Transgenic Crops

Group #7 Jeremiah Johnson Anna Zaklikowski Jessica Frasier

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Background Transgenic Crop – A plant that contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination

 Overview

of the process for creating transgenic plants

History & Methods
  

1983 Disarming of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Ti plasmid) for use in gene transfers 1987 Invention of gene gun Present status
Worldwide production area of transgenic crops and traits Crop Area planted in 1999 (millions of acres) Soybean 53.4 Corn 27.4 Cotton 9.1 Canola 8.4 Trait Herbicide Bt insect Bt + herbicide Virus (source: Science 286:1663, 1999).

69.4 22 7.2 < 0.3

Applications & Advantages

Use of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis
  

Natural Insecticide Targets specific receptors Cotton, Potatoes, Tomatoes Caused by fungus – Ceratocystis ulmi Controlled by bacterium Pseudomonas syringue Research in seedlings and mature trees

Dutch Elm Disease
  

Image:Results of insect infestation on Bt (right) and non-Bt (left) cotton bolls. Source: USDA

Applications & Advantages

Flavr-Savr Tomatoes
 

Kanamycin resistance (kan-r gene) Allows tomatoes to ripen longer on vine for fuller taste and still be transportable

Round-up Herbicide Resistance
 

Enable plants to tolerate glyphosate                           Cotton, corn, tobacco, tomatoes, soybeans


Risks & Concerns
 Loss

of Biodiversity

 Superweeds  Transgenic

Crop Effectiveness

Risks and Concerns
 Human

Health Risks Control of Food Supply

 Corporate

 Future


 Turfgrass

for lawns  Plant-based vaccines
 Transgenic  Risks

crops offer hardier varieties

cannot be ignored

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