You are on page 1of 41

THE ROLE OF PROMOTION TO MARKETING STRATEGIES

IN BUSINESS ORGANISATION
(A CASE STUDY OF GOKING INTERNATIONAL LIMITED EFFURUN)

BY

EMMANUEL NELSON BASSEY

COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTANCY AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

1
CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this project work was carried out by PATIENCE

ESENAKIFE in the Department of Business Administration, School of

Business Studies. Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic. Ikot Asurua, Ikot Ekpene.

………………………….. ………………………….
Project Supervisor Centre Coordinator

…………………………... ………………………….
Date Date

2
DEDICATION

This research work is dedicated to the Almighty God for seeing me through

the whole period of the program and granting me academic excellence

despite the difficulty encountered.

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost I give thank to our most high GOD for giving me the

opportunity to attain my present level of education and for seeing me

through this Endeavour.

I want to appreciate the contributions and useful suggestions of my

supervisor Mr Emmanuel N. Bassey who took his time and pain to go

through the volume of work steadily.

My appreciation also goes to my lecturers and colleagues in the department

of business administration and accountancy Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic.

I cannot the contribution and enthusiastic support of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson

Esenakife, my loving brother Mr Blessed Esenakife, my course mates Son

Efe Actor, Omorione Edirin, Eneghe M. Oghenefega, my caring cousin

Okieriete Esenekife, the last but not the list, my one and only husband Mr.

A. Onogwavbere. May the Almighty God reward you all for your advice,

assistance, contributions and support during this program.

4
ABSTRACT

Our true challenge today is not debts and deficits, but the dynamic global

competition of the market environment, the need to gain comparative and

competitive advantages knowledge of promotion and promotional mix will

bring a feeling that we are part of the moving trend that runs the market

sector.

Hence, this research work has been carried out systematically and

progressively to examine and ascertain the effect of promotion and co-

operation in marketing strategies of business organizations, a case study of

Goking International Limited. Effurun. Delta State.

This study was carried out so show the need of promotion as a means of

target market and how it can be fulfilled in spite of numerous changes

confronting the activities and the work consist of five chapters. Chapter one

is introduction, two is literature review, three is the methodology of the

study, four is data presentation and analysis and finally the five chapter is

summary, conclusion and recommendation.

5
In carrying out the investigation, number of questionnaires designed for

management staff , promoters and customers to verify how promotion

effectively facilitates sales or services in markets to satisfy customers need

in Nigeria were gathered, analysed and hypothesis was used to test the

question.

From the available information analysed, it was cleared that promotion has

significant effect in marketing strategies of sales and services in business

organizations.

However, this study does not claim credit for exhaustively discussing the

absolute idea of promotion, hence it has included tort for further research.

6
TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page - - - - - - - - -

Certification- - - - - - - - -

Dedication - - - - - - - - -

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - -

Abstract - - - - - - - - -

CHAPTER ONE –INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study - - - - - -

1.2 Statement of problem - - - - - -

1.3 Research questions- - - - - - -

1.4 Hypothesis - - - - - - - -

1.5 Purpose of the study -- - - - - -

1.6 Significant of the study - - - - - -

1.7 Scope of the study - - - - - - -

1.8 Limitation of the study - - - - - -

1.9 Definition of terms- - - - - - -

7
CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Population design

3.2 Population

3.3 Instrumentation

3.4 Sampling techniques

3.5 Method of data collection

3.6 Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR- DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data presentation

4.2 Analysis

4.3 Data interpretation

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY,CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of the findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

8
References

Appendix 1

Appendix 11

Appendix 111

9
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

We are in the information era. Life is dynamic and interrelated and it

is an intricate web of life, people are intrinsic part of it. The marketing

environment is constantly changing and to take advantage of

opportunities, there must be marketing strategy and strategic plans.

The fast and effective access of promotion has become an

indispensable factor for the success of any business project. Unity

flourishes when there is co-operation. To preserve unity among

intermediaries or members of who are parts of the global world, co-

operation is vital.

Thus, this profound statement above amplifies that need for promoting

and co-operation in marketing strategies. The application of

promotion mix has played a crucial role in improving business

efficiency in the marketing environment.

In our complex society today, promotion is an integral part in our

social and economic system. The fragmentation of mass market, the

10
explosion of new technologies that are giving consumers a greater

control over the communication process, the rapid growth of the

internet and electronic commerce or E-commerce, the emergence of

global market and economic uncertainties are all evidence of the

changing market environment and its contribution to the way

companies approaches marketing as well as promotion. Developing

marketing communication programs that are responsible to these

changes is critical to the success of every organization. In fulfilling

and meeting up the market target, a well-planned and executable

marketing communication strategy is very important.

Hence, this project work is aim at showing the effect of promotion

and co-operation in marketing strategy of sales, using companies

/firms in Delta State as a point of reference such as Gokings

International Limited, Effurun

For example, Mezda company, which deals with cars and trucks in the

decades of 80s and 90s excelled very well in sales. The sold nearly

four thousand cars (400,000) per year in the United State. But in the

mid 90s, the company fell back due to lack of focus in its marketing

11
and promotional mix, such as advertising. From 1994 to 1997,

Mazda’s sales dropped to nearly 70 percent and reached its lowest

level in 15 years. A change in marketing strategy as well as promotion

mix adverting was needed to regain its strong position in the U. A.

market.

However, mazda car and truck business was give to new agency.

W.B. Donor and Co. now known as Donor. Their new agency then

embarked on the talk of building a successful image that would

capture Mazda overall objective to target younger generation of

driver, thereby setting its vehicle apart from other cars in the

competitive market, and develop and advertising them (which is one

of the promotional tools) for Mazda brand using a powerful slogan

“Get in, be moved” campaign was made several television

commercial that combine computer generated background with live

action and push protégé on internet with banner adverts on a number

of website, MTV e.t.c. infact the promotional, strategies by Donor

was so successful that buyer were attracted. There was 33 percent

increase in the 4th quarter of 1998 and nearly 20 percent in 1999.

Mazda was once again on the move for its positive and advance image

12
as a result of new strategies in marking implemented. Mazda “Get

moving” (advertising and promotion by George E. Belch and Michael

A Belch) (2001). The success of Mazda’s “Get In, Be Moved”

campaign illustrate the importance and effects of promotion and

having a well planned and executable marketing communication in

marketing strategy.

Today, Mazda and thousand of companies recognized the fact that

various promotional mix techniques such as websites on the Internet

advert, sales promotion etc. are essential to promoting their products

and services in the promoting their products and services in the

constantly rapid changing market environment.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM


Some organizations/firms do not carry out any form of marketing
promotion. They are satisfied that a good product with a network of
distribution is enough. However, nowadays the picture is different.
There is need for marketing promotion and it is unavoidable to be
successful in the dynamic environment, a producer must not only
offer a good product at a reasonable price, right time, right quality and
right quantity but also inform actual and potential customers about the
product and where they can buy it. Producers must tell wholesalers
and retailers in the channel about their product and their marketing

13
mix. These intermediaries in turn must use promotion to reach their
customers- therefore, arose the effect of promotion to marketing
strategies.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION


1. What is the role of promotion in marketing strategies?
2. What is the role of the management with regards to promotion
to marketing strategies of your organization?
3. What is the contribution of workers in promotion of marketing
strategies?
4. What impact dose the company have on the promoters as well
as workers with regards to promotion?

1.4 HYPOTHESIS
In this research finding, there is no significant relationship between
promotion and marketing strategies.

1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY


The purpose of this study is to find the effect of promotion in
marketing strategies, since these are changes in modern world of
marketing. Affecting buyers’ behaviour is a challenging job and it is
the object of the promotion. As a service to exhibitor, to ensure that
participants get maximal opportunity, to meet buyers and users, the
promoter actively carries unique characteristics in order to take
advantage of the competitors’ market environment.

14
1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This research will be of great interest and benefit to the following:
1. the manager of Goking International Limited, Effurun, Warri.
2. producer, intermediaries, as well as management,
organizations/firms.
3. the students of marketing and business administration.
4. likewise to aspiring businessmen and entrepreneur.
5. the diverse group of people and the dynamic marketing partners
as well as the society at large. The diversified group of people
above, must know how to adapt to the marketing strategies,
new technologies etc.
Marketing need a broad range of skills in order to build profitable
relationships with customers as well as satisfy their needs in the global
competitive environment.

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY


This study investigates the effect of promotion to Gokings
international Limited, Effurun. The study covers all level of
promotion, from personal selling, advertising, direct marketing public
relations, publicity to sales promotion.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS


In order to ensure proper understanding of what the study entails, the
following key words and concept are explained below:

15
1. PROMOTION: to boost the sales of product or service

rendered through sales promotion, advertising, personal selling,


direct marketing and publicity and public relation.
2. PROMOTION MIX: an organizations total promotional

effects including personal selling, advertising etc. the


promotional mix attempt to attain integrated marketing
communications.
3. PROMOTIONAL PRICING: temporarily setting the price of

product below least price and sometimes even below cost price
to increase sales in short term.
4. PROMOTERS: a person involved insetting up and preparing,

finding customers, raising subscription for the


organization/firm. The promoters in a position of trust with
regards to the new company/companies and may not make
undisclosed profit or benefit at its expense.
5. MARKETING STRATEGY: a plan identifying what
marketing goals and objectives will be implemented in selling
its product and how the objectives can be achieved.
6. MARKETING WEBSITE: this is a site designed to handle

interactive communication initiated by the company with


consumers for the purpose of moving them closer to a purchase.
7. STRATEGIC PLAN: a plan describing how a firm will adapt

to take advantage of opportunities in its constantly changing


environment so as to maintain the firms goals and capabilities
in the market sector.
8. BME (BUSINESS MARKETING INTELIGENCE): this is

gathering, analyzing and interpreting relevant internal and


16
external marketing information, it enables a firm to learn,
understand and deal or cope with new challenges future
oriented for success in global world.

1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


This work was carried out under a tight schedule of school pressure
and work load which makes it absolutely necessary to devote limited
time to do it, having sleepless night etc.
Another problem encountered is finance, the cost of transportation in
carrying out the investigation. Individual differences in responses to
questionnaire are also a limitation encountered.

17
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 MEANING OF PROMOTION


Promotion is seen from dimension and different scholars, professional
bodies and associates have been given various definitions of
promotion.
Nevertheless, it is indeed noteworthy that each definition is unique.
Promotion is a vital component of marketing and an integral aspect of
or complex social economic system. However, few of the definitions
by some authors are as follows:
According to George E. Belch and Michael A. Belch, (2001)
Promotion is the “co-ordination of all seller initiated efforts to get up
channel of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or
promote an idea” (advertising and Promotion Fifth Edition 2001)
Scoth Ogini (2005) Promotion is the marketer tool for communicating
with customers for understanding and patronage. Promotion is a short-
term incentive to encourage sales of goods and services. It is indeed
an organized way or plan of communicating function of marketing to
customers to effect behaviour of diversified buyers-target customers
and taking advantage of competition market environment. More than
half of the world’s economic activities consist of exchanges between
organization and most of these are commercial enterprises that exist to
provide products or services to other firms or ultimate consumer.
Thus, promotion plays a crucial part of any marketing mix in an
organization, essential for the success of the overall marketing
18
strategy. The effect of promotion is to inform and create awareness
that the right product is available at the right place at the right price to
satisfy consumers or customers need.

2.2 METHOD/FORMS OF PROMOTION.


Most companies or organization have various ways/methods of
promoting their product or services. Take for example car companies
uses variety of methods to promote their brands. Thus, there are
several forms of promotion available as noted by William D.
Perreault, E Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison and Kate Stewart
(2000). They are as follows:
i. Personal selling .
ii. Advertising .
iii. Direct marketing or mass selling.
iv. Publicity and public relation
v. Sales promotion.

Each of these promotional, tools has its own unique characteristics,


cost, strength and limitations. However, a marketing manager uses
them in combination thereby creating a promotion mix. Below is a
diagrammatic basic promotion method and strategy planning.

19
Target

Product Place Promotion Price

Personal Mass Communication or


Selling Direct Marketing Sales promotion

Publicity and Public


Advertising
Relation

William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy, Steven Parkison & Kate S (1990).


Basic promotion method and strategy planning. The ultimate objectives of promotion are
to effect the buyers’ behavour. The promotion objectives are.
i. Informing.
ii. Persuading
iii. Reminding.
iv. Assuring.

For a firm’s promotion to be effective, its promotion objectives must be clearing defined
because the right promotion mix depends on what the firm or organization wandts to
accomplish. Promotion also requires effective communication.

20
PERSONAL SELLING (Flexibility is its strength)
Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buing process. A form
of person-to person, face-to-face communication between seller and prospective or
potential buyers so as to inform build up buyer preference, persuade to purchase the
company’s product or services. However, it is the final element of an organizations
promotional mix.

Personal selling has three distinctive quanlitlies:


i. Personal confrontation: personal selling involves an immediate and precise
feedback due to interactive relationship between the seller and customer (Rention)
if the feedback is unfavourable, the sales person can modify the massage
accordingly.
ii. Cultivation: personal selling result to a customer’s relationship as well as a deep
personal selling makes the buyer or customer feel or seller’s talk.

ADVERTISING
Advertising is defined as any paid from of non-personal communication of an
organization, product, idea or services by an identified sponsored. Scoth Ogini (2006).
The paid aspect of the definition means that the space or time for an advertising message
must be bought or paid for except PSA (public service announcement whose advertising
time or space is donated by the media. The non personal means of advertising which
involves mass media e.g. T.V, radio, magazine and newspapers that passes information to
a large number of persons at the same times.
Due to advertising many forms and usages, it is difficult to make generation.
Nevertheless, it has the following qualities or uniqueness.
i. Public presentation: its public nature legitimizes the product or services and gives
a standardized offer.
ii. Pervasiveness: permits repetition of a message or information many a time.
Advertising allows buyers to receive and compare the messages of various

21
competitors. For instance, large advertising conveys positive information about
the seller’s size, power and success.
iii. Amplified expressiveness: advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the
company and its products through the artful use of print, sound and colour.
iv. Impersonality: it is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with the audience,
hence the audience may feel obligated to pay attention or respond to it but it thus
build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.

DIRECT MARKETING.MASS COMMUNICATION/MASS SELLING (reaching


million at a price or even free)
This is communicating with large number of prospective customers at the same time.
Direct marketing involves a variety of activities which includes database management,
direct selling, tele-marketing, direct response as through direct mail, the internet, website,
various broadcast and print media. It is intended to acquire and retain customers, by
contracting them without the use of any intermediary. Unlike the other forms of
communication, it usually requires an immediate response which means that its
effectiveness can be accessed quantitatively.
Direct marketing is defined as “the distribution of products, information and promotional
benefits to target consumers through interactive communication in a way that allows
response to be measured. Direct marketing plays a big role in the integrated marketing
communication programme of consumer-product companies and business-to-business
marketers. And it has four distinctive marketers:
i. Non-public: the message can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual.
ii. Up-to-date: a massages can be prepared very quickly, building one-to-one
customers relationships-routinized.
iii. Interactive: the massage can be change depending on the person’s response.

PUBLICITY AND PUBLIC RELATION PUBLICITY: publicity according to scoth


ogini (2006) means an unpaid form of communicating ideas, products , and services,

22
(publicity is free) like advert, it is no personal communication to a mass audience but it is
not directly paid for by the company. The information publicized is carried out through
the use of newspapers, press conference, articles, films and editor who determine the
nature of the massage. The information passed could be negative or positive since it is not
under the control of the organization. An advantage of publicity is that it is highly
credible or crediblicity. The stories and features are more authentic and credible to reader
than advert.
Another advantages is its low cost. Since the company does not pay for its except the
information is favourable and the company now decide to develop it by appointing a
public relation officers which may incur some cast.

PUBLIC RELATION: it is noteworthy to know that there is distinction between


publicity and public relations. When an organization systematically plans and distributes
information to control and manage the nature and posive image of publicity it receives. It
is said to have engaged in public relation. Public relation is defined as the management
function, which calculates public attitudes, identifies the policies and rocedure of an
individual or organization with the public interest and executives a programme of action
to earn public understanding and acceptance.
The purpose of public relation is to establishe an maintain a positive image of the
oraganisation or firm and dramatizes a company’s product or service.

SALES PROMOTION: sales promotion could be defined as various marketing


activities that add extra value, incentive to the sales force, distributors or the ultimate
consumer. Thus sales promotion spark immediate interest stimulates purchase by final
consumers on product and services in the channel. There two major categories or sales
promotion, namely;
i. Consumer – Oriented.
ii. Trade – Oriented.

23
CONSUMER – ORIENTED: is targeted to the ultimate uses of a product or services,
which includes couponing premiums, consumer rebates sampling, pens and calendar and
free T-shirts and cap, instore demonsration etc. and this encourages consumers purchase
items immediately and stimulates short-term sales.

TRADE – ORIENTED: sales promotion is targeted towards marketing


intermediaries like whole sales distributors and retailers which includes
promotional and merchandising allowances, price deals, trades shows, training
programmes e.t.c which are various means of promotional tools used by
companies or firms to promotes their product or goods and services. (Jerome
McCarthy E. and William D. Perreault) Jr (1990).

2.3 IMPORTANCE OF PROMOTION IN MARKETING


STRATEGIES AND ITS ADVANTAGES.

The need or importance of promotion cannot be underestimated.


Promotion is fourth means of marketing the others are product, place and price, an
integral part of marketing process in most organization or company. The
promotional mix helps in achieving more efficient and effective communication
programme. More so, promotion contributes towards IMC (integrated marketing
communication), which involves a rapidly changing environment in terms of
technologies, consumers and media.
The importance of promotion lies in six development in marketing world: the
decline of the influence of commercial broadcast networks increase in
programmes cast, education of management about marketing, pressure from the
new technologies these influences combined bolster marketing programmes and
create good image of the organization. Infact, the rapid changes in the dynamic
market environment added up to increase the importance of promotion in this
twendty-first century. Professionals trained in the strategies and techniques in
marketing will be in great demand in the decades ahead.

24
2.4 THE ROLES OF PROMOTION
The role of promotion in the marketing function is to convey news, to tell
customers about the benefits of the products. Promotion helps to achieve the
organization’s objectives of targeted market strategies. Added to promotion is
marketing function. Companies ranges from large multinational corporatins to
small retailers increasingly rely on promotion to help them market product and
services. Promotion facilitates the sales of product, goods and services. An
indispensable tool for creating and exploiting differences that is for positioning,
such as persuading, assuring or convincing and reminding the targeted audience
that the promotional mix activities differs substantially from its competitors.

2.5 PROMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT


Promotional management has to do with co-ordinating the promotional mix
element in order to develop a controlled integrated programme of effective
marketing communication. Promotion is much more than selling and
entertainment to the hungry public. At the heart of every thing is communication.
Communication must be interesting. Effective promotion must attract attention
before it can be interpreted and build constituencies etc. and with regards to this
fact, there should be management.

In organizing the various promotional mic, the marketer should decide on which
form of promotion to use, how to combine them so as to achieve the
organization’s marketing objectives. The manager must reason on what
percentage of the budget to allocate to the choice of promotional mix decided on.
In developing and managing of promotional mix, the following should be
considered by:
i. Type of product
ii. The target marketer
iii. Buyers decision process
iv. Stage of product life cycle.
v. Channels of distribution.

25
2.6 THE PROMOTIONAL PLANNING PROCESS
A key success to any business function is planning. Planning is fundamental for
effective promotion process or role. Promotion is not the straightforward activity
that in a grossly over communicated society, the process is more complex. Setting
reasonable, achievable objectives then is the first and most important step in the
promotion plan. All other plans flow naturally form this producing an effective
marketing plan that will give an organization competitive advantage and it
requires knowledge, skill intellect and creatively and above all, time. Promotion
planers must have business marketing intelligence (BMI) because it likes an
organization to its external environment, thereby enabling management to develop
informed and rational decisions about markets, competitors and strategy. BMI is
defined as the collection, analysis and interpretation of relevant internal and
external marketing information. It is a process that makes it possible for firms or
organization to learn, understand and deal with new challenges. MBI is a future
oriented activity that helps organization cope in the market environment. It
includes all ways and use information.
Today marketing intelligence tends to create changes in the global market world;
hence it is essential for a promotional planner in planning process. A rational
marketer must design a promotional planning process, if possible may sometimes
re-evaluate the planning process to measures the progress and effectiveness of the
programmes develop, implemented in marketing corrections for adjustment with
regards to the promotional function of marketing strategies. Promotional planners
must decide on specific role, elements of promotional mix develop strategies for
each elements and plan as well as implement. In addition, the market plan of an
organization should be written document that describes the overall marketing
strategy to reach the target audience. Infact, promotional plan is an integral part of
the marketing strategy. (Susan Tyler Eastman, Douglas A. Ferguson and Robert
A. Klen (1999)

26
2.7 DEVELOPING PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES
Besides the promotional plan process, developing promotional strategies and
activites play a pivotal role in market channel. These activities include advertising, sale
promotion, and personal selling effort e.t.c which is directed towards influencing and
stimulating consumer behaviour or end-user purchases, thereby having a programme to
motivate channel members. And the fundamental strategy decision is “a push versus a
pull” promotional strategy. A push strategy is a programme designed and focuses
manufacturer promotional efforts on the members of distribution channel itself rather
than the final user using trade advertising and allowances, trade promotions, and personal
selling to stock manufacturers products and promote them to final user. The goal of lthe
push strategy is the product to re-sellers or trades, selling and promoting the items
through the channels of middlemen. It aims at convincing resellers that push the products
to their customers and make profit on it.
On the other hand, a pull strategy is to appetiz buyer or customers demand for a
product or services by professional effort that are aimed at the ultimate customer or
industrial user. The pull promotional strategies goal is to imbues or create demand of
the product or service on the customer at a level and encourage them to request for
the product or service form the retailers, whole sellers or distributors and the
middlemen will thus be compelled to stock the products or renders services in
accordance to their respective assortments. More so, push strategy uses advertising
and consumer promotion element however, the push or pull promotional strategies to
be use depends on the company’s choice base on its number of factors which
includes:
i. Company’s relation with trade
ii. Promotional budget
iii. Demand for the firms product or services rendered

Company that has favourable relation or channel relationship may prefer a push strategy
while that which has a favourable demand out look for product or service swill prefer a
pull strategy. But combination of a push and pull strategies in more beneficial and
appropriate. (George E. belch and Michael A. Belch (2001).

27
CAPTER THREE\
METHODLOGY
This chapter describes the research design, population of the study, sample and sampling
techniques, instrumentation, validity and reliability of the instruments method of data
collection and method of data analysis.

3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY


This study is designed to investigate the effect of promotion in marketing
strategies of business organization.

3.2 POPULATION
The population of Goking International Limited comprised at fifty staff taken as a
case study for this research work.

3.3 INSTRUMENTATION
The instrument used for the study is the questionnaire titled “effect of promotion
in marketing strategy of business organization. The questionnaire is meant for
manager, customers, promoters and distributors to get information from them on
promotion and its effect on business whether it is positive or negative.

3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES


The researcher stratified sampling technique, which is diving the population into
strata or large that is homogenous to get a simple random sampling. I divided the
fifty staff into five strata and picked two from each strata to get my sample of ten.

3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


Data was collected or gathered from primary data has to do with questionnaire
and personal observation employed in relation to the aim of the study and
hypothesis verification. The secondary source of data collection comprised of

28
published materials, textbooks, from libraries, dictionaries, magazines, and
television news.

3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS


The chi-square statistical method was used to analyze the data and test hypothesis
formulated in this study and the formula is stated below.

Fo = Frequency observed
Fe = Frequency expected

Column total x roll total


Grand total

X2 = (fo – Fe) 2
Fe

This is for calculated value above


Table value below
(C – 1) (R – 1)

29
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESNTATION, ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION.

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION


In the course of the research findings, to determine how or the effect of promotion
to marketing strategies of sales. Several question were asked and analyzed to
show the proportion of those who have favourable interest towards the goods and
services been promoted through the different promotional mix.

4.2 ANALYSIS
The researcher administered a total of 120 questionnaires of various respondents
out of which only 100 questionnaires were retrieved from the respondent. Hence
this chapter deals with the analysis of responses received from answered
questionnaire from manager, promoters/distributors and customers using the chi-
square statistical formula/ method.

4.3 DATA INTERPRETATION


The inperpretation was based on the responses received from answered
questionnaire administered to the respondents from Goking International Limited,
Effurun, Delta state as well as other business organization in the course of
investigation.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Restatement of hypothesis
Hi: there is a significant relationship between promotion and promoters in
marketing strategies of business organisaion.
In testing the hypothesis, the chi-square statisfied method was used to test the
hypothesis formulated.
a. Calculated value

30
b. Critical value/table value.

Table 1
Response on the effect of promotion in marketing strategies of sales.

Does Yes No Total


Promotion and
promoters have
great effect in
marketing strategies
of sales
Manager 20 17 37
Promoter 25 15 40
Customers 10 13 23
Total 55 45 100

Fe = RT X CT
OT

Where R = Row RT Total, CT, = Column Total

OT = Overall total.

RC Fo Fe FO-FE (FO-FE)2 (Fo-Fe) 2


fe

31
R11 20 20.35 -0.35 0.1225 10
R12 17 16.65 0.35 0.1225 10
R21 25 22 3 9 0.4
R22 15 18 -3 9 0.5
R31 10 12.65 -2.65 7.0225 0.6
R32 13 10.35 2.65 7.0225 0.7
∑FE ∑(FO-FE)2 ∑(FO-FE)2
= 100 = 32.29 FE
= 22.2

Expected frequency = RT X CT
Overall Total

R11 = 37 x 55
100 =20.35
R12 = 37 x45
100 =16.65
R21 = 40 x 55
100 =22
R22 = 40 x 55
100 =18
R31 = 23 x 55
100 =12.65
R32 = 23 x45
100 =10.35

32
X2 = 22.2
Significant level 5% = 0.5
X2 = 0.95
DF = columns (C – 1) (R – 1)
Where DF = Degree of freedom
R – 1 = number of row – 1
C – 1 = Number of column – 1
DF = (C – 1) (r – 1)
(2 – 1) (3 – 1)
1 2
= 1 x 2 =2
Using level of significant to get the table values 5ˆ00.05
0.05
0.45 under 2
X2 = 6.992
0.95

Therefore, calculated value = 22.2, while table or critical values form table = 6.992.

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
From the calculation above, using the chi-square statistical method, we presented two
values known as:
a. The calculation value =22.2
b. The table/critical value = 6.992

Definitely, it is noted if calculation values is equal or greater than the table values; we
reject the Null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis. However, if the calculation
vaues is less than the table values, we accept the Null hypothesis. Therefore,snce the
calculated value is greater than the table, we can thus reject the Null hypothesis.
Conclusively it can be deduced from the hypothesis testing that promotion as well as

33
promoters have greater effect in marketing strategies of business organization, that is
promotion and promoters have great effect in marketing strategies of sales.

CHPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMONDATIION

34
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDING
The aims of this study is to design the overall analysis of promotion and its effect
in the dynamic marketing strategies in business organization of Nigeria. Hence, the
information necessary to address the study were collected, and analyzed and from the
analysis, set of relation findings were brought to tight among which the following points
saliently stood out;
i. The study reveals that promotion has great effect in pushing products and services
down the channel to lthe final users.
ii. Promotion is an essential tool in satisfying the need and wants of the competitive
industry.
iii. Promotion through its promotional mix such as advertising helps in creating
awareness that company exist and serves as a medium of communication between
the company and prospects to sell product or render service of the organization.
iv. During the research visits to Goking International Limited, the researcher
observed that the company’s impact on the promoters and workers is vice-versa,
if the promoters and workers are given incentive they tend to put in their best,
which is to the benefit of the company.
v. The researchers study also reveals that promotion is increasingly relied on by
companies’ ranging from large Multinational Corporation to small retailers to
help market their products and services.

Above all, the study reveals that the ultimate object of promotion is to affect
customers /consumers behavour and promotion promoters marketing of products
and service.

5.2 CONCLUSION
Categorically speaking from the finding it is obvious that promotion has
powerfull influence in marketing strategies of products and services rendered in
business organization. Although it would be misleading to think of promotion
simply as a form of marketing communication, promotion does have a

35
fundamental role to play in communicating effectiveness with the market place or
environment. Communicating requires the marketer to use promotional mix that
fits logically into strategy being developed and the tight message selected an
appropriated media and target the campaign to satisty a particular target market,
In implementing and reaching the above conclusion, chapter one of the project
states the problem and effect of promotion as well as previous experience of
industrial along the modern day dynamic market industries for remarkable
success.
Chapter two, which is the literature review, discusses in detail what promotion
entails, its impact in the market environment relating to the research work
textbooks.
Thus chapter three talks about the method of data collection chosen, while chapter
four is interpretation using chi-square method to prove the importance of
promotion and promoters in marketing strategies of business orgainsation. The
researcher therefore, concludes that promotion has greater/powerful influence in
marketing

5.3 RECOMMENDATION
In the light of the above findings and the effect of promotion identified in chapter
two this investigation study, the researcher put forward the following
recommendations.
i. In order to take advantage of the competitive industries, the company
should improve in her rendering of goods and service for a high quality
since high quality goods and services result to a high finished goods and
service to customers satisfaction.
ii. The company should endeavour to send her porters and on regular training
for them to develop the right and new techniques, rapid growth of the
global market to enable them improve the quality of services rendered.
iii. The company should give positive impact on promoters and workers and
vice-versa. They should give incentives to the workers.

36
iv. Above all. Goking International Limited should continue using all the
various promotional tools in creating awareness that company exist, since
promotion is move flexible when it comes to targeting the market and
promotion have the ability to communicate different messages to different
customers groups, perhaps through the offer of a variety of prices in a
competitive or through customized electromic catalogues held on
computer disc being sent to different types of customers and directing
response orientation.\

REFERENCES
1. F. O Egboro J. O Nomuoja (2006) Business Research Methodology.

37
2. Gorege E. Belch and Michael A. Belch (2001) Advertising and Promotion, Fifth
Edition.
3. Jerome Mccarthy e. And William d. Perreault Jr (1990) Lecture Guide to Coming
Basic Marketing Tenth Edition.
4. Kolterand Armstrong, (1991) Principles of Marketing Tenth Edition.
5. Michael j. Baker, (1991) International Encyclopedia of Business Management
Encyclopedia of Marketing.
6. Robert Duyer F. And john F. Tanner Jr (1976) Business Marketing.
7. Scoth Ogini (2006) Marketing lecture note, delta state Polytechnic, Otefe-Oghara.
8. Susan Tyler Eastman, Douglas a. Ferguson and Robert a. Klen (1999) promotion
and Marketing for Broadcasting and Cable Third Edition.
9. William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy, Steve Parkison and Kate Stewart,
(2000), Basic Marketing European Edition.

APPENDIX 1

38
4th November, 2006.

School of business studies,


Department of business administration,
Delta state polytechnic,
Otefe-Oghara,
Delta State.

Dear sir/madam,

I am a student of delta state polytechnic, conducting a survey on “effect of promotion in


marketing strategies” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of ordinary
national diploma (OND) in business administration of he above-mentioned school. I am
therefore, soliciting for your assistance by way of providing answers to the questions on
the questionnaire. Perhaps, your information supplied will help in promoting business
effectively in delta state market as well as Nigeria as a whole

I assure you that whatever information given will be held in strict confidence and used
purely for the research purpose.

Your co-operation will be highly appreciated.

Yours faithfully,

Ikemu Joyce Aghogho

APPENDIX 11

39
Dear sir,
I shall be grateful if you will spare some minutes to anser the question under listed
questionnaire. Your response will be confidentially treated.

Please tick ( ) in the box provided and write out your answers where necessary.

Thank you for your co-operation.

1. what is your age?


Under 20 ()
Under 20-24 ( )
Under 25-29 ( )
Under 30-34 ( )
Under 35-39 ( )
Under 40-44 ( )
Under 45-49 ( )
50 and above ( )

2. Sex: Male ()
Female ()

3. present academic qualification


No Formal ()
Primary School ()
Secondary School ()
Higher School, Its Equivalent ()
Professional Diploma ()
University Education ()

4. does your company promote her sevice?

40
(a) Yes (b) No
5. What Form Of Promotional Mix Does Your Company Use?
(A) Advertising ( ) ( ) Personal Selling (C) Direct Marketing (D) Publicity And
Public Relation (E) Sales Promotion (F) All Of The Above.
6. which class of people is the service promotion affect designed to appeal to?
(a) high income earners ()
(b) medium income earner ()
© lower income earners ()
7. what is the media used to advertise your service?
(a) T.V (b) Radio (c) newspaper (d) All of the above
8. What are the roles of promotion in the promotion of marketing strategies?
9. what is the contribution of the workers in promotion of marketing strategies?
10. what is the contribution of the workers in promotion of marketing strategies?
11. what impact does the company have on the promotion as well as workers with
regards to promotion?.

41