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Typhoid Immunization Typhoid is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi.

There are two vaccines that are used in the prevention of typhoid. One vaccine contains inactivated (killed) Salmonella typhi that is administered via a shot. The other vaccine contains a live but attenuated strain of the Salmonella typhi bacteria. This vaccine is taken orally. Immunization against typhoid is not routinely done in the United States (CDC, 2012). However, typhoid vaccination is recommended for the following individuals who are at risk: Persons who travel to areas where there is recognized risk of exposure to Salmonella typhi Persons in contact with a known Salmonella typhi carrier Laboratory workers who work with Salmonella typhi bacteria

The inactivated typhoid vaccine is administered in one (1) dose which provides protection. Travelers should have this done at least two (2) weeks before the trip so as to provide sufficient time for the vaccine to work. Persons who remain at risk are advised to get a booster dose every two (2) years. On the other hand, the live typhoid vaccine is given in four doses; one (1) every other day. Persons who plan to travel should have the last dose at least one (1) week before the trip. Persons who remain at risk are recommended to get a booster dose once every five (5) years (CDC, 2012). It is not recommended to administer the inactivated typhoid vaccine to children younger than two (2) years of age and the live typhoid vaccine to children younger than six (6) years of age. In addition, persons who are moderately to severely ill must be allowed to recover before the vaccine is administered. On the other hand, it is not recommended to administer the live typhoid vaccine to anyone whose immune system is compromised, for example, by HIV/AIDS, cancer, receiving cancer treatment etc. These individuals should get the inactivated typhoid vaccine instead. Further, it is recommended that the live typhoid vaccine be administered at least three (3) days after the use of antibiotics. With both the inactivated and live typhoid vaccinations, it is not recommended to administer the vaccines to persons who reacted severely to a prior dose or to persons who are allergic to any components of the vaccines (CDC, 2012).

Centre for Disease and Control Prevention (2012), Typhoid VIS. Retrieved July 7, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statemnents/typhoid.html