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Non conventional energy resources-The solar energy(working of a solar chimney)

Non conventional energy resources-The solar energy(working of a solar chimney)

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Published by zia mohammed khan
Hello....This book has been written by Zia Mohammed Khan..
Hello....This book has been written by Zia Mohammed Khan..

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Published by: zia mohammed khan on Oct 09, 2009
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01/04/2013

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney

)

NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (WORKING OF SOLAR CHIMNEY)

By Zia Mohammed Khan B.E. 3/4, (Mechanical) Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad.
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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This book has become an important part of my life.I have created it and nurtured it for the past few days.While doing so,I have received, In additions to compliments, a lot of suggestions from all my wellwishers such as my parents, Lecturers, friends, Brothers etc. So much of their inputs had helped me in bringing up this Book.I particularly thank my God Allah whose blessings are always with me and had helped me in bringing up this book...

-Zia mohammed khan

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

ABSTRACT
‘The extraction, conversion, and utilization of energy is the single largest component of air and water pollution, as well as emissions causing the change of our global climate.’This paper deals with solar energy, its production, its advantages over conventional energy sources.Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by means of a turbine.. This concept leads to the unbelievable invention named ‘The solar chimney’

Keywords: Solar energy; Non conventional energy resources; Solar Chimney.

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INTRODUCTION

CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

Non-conventional energy resources are defined as those resources which cannot be depleted at any point of time and henceforth are called the renewables.

Various forms of non –conventional energy are 1.Biomass energy and biogas energy 2.Geothermal energy 3.Ocean thermal energy 4.Solar energy 5.Wind energy

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THE CONCEPT
Energy from the sun travels to the earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation similar to radio waves, but in a different frequency range. The amount of energy available from the sun outside the Earth’s atmosphere is approximately 1367 W/m2 ;

CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

that’s nearly the same as a high power hair drier for every square meter of sunlight ! Some of the solar energy is absorbed as it passes through the Earth’s atmosphere. As a result, on a clear day the amount of solar energy available at the Earth’s surface in the direction of the sun is typically 1000 W/m2 i.e, 46% of the entire energy.We roamed round the galaxy in search of such an energy, the result of which has led us here. Yes, the same old resource, the solar energy.

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SOLAR ENERGY ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES : • The energy from the sun is virtually free after the initial cost has been recovered. • Solar and other renewable energy systems do not require any connection to a power or natural gas grid. • The sun provides a virtually unlimited supply of solar energy.

CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

• The use of solar energy results in a proportional decrease in green house gas emissions. • The use of solar energy is a ever-lasting market. • Every process involving production of power has carbon dioxide as an unavoidable waste product . But here there is no combustion and no carbon. DISADVANTAGES • The disadvantage is initial high capital investment. • On cloudy days twill not be possible to generate solar energy. • Efficiency is only 20% while that in conventional is 60%.

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THE SOLAR CHIMNEY

Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by means of a turbine. Heat from the sun is used to heat air and hence to run a turbine. This concept leads to the unbelievable invention named ‘The solar chimney’. The figure 2 shows the picture of a solar

CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

chimney set up in Manzanares, Spain, in 1982.The idea was originally given by German structural engineer Schlaich Bergerman. The solar chimney power plant – converts global irradiance into electricity. Since chimneys are often associated negatively with exhaust gases, THIS CONCEPT IS ALSO KNOWN AS THE SOLAR TOWER POWER PLANT although it is totally different from the tower concepts. A solar chimney power plant has a high chimney (tower), with a height of up to 100 meters, and this is surrounded by a large collector roof, up to 3 miles in diameter, that consists of glass or resistive plastic supported on a framework which generates 15W of energy…

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

Figure 2 : a solar chimney set up in Manzanares, Spain, in 1982

Towards its center, the roof curves upward to join the chimney, creating a funnel. It is a massive arrangement and hence can be setup in places where large areas are available. This massive structure has no name resemblance with the chimneys in our kitchens or in local industries. We are dealing with something beyond the present imagination.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

MYSTERY BEHIND ITS WORKING
The solar tower works like a giant inverted funnel, with a large gently sloping transparent outer section feeding into a steep chimney-like neck in the center. Greenhouse effects heat the air underneath, pushing it faster and faster toward the chimney where turbines converted the air flow to electricity. Due to a large base coverage area of several square kilometers, the air flow built up over that area concentrating in the one place -- the chimney -- would produce some pretty powerful wind flows -- enough to run a number of major cities. Thermodynamic modelling has predicted that a 200MW plant is feasible in engineering terms. Recent discussions have centered around heat storage using water tubes, permitting energy generation for several hours after sunset.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

Figure 3 : Cross sectional view of a solar chimney.

Heated air-->rises up-->gains chimney-->rotates turbine….

momentum-->flows

through

The basic concept is that when air is heated, it tends to go up in the atmosphere since its specific volume increases. The sun heats up the ground (usually black surface) and the air underneath the collector roof, and the heated air follows the upward incline of the roof until it reaches the chimney. There, it flows at high speed through the chimney and drives wind generators at its bottom.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

Figure 4 :Under the solar Chmney

The ground under the collector roof behaves as a storage medium, and can even heat up the air for a significant time after sunset. This unique chimney is also helpful for green house effect. The large area under the double glazed cover can be utilized for vegetation purpose on basis of green house effect. Thus the area is not wasted and as well as, the energy, derived. Thus, finally after knowing all the information regarding the chimney it is found that the efficiency of the solar chimney power plant is below 2%-3% only and depends mainly on the height of the tower.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

WHERE DOES THE OTHER 97% GO ?
There is a temperature drop with altitude of about 10°C for a 100meter chimney. Large quantities of warm air have to be lifted from the ground to chimney top. This is gravitational energy loss. The air that leaves the chimney is above ambient temperature at that altitude. This is thermal energy loss. Ambient air that is drawn into the collector is warmed and expands with little increase in pressure. The majority of solar input is lost in the simple expansion of air before it reaches the turbine. None of this is surrendered to the turbine.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

HOW

TO

IMPROVE

THE

REST

OF

THE

EFFICIENCY ?

WOULD A REGENERATOR

IMPROVE EFFICIENCY ?

A modified solar chimney is proposed where the paramount consideration is the rigorous elimination of all energy losses. The solar collector is sealed and double-glazed with low emissivity glass. The entire floor area has a solar absorber. The chimney is well insulated and incorporates a heat exchanger along most of its length. Warm air rises from the solar collector and drives the turbine. Its residual energy is then transferred to incoming air in the heat exchanger – such energy recovery can be over 95% efficient. Incoming air enters well up the chimney at a level ‘h’ from the top, which is needed to drive the system. The incoming air is warmed as it travels down the chimney. It passes through the turbine and then between the two layers of glass to ground level, entering the solar collector from underneath the absorber.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

A COMPARISION TO SHOW HOW TALL IS THE SOLARTOWER……

Figure 5: Comparision with various towers.

1.Cheops pyramid – 449ft 2.Sydney tower – 1014ft 3.Eiffel tower- 1063ft 4.Empire state building – 1473ft 5.Solar tower – 3281ft(1000mts)
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We also conclude that power generated is directly proportional to the height of the tower.

CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

USE IN INDIA
A tropical country like India can potentially generate 200MW power and can be of great importance when utilized properly.

CONCLUSION
Really a boon to the growing world. Let us ‘invest’ on the.chimney and enjoy the everlasting ‘interest’ with actually no ‘capital’. Hence we conclude that solar energy is one of the ecofriendly energy resource that cannot be depleted and is one of the best substitute for fuels from hydrocarbons that was prevailing till recent years. We hope that this paper will create an awareness of the depleting energy resources and bring out the necessity of usage of solar energy through the developing technologies like solar chimney’s or tower’s.

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CONVENTIONAL NON ENERGY SOURCES SOLAR ENERGY (Working of Solar Chimney)

REFERENCES
[1] www.ecotopia.com [2]www.wikipedia.com

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