basic Marketing Tenth Edition. Kolterand Armstrong, (1991) Principles of Marketing Tenth Edition. Michael j. Baker, (1991) International Encyclopedia of Business Management Encyclopedia of Marketing. Robert Duyer F. And john F. Tanner Jr (1976) Business Marketing. Scoth Ogini (2006) Marketing lecture note, delta state Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara. Susan Tyler Eastman, Douglas a. Ferguson and Robert a. Klen (1999) promotion and Marketing for Broadcasting and Cable Third Edition. William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy, Steve Parkison and Kate Stewart, (2000), Basic Marketing European Edition.
APPENDIX 1 38
4th November, 2006. School of business studies, Department of business administration, Delta state polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara, Delta State. Dear sir/madam, I am a student of delta state polytechnic, conducting a survey on “effect of promotion in marketing strategies” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of ordinary national diploma (OND) in business administration of he above-mentioned school. I am therefore, soliciting for your assistance by way of providing answers to the questions on the questionnaire. Perhaps, your information supplied will help in promoting business effectively in delta state market as well as Nigeria as a whole I assure you that whatever information given will be held in strict confidence and used purely for the research purpose. Your co-operation will be highly appreciated. Yours faithfully, Ikemu Joyce Aghogho
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Dear sir, I shall be grateful if you will spare some minutes to anser the question under listed questionnaire. Your response will be confidentially treated. Please tick ( ) in the box provided and write out your answers where necessary. Thank you for your co-operation. 1. what is your age? Under 20 () Under 20-24 ( ) Under 25-29 ( ) Under 30-34 ( ) Under 35-39 ( ) Under 40-44 ( ) Under 45-49 ( ) 50 and above ( ) 2. Sex: Male Female 3. () ()
present academic qualification No Formal Primary School Secondary School Higher School, Its Equivalent Professional Diploma University Education () () () () () ()
does your company promote her sevice? 40
(a) Yes (b) No 5. What Form Of Promotional Mix Does Your Company Use? (A) Advertising ( ) 6. ( ) Personal Selling (C) Direct Marketing (D) Publicity And Public Relation (E) Sales Promotion (F) All Of The Above. which class of people is the service promotion affect designed to appeal to? (a) high income earners (b) medium income earner © lower income earners 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. () () ()
what is the media used to advertise your service? (a) T.V (b) Radio (c) newspaper (d) All of the above What are the roles of promotion in the promotion of marketing strategies? what is the contribution of the workers in promotion of marketing strategies? what is the contribution of the workers in promotion of marketing strategies? what impact does the company have on the promotion as well as workers with regards to promotion?.
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