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KM-08/1 1

8
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/ /7 /
7 /
/
(Herbicide, Wudicides Wad Killer) // /
7 ( 7)
/ /
// 7
1.
7
/ 7 (Ross
and lenbi 1985)
1.1 2
(1.1.1) (Selective herbicides) /

(1.1.2) (Nonselective herbicides) /

1.2 /7
(Preemergence) //7
( Post emergence )
1.3 //7
1 / (Residual herbicides) / 1 2
/ (Long residual herbicides) / 7 /
///7
1.4

(Perplgw) 7 (Per
plant) (Preemergemce) /
/ 7 2 /

KM-08/1 2

() 7
/ (Cracking) // /
7 (At emergmee) (Post emergence)
/ ( ) (Late post
emergence) /
(Directed post emergence)
/ / (lay
by application)
1.5 / (Surface applied)
(Incorporated) 7 (Layered Injected) / 77
/
1.6 // / /
7 /
/ / (Simplistic) (Phloem)
/ / (Appoplasstic) (xylem)
/ 7
/ /
7 7 7
7
1.7

/ (Phenoxies)
(Benefices)
(Aliphatic) (Dinitroanilines)
(Diphenylethers) (Ureas) (Triaeines) (thiocabamate)
2.
/7

// /
/ () 7
/
3
. / ( )
. /
. / ( )

KM-08/1 3

7
1. /
2. ( )

/
3. / / /
4. / / /
/
7
5. /

6. / /
7. 7
8. /7 /

/
/7 4
/
. // /
(Symptomatic movement Herbicides)
(Cawein type growth regulators)

. // /
(Aliphatics) (Aminotriazole) (Organic arsenicals)
(Propionate) - - (Argil Oxy Phemoxies) //

(Cyclohexcne)
. (Contact) (Selectiwe) (Bentaeon)
(Difeneoguat)
. (Contact) (Nonselective)
(Bibyeidyliums) 7 (Petroleum oils)

KM-08/1 4

/7/7
7 (Floating) 7 (Emerged) /
7 7 (Submersed) 7
7
//
/ 7 7
/
/ /
/7 /
/ /
/

/
1. 7 (WSP, weter soluble powder) / /
7 (Solution) 2,4-
2. (WP, wet table powder) 7 /7
(Suspension) (Gesaprim 80 WP)
3. (G, granular) 10
(Eachete 5
G) / WG, water dispersible granule SG, water soluble granule MG,
micro granule /
4. (P, pellet) 10
5. (F, flowable DF, dry flowable)
7/7 (SG, soluble Concentrate)
(Metribuzin, Lexone 4L (liquid) of DF)
6. (AC, aqueous concentrate AS, aqueous soluble) 7 /7
(Paraquat)
7. 7 (EC, emulsifiable concentrate) / (Surfaxctant) 7
(Lassos 4 EC)
/ | 7 80 wp
5G / / |
/ 1 1 = 120

KM-08/1 5

/
1. Active ingredient (a.1.) /
| | / /
/ 7 / /
(ppm.) 7 |/
| / /
7 inert ingredient
2. Inert ingredient / 7
/ / /
/ |//
7 /| //
7
3. Acid equivalent (a.c.) / 7
a.i. /7 / /

/ /
/ / 7
/
(Common name) 7 / (Chemical name) /
/ (Trade name) / /7
/ 7 / 7/ | (Active ingredient)
/ // / /
/ / /

(Application) (Spray) 7/
/ / /7

1. / 7 (Overall or broadcast application) 77/

2. (Band application) 30 . /
/

KM-08/1 6

3. (Directed application) (precise) 7/


/ 7 7//

4. (Overtop application) 7

5. / (Spot application) 7 /
7/ /7
6. / (Basal treatment)
77 / / (Triclopyr 4,BAC)
7
7. (Cut stump treatment) /
/ 7
/
8. 7 (Herbigation) 7/
7/
9. 7 (Aquatic treament) 77
/

1. 7
1.1
/
1.2 / /
/ / /
/ / /
/
1.3 7 / / / /
/ /
7 /
77// 7 90 /
300 / 18 5 7 7
60 / 7 7 7
10 7/ / 80 7
7/ 7/ (7 2-3 7 /)

KM-08/1 7

5.5 4.5 7/ 1 1600 7


/ 90
1.4 / 5 10
2. /7 / / 7
2.1 7/ 7
/ 7 7 / 7 7/ 7

2.2 / /7
/
/
/
2.3 7

. /
//
5 6 / // 15
. 7 / /
/7 /7 7 /
/
/
. 77
/ 5 77 / // / /
/
/7
1. /
/ / //
// / /
7 / / 7
/
2. 7 6 10 16
/

KM-08/1 8

3. / / / 7
/ 7/ ()
7/ 7
|
4. 2, 4- /
7 7 7/ /
/7 77 / / 7
5. /
2, 4-
// /
/
/ /7
LD50 Median Lethal Cose 7// /
/ 7 7
LD50 Median Lethal Concentration /
/ // / LD50 / / LD50 / /

/ LD50 /
LD50 / LD50 /

KM-08/1 9

77

/
1.
Eichhornia
Crassipes
2.
Mimosa pigra

3.

Hydrilla verti
Cillate
4. 7
Potamogeton
Malaianus

5.
Coix aquatica

6.
Salvinia cuculla

/
/

( | 80%)

/
2,4

( | 41%)

/
/
1.0 .
/ 100
1.5 2
/ 100

7
10 20 %
0.2


/
2

2

7
/

( | 80%)


( | 90%)
+
2,4

( |
27.6%)
*
( | 10%)

( | 41%)

( |
27.6%)


+
2,4

1-2
1 .
0.3

7
/

7 /7
7
/

1.6

1.5

0.5 1

KM-08/1 10

/
/
1

( | 41%)


*
( | 60%)

11

8.
Lursia
Hexandra

( | 85%)

0.75 1.0 .

9.
Panicum
Repens
10.
Typha
Latifolia

( | 41%)

( | 41%)

/ /

7.

Eleocharis
Dulcis

* / /
** 7 / 1-2

- . 2536.

. 25 40

KM-08/1 11

/7
2,4 (2,4 D)
/ ( Phenoxy)
/
2,4 (2,4 D)
2,4 -
/
( 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacefic acid)


80
/

- / 7 / 7/
85% (a. a.)
- /7
- Nucleic
/ Enzymes // /
7
-

( LD50) 300 1,000 . / .

7 7 / 3

KM-08/1 12

( glyphosate )

/
/

( Phosphonate )
( Glyphosate )

( N phosphonomethyl glycine )

-
/

- / | 41%
- / /
/ 7
- 7

- / / // 7/ / 7/ /
/ /
2 - 4
7 10 4 6 . 7

- / /

- /

- ( LD50 ) 4,900 . / .
- ( TL50 ) / 96 . 4.16
( ppm.ac. ) 7 3.24 ( ppm.ac. ) 96 .

- 7 77/
/7 /

KM-08/1 13

( Paraquat )

/
/
bipyridiniumion

( Biparidiliums )
( paraquat )
1,1 - 4 , 4 ( 1,1 dimethyl 4, 4( dichloride salt or sulfate salt )

- / 7 | 27.6%
- / /
/
-
- electron acceptor Photosynthesis I Superoride radical
H2 O2 / 77
/ 7

- ( LD50) 120 . / .

- / 7 7 7
10 / 14
- 7/ / 7/ 7 /
/

KM-08/1 14

/
//
/
7/7 //
/ /
1. 7
2. /
3.
/ / 7
1. / / ( Knapsack sprayer ) / 7
/ /
77/
// 7 7
7 / 7
2. / / ( Knapsack powered pump sprayer ) /
/ 7 7 15 20
/ 7//
/

3. / 7 / 77 (
powered pump sprayer ) / 7/
7/

4. / ( Knapsack sprayer motoriaed mist blower type )
/ /7 7 7/
7 7
5. / (portable hand-operted fogging machine )

7/ //
7// //7/
77 //
7 / 7/ /
/ 7 / /

KM-08/1 15

6. / (Electrodyn system sprayer )


/ / 7
/ / / 7/// ( ground )
/ 7

7. / / ( spinning diad sprayer )


/ / /7/
7/ // 7
/ / /
/ //
/ / / /
/ // 7
/
/
1. 7
7
// //
/7/


/ 3
1.1 7
/
7
/ 1 , 1.5 , 2 /
/
1.2 7 /
/


1.3 7
7
7/ /

KM-08/1 16

/ 7 / /
7 7 / 7 7
/ 7
7
2. /
7 / /77 /7// 7
/ /7

3. / /
/ 7 7

4. / 7 2
7 /7 7 /
/
5. /
7 / //
/ / / /
/

// 7// /
/ / / /7
/

1. 77 7 /
/ 1
77 / ( / )
2. 7/
7 50. / 77
7 2
4. ///
= x
( 2 )
7/
7/ 1 = 1,600 .. 7 x

KM-08/1 17

7/ 1 = 1,600 = 800
100 /
/ 1 5 = 1
100
100
= 20
/ 800 20
= 40 /
/
800
7 40 1 /
/
/ 7
/ 7//
/

1. 7 7
2. /7 /
3. / 7 77

- . 2536. / .

/ . . 66