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Lewis: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition

Study and Exam-Taking Tips Assess Your Study Skills Set Goals Organize Tasks Create a Schedule Use Your Resources Create Flash Cards Master the Textbook Take !!ecti"e #otes $uring Class Re"ie% Your #otes A!ter Class &re'are !or xa(s Ti's !or Taking an xa( SSESS !"#$ ST#%! S&'LLS This )uick checklist is intended to hel' you assess your study habits* Read each state(ent and consider ho% it a''lies to you* +! the state(ent a''lies, check Yes* +! it does not a''ly, check #o* -* Y # + don.t see( to ha"e ti(e to study and en/oy social acti"ities* +t !eels like + ha"e to do one or the other* 0* Y # + tend to 'ut o!! 'ro/ects and 'a'ers until the last (inute* 1* Y # + go to (y classes, but + either doodle or daydrea(* So(eti(es + ha"e trouble staying a%ake* 2* Y # + take notes during lectures but later ha"e di!!iculty understanding the(* 3* Y # + don.t kno% %hat is the i('ortant content in lectures or in the textbook* There is too (uch in!or(ation to learn* 4* Y # + can.t stay on to' o! (y reading assign(ents, so + end u' cra((ing all the reading in right be!ore the test* 5* Y # A!ter reading a cha'ter, + a( unable to re(e(ber and recall (ost o! %hat + /ust read* 6* Y # + usually study %ith the radio or the tele"ision turned on* 7* Y # + ty'ically s'end hours cra((ing the night be!ore an exa(* -8* Y # Although + study !or the exa(s, (y (ind goes blank %hen + go to take the test* +! you ha"e ans%ered Yes to three or (ore o! the )uestions abo"e, you really need to continue on %ith reading ho% you can i('ro"e your study and exa(9taking ti's* +! you ans%ered Yes to t%o or !e%er o! the abo"e state(ents, you (ay not need all the study ti's, but you can bene!it !ro( the ti's 'ro"ided in the areas that you (ay be interested in* SET (" LS :egin by setting goals* Make sure they are realistic* A goal o! scoring -88; on all exa(s is not realistic, but scoring an 63; (ay be a better goal*

Mosby ite(s and deri"ed ite(s < 08--, 0885 by Mosby, +nc*, an a!!iliate o! lse"ier +nc*

Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

Goals should set out exactly %hat you %ant to acco('lish* $o not si('ly say, =+ %ill study !or the exa(*> S'eci!y ho% (any hours, %hat day and ti(e, and %hat (aterial you %ill co"er* Create a s'eci!ic ti(e li(it on co('leting each ste' and a ti(e li(it !or acco('lishing the o"erall goal* State the goal and each ste' in the 'lan in a (easurable %ay that %ill allo% you to assess your 'rogress* An exa('le o! a good goal state(ent? =+ %ill s'end 0 hours 'er day, !ro( 0?88 to 2?88 &M, !or the next 5 days studying !or the exa( co"ering cha'ters -97 in order to recei"e a score o! at least 63;*>

"$( N')E T S&S $i"ide all the tasks that need to be done into three categories* These include things that you? o Have-to-do? These are things that %ill bring about serious conse)uences i! not done, such as going to class, going to %ork, eating, and getting ade)uate rest* o Should do? These are things that are necessary but easy to 'ut o!!, such as studying, cleaning the house, and 'aying bills* These tasks are o!ten o"erlooked, and these are the /obs !or %hich ti(e (anage(ent is (ost essential* o Want-to-do? These are !un things that 'ro"ide 'leasure and esca'e !ro( the routine o! class, %ork, and study* Realize that so(e recreational ti(e is essential !or e!!ecti"e ti(e (anage(ent* These things can o!ten be used as incenti"es !or co('leting %hat should be done* Once your tasks are organized, you can create a schedule to acco('lish your goals and get e"erything done* *$E TE S*+E%#LE Create t%o di!!erent schedules@%eekly and (aster schedules* :oth schedules should be (ade by creating a table %ith se"en colu(ns !or the days o! the %eek and one ro% !or each hour o! the day that you are a%ake*

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Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

Sunday 6:00 AM 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 9:00 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12:00 PM 1:00 PM 2:00 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 7:00 PM 8:00 PM 9:00 PM 10:00 PM 11:00 PM 12:00 AM 1:00 AM

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

The (aster schedule should contain all those things that are consistent !ro( %eek to %eek, such as class schedules, %ork schedules, eating, and exercising* These acti"ities should be taken !ro( your =ha"e9to9do> list and should be recurring acti"ities that cannot be done at any other ti(e* Once the (aster schedule is (ade, there %ill be ga's that are not !illed %ith regular acti"ities* Unlike the (aster schedule, the %eekly schedule %ill change !ro( one %eek to another* Using the (aster as a basis, !ill in the unused ti(es %ith =should9do> and =%ant9to9do> tasks* This schedule %ill be (ore co('lex than the (aster schedule* +t is intended to hel' you 'lan !or study, recreation, !a(ily ti(e, and other acti"ities that you %ant to !it into a ty'ical %eek* Ahen !illing in the schedule, the !irst blocks o! ti(e you assign should be the (ost i('ortant ones to a student@study time* Ahen assigning study ti(e, 'lan 0 hours o! study ti(e !or e"ery - hour s'ent in class* Also, consider %hen you are at your best personal prime time* Are you a night o%l %ho %ill learn (ore at the end o! the day or do you %ake u' early, ready to take in ne% in!or(ationB Schedule your study ti(e %hen you are at your best* :e 'atient and e"aluate %hat %orks !or you* +t usually takes 0 or 1 atte('ts o"er a 'eriod o! 1 %eeks to arri"e at a detailed schedule that %orks !or you* S(all blocks o! ti(e are o!ten %asted or lost* +! you can learn to use these s(all blocks e!!ecti"ely, you can !ree u' larger blocks !or other tasks* +! your class ends -8 (inutes early or i! you are %aiting !or the bus, use this ti(e to study* Take

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Study and xa(9Taking Ti's ad"antage o! these ti(es to re"ie% "ocabulary ter(s, re%ork a set o! class notes, or 're"ie% the next !i"e 'ages o! assigned reading*

#SE !"#$ $ES"#$*ES Your instructor is one o! your best resources* Your instructor %ants to hear your )uestions because that (eans that you are interested in learning and acti"ely engaged %ith the (aterial o! your class discussions or lectures* Ask )uestions about %hat %ill be co"ered on a test and the ty'e o! )uestions you can ex'ect* O!!ice hours are designed !or %hen your instructor is a"ailable to you* You also ha"e a great resource in your class(ates* Ae all ha"e di!!erent learning styles, strengths, and 'ers'ecti"es on the (aterial* &artici'ating in a study grou' can be a "aluable addition to your nursing school ex'erience* Ahen !or(ing a study grou', care!ully select (e(bers !or your grou'* Choose students %ho ha"e abilities and (oti"ation si(ilar to your o%n* Cook !or students %ho ha"e a di!!erent learning style than you* xchange na(es, e(ail addresses, and 'hone nu(bers* &lan a schedule !or %hen and ho% o!ten you %ill (eet* &lan an agenda !or each (eeting* You (ay exchange lecture notes and discuss content !or clarity or )uiz one another on the (aterial* You could also create your o%n 'ractice tests or (ake !lash cards that re"ie% key "ocabulary ter(s* *$E TE ,L S+ * $%S &ick a size o! note cards that is con"enient to carry %ith you and acco((odates your hand%riting style* Flash cards are the best thing to study on the run, so (ake sure that they are co(!ortable to bring %ith you e"ery%here* Create !lash cards !or each o! the bolded and italicized %ords in the cha'ter* Most de!initions can be !ound in the glossary in the back o! book, and (ore de!initions are in the glossary !ound on the %ebsite* $e!initions can also be deter(ined !ro( %ithin the cha'ter* Ahen re"ie%ing your !lash cards, i! you do not kno% the exact de!inition, do not auto(atically assu(e you cannot !igure it out* $ra% u'on 're"ious kno%ledge to try to !igure it out* Try to break the %ord into 'arts that you do recognize, such as (eningitis, %hich can be broken into (ening9 and 9itis* +! you recognize (eninges and you kno% that the su!!ix 9itis (eans in!la((ation, then you can deduct that (eningitis (ean in!la((ation o! the (eninges* M STE$ T+E TE-T.""& Si('ly reading a textbook can be boring and (ake the in!or(ation hard to retain* :e!ore you begin to read a cha'ter, !irst /ust si('ly look through it* #otice the (a/or conce'ts that %ill be discussed* Cook at %ords in bold and ter(s that are used !or headers* :e sure to look at the !igures and tables* O!ten, !igures and tables are used to ex'and on an i('ortant idea*

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Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

Making notations in the text can hel' you concentrate and (ake !uture re"ie% (ore 'roducti"e* #otations can be (ade by highlighting or underlining, %riting in the (argin, and taking %ritten notes !ro( the text* All o! these ha"e ad"antages and disad"antages* #o single one %ill %ork all the ti(e* :e!ore you begin (aking notations, read the (aterial !irst %ithout (aking notes* +! you (ark things the !irst ti(e you read the(, e"erything %ill see( i('ortant and you %ill !ind yoursel! (aking too (any notations or highlights*

Making Notations Ahen you begin to (ake notations, be selecti"e* &ick out the i('ortant ideas !or i((ediate learning and !or !uture re"ie%* As you read, be a%are o! the heading outline !or(at used throughout the text* This heading !or(at is intended to hel' the reader understand the organization o! the text* +t indicates the relationshi' or subordination o! content %ithin the text* Cook at the headings in the cha'ter* So(e are in green in all ca'ital letters* These are the (ain headers !or the broad conce'ts o! the cha'ter* Others are in blue %ith only the !irst letters ca'italized* These are the subsets o! those (a/or conce'ts in green* Deaders that are red are the subsets o! the ter(s in blue* There is also a subset %ithin the red headers and those are black %ith only the !irst letters ca'italized*

Also, 'ay attention to %ords in bold and italics* Those %ords are i('ortant, so they need extra attention 'aid to the(* :e a%are o! the %ord selections (ade by the %riters* +! you see 'hrases such as most important, the four main categories, or most significant, then these should be cues that the !ollo%ing in!or(ation is a critical conce't or idea*

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Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

$e/iewing A!ter you ha"e read the cha'ter and (ade your notations, re"ie% the highlights and notes you created* +deally the re"ie% should begin %ithin - to 0 days a!ter you !irst read the cha'ter* &sychologists ha"e !ound that %e !orget a''roxi(ately 38; o! %hat %e learn in the !irst 02 hours a!ter %e learn it* There!ore the sooner you re"ie%, the easier it is to (o"e learning !ro( short9ter( (e(ory to long9ter( (e(ory* Ahen re"ie%ing, (ake it acti"e learning* Eust as reading a textbook %ithout (aking notations is dull, si('ly reading the notations %ill not hel' you learn* For exa('le, i! you ha"e highlighted a ter(, co"er u' the de!inition and try to de!ine the ter( !ro( (e(ory* +! you cannot de!ine the ter(, then read the de!inition* Also (ake use o! the #CC F re"ie% )uestions at the end o! the cha'ter* These are designed to hel' rein!orce key conce'ts %ithin the cha'ter* The sa(e is true o! the learning ob/ecti"e at the beginning o! the cha'ter* Case studies %ill also hel' you learn to a''ly the ideas taught %ithin the cha'ter* Use these toolsG The re"ie% )uestions and case studies are in the book to hel' you highlight the i('ortant 'arts o! the cha'ter* Re"ie% your text notations o!ten* +! the re"ie%s do not go %ell and you ha"e a hard ti(e re(e(bering ans%ers and conce'ts, re"ie% again the next day* +! the re"ie% goes %ell, then you can 'robably %ait 0 to 1 days be!ore re"ie%ing it again* T &E E,,E*T'0E N"TES %#$'N( *L SS !!ecti"e note taking begins be!ore class* Read the assigned (aterials ahead o! ti(e so you can get the background needed to listen intelligently and be selecti"e about %hat is %orth %riting do%n* +! you %ill be taking notes on a co('uter, (ake sure that the battery is charged or sit near an outlet* :e sure to attend class regularly* Once you (iss, it beco(es easier to (iss again* This is a bad habit to get into* Taking Notes +! you decide to use a co('uter !or note taking, be sure to kee' a back9u' co'y o! your notes in se"eral 'laces in case the co('uter breaks do%n, is stolen, or is lost* You %ill likely still %ant to 'rint your notes to study !ro(* Reading !ro( a co('uter screen is (ore unco(!ortable and stress!ul than reading !ro( 'a'er* +t.s easier to highlight and (akes notes in the (argin on a 'rinted co'y* +! %riting your notes on 'a'er, %rite your class notes only on one side o! the 'a'er* Use the back o! the 'age !or )uestions, study notes, re"ie% )uestions, su((aries o! the class, or general thoughts about the content* Ahen taking notes, acti"ely listen to %hat is being said* $o not get caught u' in %riting do%n each and e"ery %ord* Focus on the (ost i('ortant ideas, ter(s, and

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Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

!acts* A good rule is to write less and listen more during lectures* You can al%ays %rite in key conce'ts and then lea"e s'ace to !ill in %ith details later !ro( other resources* Cisten !or cues !ro( the instructor that (ay hel' identi!y %hat is i('ortant* This %ill "ary !ro( lecturer to lecturer, but so(e clues (ight include sequence words H!irst, second, next, then, last, !inallyI, contrast words Hbut, ho%e"er, on the other handI, and importance words Hsigni!icant, key, (ain, (ost i('ortantI* +n addition, be a%are o! the instructor.s "olu(e, tone, and 'ace o! deli"ery* So(e instructors (ay slo% do%n, get louder, or re'eat ideas that are i('ortant* Arite your notes in your o%n %ords* Ariting in your o%n style %ill (ake the( easier to understand and re(e(ber* $o not doodle because it distracts* Jee' eye contact %hen not %riting* &ut stars or check (arks next to ideas that the instructor stresses so you %ill re(e(ber to study this in!or(ation %hen 're'aring !or the test* :e a%are o! the "isual 'resentation* &o%er&oint 'resentations %ill o!ten highlight the basic ideas and conce'ts that the instructor !eels are i('ortant* +! he or she thought it %as %orth ty'ing into the 'resentation, it is 'robably %orth 'utting on a test* Cisten !or re'etition o! certain 'oints* For exa('le, i! the lecturer introduces a ne% ter(, de!ines it, gi"es so(e exa('les to clari!y the de!inition, and then rede!ines the ter(, then this is a signal that it is i('ortant to learn this in!or(ation* :e alert to )uestions 'osed by the lecturer* These are also clues as to %hat the instructor thinks is i('ortant* Cisten es'ecially at the end o! the lecture* +! the instructor has not 'aced %ell, he or she (ay cra( hal! o! the content into the last -8 to -3 (inutes*

$eworking Notes Your notes should be re%orked %ithin 02 hours and, !or the (ost bene!it, should be done the sa(e day as the lecture* $uring re%orking, !ill in any (issing 'oints, underline or highlight i('ortant 'oints, and su((arize the (ain 'oints o! the lecture* Creating a "ocabulary list is also a good idea* This list %ill (ake it easier to )uiz yoursel! later and to (ake !lash cards* So(e 'eo'le (ay !ind it hel'!ul to co('letely re%rite their notes into a (ore organized, legible !ashion* So(e (ay %ish to ty'e their hand%ritten notes* Others (ay si('ly (ark on their original sheet* $E0'E1 !"#$ N"TES ,TE$ *L SS Re"ie% your notes !re)uently* +t is better to re"ie% a s(all a(ount o! in!or(ation o!ten than to re"ie% a large a(ount o! in!or(ation once, es'ecially right be!ore an exa( %hen it is hard to re(e(ber %hat e"erything (eans that you %rote do%n* The !irst re"ie% o! your notes should take 'lace %ithin 0 days o! the class or lecture* $o not %ait (ore than 0 days* Re(e(ber, 'sychologists ha"e !ound that
Mosby ite(s and deri"ed ite(s < 08--, 0885 by Mosby, +nc*, an a!!iliate o! lse"ier +nc*

Study and xa(9Taking Ti's %e !orget 38; o! %hat %e learn %ithin the !irst 02 hours o! learning it* Ahen the second, third, or successi"e re"ie%s occur %ill "ary de'ending on the success o! the 're"ious re"ie%* This is si(ilar to the 'rocess used !or the textbook re"ie%* Re"ie% each day until you re(e(ber and understand 68; or (ore o! the (aterial* A!ter that 'oint, continue to re"ie% e"ery 1 to 2 days* Si(ilar to re"ie%ing the textbook, acti"ely re"ie% your lecture notes* $on.t si('ly read the in!or(ation* Turn headings into )uestions to )uiz yoursel!* Say these )uestions aloud* Fra(ing )uestions orally is %hat (akes this re"ie% acti"e* Ask and ans%er )uestions in your o%n %ords* Recall is strongly enhanced %hen you ex'ress in!or(ation in your o%n ter(s* The best %ay to 're'are !or a test is to take a test* :y using this )uestion9ans%er !or(at, you are creating and taking your o%n test* You (ay disco"er that so(e o! your )uestions (ay a''ear on the next exa(* +n addition to asking )uestions, de!ine the "ocabulary 'resented in the class* +! you ha"e not (ade !lash cards, this is a good ti(e to do so* Flash cards (ake it easy to learn ne% ter(s, e"en on the go*

2$E2 $E ,"$ E- MS Anxiety leading to an exa( is nor(al* Reduce your stress by studying o!ten, not long* S'end at least -3 (inutes e"ery day re"ie%ing the =old> (aterial* This action alone %ill greatly reduce anxiety* The (ore ti(e you de"ote to re"ie%ing 'ast (aterial, the (ore con!ident you %ill !eel about your kno%ledge o! the to'ics* Start this re"ie% 'rocess on the !irst day o! the se(ester* $on.t %ait until the (iddle to end o! the se(ester to try to cra( in!or(ation* Ask your instructor about the exa(* +! he or she says the test %ill co"er (ostly lecture (aterial, s'end (ore ti(e re"ie%ing your class notes* Ask about the ty'es o! )uestions on the exa(* Jno%ing the ty'es o! )uestions %ill hel' you de"elo' a strategy !or )uizzing yoursel!* Aork %ith a study grou' to create 'ractice tests* Re"ie% the learning ob/ecti"es at the beginning o! each cha'ter, then ans%er the #CC F re"ie% )uestions at the end o! the cha'ter and the )uestions related to the case studies at the end o! the cha'ters* Use the Study Guide that acco('anies the textbook !or !urther re"ie%* On the Co('anion C$ that ca(e %ith the textbook are (ore case studies and related )uestions and (ore #CC F re"ie% )uestions* A!ter you ha"e ans%ered all o! the )uestions, you %ill ha"e a better idea o! the areas %here you need to study (ore* Study and 're'are during your 'ersonal 'ri(e ti(e as %as discussed earlier* Study at the ti(e o! day %hen you are (ost alert and able to !ocus the best* Get a good night.s slee' be!ore the exa(* Staying u' all night to study be!ore an exa( rarely hel's anyone* +t usually inter!eres %ith the ability to concentrate* at break!ast or lunch be!ore the exa(* A"oid greasy, hea"y !oods and o"ereating* This %ill hel' kee' you cal( and gi"e you energy* T'2S ,"$ T &'N( N E- M :e!ore the exa(, allo% enough ti(e to get to the roo( %ithout hurrying*

Mosby ite(s and deri"ed ite(s < 08--, 0885 by Mosby, +nc*, an a!!iliate o! lse"ier +nc*

Study and xa(9Taking Ti's

First, look o"er the entire test* $o not read it@/ust !li' through to see %hat ty'es o! )uestions and ho% (any )uestions are on it* $e"elo' a general 'lan !or taking the exa(* +! the test has 48 )uestions and you ha"e an hour to take it, then you kno% you should ans%er one )uestion 'er (inute* Allo% (ore ti(e !or essay or short9ans%er )uestions* #ext, read the directions* For exa('le, so(e true9or9!alse )uestions (ay ask you to correct the state(ent to (ake it true or others (ay ask you to /usti!y your ans%er* +! you /ust ans%er true or !alse, then you ha"e lost i('ortant 'oints because you didn.t read the directions* Finally, start taking the exa(* &ace yoursel!* Read the entire )uestion and all ans%er choices be!ore ans%ering the )uestion* $o not assu(e that you kno% %hat the )uestion is asking %ithout reading it entirely* Start %ith ans%ering all the )uestions that you !eel con!ident in ans%ering* +! you cannot i((ediately think o! the ans%er to a )uestion, gi"e it a !e% seconds o! thought* +! the ans%er co(es to you, (ark it and (o"e on* +! not, ski' it, circle the nu(ber so you kno% to co(e back to it, and go to the next )uestion* +! you are taking an exa( %ith boxes on an ans%er sheet that %ill be read electronically, be sure to ski' the nu(bers on the ans%er sheet !or those )uestions that you ski''ed* So(e students !ind it hel'!ul to circle the nu(ber o! the )uestions ski''ed on both the test !or( and the ans%er sheet to ensure that their nu(bering on the ans%er sheet corres'onds %ith the nu(bering o! the )uestions* #otice ho% the sub/ects o! the )uestions are related and, through that relationshi', the ans%ers to so(e o! the )uestions you ski''ed (ay be 'ro"ided %ithin other )uestions o! the test* +! you ha"e trouble %ith test anxiety, the Stress-.usting &it 3or Nursing Students on the Co('anion C$ that acco('anies this textbook can hel' you learn techni)ues to re(ain cal( and !ocused* A!ter you ha"e ans%ered all the )uestions you !eel con!ident about, go back and ans%er the )uestions that you ski''ed* Check ho% (uch ti(e is le!t so you kno% ho% (uch ti(e you ha"e to !igure out the ans%ers* +! you are still unable to think o! the ans%er to a (ulti'le choice )uestion, (ark a line through the ans%ers that you are sure are incorrect and then (ake an educated guess !ro( the re(aining ans%ers* Ans%er e"ery )uestion* A )uestion %ithout an ans%er is al%ays a %rong ans%er, so go ahead and guess* Ahen you ha"e ans%ered all the )uestions, look back o"er your ans%er sheet to ensure that you ha"e not ski''ed any )uestions and that the nu(bering on the ans%er sheet corres'onds %ith the nu(bering o! the )uestions* Make sure that all your erasures on the electronic ans%er sheet are thoroughly erased* Turn in your test and celebrate your success*

Screen :eans Art < A :it :etter Cor'*

Mosby ite(s and deri"ed ite(s < 08--, 0885 by Mosby, +nc*, an a!!iliate o! lse"ier +nc*