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Microflora (Upper Respiratory Tract)

Bacteria
Acinetobacte
Actinobacillus
Actinomyces
Cardiobacteria
Corynebacterium*
Eikenella
Enterobacteriaceae*
Eubacterium
Fusobacterium
Haemophilus*
Kingella
Moraxella*
Mycoplasma*
Neisseria*
Peptostreptococcus
Prophyromonas
Prevotella
Propionibacterium*
Staphylococcus*
Streptococcus*
Stomatococcus
Treponema*
Veillonella
Fungi: Candida*

Normal flora of the respiratory tract (All except tissue residents that are present in oronasopharynx and teeth)
Type of resident Microorganism
Common residents (>50%
of normal people)

Oral streptococci
Neisseria spp. Branhamella
Corynebacteria
Bacteroides
Anaerobic cocci
Present in mouth: Also Entamoeba gingivalis,
Trichomonas tenax, micrococci, Actinomyces spp
Fusiform bacteria
Candida aibicans
Streptococcus mutans Haemophilus influenzae
Occasional residents
(<10% of normal people)
Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Neisseria meningitidis
Uncommon residents
(<1% normal people)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae Klebsiella pneumoniae
Especially after Pseudomonas
Antibiotic treatment E. coli C. albicans
Residents in latent state in tissues: (All except M. tuberculosis are present in most humans.)
Lung Pneumocystis jiroveci (Formerly P. carinii) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Lymph nodes, etc. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Sensory neuron/ glands
connected to mucosae
Herpes simplex virus
Epstein-Barr virus

Taxonomy of Respiratory Infections
Upper Respiratory Tract (URT) Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT)
Sinusitis
Rhinitis
Otolaryngitis
Laryngitis
Pharyngitis
Bronchiolitis
Pneumonias:
Bronchitis
o CAPs (Community-Acquired Pneumonia) Acute, Subacute, Chronic
o Nosocomial Usually acute