P. 1
Early Humans

Early Humans

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UNIT 4 EARLY HUMANS

Objectives
After learning this unit, you are expected to be able to: 1. recognize the topic of paragraph; 2. identify past simple tense and use them in sentences.

Pre-reading Activities
Archeology is also spelled archaeology. In that case the prefix is archaeo-. rehistoric means before the in!ention of "riting. #ince there is no "ritten history, ho" do archaeologists and paleoanthropologists learn about prehistoric people$ 1. 2. '. ). *. +. ,. %o "e &no" anything about the "ay prehistoric humans loo&ed and "al&ed$ %o "e &no" anything about their li!es$ (o" ha!e "e learned these things$ (o" did the earliest humans get meat and other food$ %id they raise meat animals such as co"s$ %id they plant seeds and gro" their o"n food$ -hat is the difference bet"een the hands of primates .humans, apes, mon&eys, etc/ and the front feet of animals li&e dogs and cats cannot$

Recogni ing t!e To"ic o# Paragra"! -hen you read a paragraph you should al"ays as& yourself, 0-hat is this about$1 2hat 3uestion "ill lead you to the topic of the paragraph. 2opic is the one thing the paragraph is about. 2he topic is the unifying factor, and e!ery sentence and idea contained in the paragraph related to the topic. 4xample: -hat is this paragraph about$ eople ha!e al"ays been interested in bees. 2his interest may ha!e begun "ith the honey bees ma&e. In fact, archaeologists ha!e found e!idence that people ha!e been eating honey, for many thousands of years. In the more recent past, people "ere interested in the "ay bees made honey. 2hey admired the "ay bees seemed to "or& so hard. #ome languages e!en de!eloped expressions about people "or&ing li&e bees. In 4nglish, for example, "e tal& about a 5busy bee6. 7o" scientists ha!e a ne" reason to be interested in bees. 2hey ha!e disco!ered that bees are able to communicate "ith each other. 8esearch has re!ealed some surprising facts about this, but there are still many mysteries.

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in other "ords. (omo 2 .2he s&eleton "as subse3uently classified as 7eanderthal man.human-li&e creature/ to emerge after Australopithecus "as (omo erectus."hich in 4nglish means 0ape man1/. In 1B2*. is too general. such as tools of stone and bone. people’s interest in bees. Asia. It includes many possible ideas that are not in the paragraph. <oth man-made ob=ects . #ince then. and their faces lac&ed a chin. Australopithecus.. those of the 0southern ape1. eople6s interest in bees Ans"er: 2he best topic is c. a.DD cubic centimeters. 2he first important disco!ery "as that of a s&eleton in the 7eander ?alley of @ermany in 1A*+. 2heir brain size "as about ))D to . li&e Australopithecus. no chin. :hoice b.0southern ape1/ "as disco!ered in #outh Africa. 7o" it is regarded as one example of a "idely distributed human ancestor &no"n as (omo 4rectus . :hoice a. is too specific.*D to ADD. . 4xpressions about bees in the 4nglish language b. 2here seem to ha!e been at least t"o and possibly more species of Australopithecus F a slightly-built type that "as ancestral to our o"n species and a more hea!ily-built type that "as an e!olutionary dead end. there ha!e been many other finds of 7eanderthal remains in 4urope. "e ha!e learned much about humanity6s origins and e!olution. 2hese Australopithecus li!ed from one million to six million years ago. 2his type "as at first called Ca!a man or ithecanthropus . #ince that time. 2he story of bees c.9a&e a chec& after the best topic. they do tell us about their "ay of life.!er the last hundred years or so. 2here is no "ay of &no"ing the brain size of 8amapithecus or "hether it "al&ed erect.artifacts/. a number of similar remains ha!e been disco!ered in !arious places in Africa. remains of an ob!iously more primiti!e type "ere disco!ered in Ca!a. In 1AB1. 2hey are said to represent a type called 8amapithecus that li!ed some nine million to fourteen million years ago. a still more primiti!e type called Australopithecus . -rite 0too specific1 or 0too general1 after the other topics.ne 3uart is about B)+ cc/ 2hey "al&ed on t"o feet li&e modern humans. 2here is a long gap of time before the next human remains appears. and Africa.0upright man1/. #&eletal remains of human ancestors are not plentiful: "e "ould be in a much better position to trace our e!olution if "e "ere horses instead of human beings> 2ools and other remains are more common. It tells best the paragraph is about. Reading Se$ection Ear$% H&'ans . and s&eletal remains ha!e contributed to this &no"ledge. -hile they do not tell us ho" these early humans loo&ed. 2he a!erage brain size of (omo rectus "as about 11DD cc and could be as lo" as .Eootprints almost four million years old ha!e been found in Africa./ 2heir arms "ere longer for their height than those of modern humans. this idea is only a part of paragraph. 2he next hominid . . 2he earliest remains that ha!e been classified by biologists as being in the same family as human beings are in a fe" teeth and =a" fragments from Africa and India. (omo erectus had hea!y ridges abo!e the eyes and. they "ere bipedal.

DDD years ago. 2here "as a change in the type of stone tools used.0"ise. 0the "ords 0this &no"ledge1 refer to a. it had essentially the brain capacity of modern man. 2he 7eanderthals "ere replaced by our o"n subspecies (omo sapiens sapiens . li&e that of their predecessors.or b% circ$ing t!e $etter o# t!e correct ans)er+ 1. humanity6s origins and e!olution ' . 2he 7eolithic or 7e" #tone Age came into existence in the 9ideast about 1D.nly dogs had been domesticated before this time as they "ere useful in hunting. Although slightly different in appearance from modern humans . but the most important changes "ere the introduction of the agriculture and the domestication of animals.' million years and as recently as 'DD.DDD years ago. After (omo erectus. 2his !ery long period of hunter-gatherer toolusing humans is referred to as the aleolithic or . -hat is the topic of paragraph 2$ 2. In this sentence 0<oth man-made ob=ectsHand s&eletal remains ha!e contributed to this &no"ledge. As humans began to use tools. .24: 9ost biologists no longer belie!e that 8amapithecus "as in the human family. the next of our ancestors "as a subspecies of humans called (omo #apiens 7eanderthalis. "as based on hunting and gathering-animals "ere hunted and "ild plants "ere gathered. (&estions Ans)er t!e #o$$o)ing *&estions+ 1. 7eanderthal remains ha!e been found dating from 2*D. 2his mista&en idea "as based on a s&eleton of a 7eanderthal "ho had been crippled "ith arthritis. their "ay of life. to a lesser extent. modern humanity emerged.DDD years ago.7eanderthals had the lac& of chin and. not stooped o!er. It "as originally thought that 7eanderthals "al&ed stooped o!er. -hen. -hat is the topic of the last paragraph$ Ans)er t!e #o$$o)ing *&estions b% circ$ing eit!er Tr&e or . "ise man1/-modern man./ -ith agriculture came settled communities and e!entually the !arious things that "e associate "ith ci!ilization. or 7eanderthal man. the pronounced bro" ridges of (omo erectus/. intelligence became an important sur!i!al trait-more intelligent humans could ma&e better use of tools. 2hese hands already had the primate adaptation for grasping as primates originally li!ed in trees and could grasps branches.. such as the <ushmen of the Galahari desert in #outh Africa. some )D. the increase in brain size has been a steady and gradual one from Australopithecus to modern man.DDD to 12. A small number of humans still ali!e today li!e in this fashion. 2he upright posture came up early. 2he most t"o significant changes that characterized the e!olution of humans from an ape-li&e ancestor "ere the adoption of an upright posture and the de!elopment of a larger brain.ld #tone Age. (omo sapiens sapiens.erectus-type remains ha!e been found dating to as long ago as 1. 2he upright posture freed man6s hands for tool using.a$se .DDD to )D. Anthropologists no" say that 7eanderthal man "al&ed upright.DDD to 'D.DDD years ago. 7.

#&eletal remains.a$se Tr&e or . #entence b uses the same "ord "ith the same meaning. Tr&e or .a$se 2here are more remains of early humans6 tools and other artifacts than remains of early human s&eletons.b. ). a fe" teeth and =a" fragments b. 8emember-sentence a of each pair of sentences is from the reading. human beings c.than s&eletal remains/. 11.a$se Tr&e or .a$se Australopithecus appeared shortly after 8amapithecus. ) . Tr&e or .1 02hey1 refers to a. "hat "e ha!e learned about humanity6s origins and e!olution.a$se Tr&e or . but t"enty years ago computers "ere not so IIIIIII .riginally. Tr&e or .ocab&$ar% Eill in the blan& spaces "ith the correct "ord.a$se . 7eanderthals "al&ed stooped o!er. in the sentence that begins 02hey are said to represent a type H. 9any people o"n personal computers no".nly a fe" people had them. b. +. Tr&e or . If necessary.a$se 7eanderthal man "as probably named 7eanderthalbecause the first remains "ere found in the 7eander ?alley. Tr&e or . B. 9odern day humans are (omo sapiens.. '.a$se <iologists cannot decide if remains are in the human family unless they ha!e a complete s&eleton. . c. In paragraph '. 2. 2here are no hunter-gatherer people today. erect /adj+0 e1tent $ac2 regarded vario&s 2ools and other such remains are more IIIIIII . -hat does bipedal mean$ A. loo& bac& at the reading to help you. ada"tation a""earance co''on do'esticated e'erge 1a. (unter-gatherer planted seeds to gro" their food. 1D. biologists *. .

1Da. "e can fry them. Ba.7eanderthal had the lac& of chin and . )a. Eill in the blan&s "ith the correct "ord from the list belo": ada"tation co''on e'erged e1tent vario&s 1. I IIIIIII enough money to buy the boo&. (e spends all of his free time "or&ing in his garden. I "anted to buy a boo& yesterday. b.2a. Eor instance. it had essentially the brain capacity of modern man. b. eople used to thin& that 7eanderthal man "al&ed stooped o!er. Although slightly different in IIIIIII from modern humans. 2heir arms "ere longer for their height than those of modern humans. and more precise shapes and colors began to IIIIIIII . * b. and their faces IIIIIII a chin. b. scramble them. I li&e to do different things in my free time. It cost J1A. 2here are IIIIIII &inds of lettuce. At first "e could not see the !ie" clearly. %ogs and cats are IIIIIII animals. A characteristic that a plant or animal de!elops so that it can sur!i!e better in its en!ironment is called an IIIIIIII to that en!ironment. Kions and tigers are not. eople no" belie!e that 7eanderthal man "al&ed upright.DD. . . 2here are IIIIIII "ays to coo& eggs. 9y fa!orite !ariety of lettuce is bibb. 2hey cannot stand IIIIIII and "al& on t"o feet. 'a.nly dogs had been IIIIIII before this time as they "ere useful for hunting. but not to the IIIIIIII that he does. 2hey are identical in IIIIIII Aa. . 2. 2here is no "ay of &no"ing the brain size of 8amapithecus or "hether he "al&ed IIIIIII. b. b. but I could not. 9ost animals "al& on four feet.a. a number of similar remains ha!e been disco!ered in IIIIIII places in Africa. 2his IIIIIII enabled them to use their hands for other things. our human ancestors began to "al& on t"o feet instead of four feet. such as using tools. #ince then. 9y neighbor really li&es to garden. 2he next hominid to IIIIIII after Australopithecus "as (omo erectus. but that idea is no" IIIIIII as incorrect. 7o" it is IIIIIII as one example of a "idely distributed human ancestor &no"n as (omo erectus. 2hese hands already had the primate IIIIIIIfor grasping as primates originally li!ed in trees and could grasp branches.B* and I had only J1*. to a lesser IIIIIII the pronounced bro" ridges of (omo erectus/ b. *a. but then the sun began to rise. b. I li&e to garden too. +a. 9illions of years ago. b. or boil them. #ome t"ins loo& exactly the same.

and most of the plants in my garden "ere damaged. Eor !erbs that end in –y. e. Cohn did not realize his goal of graduating from the uni!ersity in Cune because he IIIIIIII three courses for his degree.g. change –y to –ied.oc&s Past Si'"$e Tense Use -e use the ast #imple 2ense to tal& about finished actions and past situations. *. . %id you go to school yesterday$ IPLouP(eP#hePItP-eP2hey IPLouP(eP#hePItP-eP2hey $ived in aris. B. .or' 8egular !erbs: in the ast #imple 2ense.'. 3ra''ar . sa) a ghost. 2"o brothers or t"o sisters sometimes loo& !ery much li&e each other but not to the IIIIIIII that identical t"ins do. 1D. (o"e!er. A fe" people ha!e IIIIIII "ol!es and &ept them as pets. + . In 3uestions and negati!e sentences "e use did or didn’t O the infiniti!e "ithout to. Lou should dress neatly "hen you ha!e a =ob inter!ie" because your IIIIIII is important.nly a fe" plants "ere still IIIIIII and undamaged.g. 2he older generation usually IIIIIII the music of the younger generation as =un&. <ut later the sun IIIIIIII from behind the clouds. (e died in Erance in 1*1B. and the afternoon "as "armer than the morning. I didn6t see her. "e add –ed to the infiniti!e. b. A. a large number of people ride bicycles to "or& instead of dri!ing cars. Kast year I "or&ed on a farm during the holidays. carry MN carried. . e. #ome plants "ere bending o!er. In the morning. the "eather "as !ery cool because it "as cloudy. and many of them "ere lying on the ground. didn4t5did not li!e in aris. Identical t"ins loo& exactly ali&e. 4xample: a. %o the same "ith the follo"ing: a""earance do'esticated erect $ac2ed regards +. ). <icycles are not as IIIIIII as cars in American cities. this is not true of American cities. 2here "as a !iolent rain storm last night. In many 4uropean cities..

A/ IIIIIIII .2/ IIIIIIIII .the peoplePbe/ friendly$ -e . radium and polonium. afraid.*/ III . II+ P&t t!e verbs in t!e correct #or' o# t!e Past Si'"$e Tense. %id IPyouPhePshePitP"ePthey li!e in aris$ LesPno. .12/ III .disco!er/ t"o radioacti!e elements.)/ III . in 1BD' and 1B11.'/ IIIIIII . Irene and 4"a.the "eatherPbe/ .die/ in 1B')."or&/ as a scientist at the #orbonne in aris.lo!e/ 7e" Lor& but I ..1D/ IIIIIIII .meet/ and .see/ sho"s on <road"ay e!ery night and .B/ IIIIIIII .go/ to 7e" Lor& for t"o "ee&s.A/ III . #he .get/ t"o 7obel rizes. Read t!e stor% and "&t t!e verbs in t!e Past Si'"$e Tense. Alex .'/ III . .11/ III .1D/ III .11/ IIIIIIII . #he . afraid.)/ IIII . #he .notPli&e/ the hot "eather.*/ IIIIII . %ear :arol. afraid$ tired$ afraid$ tired$ IP(eP#hePIt LouP-eP2hey -as -ere "asP"asn6t "ereP"eren6t IPhePshePit youP"ePthey E1ercises I.+/ III . -e .eat/ really big pizzas> -e .. Lou can refer to unit 1 for "riting a summary.1/ %id you ha!e .be/ a physicist and chemist.2/ IIII .youPha!e/ a good time in #cotland$ . she . 9aria #&lodo"s&a-:urie .notPgo/ up the #tatue of Kiberty.G$ .B/ III .ta&e/ a boat trip to Kiberty Island but "e . tired. 9aria and ierre . . 2hey . ierre .study/ there and later . tired.see a ghost.marry/ a Erench scientist.notP"ant/ to come bac& to 4ngland> 6riting Practice #ummarize the reading selection in approximately 2DD "ords. 9aria ./ IIIIIIII .die/ in 1BD+ in an accident in aris.ha!e/ t"o children. IPyouPhePshePitP"ePthey didPdidn6t.lea!e/ for Erance. I .+/ IIIIIII ./ III. ierre :urie.begin/ her studies in oland but in 1AB1 she .1/ III .

2he topic of a paragraph tells you the thing "hich is being tal&ed about in one paragraph.co S&''ar% 1. ast simple is thend 2form of a !erb used to indicate e!ents occurred in the past. . 2. ma&e a descripti!e paragraph.about.com 9ore practice on past simple tense can be obtained from: Achie!ed 9ore practice needed A .cuesta. Re#$ection In this unit. ut a chec& on the column based on your o"n self-assessment. and identify past simple and use them in sentences.myenglishpage.b=ecti!es 2o recognize a topic of paragraph 2o identify past simple and to use it in sentences Eor more practice on recognizing the topic of paragraphs you can access the follo"ing site: academic.""".edu testprep. you ha!e learned ho" to identify the topic of a paragraph.

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