DRENCHED
00
64820
ANALYTICAL
SOLID
GEOMETRY
FOR
BY
SHANTI NARAYAN,
Hans Raj
(Delhi University)
M.A.,
Principal,
College, DcIhi6.
Mr. N. Sreekanth
M.Sc.lMaths) O.U.
TWELFTH EDITION
Price
:
Rs. 600
1961
S.
CHAND
& CO.
DELHIJULLUNDUfeLUCKNOW
Integral Calculus
700
625
500
6'50
Rs. 1250
Rs. 1400
S.
CHAND
&
NEW
CO.
LUCKNOW
Published by
Proprietor, S.
and Primed at R. K.
Printers, 80D,
Hans Raj
College,
SHANTI NARAYAN
Delhi University,
January, 1961.
have endeavoured to develop the subject in a systematic and manner. To help the beginner, elementary parts of the subject have been presented in as simple and lucid a manner as possible and fairly large number of solved examples to illustrate various types have been introduced. The books already existing in the market cover a rather extensive ground and consequently
I
logical
comparatively lesser attention is paid to the introductory portion is necessary for a beginner. The book contains numerous exercises of varied types in a graded form. Some of these have been selected from various examination papers and standard works to whose publishers and authors I offer
than
my
best thanks.
I
extremely indebted to Professor Sita Ram Gupta, M.A., of the Government College, Lahore, who very kindly went through the manuscript with great care and keen interest and suggested a large number of extremely valuable improvements.
am
P.E.S.,
I shall be very grateful for any suggestions for corrections of text or examples.
improvements or
LAHORE
SHANTI NARAYAN
June, 1939.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
Coordinates
Articles
Page
... ...
1*1.
111.
1*2.
1*3.
Introduction Coordinates of a point in space Further explanation about coordinates Distance between two points Division of the join of two points
1
1
...
...
...
2 3
14.
1*5.
Tetrahedron
...
4 6
7 7 7
lines
.
...
16.
1*7.
1*8.
1'9.
Direction cosines of a line Relation between direction cosines Projection on a straight line
...
...
...
9
12
...
CHAPTER
II
The Plane
21.
22.
Every equation of the first degree in x Normal form of the equation of a plane
y, z represents
a plane
...
19
19
...
23.
24.
Transformation of the general equation of a plane to the normal form. Direction cosines of normal to a plane Determination of a plane under given conditions. Equation of a plane in terms of its intercepts on the axes
...
20
22
23 24
...
... ...
242.
25.
26.
2 7.
2'8.
29.
2 10.
Equation of tho plane through three given points Systems of planes Two sides of a plane Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given plane. Bisectors of angles between two planes Joint equation of two planes Orthogonal projection on a pla.ne. Projection of a given plane area on a given plane Volume of a tetrahedron in terms of the coordinates of its
vertices
....
27
...
...
2&
30
31
...
...
32
CHAPTER III
Right Line
3 1.
Equations of a
line. Equations of a' straight line in terms of its direction cosines and^the coordinates of a point on it. Equations of a straight line through two points. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical forms of the equations of a line. Transforma* tion of the equations of a line to the symmetrical form.
... ...
3*2
3*3.
37 42 43
The
may
lie in
a given plane
....
(viit)
Articles
3'4.
3*5.
Page
lines
may
intersect
...
44
49
Number
3*6.
of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight line. Sets of conditions which determine a line The shortest distance between two lines. The length and equations of the line of shortest distance between two straight
lines
line
..."
...
...
63
3' 7.
3'8.
Length of the perpendicular from a given point to a given Intersection of three planes. Triangular Prism
59 60
...
CHAPTER
Loci
4*1.
4*2.
IV
Interpretation of Equations
Introduction
... ...
64 64
4*3.
65
4*4.
4*5.
Locus of a straight
line
...
65
lines in
a simplified form
...
69
CHAPTER V
Transformation of Coordinates
5*1.
5*2.
Introduction. Formulae of transformation. The degree of an equation remains unaltered by transformation of axes Relations between the direction cosines of mutually perpendicular lines
...
72
74 75
...
... ...
5 '3.
Invariants
Revision Exercises I
80
^CHAPTER
Definition and equation of the sphere
VI
The Sphere
6*1.
6*2. 6*3.
...
... ...
...
85
Equation of the sphere through four given points Plane section of a sphere. Intersection of two spheres
Equations of a
circle.
86
88
6*4.
65.
6*6.
89
93
...
Pole of a plane.
...
6* 7.
Some results concerning poles and polars. Angle of intersection of two spheres. Condition for two spheres
to be orthogonal Radical plane. Coaxal system of spheres Simplified form of the equation of two spheres
95
103
...
6*8.
6*9.
...
105
107
...
VCHAPTER
7*1.
VII
of a cone, vertex, guiding curve, generators. Equation of the cone with a given vertex and guiding curve. Enveloping cone of a sphere. Equations of cones with vertex at origin are homogeneous
...
110
Articles
7*2.
Page
...
7 3.
7*4.
75.
76.
Condition that the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone Condition that a cone may have three mutually perpendicular generators Intersection of a line and a quadric cone. Tangent lines and tangent plane at a point. Condition that a plane may touch a cone. Reciprocal cones Intersection of two cones with a common vertex
115
...
119
...
...
121
127
7*7.
Bight circular cone. Equation of the right circular cone with a given vertex, axis and semi vertical angle Definition of a cylinder. Equation to the cylinder whose generators intersect a given conic and are parallel to a given line. Enveloping cylinder of a sphere
...
128
...
130
132
7 '8.
The
Equation right circular cylinder. cylinder with a given axis and radius Revision Exercises II
136
APPENDIX
Homogeneous Cartesian Coordinates Elements At Infinity
A'l.
A'2.
Homogeneous
Elements at
Illustrations
cartesian coordinates
...
... ...
139
infinity
140
141
A' 3.
A*4.
A*5.
Sphere in
Homogeneous
coordinates
...
...
142 143
Relationships of porp3ndicularity.
CHAPTER
8*1.
VIII
The Conicoid
8*2.
83.
The general equation of the second degree and the various surfaces represented by it. Shapes of some surfaces. Nature of Ellipsoid. Nature of hyperboloid of one sheet. Nature of hyperboloid of two sheets Intersection of a line and a central conicoid. Tangent lines and
...
144
...
145
tangent plane at a point. Condition that a plane central conicoid. Director sphere 8*34. Normals to a central conicoid
84.
8*5.
may
touch a
...
... .,.
148
153
158
159 162
conjugate
planes,
conjugate
...
...
polar lines.
861.
862.
871.
...
:
163
164
166
872.
8*8.
Locus of midpoint8 of a system of parallel chords Conjugate diameters and diametral planes
'
...
... ...
167
89.
8*91.
Paraboloids
174
892.
8*93.
Nature of elliptic paraboloid Nature of hyperbolic paraboloid Intersection of a line and a paraboloid
...
174
174
175
... ...
...
176
Articles
Page
...
...
Number
178
179*
CHAPTER IX
Plane Sections of Conicoids
91. 9*2.
Introduction
...
...
180
180'
9 '21.
9*3.
Determination of the nature of plane section of central conicoids Axes of central plane sections. Area of the section. Condition for a rectangular hyperbola Axes of noncentral plane sections. Area of parallel plane
sections
...
181
18ft
...
Circular sections of an ellipsoid 9'41. Any two circular sections of opposite systems
9'4.
...
189
190
192
lie
on a sphere
...
...
942.
9'6.
Umbilics
...
193
9 '61. Axes of plane sections of paraboloids. Condition for a rectangular hyperbola. Area of a plane section. Angle between the asymptotes of a plane section. Circular sections of paraboloids 9*6.
961.
... ...
...
193
196
Umbilics of paraboloids
196
CHAPTER X
Generating lines of Conicoids
10*1.
102.
Generating lines of hyperboloid of one sheet Equations of generating lines through points
elliptic section
...
198:
of principal
...
103.
10*4.
10*5.
...
...
10*6.
10'7.
Central point, line of strict ion and parameter of distribution for generators of hyperboloid Systems of generating lines of hyperbolic paraboloid
Central point, line of striction and parameter of distribution for generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. General Consideration. Generators of any quadric. Quadric determined by three generators Quadrics with real and distinct pairs of generators
Revision Exercises III
. . .
20&
211
...
...
213
10' 8.
...
10*9.
...
...
...
CHAPTER XI
General Equation of the Second Degree Reduction to Canonical forms
Appendix Index
...
224
269'
...
CHAPTER
COORDINATES
two numbers
In plane the position of a point is determined by obtained with reference to two straight lines in the plane generally at right angles. The position of a point in space is, however, determined by three numbers x, y, z. We now proceed to explain as to how this is done.
Introduction.
x, y,
11.
perpendicular straight
Coordinates of a point in space. Let X'OX, Z'OZ be two lines. Through 0, their point of intersection,
Z
e
Y'
X O
Y
Fig.
1
called
so that
we have
XOZ
plane
(The plane containing the lines X'OX and Z'OZ may be imagined as the plane of the paper the line OY as pointing towards the reader and OY' behind the paper). The positive directions of the axes are indicated by arrow heads. These three axes, taken in pairs, determine three planes,
;
known
XOZ
ZX
known
as
Through any point, P, in space, draw three planes parallel to the three coordinate planes (being also perpendicular to the corresponding axes) to moot the a.xes in A B, C.
y
Let
0(7=?,
Any one of these x, y, z, will be positive or negative according as it is measured from O, along the corresponding axis, in the positive or negative direction.
Conversely, given
three numbers,
x, y, z.
To do
OZ
equal to
x, y, z
respectively.
(ii)
Draw through
planes YZ,
ZX
and
XY respectively.
A, B,
planes
parallel to
the coordinate
Note. The three coordinate planes divide the whole space in eight compartments which are known as eight octants and since each of the coordinates of a point may be positive or negative, there are 2 3 = 8) points whose coordinates have the same numerical values and which lie in the eight octants, one in
(
each.
1*11.
In
1*1
above,
three coordinate planes. The three planes through P and the three coordinate planes determine a parallelepiped whose consideration leads to three other useful constructions for determining the coordinates of P.
we have learnt that in order to obtain the coordinates of a point P, we have to draw three planes through P respectively parallel to the
The
z=OC=AM=NP
Thus
distances of
y=OB=ANMP
P
XY respectively.
(ii)
the coordinates x, y ; z of any point P, are the perpendicular and from the three rectangular coordinate planes YZ,
ZX
Since
PA
lies in
the plane
PMAN which
OC.
is
perpendicular to
the line
OA*
therefore
Similarly
PBOB and PC
C
axes
Thus
from
the coordinates x, y, z of any point are also the distances the origin of the feet A, B, of the perpendiculars from the point
to the coordinate
respectively.
*
plane.
line
perpendicular to a plane
DISTANCE BETWEEN
Ex.
TWO
POINTS
What
coordinate axes
(Hi)
are the perpendicular distances of a point (x t y, z) from the 2 [Ans. ^/(y +z 2 ), </(z*+x*) t
<
We
have
AN^OB =y
Thus
(Fig. 2) if
we draw
PN J_Z7 NA OY
\\
Exercises
1.
In
fig.
1,
coordinates of
2.
3.
down the
z}.
coordinates of A, B,
L,
M N when the
,
4.
Show that for every point (x, y, z) on the ZX plane, 2/ = 0. Show that for every point (x, ?/, z) on the Faxis, #=0, z=0. What is the locus of a point for which = 0, (i) :r (n) 2/=0, (Hi) z=0.
(iv)
a,
(v)
by
(vi) z
= c.
5.
W hat is the
(i)
2/=0, z=0,
2=0, a;=0,
(iv)
yb,z
?9
c,
(v)
z~c,x=a,
the anyles
x~a,
6.
xavis, 2/rm".v
any point (x, y, z), and a, p, y ar e and zaxis respectively ; show that
which
rOP.
[Ans.
3, 5, 3.
Find the lengths of the edges of the rectangular parallelopiped formed 7. by planes drawn through the points (1, 2, 3) and (4, 7, 6) parallel to the coordinate planes.
N/T2.
To find
y l9
Zj)
and Q(x 2
?/ 2 ,
z 2 ).
Through the points P, Q draw planes parallel to the coordinate planes to form a rectangular parallelopiped whose one diagonal is PQ.
Fig. 3
Then
Now _ANQ
Also
line
is
rt.
angle.
Therefore,
AQ
lies
in the plane
QMAN which
is
perpendicular to the
PA.
Therefore
AQPA.
Hence
Now, PA is the distance between the planes drawn through the points P and Q parallel to the FZplanc and is, therefore, equal to the difference between their # coordinates.
Similarly
AN=y
2
1
y1
~ z
lB
and
Hence
Thus
is
2
1)
.
x i>
2/i,
*i)
and
(x 2
y 29
z2 )
*v/ Cor.
0,
we have x1 =^yl =z 1 =0
Distance from the origin. When P coincides with the origin so that we obtain,
Note. The reader should notice the similarity of the formula obtained for the distance between two points with the corresponding formula in plane coordinate geometry. Also refer 1*3.
above
Exercises
1.
(4, 3,
G)
and
9, 6)
(2,
1,
3),
[Ans. 7.
2.
Show
(0, 7, 10),
1, 6,
6),
(4,
form an
1)
isosceles
rightangled triangle. Show that the three points (2, 3, 5), (1, 2, 3), (7, 0, 3. Show that the points (3, 2, 2), ( 1, 1, 3), (0, 5, 6), 4. sphere whose centre is (1, 3, 4). Find also its radius.
5.
(a, 0, 0),
are collinear.
(2, 1, 2) lie
on a
[Ans. 3. Find the coordinates of the point equidistant from the four points [Ana. (a, i&, Jc). (0, 6, 0), (0, 0, c) and (0, 0, 0).
>/r3. Division of the join of two points. of the point dividing the line joining
P(XI> Vi*
*i)
To find
za ),
the coordinates
and Q(x2 y^
,
in the ratio
n.
Let
(x, y, z)
PQ
in the ratio
n.
L,
Draw PL, QM, RN perpendiculars to the XY plane. The lines PL, QM, EN clearly lie in one plane so that M, N lie in a straight line which is the intersection of
9
The
plane.
line
through
Let
it
intersect
PL and
same
DIVISION OF
The
triangles
we have
^^^^^^MQWR^z^z
_ ~
Similarly,
m+n
by drawing perpendiculars planes, we obtain
to
the
XZ and YZ
J
m+n
R
m+n
m
divides PQ internally or n is externally according as the ratio positive or negative. Thus the coordinates of the point which divides the join of the points (xl5 y^ Zj) and n are (#a UK Za) in the ratio
:
The point
M
L
Fig. 4
\
/
m+n
m
:
m+n
n
I I
m+n
:
middle point.
:
In case
is
the
so that
Cor. 2. Coordinates of any point on the join of two points. Putting k for m\n, we see that the coordinates of the point R which divides PQ in the ratio k 1 are
:
'
l+k
To every value
and to every point
'
'
~l+k~
l+k
on the line of k there corresponds a point on the line PQ corresponds some value of k,
PQ
viz.
PR/RQ.
Thus we
see that the point
fkx 2 +x
(
lies
1 9
Tcyt+Vi
l+k
l+k
'
kzt+_zi\ l+k )
conversely
...
" iW
on the
line
PQ
whatever value k
any
given point on the line PQ is obtained by giving some suitable value to k. This idea is sometimes expressed by saying that (i) are the general coordinates of any point of the line joining P(x ly y lt zj and
Exercises
/I.
points
line
joining the
4, 3),
(4,
(t)
5,
:
6) in
the ratios
(1
4)
and
(w) (2
1).
[An*,
2.
(i)
triangle.
AD
(3, 2, 0),
(6, 3, 2),
C (9,
6,
3)
BAC,
(n) (2, 2, 3). (4, 7, 6) are three points forming a meets BG at D. Find the
;
coordinates of D.
An
'
(?f, fl,
H)
6
3.
the points
4)
\a divided
The
by the YZplane. general coordinates of any point on the line joining the given points are
1 + fc \l + k on the YZ plane,
' '
'"
1ffc
if,
/
if,
lie
and only
its
x coordinate
is
Hence the required ratio= 2 point of intersection is (0, 2, 23). / 4. Find the ratio in which the
(3,
4,
3.
Putting
&=
2/3 in
(t),
wo
8) and
6,
4).
Also obtain the point of intersection of the line with the plane.
[Ana. 2 ; (7/3, 8/3, 0). 2, 3, 3, 3) C( points X(0, 0, 0), B(2, 3), are collinear. Find in what ratio each point divides the segment joining the other two. [Ana. CA/AB^l. Show that the following sets of points are collinear 6.
5.
The three
ABIBC=, BC/CA^2,
:
(t)
7.
() (5, 4, 2), (6, 2, 1), (8, 2, 7). Find the ratios in which the join of the points
AB and CD intersect.
that the point
(1,
2. show
is common to the lines which join 6) to (2, 5, 10). Show that the coordinates of any point on the plane determined by 10. the three points (x lt y^ z), (x 2 j/ 2 z 2 ), and (# 3 7/ 3 z 3 ), may be expressed in the form
1, 2),
Show
7,
0) to (16,
(0, 3,
~~
11.
l+m\n l+m+n l+m+n ) Show that the centroid of the triangle whoso vertices are
/s
v
'
'
^ *
(x r ,
yr
zr )
r=l,
2, 3, is
Tetrahedron. Tetrahedron is a figure bounded by four It has four vertices, each vertex arising as a point of interplanes. section of three of the four planes. It has six edges each edge arising 4 C 2 =6). as the line of intersection of two of the four planes. (
1*4.
;
To construct a tetrahedron, we start with three points A, B, C, and any point D, not lying on the plane determined by the points A, B, G. Then the four faces of the
tetrahedron are the four triangles,
ABC, BCD,CAD,ABD,
the four vertices are the points A, B, C,
D
;
and the
Fig. 5
AB,
CD
BC,
AD
CA, BD.
D are called a pair of opposite edges. Similarly BC AD and CA, BD are the two other pairs of opposite edges.
C,
9
CD
and
Exercises
four lines drawn from the vertices of any tetrahedron to the a point which is at threefourths of the centroids of the opposite faces meet distance from each vertex to the opposite face. Show that the throe lines joining the midpoints of opposite edges of a 2.
1.
The
parallel to each of the given lines. Note 1. To justify the definition of angle between two noncoplanar lines, as given above, it is necessary to show that this angle is independent of the position of the point through which the parallel lines are drawn, but here wo
simply assume this result. Note 2. The angles between a given line and the coordinate axes are the angles which the line drawn through the origin parallel to the given lino makes with the axes.
^ 1'6.
any
line
Direction cosines of a line. If a, p, J be the angles which makes with the positive directions of the axes, then cos a, cos y are called the direction cosines of the given line and are
by
I,
m, n respectively.
0, 0, 1.
What
useful
relation.
//
be the origin
and
(x y
z) the co
xlr,
where
Z,
ymr, z=nr
OP
so
m, n are
and
r, is the
length of
OP.
Through
that
draw PLJ_#axis
the
rt.
OL=x.
OLP,
From
angled
triangle
we have
X
i.e.,
=6
or
x=lr.
Similarly
we have
2/=mr, z=nr.
Fig. 6
cosines.
the
sum
OP
that
Z,
07,
OZ
Let Let
be drawn through the origin parallel to the given line so are the cosines of the angles which OP makes with OX
P on
this line.
But
! 2
+m +n
2
=l.
Cor. If
cosines
Z,
a, 6, c
ra,
n of a
we have
==4 ~~~
2 a 8 V(0 +& +c )
XTf
V=T T
is
to be chosen throughout.
see that a set of three numbers Direction Ratios. which are proportional to the actual direction cosines are sufficient to a line. Such numbers are called the direction specify the direction of Thus if a, 6, c be the direction ratios of a line, its direction ratios.
From above, we
cosines are
Note. It is easy to see that if a line Y, OZ, then the line angles a, P, Y with OX,
origin
makes
producing
OP
Fig. 7
backwards through
will
make
angles
TT
a,
TT
3,
TC
Thus
if
cos a=Z, cos (3=w, cos are the direction cosines of OP, then
COS(TC
Y=W
COS(TC
a)=.
Z,
COS(TT
i.e.,
3)
m,
Y)
n
backwards.
the line
OP produced
PROJECTION OF A POlNf ON A
line, we can think of the direction n determining the direction of one and the same m, This explains the ambiguity in sign obtained above. line. Note. The student should always make a distinction between direction cosines and direction ratios. It is only when /, ?//, n are direction cosines, that we have the relation
Thus
/,
if
we
cosines
m, n or
Exercises
1. 6, 2,
,3
are proportional to the direction cosines of a line. What are ? [Ana. (6/7, 2/7, 3/7).

What
The
The
How many
3.
are the direction cosines of lines equally inclined to the axes? ? [Ana. (l/\/3, l/<\/3, dbl/V 3 ) J 4
coordinates of a point
direction cosines
are
m,
Q.
...(ii)
Find them ?
Eliminating n between
(i)
and
(ii)
we
get
or
This equation gives two values of l/m and hence there are two lines. The two roots of (m) are 1 and j. If Ii, m>i, ni and 1%, W 2 n 2 ^ e ^ ne direction cosines of two lines, we have
mi
in 2
Alsov
and
.
J^ 2
+
'
2 '
+ 2 * =0
or
+ +
1
= 0,
"T 2 V6'
__ _
""Ve'
mi
~V^
ni
V6'
5.
The
direction cosines of
(i)
two
linos are
7/ 2 f
/5m+3n=0,
Sw^Sn^O
find
them
rx
[Ana.
,
,.v (*)
TTT,
 2 ,
\/14
3
\/14
.
7T7
112
yb
1
v!4
4
7^'
~7^ yo
'
"7^ yO
3
2
A/1 4
'
V26
V26
V26
V 14
V^ 4
1*8.
Projection on a Straight line. Projection of a point on a line. The foot of the perpendion a given straight line BC is called the a given point
1*81.
cular
P from
10
book)
of the point
on the
and
is
_
B
Ex.
line.
1, page 1, A is the projecon Zaxis also B and C are the projections of P on Faxis and Zaxis respec
Thus
of
8.
^ c
tion
in Fig.
Fig.
tively.
The Projection of a segment of a line on another line. is the segment a line on of line a of any segment projection where A', B' are the projections of A, A'B' of respectively on
182.
AB
CD
CD B
made on
(x, y, z).
CD
by planes through
are the projections [Ana. x, y, z.
A,
of
The
OP on
coordinates of a point
?
are
What
Theorem.
line
CD
is
AB
angle between
on any
Let the planes through A and B perpendicular to the line CD meet it in A', B' respectively so that A'B' is the projection of AB.
Bat
Through
P.
draw a
line
AP CD
\\
to
Now,
Also
AP
BP
lies in
II
CD.
is
Hence
= ABco*0
D
Fig. 9
Clearly A'B'
PA
is
Hence
Cor.
6.
To find
11
Let L 9 be the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from P, the JCaxis respectively so that
to
OL=X
Projection of
PQ
on Xaxis=ZJlf
PQ
direction cosines of
Similarly projecting
Zaxis,
we
get
_
I
m
2/i,
== ~~
Thus
the,
fa,
are proportional to
*i)
and
(x 2
2/2 ,
z2 )
xtxi,
1.
2/22/i, *2
*!
Exercises
Find tho direction cosines of the () (4, 3, 5) and (2, 1, 8). (n) (7, 5, 9) and (5, 3, 8).
lines joining
3/7),
1/3)
2. 3.
Show that the points (1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (0, The projections of a line on the axes are 12, 4,
line.
are collmear.
3.
[Ana.
Projection of a broken line (consisting of several continuous segments). If P ly P 2 P 3 ......... P n be any number of points in space, then the sum of the projections of
, ,
is
equal
to the
projection of
PiP n on
the
same
line.
Pn
Mr
ft ~Uonated by

N Sreeka
(
on the given
line.
Then
M.Sc. (Maths)
Also
QiQn= projection
of
PiPn
As Qi, Q 2 > Qz ....... > Qn H cm the same line we have, relative positions of these points on the line, the relation
Qi
for all
v/
two points on a
line.
To show
that
on a
Z,
m, n
is
Now
lines PA, AN, are respectively parallel to #axis, yaxis, Therefore, their respective projections on the line with direction cosines I, m, n are
The
NQ
zaxis.
fa
projection projections of PA, AN, jection is (x a
Xj)l 9 (y a
2/i)w, (32
z i) n
As the
of
PQ
on.
on any
line is
NQ
that
line,
therefore
xjl+fya
C(3,
yi)m+(z 2
7),
>(0, 2, 5)
Exercises
1.
A(6,
3, 2),
projections of
2.
AB
on
CD
(5, 1, 4),
and of
CD
4,
if
on /!#.
P,
<2,
ti,
Show by
projection that
(1,
4, 4,) (2, 9, 2) respectively then P^ _[_#. ;7, 6), (3, v/l*9. Angle between two lines. To find the angle between lines whose direction cosines are (^, ra l5 %) and (/ 2 2 n 2 ). Let OP 1? OP 2 be lines through the origin parallel to the given lines so that the cosines of the angles which OP l and OP2 make with
,
Fig. 10
n 2 respectively and the angle the axes are Z x HI and 7 2 l9 t between the given lines is the angle between OP\ and OP%. Let this angle be 0. Let the coordinates of P2 be (x2t yz z2 ).
, ,
,
13
The
on the
OP2
joining
0(0, 0, 0)
line
and
2 (x 2 ,
y,, z 2 )
OP\ whose
xt
is
is
OP2
,
cos
0.
OPt
But
or
a? 2
cos
O^
z2
=Z a .0P2 y^m^.OP^
=n
.OP2
(161)
OP 2
Second Method.
respectively.
COS
0=(y
cos
= Ijlg
OPr^ 0P
P
2,
=r2
be
(a^,
y1?
2^)
and
(a:2 ,
/2 ,
2;
2)
Then and
^1
= ^1,
2/1=^^1,
Zi^r^,
(1*61)
We
have
we have
cos
tf
PiPf^rf+rftoft
...()
r^+Sva
i.e.,
we
obtain
COS
0=^24^1
and tan
in
:
and tan 0. The expressions for sin Cor. 1. Sin a convenient form are obtained as follows
sin
2
0=l
cos 2
sin
0=
and
Cor.
1,
tan0= cos
2.
sin0
B 6
===

2/^2
proportional to
v7~7

&!, c l5
and
If the direction cosines of two lines be actual values are 2 5 2) C 2' tnen their
,
2
it
i
>
L
T,
>.
2\* 1
_L
BO that
if
lines,
we have
14
0=
The expression
Cor.
(i)
for
tan e
is
we
use
When
Conditions for perpendicularity and parallelism. the given lines are perpendicular,
0=90
This gives
so that cos
0=0.'
a 1 a 2 fb 1 b 2
(ii)
+c 1 c 2 =0.
When
This gives
which
is
true only
ajftj
when o 2 6 1 =0,
a
&iC 2
62^=0,
eg
CjO,
6284=0,
^^ A. a b
2
also otherwise evident, for, the lines through the origin drawn parallel to the parallel lines coincide and, therefore, their direction cosines must be the same and hence direction ratios
is
This result
propor
tional.
Exercises
1.
lines
whose direction
ratios are
[Ans
cog l(j/65)
(ii)
1,1,2;V31,V31,4.
is
TT.
2.
by the
/ 3.
relations in Ex. 4, P. 9
[Ans. w/3.' angle between the lines whose direction cosines are triven fe
direction cosines of the line which is perpendicular to the lines with direction cosines proportional to (7, 2, 2), (0, 2,
1).
Sol.
I,
given
lines,
we have
Z(0)+m(2)f n(l)=0,
i.e.,
OZf 2m+n=0.
These give
l '
== _!!L == _!L.
V[2 2 + "("lTa"+2]
2 ~T' w =
F'
n==
T"'
Show that a line can be found perpendicular to the three lines with 4. direction cosines proportional to (2, 1, 5), (4, 2, 2), (6, 4, 1). Hence show that if these three lines be concurrent, they are also coplanar. n n / 5. li v x ; 2 ^2* 2 re the direction cosines of two mutually perpendi^ cular lines. Show that the direction cosines of the line perpendicular to them bofa
t
EXERCISES
Sol.
15
line,
If
l t in,
wo have
+ nvmi f nni 0, = 0. 2 f mm 2 f n n 2
These give
where
8 is
lines.
As 0=90, we have
sin
0=1. Hence
lines.
the result.
6.
Show
li, Wj, n t and 1 2 m 2 n 2 arc the direction ratios of two intersecting that lines through the intersection of these two with direction ratios
,
Ii+kl 2 nii+kmty HI~\ kn 2 are coplanar with them k being any number whatsoever. (Show that they all have a common perpendicular direction.)
;
7.
Show
if,
m lt
wj),
(1 2>
m2
n 2 ),
(J 3 , wi 8 ,
n8
are coplanar
h,
n2
=0.
m3
8.
Show
3), (4, 5, 7) is
Show
(4, 7, 8)
(2, 3, 4)
(1, 2,
1)
(1, 2, 5)
1,
1), (7,
4,
7), (1,
6,
10),
(1, 3,
4)
Show
(0,4,1), (2,3, 1), (4,5,0), (2,6,2) are the vertices of a square. 3, 1) are throe points and ^12. 4(1, 8, 4), B(0, 11,4), (7(2, Find the coordinates of D. of the perpendicular from A on BC
.
is
tho foot
2).
[Ans.
(4, 5,
1)
[Ans. (1, 2, 2). Show that 1) are three points. 6), C'(0, 4, B(5, 0, the direction cosines of the bisectors of the angle BAG are proportional to
14.
Find the point in which the join of by the perpendicular from the origin.
13.
(9,
4, 5)
and
(11, 0,
is
met
A(~ 1,
2,
3),
(25, 8, 5)
AB
<
,
[Hint.
:
and (11, 20, 23). Find the coordinates of the points which divide
BC
in the ratio
lines whose direction cosines are given by the equations 3Jfra5w=0 and 6mn2nl\5lmQ. [Ans. cos 1 Show that the pair of lines whose direction cosines are given by 16. 32w 4lri\mn = Q, Zf 2wj3/i=0 are perpendicular. Show that the Straight lines whose direction cosines are given by the 17.
equations
are perpendicular or parallel according as
=Q
or
16
Sol.
relations,
a
we have
4c/?) ?/(&/// 
a"
+vw
,
rw>n
=0
or
...(i) (b*u+a* i)''* + 2Hbc>nn\(c2u+a2w)n*=Q tho lines be parallel, their dueotion cosmos are equal so that the two values of mjn must be equal. The condition for this is
(
If
+v
'
~ 0. + w
2
Again,
if I l9
(i)
1} rij
and
?J?1
2,
w< 2
7?
lines.
then equation
giv es
?2
/l
7' ?
'2
nl
w ] ?? 2
or
/?,
gives, (or
by symmetry)
For perpendicular
lines
a*(v\w}
+ = 0.
?;)
Show
are perpendicular
and
parallel if
19. /i, mj, ni ; 7 2 , w? 2 , n 2 are the direction cosines of two concurrent lines. that the direction cosines of the lines bisecting the angles between them are
to
Show
proportional
Sol.
Let the
lines
Take
points A,
on the two
concur at the origin O and let OA, OB be the two lines. lines such that (X4=0J3=r, say. Also take a
Fig. 11
point A' on
produced such that AO=OA'. Let (7, C" be the midpoints of AB and A'B. Then O(7, OO' are the required bisectors. The result, now, follows from the fact that the coordinates of A, B, A'
respectively are
(fy,
AO
my, ny)
(Z2 r,
w 2 r,
n 2 r)
(ly, ~Wjr,
n x r),
EXERCISES
20. // the edges of a rectangular parallelepiped are a, angles between the four diagonals are given by
b, c
17
show
that the
Sol. Take one of the vertices O of the parallelopiped as origin and the three rectangular faces through it as tho three rectangular coordinate planes.
(See Fig. 7,
Page
1).
M, N Pare
(0, 6, 0)
(0, 0, c).
are
(0, 6, c)
;
(a, 0, c)
(a, 6, 0).
(0,0, 0)
(a, b, c).
Direction cosines of
OP
V%
V2>
~7^>'> a
V2
Direction cosines of
AL
are are
"1
n C^V
The angle between
are
OP and CN
^ ^
,
t
_
,
therefore,
is
Similarly tho angle between any one of the six pairs of diagonals can be found.
21. A line makes angles a, p, y, S with the four diagonals of a cube ; prove that cos 2 a + cos2 pf cos 2 y+cos 2 5 = 4/3. (P.U. 1932) (Choose axes as in Ex. 20 above and suppose that the direction cosines of the given lino are I, m, n. ) 22. 0,A,B, C, are four points not lying in the same plane and such that OAJ^Bd and OB^JIA. Prove that OC^AB. What wellknown theorem does this
if
become
?
:
The
also be stated thus "// two pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron be at right angles, then so
example
may
is
the third."
Take as origin and any three mutually perpendicular lines through coordinato axes.
Let
as
(.r lf T/J,
By
Zj),
(,r 2 ,
7/ 2
z 2 ), (#3,
2/3,
z3)
respectively.
As OA^BC, we have
As OB_[_CA, we have
r2( r3#l) +2
Adding
(?')
and
(iV),
we
obtain
AB.
in a tetrahedron
OABC,
then
its pairs of opposite edges are at right angles. and / 2 24. /j, mj, 2 n 2 are tvvo directions each other. Show that the direction
inclined at
an angle
9, to
2 cos i 9 2 cos 2 cos J 9 <p bisects tho angle between these two directions.
'
_
'
18
that these direction cosines are the actual values. Show that the direction equally inclined to the three mutually perpendicular directions W 2 > ^3 ??? 3> n 3 /2> lit W'i HI Z>
J
is
given
by the
direction cosines
/26. Show that the area of the triangle whose vortices are the origin and the points (x^ yj, Zj), and (.r 2 2/ 2 2 2 ) is
, ,
(B.U.1958)
;
wl
/2
*2
^3
7??
??
show that
hy
7?
^?
^3
are also the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines. show that
Hence
CHAPTER
II
THE PLANE
2*1.
degree in x,
the first
The most
where
a, 6, c
are not
all zero.
locus of this equation will be a plane if every point of the line joining any two points on the locus also lies on the locus.
The
To show
on the
this,
points
locus, so that
...(i)
0.
...(ii)
Multiplying
(ii)
by k and adding to
(z),
we
get
The
relation
(iii)
V 1+k
'
l+k
'
1f k
is also on the locus. But, for different values of k, these are the general coordinates of any point on the line PQ. Thus every point on the straight line joining any two arbitrary points on the locus also lies on the locus.
The given equation, therefore, represents a plane. Hence every equation of the first degree in x,
a plane. Ex Find the coordinates
of the points
y, z represents
ax+by+cz+d
meets the three coordinate axes.
**
2*2. Normal form of the equation of a plane. To find the equation of a plane in terms of p, the length of the normal from the origin to it and Z, m, n the direction cosines of that normal (p is to be always
;
regarded positive).
Let
OK
K being the
Then OK=p and I, m, n are its direction cosines. Take any point P(x, y, z) on the plane. Now, PKOK, for it lies in the plane which is
20
ANA LYTICAL
Therefore the projection of
SOLID
GEOMETRY
OP
on
Fig. 12
Also the projection of the line OP joining 0(0, 0, 0) and P(x 9 y, z), whose direction cosines are on the line
OK
I,
m, n
>
is
l(xQ) + m(y~0)+n(z0)=lx+my+nz.
(1*84, p. 14)
Hence
lx+my+nz=p.
This equation, being satisfied by the coordinates of any point P(x, y, z) on the given plane, represents the plane and is known as the normal form of the equation of a plane. Cor. The equation of any plane is of the first degree in x, y, z. This is the converse of the theorem proved in 2'1. Ex. Find the equation of the piano containing the lines through the 1). origin with direction cosines proportional to (1, 2, 2) and (2, 3, 4cc 5y 7z=0. [Ans.
^23.
Aquation
to the
Transformation to
the
Normal form.
To transform
the
normal form
plane,
we have
p
Thus,
is
z as p, according to our con) be to vention, always positive, we shall take positive or negative sign with the radical according as, d, is negative or positive.
Thus,
if
d be positive,
iWo PLANES
21
If d be negative, we have only to change the signs of all these. Thus the normal form of the equation ax\by\cz\d=0 is
be p 8itive
if
'
d be ncgative
'
Direction cosines of normal to a plane. From above we deduce a very important fact that the direction cosines of normal to
^ 2*31.
coefficients of x, y, z in its equation the direction ratios of the normal to a plane are the coof x, y, z in its equation.
Thus,
a, 6, c
Ex.
1.
a3/ + 65 = 7. ()
.H2/+22l = 0.
(it)
Ex.
2.
Show
(Ans. (t) 2/7, 3/7, 6/7, that the normals to the planes
V' 2*32. Angle between two planes. Angle between two planes is equal to the angle between the normals to them from any point. Thus the angle between the two planes
ax\by{cz\dQ, and
is
ax \b$\ c L z\d ~
l
a i> b i>
s\>
and
is,
therefore_,
2'33. Parallelism and perpendicularity of two planes. planes are parallel or perpendicular according as the normals to are parallel or perpendicular. Thus the two planes
Two
them
ax+by+cz+d=0
will be parallel^ if
and
ax + 1$ f c Lz + di=Q
;
and
will be perpendicular, if
Find the angles between the planes 3, 3a;+62/f 22=4. (l) 2xy+2z
(ft)
[Ana.
CO8~* (4/21).
2*~t/+z=6, x+y+2z=7.
[Ana.
w/3.
(ttt)
22
2.
by\
cz+p~Q,
cz\ax\
q=0
represent planes respectively perpendicular to XY, YZ, planes. Show that ax}l>y\cz\d=^Q represents plane.s, perpendicular respec3. tively to 'YZ, ZX, planes, if a, 6, c separately vanish. (Similar to Ex. 2). Show that the piano 4.
ZX
XY
Tf22/3zf4
is
2'4. Determination of a plane under given conditions. The general equation ax\by\cz\d= of a plane contains three arbitrary constants (ratios of the coefficients a, b, c, d) and, therefore, a plane can be found to satisfy three conditions each giving rise to only one relation between the constants. The three constants can then be determined from the three resulting relations.
below a few sets of conditions which determine a plane passing through three iioncollinear points (ii) passing through two given points and perpendicular to a given plane (in) passing through a given point and perpendicular to two given
:
We give
(i)
Intercept form of the equation of a plane. equation of a plane in terms of the intercepts a, b 3 c which
2'41.
planes.
To find
it
the
makes on
the axes.
Ax+By+Cz+D=Q.
The coordinates of the point
Xaxis are given to be we obtain
(a, 0, 0).
...(1)
which
1 A = .
Similarly
JL= L D ~b
The equation
(1)
~.?_=_L
T"
can be
re written as
A
so that, after substitution,
^"fl"^
we obtain
c
1'
A + b +_*=!, a
5
*>LANE
Ex.
1.
THkOUGH
THkEfi POINTS
3y f4z= 12 on the coordinate 4, 3. [Ans. 6, Ex. 2. A piano meets the coordinate axes at A, B, C such that the eentroid of the triangle ABC is the point (a, b, c) show that the equation of the plane is #/f #/6fz/c=3. Ex. 3. Prove that a variable plane which moves so that the sum of the reciprocals of its intercepts on the three coordinate axes is constant, passes through a fixed point.
axes.
2*42. Plane through three points. To find the equation of the plane passing through the three noncollinear points
(*i, y\> *i), (**> y*> **}, (#3, 2/3,
a)
lie
Eliminating
a,
l)
c,
d from
(i)
(iv),
we have
'
"<.
y,
*>
2/2,
which
is
Note. In actual numerical exercises, the student would find venient to follow the method of the first exorcise below.
more con
Exercises
1.
Find
plane through
0, 6).
The
P(2, 2, 1), C(3, 4, 2), JR(7, general equation of a plane through P(2,
2,
1) is
a (x2) + b(y
It will pass
2)fc(fl)=0 (Refer 4,
7?, if
25, #.
25)
...(t)
through Q and
5a2& + 7c=0.
These give
W=T = =ii
Substituting these values in
(t),
we have
Find the equation of the plane through the three points (1, 1, (7, 3, 5) and show that it is perpendicular to the XZ plane.
[Ans.
1),
3*4
24
/3.
and
(2,
2, 2)
(1,
1,2).
Olns. a 3*/6z+8=0. be drawn to YZ perpendiculars PL, and [Ans. bcx+cayabzQ. planes, find the equation of the plane OLM. v/5. Show that the four points (6, 3, 2), (3, 2, 4), (5, 7, 3) and (13, 17, 1) are coplanar.
ZX
If,
PM
6. of (1,
7.
Show
2,
that
the
4, 4), (0, 0,
3), (1,2,
(
Show that
(3, 2,
the points
.
V8. Find
the
the cireumoentre of the triangle formed by (3, 2, 1). equation of the plane through the points
1,4,
3)
is
5),
(3,
8,
5),
(2, 2, 1)
and
(9, 3, 6)
and perpendicular
to the
plane
(2, 2, 1) is
Any
plane through
(*2)f&(7/2)+c(c~l)=0.
It will pass
..
(t)
through
(9, 3, 0) if
The plane
(i)
will
if
2f GHGcO.
...(Hi)
From
(ii)
and
(Hi),
we have
b
===
a
Substituting in or
9.
c
r
T^
b
==
4~
5*
is
5z*=*9.
(1,
that the equations of the three planes passing through the points, 2, 4), (3, 4, 5) and perpendicular to XY, YZ, planes are x+ 2/jl = ; 22+7=0 y+ 2z=*6 respectively.
Show
;
ZX
Obtain the equation of the plane through the point ( 1, 3, 2) and 10. perpendicular to the two planes #f 2?/f2z=5 3#{3?/f 2z = 8. [Ans. 2x4y+3z + 8 = Q. * 11. Find the equation of the plane through A ( 1, 1, 1) and 5(1, 1, 1) and perpendicular to the plane x{2y+ 2z =5. [Ans. 2x+2y 32+3=0. 12. Find the equations of the two planes through the points (0, 4, 3), 4, 3) other than the plane through the origin, which cut off from the axes (6, whose sum is zero. intercepts (M.T.) [Ans. 2x 37/ 6z=6 Qx+3y2z=\S. 13. A variable plane is at a constant distance p from the origin and meets the axes in A, B, C. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron OABC* is a;2+ 2/ 2_^22 == i6J9 2.
; ;
v'l'S. Systems of planes. The Equation of a plane satisfying two conditions will involve one arbitrary constant which can be chosen in an infinite number of ways, thus giving rise to an infinite
number of planes, called a system of planes. The arbitrary constant which is different
of the system
is
for different
members
called a parameter.
Similarly the equation of a plane satisfying one condition will involve two parameters. The following are the equations of a few systems of planes involving one or two arbitrary constants.
1.
The equation
2*33, p. 21).
The equation
ax}by\cz{k
represents a system of planes perpendicular to the line with direction ratios a, b, c k being the parameter. (2*31, >. 21).
;
3.
...(1)
represents a system of planes passing through the line of intersection of the planes
ax+bycz+d^Q,
Oia?+6 J y+c 1 2+d! l =0
;
...(2)
...(3)
first
degree in
x, y, z,
represents a
plane
(ii)
satisfy (2)
4.
evidently satisfied by the coordinates of the points which and (3), whatever value k may have. The system of planes passing through the point (xly y^ zj is
where the required two parameters are the two ratios of the co efficients A, B, C for, the equation is of the first degree and is clearly satisfied by the point (x l3 y l3 z^ 3 whatever be the values of the ratios
;
of the co efficients.
/
V/i,
Exercises
Find
the
tJie
planes
a+2/+z = 6 and
and
the point (1,
1, 1).
2a^f 3i/f
42+5=0
The plane
...(i)
values of
k.
through
(1, 1, 1) if
Putting
A;
=3/1 4 in
(i),
we
obtain
which is /2
2(Xrf23#f26z 69=0, the required equation of the plane. Obtain the equation of the plane through the intersection of the planes
origin.
Find
the
[Ans. 3#f2#fs=0. equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of
the
planes 2#
y=0 and
y
32
y=Q
and perpendicular
to the
plane
3z=8.
26
The plane
passes througli the line of intersection of the given planes whatever It will be perpendicular to
if
may
be.
24(l+fc)'5+3fc(
3)=0,
i.e.
**A,
is
i.e.,
28.c
17?/f 9z
= 0.
perpendicular to the plane
4.
is
(L.tf. 1934) [An*. 5U + 15?/5(b+ 173 = 0. ^5. The plane x 2*/f 32=0 is rotated through a right angle about its line of intersection with the plane 2.t' + 3# 4^ 5=0, find the equation of the plane in its new position. [Ans. 22x + 5y 4,235 = 0. Find the equation of the plane through the intersection, of the planes 6.
and perpendicular s
to the
X Y plane.
[Ans. x(aci
"^
,
7.
Obtain
and
parallel
to the
is
parallel to the given plane for all values of k. It will pass through (x lt y lt z{), if
Subtracting,
wo
get a(
which
the required equation. / Find the equation of the plane through the point (2, 3, 4) and parallel 8. to the plane 5x 6?/f 7z=3. [Ans. 5x6y+lz = 2Q. Find the equation of the plane that passes through (3, 9. 3, 1) and is normal to the line joining the points (3, 4, 1, 6). 1) and (2,
is
[Ans.
10.
(3, 4, 5),
x +5y
6zf19=0.
*S
11.
aj+2y23 = 0,
3.r2/ + 2zl=0,
t/j2}l
2x2y+ 3z
2=0, x
are four planes. Show tJiat the line of intersection of the first two planes is coplanar with the line of intersection of the latter two and find the equation of the plane containing the two lines.
The
and
and
planes
*+2y23+A;(3*2/+22l) =
2*22/+322+A/(a;2/fzfl)==0
The two
lines will
be,
coplanar
if,
for
some
tw6
values of k and
A;',
SIDES OF
A PLAN!S
2?
0.
(i)
...(m)
and
(M) give
fc3/2,
and
fc=2.
fc'
= 6,
fc'=2.
Of these two sets of valuer, fc= 3/2 and fc'= 5 satisfy (Hi) also. Thus the two planes become identical for k = 3/2 and 7c' = 5. Hence the two lines are coplanar and the equation of the plane containing them is
12.
is
Show that
7JJ4J/4 7^+16 0, 4s43y224 3=0 coplanar with the lino of intersection of x 3^/4 43 + 6 0, a 3/4241 0.
2*6
Two
sides of a plane.
4(2*1, y\, *l)>
Two
points
2/2,
#(*2
22
lie,
on
the
same or
ax + by4cz~\d=Q,
according as the expressions
are of the
in a point P and let P divide in the ratio r 1 so that r is positive or negative according as P divides internally or externally, i.e., according as A and B lie on the opposite or the same side of the plane.
same or different signs. Let the line AB meet the given plane
AB
AB
P
V
r+1
'
1 r rLi
'
?^5A
r
l) +l
lies
or
is
same
or different signs.
is
proved.
(2,
Ex. Show that the origin and the point the plane o?f3y 5^47 0.
4, 3) lie
on
different sides of
2S
2*7.
ANALYTICAL SOLtD
Length of the perpendicular from a point to a plane.
P(*i*
2/i>
To
find the
the
from
plane
parallel to the
fof
wy + wz=jp
jf
where
Let
lx 1 {my L {nz 1
pi.
OKK'
parallel planes
be the perpendicular from the origin and K' so that meeting them in
to the
two
OK=pa,n<10K'=p
Draw PL _L given
Then
Cor.
plane.
.
]L
LP=OK'OK
To find
the length of the
plane
ax+by+cz + dO.
perpendicular from (x lt
T/I,
zj
to the
__
c
, i
_ ^
_n
VSo^
VS*'*
is
V2a'~
'
Thus
is
(x l}
y l9
z^) to
the plane
obtained by substituting
xi>
yi,
z,
and dividing
the
same by
Exercises
/I.
(2, 3, 4)
and
(1, 1, 4)
0.
16/7.
^2.
is 1/6.
Show
that the distance between the parallel planes 2x 2^/+2f3=0 and 4# 4y42zf 5 =
is
(The distance between two parallel planes one from the other)
.
its
Find the locus of the point whose distance from the origin 3. distance from the plane 2# ^f 2z=3.
[Ana.
three times
BISECTORS OF ANGLES
29
Show that (1/8, 1/8, 1/8) is in the centre of the tetrahedron formed by 4. the four planes #=0, 7/ = 0, z = 0, x+2y + 2z=l. Sum of the distances of any number of fixed points from a variable 5. plane is zero show that the plane passes through a fixed point.
;
variable plane which remains at a constant distance, 3p, from the Show that the locus of centroid of origin cuts the coordinate axes at A, B, C. the triangle ABC is
6.
2*71. Bisectors of angles between two planes. tions of the bisectors of the angles between the planes
To find
the equa
If (x, y, z) be any point on any one of the planes bisecting the angles between the planes, then the perpendiculars from this point to the two planes must be equal (in magnitude).
Hence
and the other the obtuse angle between the given planes. The bisector of the acute angle makes with either of the planes an angle which is less than 45 and the bisector of the obtuse angle makes with either of them an angle which is greater than 45. This gives a test for determining which angle, acute or obtuse, each
bisecting plane bisects. Ex. Find the equations of
the
are the equations of the two bisecting planes. Of these two bisecting planes, one bisects the acute
the
planes
...(t) ...(it)
a+2//
+ 2^3 = 0,
3.rKyhl:h + l=0.
and
27/423
or
2x + 7.?/5;2U0,
H9// + 31:; 18 = 0. If 8 be the angle between the planes (?) and (Hi),
1 l.r
...(in)
...(it)
and
we have
_
so that tan
8= \/14/"2, which
45. Hence
being greater than 1, we see that is greater than obtuse angle, and consequently, (V) bisects the
acute angle. Note. Sometimes wo distinguish between the two bisecting planes by finding that plane which bisects the angle between the given planes containing the origin. To do this, wo express the equations of the given planes so that d and di are positive. Consider the equation
<1l
2
)
"'
equality (A), the expressions ax \by\cz\d and by a 1 .t;+6 1 ?/f CiSlf/x must ha\e the same sign (denominators being both positive), the points (.r, y z) on the locus lie on the origin or the nonorigin side of both the planes, i.e., the points on the locus lie in the angle between the planes containing the origin. Thus the equation (A) represents the plane bisecting that angle between the planes which contains the origin.
Since,
virtue
of the
30
Similarly,
represents the plane bisecting the other angle between the given planes.
Exercises
1.
Find the bisector of the acute nnglc between the planes 2*2/ + 22f 3 = 0, 3.r2?H 6: + 8 = 0.
[Ans.
2.
Show
13*
= 0.
G7u:
3.
[Ans.
162#47zf 44
= 0.
^2*8.
the
To find
the condition so
that
ax> + by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=0
...(I)
may
by
I'x
(1)
be
0.
and
+ m'y^n'z
There cannot appear constant terms in the equations of the planes, for, otherwise, their joint equation will not be homogeneous. We have
ax* + by*
nn
2h = Im
'
and
ra,
2/
m'n f mri 3 2g
In
+ I'n,
+ I'm.
I,
In order to find the required condition, we have to eliminate n V m' n' from the above six relations and this can be easily We have effected as follows.
;
z,
r,
i',
z,
ra, ra',
ra', ra,
r&,
ft',
ri,
n,
Zr
f Z'Z,
l'm + lm',
l'n+
In'
Im
n'l
+Z'ra, ram'
\nl' }
+ m'm,
m'n{mn'
rim+nm', rin+nri
g
_
=S(abc+2fghaf*~bg*ch
?
/>
2
)
31
tan e
=
IV \mrn' \nri
^ V /HV + W abbcca)
~~
a+b+c
The planes
will
be at right angles
if
a+b + c=0,
for then
is
90.
Ex. Show that the following equations represent pairs of planes and also find the angles between each pair.
(?)
12#2_2#2_G2_2.r?/f 7?/z+6za;=0.
[Ans.
[vln*.
cos~ 1 (4/21).
cos~i(4/9).
2 (n) 2^
2^H4*H^~ + %~ + ^?/=0.
is called the
2*9.
Areas.
P to
on
Orthogonal projection on a plane. Determination of Plane The foot of the perpendicular drawn from any point Def.
TT,
the
Thus
the YZ, ZX and planes. The projection of a curve on the plane of projection is of the projection on the plane of any point on the curve.
(Fig.
M N
on.
XY
orthogonal
the locus
enclosed
The projection of the area enclosed by a plane curve is the area by the projection of the curve on the plane of projection. In particular, the projection of a straight line is the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from any point on it to the plane of
2*91.
the projection.
The
following
:
line is a straight line. be in a line a If (2^ perpendicular to the line of interplane, section of this plane with the plane of projection, then the length of Q being the angle between the two planes. cos 6 its projection is
AB
In case
(3)
the length
of the projection
is
is
AB.
area, A, enclosed by any curve in a the cos angle between the plane of the area being plane and the plane of projection.
the projections of
an
area,
Let
/,
the area A.
32
Since I is the cosine of the angle between the plane of the area A, therefore
Similarly,
YZ
and Hence
,
Exercises
Vjl.
Find
the
(2,
1,
4),
(3, 4,
2).
To
projection of tho same The vertices of the projection of tho triangle on the
(1,2,0), (2, 1,0), (3,4,0),
so that
Ax AV Az
, ,
XY plane are
==2.
29
Similarly,
and
=_.
Find the areas of the triangles whose vertices are tho points
(i)
(ii)
From a point P(x y c'), a plane is drawn at right angles to OP to 3. meet the coordinate axes at A, B, C prove that the area of the triangle ABC is r^lZx'y'z', where r is the measure of OP.
;
To find
(#3>
2/3,
the
volume of a tetrahedron
2/4
Zl)> (*2
2/2, Z2)>
*3)
(*4
2 4)
ABCD.
Then
where p is the length of the perpendicular AL from any vertex A to the opposite face BCD and /\ is the area of the triangle
;
Fig. 13
VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON
33
The equation
of the plane
BCD
is
= 0.
..(it)
^/
4,
^ 4,
^4 ,
If
XY
A*,
Ay Az
2/2,
on the
1
YZ
planes respectively,
we obtain
2/3,
#4,
2/2,
2/4,
2/3,
34
p=[
volume
*i>
From
(i)
and
(if),
we
yi,
11
>
y%>
? z i>
i x
=*A ?=*
,
2/4,
24,
Exercises
The vertices of a tetrahedron are (0, 1, 2), (3, 0, 1), (4, 3, 6), (2, 3, 2) 1. show that its volume is 6. 2. A, B, C are three fixed points and a variable point P moves so that the volume of the tetrahedron PABC is constant show that the locus of the
;
point
is
ABC.
A variable plane makes with the coordinate planes a tetrahedron of 3. constant volume 64fc 3 Find
(i)
(ii)
[Ans. xyz*=6k*. the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the a 2 3 3 2 [Ans. (a; t2/ z ) =384A: .r?/z. plane.
Find the volume of the tetrahedron in terms of three edges which meet in a 4. point and of the angles ichich they make with each other. (P.U. 1939) Let OABC be a tetrahedron.
Let
and
Z_AOB=v.
Fig. 14
take as origin and any system of three mutually perpendicular lines through O as coordinate axes. Let the * direction cosines of OC be
We
OA, OB,
J5,
are
^i^O
(^2^> ^tjby
n 2 b)
(^jC,
w 3 c,
(161)
OABC
ni
a6c
6
,
0,
0,
n2
n 3c
7??
3 c,
w 3 c,
Now
m3
n3
EXERCISES
1,
cosv, cos(i
1,
cosv,
cos V, COS
cosX
1
X,
OABO
cos
v,
cos
\L
a&c
6
COS V,
COS
[JL,
1,
COS X
1
COS
X,
5.
Show
that the
volume of
V=0,r(l,2,3.4)
where
Aw
the
determinant
j^ D%, .D 3 Z>4 are tJie cofactors of d, d%, <7 3 d respectively in the determinant ALet (a?!, yi, z{) be the point of intersection of the three planes a rx{b r y\c r z\d r =Q, r = (2, 3, 4),
,
,
so that
(ar lf
yi,
z)
2/ 2 ,
is
Let
obtained.
(#2,
z 2 ),
one of the vertices of the tetrahedron. (^3,2/3,23), (#4> 2/4> 24) be the other vertices, similarly
\Ve write
i.e.,
(<
Also,
we have
...(2)
...(3)
...(4)
Eliminating x i9
2/1,
from
we have
= 0,
*
#3
3,
c3 ,
0^2*
62, C 2 63, C 3
a 3>
Cf
=0,
4 , 64, C 4
36
&
Similarly a3 x t+ b 3^3+ c 3 z 3+ d 3 =Jc
3=^
,,
_ A
k l9
0,
2/1, 1,
0,0,0
A
C2 C 3>
2 , 0,
0, 0,
fr
3 ,0
0, 0, 0, * 4
(P.
C7.
79^2)
2/3.
f^?i*.
CHAPTER
III
RIGHT LINE
3*1.
Equations of a
if
line.
line
may
it.
be determined as the
intersection of
ax+by \cz\~d ^0 and a i x + ^j^+Ci.2+^ 1 = be the equations of any two planes through the given line, then these two equations, taken together, give the equations of the line. This follows from the fact that any point on the line lies on both these planes and, therefore, its coordinates satisfy both the equations and conversely, any point whose coordinates satisfy the two equations lies on both these planes, and, therefore, on the line. Thus, a straight line in space is represented by two equations of the
<
Now,
first degree
in x, y,
z.
line can be represented by different pairs of degree equations, for we may take any pair of planes through the line and the equations of the same will constitute the equations of the line.
first
In
XY
the
.
and particular, as the .Xaxis is the intersection of the taken together. Similarly planes, its equations are ?/~0, z r and of the Zaxis are equations of the } axis are # 0, z
XZ
x=Q, y=0.
Ex.
line
[Ana.
(2,5,1)
Symmetrical form of the equations of a line. To find the equations^ of the line passing through a given point A(x ly y l9 Zj), and having direction cosines, I, m, n. Let P (r, y, z) be any point on the line and let AP=r.
~/3*ll.
Projecting
AP
Xi=lr,
yy =mr
l
Zinr
line,
...()
z)
on the given
Thus
are the two required equations of the line. Clearly, the equations (ii) of the line are not altered if we replace the direction cosines I, m> n by three numbers proportional to them.
38
so that
it suffices to use direction ratios in place of direction while writing down the equations of a line. Cor. From the relations (i), we have
x=x i +lr, y^yi+mr, z=z 1 +nr, which are the general coordinates of any point on the
line in
terms
point
of the parameter r. Any value of r will give some point on the line and any on the line arises from some value of r.
It
direction
(*a>
2/i>
it is
only when
distance
the
and
(x, y, 2).
Note 1. The symmetrical form (ii) of the equations of a straight line proves useful when we are concerned with the direction cosines of the line or when wo wish to obtain the genoral coordinates of any point on the line in terms of a parameter. Note 2. The equation
'
I,
degree, being froo of z, represents a plane through the line drawn Y plane. Similar statements may be made about the perpendicular of the
of
first
XO
equations
in
__
=
I
The equations
ii, ii
line.
To find
line
~*1,
2/22/1, Z 2 ~2l
cosines
of the
line,
the required
x 2 Xi y 2 yj z a Zi Results obtained in Cor. 2 page 6 may be regarded as the parametric equations of the line through the two points (arj, t/i, 2j) and (x%, y%, z%)\ X being the parameter.
Note*
Exercises
/I.
lines
____
x
I
2__z
\_jy5
26
[Ans.
10/7.
other.
line
z2
on either side of
(2,
y + 3 ** z 46
3
i~^~ 2"
3,
~2~
from
it.
5)
and at a distance
[Ans.
(3,5,3);(l l,7).
f
5.
Find
x+l ~~ ?/f3 ~~ 22
1
2
Let
~T~
so that the point
lies
^^.
3
~2~~'
rl,3r3, 2r+2
on the given
line for all values
of
r.
If it also lies
3fl2r
or
r=2.
2).
is
is (1, 3,
is
1,
3, 2)
\/l5(Fwhich
different
from
(Why
?)
X 4. Find the point whore the line joining (2, 4, 5) cuts the 3, 1), (3, 2, 7). [Ans. (1, plane 2jc+y\z = 7. '5. Find the distance of the point (1, 5, 10) from the point of inter1 section of the line (.r 2) = J(yf I) = j 2"(2 2) and the plane
zt/ + z = 5.
x
13.
6.
(3,
measured along a
/
2).
[Ans.
60/7.
>/
7.
Find
the
image of
(/, 3, 4) in
the plane
If two points P, Q be euch that the line is bisected perpendicularly plane, then either of the points is the image of the other in the plane. The line through P perpendicular to the given
^
by a
plane
is
_____
so that the coordinates of
^
see that
(2r+l, _ r +3,r + 4) of the fact that the mid point use Making
of
PQ
lies
~ 2
Q
Fig. 15
so that the
image of P
is
(3, 5,
2).
'8. Find the equations to the line through ( 1, 3, 2) and perpendicular to the plane zf 2y+ 22=3, the length of the perpendicular and the coordinates of
its foot.
[Ans.
(5/3,
5/3, 2/3).
9.
Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the
also find the coordinates of the point ; origin to the plane 2xf3i/~ 4zfl which is the image of the origin in the plane. (P.U. Supp.) [Ans. (2/29, 3/29, 4/29) (4/29, 6/29, 8/29). 10. Find the equations to the line through (#1, y lf zj) perpendicular to the plane ax+by\cz+d~Q and the coordinates of its foot. Deduce the expression for the perpendicular distance of the given point from the given
;
plane.
[Ana.
(ar+x lt 6r+j/ 1
crf zj)
where r=
f
&Hc2 ).
40
11.
ANALYTICAL SOLID
Show
that the line
i(.t7)
=
line
is
/12.
Show
= (2
.r+2y + 3; = 0,
[Ans.
(9,
6, 1).
Show
(a, 6, c)
parallel
14.
Show that
(r)//=(y&)/i=Czc)/0
is
a straight
15.
lino
Show
a,2l^ + c~ 2 l.
in
two points.
for the
(a,
(3,
P
OP
is
the line
such that
any point on the plane lx\'iny\nz=p and a .oint Q OP.OQ=p* show that the locus of Q is
;
is
taken on
A variable plane makes intercepts on the coordinate axes the sum of 17. whose squares is constant and equal to 2 Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane.
fc
.
18.
lines
Show that
2 2 [Ans. Cr2 + 2/ + 2 )(;r2+2/ 2 +z 2 ) 2 = fr 2 the equations of the lines bisecting the angles between the
.
zr>
^2~'
a; 3_y + 4 ~~4~12
=s
g
"~F"
5
"36"*
"38"
49"
~^\l'
~lT
~2F
of a
One
is
employ are of two forms. the symmetrical form deduced from the consideration
that a straight line is completely determined direction and the coordinates of any one point on two points on the line are given.
is unsymmetrical and is deduced from the conthat a straight line is the locus of points common to any
it.
of equations can
form.
To transform
to the
of a line
symmetrical form.
41
To transform
(i)
we
require
and (ii) the coordinates of any one point on it. Let Z, m, n be the direction ratios of the
the direction ratios of the
lies in
line.
Q and
a^ + ^j^+CiZ + d^O,
As the
direction
it is
perpendicular to the normals to both of them. ratios of the normals to the two planes are
a, b, c
;
a i9 6 1} c^
we have
al \bm\ en
= 0,
<
__
caic^a ab^ a^b coordinates of any one point on the line and there is an infinite number of points from which to choose. We, for the sake of convenience, find the point of intersection of the line with the plane 2=0. This point which is given by the equations
bc^
b^c
Now, we
require
the
is
}C
(
>
~i
i!>
\
/
ab^
a^b
line
bci
biC
c&i
Cjd
abi
a^b
Exercises
1.
and
r.
Ans.
2.
a:4l/3 
t/42/3
2121
line
(P.U. 1937)
Obtain the symmetrical form of the equations of the x2y 432=4, 2^32/442 = 5.
[Ans.
(j?42)
3,
line
with the
4.
equations.
and hence put down the symmetrical form of its [Ans. 0*0/2= (y 4)/7= (2 5)/5. Find the equation of the plane through the point (I, 1, 1) and perplanes,
X Y and YZ
[Ans.
5.
a:6i/
line
(1, 2, 4) parallel
to
the line
2=4, x2y
22=5.
42
6.
8a?lly+20
7.
[Ana.
2z
3,
8z.
(Z/.C7.) [^r?5.
90
lines
/
90,
8.
Show
xaz}b y
t
to Le perpendicular
9.
is
What
(t)
2/=6,
are the symmetrical forms of the equations of the lines = (y z=o [Ana. xj\
()
3*2.
.,
a,by\czd
the angle, between
[Ans.
(ca)/Q=(y
To find
the line
#
_
#, ]
^
" =y
y\ ^ 1:^ l
?^
zz
ax plane Angle beween a line and a pl.me is the complement of the angle between the line and the noimal to the plane.
the
Since the direction cosines of the normal to the given plane and of the given line are proportional to a, 6, c and I, n respectively, y
we have
.
al+bm+cn
where
The
i.e.,
straight line
also evident
is
=
a plane,
al+bm + cn=0,
is
which
it
is
perpendicular
to the
if a line be parallel to
1.
Show
2)
= (?/~3) = J(2
4)
is
parallel to
the plane
Find the equations of the line through the point (2, 3, 4), and parallel = 5 and 3x + 4:y\5z = 6. [Ans. (x+2) = i(2/3) = (24). [Hint. The direction ratios, l m, n, of the lino arc given by the relations
2.
t
3.
and
Show
[Ans. 4xy2z = 6, (zl) = (lt/)/2=(z2)/3. that the equation of tho plane parallel to the join of
(3,2,
3) and
(4,3, 3)
CONDITIONS
5.
frofe
A LIKE To
Ufc IN
A PLANE
line
45
'2x5y+ 22 = 6,
2* + 3t/
z=5
Qx\~y
and
x = y/6= 2/7. [Ans. Prove that the equation of the plane through the line
16=0.
and
is
7.
parallel
8.
(D.U. Hons. 1957) Find the equation of the plane through the point (/, g, h and to the lines x/lr =y/w r =z/n r rl, 2. [4nj. 2(# /Xminj W2Wi)s=0. Find the equations of the two planes through the origin which are
t
and distant
J'3.
5/3
from
it
a plane.
To find
the conditions
may
lie
in the plane
line
The
would
lie
in
if,
and only
if,
the
coordinates
of any point on the line satisfy the equation of the plane for of r so that
rial \brn { en)
is
all
values
an identity.
This gives
al
which are the required two conditions. These conditions lead to the geometrical facts that a
in a given plane, if
(i)
line will
lie
the
normal
to the
plane
is
perpendicular
to the line,
and
(t?)
Cor.
m
1 1)
n
f
is
A(xx )+B(y~y
0(3^) 0,
..(1)
(1).
where
Al+Bm+Cn=Q.
Here,
A B C are
:
:
1.
Show
44
and the
2. the line
(y+2) = J(2
3) in
the piano
Zi)
Find
y^.
and through
(P.U. 1939)
A(xa)+B(yb) + C(ze) = Q,
is
...()
are
The plane
(t)
through
(xi,
y^
sj), if
Eliminating A, B,
C from
(i) 9 (ii)
xa,
yb,
w,
zc
line
[Ans.
3j;2//f 0^12
= 0.
za
lj
ss=
y__ya= ~*, na a
2;
are two straight lines. Find the equation of tho plane containing the and parallel to tho second. [Ans. 2(2 i)( m'i r*2~~~ Show that the equation of the plane through tho line 5.
:
first
lino
m 2 n l)~0'
xl
.^^
y+6
2 __i
and
parallel to
#_2 2
?/!
=^3=^
+4
it.
is 26.c lly 172 109=0 and show that the point (2, 1, 4) lies on the geometrical relation between tho two lines and the plane ? Find the equation of the plane containing the line 6.
What
is
and the point (0, 7, 7) and show that tho lino x 1/)= J(z}7) lies in tho J(7 same plane. [Ann. x y+z = Q. 7. Find the equation of tho piano which contains the lino
\
and
is
= yl = (33)/4
a+2^/+2 = 12.
Deduce the
plane.
8*
direction cosines of the projection of the given line on the given (L.U.)
[Ans.
line
9x
2y5z+ 4=0
in the
Ik, 10A% where Jt = ]/v/(165). 4fc, symmetrical form, of the projection of the
;
i(*+
on the plane
a722/
[Ans.
To
3*4. Coplanar Lines. Condition for the coplanarity of lines. find the condition that the two given straight lines should intersect 9 i.e., be coplanar.
COPLANAR LINES
Let the given straight
lines be
45
T~
If the lines intersect, plane containing the line (1)
is
'
w/
lie
"
TO
they must
in a plane.
Equation of any
lies
will
(2), if
the point (x 2) y 2 z 2 )
,
normal to
it.
3*3).
This requires
Eliminating A, B,
C from
(ii),
(Hi), (iv),
we
get
=0,
(A)
which
for the lines is the required condition eliminating A, B, C from (i), (ii), (iv) we get
to
intersect.
Again
h,
72 ,
/
<i>
ni
m> 2 ,
n2
lines,
which
is
in
case
they intersect.
Second Method.
obtained as follows
:
The condition
for
intersection
may
also be
are the general coordinates of the points on the lines (1) and (2) respectively. In case the lines intersect, these points should coincide for some This requires values of rl and r 2
.
(ffi
#2)
^1^2
='0,
=0.
Eliminating
r ls r 2 ,
we have
Tlo
which
is
46
Note
1.
xx lt
yyi, zz
(1)
and
,
parallel to (2),
7/2>
x2 y
Z2
2,
7??2
^2
represents tho plane through (2) and parallel to (1). In case the lines are coplanar, the condition (A) shows that tho point (#2 2/2 ^2) nes on the n rst plane and the point (x lt ?/ lf 2^ on the second. These two planes are then identical and contain both the intersecting lines.
*
Thus the equation of a plane containing two intersecting line 9 is obtained finding the plane through one line and parallel to tho other or, through one line and any point on the other. Note 2. Two lines will intersect if, and only if, there exists a point whoso coordinates satisfy the four equations, two of each line. But we know that three unknowns can be determined so as to satisfy three equations. Thus for intersection, we require that the four equations should be consistent among themselves, i.e., the values of the unknowns x, y, z, as obtained from any three equations, should satisfy the fourth also. The condition of consistency of four equations containing three unknowns is obtained by eliminating the unknowns. It is sometimes comparatively more convenient to follow this method to obtain the condition of intersection or to prove the fact of intersection of two lines.
by
Note
3.
The condition
in tho
unsym
to be coplanar,
i.e.,
to intersect, as obtained
by eliminating
x,
y,
from these
equations,
is
2,
c2 ,
d2
6 4>
C 4>
In case, this condition is satisfied, the coordinates of the point of intersection are obtained by solving any three of tho four equations simultaneously.
Examples
1.
XI
4""
'
~~
3""
intersect
and find
Now,
(r+4, 4r~3, 7r~l) and
(2r'
+ l,
3/1, 8/10)
EXAMPLES
47
They
equations
...
r2r' + 3=0,
(i)
...
..
(ii)
(m)
r'=2 which also, clearly, satisfy (m). (a) and (ii) give r=l, Hence the lines intersect and their point of intersection obtained by 7, 6). putting r=l, or r' = 2 is (5, Note. This equation can also be solved by first finding the point
satisfying three equations
.
.
"
'
4' _4
_
3'
~3
2.
Show
s+j^y+5^
2"
ar<?
7
"
"
r3
'
f
first line
and
parallel
4,
5,
3 = 1
z=0.
or
6#
5y
which is clearly satisfied by the point ( 1, 1, I), a point on the second line. Hence this plane contains also the second line. Thus the two lines are coplanar and the equation of the plane containing
them
is
3.
Show
#+f>_ y
3x f 27/+Z
are coplanar
4_z
 7
2=0*=#
3/f2z
13
The
or
and find the equation to the plane in ivhich they lie. general equation of the plane through the second line
is
first lino
3(3+4) + (23t)2(l+2fc)^0,
i.e.,
4=J.
48
line
and
5,
4, 7)
and so contains
and
lie in
the plane
21a;19?/+22z125=0.
Exercises
1.
Show
4z
are coplanar. Find also the coordmates of their point of intersect ion and the which they ho. equation of the plane [Ans. (2, 4, 3) 45r 17i/f25z + 53 = C.
2.
linos

"
8
"
'
~I
1
[Ans.
intersect.
3.
Find
lU = 6i/+5
rT+ ] _
interscct.
4.
V+3_2f 5
5"
T
t
2_7/
;
"~r~ f
[Ans.
 ,6 5
in
which thev
;
lio.
1/2, 3/2)
5
a?2
Show
are coplanar.
5.
lines
intersect
6.
and
[Ana.
(3, 1,
2).
lines
,
xci__y~b_zc "
17
r,
~'~T'
7
c"
a'_yb'__zc "~~b c
t
,
intersect and find the coordinates of the point of intersection and the equation / of the plane in which they he. [Ann. (a + a' b + b' c+c') ^j:(bc' 6 c) = 0. Show that the condition that the two straight linos 7.
;
x
should intersect
8*
is
Show
(a~a')(nn') = (bb')(mm ). that the plane which contains the two parallel lines
f
given by
9.
rr//=i//?n=z/7?,
and
\Ans,
2(^^)^=0.
49
Show that the lino x+a (i) #=0, ?/f z=3a (M)
;
?y=0,
z+a?=3&
(tn)
2=0
= 0.
lino
(sa)/Myp)//*=(zY)/
2 to intersect the locus of the equations a^ 2 f6z/ =l, c = '
3*5.
line.
Number of arbitrary constants in the equations of a straight To show that there are four arbitrary constants in the equations of
line.
a straight
A
to
line
it.
PQ
through
two of the coordinate planes, say, YZ and ZX planes. The equations of the planes through PQ perpendicular to the YZ and ZX planes are respectively of the forms z = cy\d, and z = ax~\b which are, therefore, the equations of the line PQ and contain four
9
can be regarded as the intersection of any two planes In particular, we may take the two planes perpendicular
arbitrary constants a, b, c d. Hence the equations of a straight line involve four arbitrary conslants as it is always possible to express them in the above form. Note. The symmetrical form of the equations of a lino apparently involves six constants x\, y^, z^ to four arbitrary I, m, n, but they are really equivalent constants only as is shown below 2 2 n, which are connected by the relation / 2 7/i fn =l are equivalent Z, m to two independent constants only. Also, of the three apparently independent numbers a*j, ?/i  1 only two are independent as one of them can always be arbitrarity chosen as described below A lino cannot be parallel to all the coordinate planes. Let the given line, in particular, bo not parallel to the YZ piano. If, now, x^ bo assigned any value, wo may take the point where the line meets the plane x=x at the point
;
:
x l>Vl>
z l)
The three to r 1 any value wo please. #l,2/i,3i are, therefore, equivalent to two independent constants only.
numbers
contain
&
The fact that the general equations of a straight line four arbitrary constants may also be seen directly as follows
:
We see
that
^ipi^yyi y^yi^**
I
'
are equivalent to
ra
m m
9
'
n
mz
respectively, so that
I
mx^
li
ny^
50
3*51.
We now
a
line.
know that the equations of a straight line involve four arbitrary constants and hence any four geometrical conditions, each giving rise to one relation between the constants, fix a straight line. It may be noted that the conditions for a line to intersect a given line or be perpendicular to it separately involve one relation between the constants and hence three more relations are required to
fix
We
the
line.
A
(i)
given condition
may sometimes
give rise
to t\\o relations
(ii)
be required to
fix
the
Equations of lines have already been discussed under the following sets of conditions (i) passing through a given point and having a given direction
:
(ii)
(Hi)
(iv)
passing through two given points passing through a point and parallel to two given planes passing through a point and perpendicular to two given
;
;
lines.
Some
below
:
given
(v)
(vi)
passing through a given point and intersecting two given lines intersecting two given lines and having a given direction
;
(vii)
a given point
(viii)
intersecting
(ix)
two given lines at right angles intersecting a given line parallel to a given line
;
and passing
(x)
through a given point passing through a given point and perpendicular to two
given lines
;
and so on.
An
Important Note
//
==0=i' i and
?/
t/
v 2>
them
where
any two constant numbers. w t f x^j^ 0=?/ 2 which again ; 2 h'es in the plane w 1 +X 1 vi=0 contains the line w 1 =0=?? 1
Xj, X 2 are
The
line
+V
Wl+ AiVi=0=W2tX a v2
are, therefore, coplanar
^1=0=^1
intersect/,
EXAMPLES
same line intersects the lino ?/ 2 = 0= v 2 This conclusion will be found very helpful in what follows. For the sake of illustration, we give below a few examples.
Similarly, tho

61
Examples
1.
1, 1).
The
line
intersects the
two given lines for all values of A 1} A 2 This line will pass through the point (2, 1, 1),
1
if
+ A^O
AJ
1,
and
A2
1+A 2 =0,
1.
i.e., if
therefore, are
Find
2s
and
jx == J/
=:
Z
'
~T
lines are
"V
3
lines intersecting the
two given
which will be parallel to the given line if A x A 2 be so chosen that the two planes representing it are separately parallel to the given line.
,
This requires
and
(3+4A a + 2(l+5A 2 )+3(l2A 2 = 0, i.e., The required equations of the line, therefore, are
)
)
A2
=f
4^4. 7i/62
3.
3 = 0, 2#7t/ + 42+7=0.
A line
7,
2 meets each
find out the coordinates of each of the points of intersection. P(r ra, r) and P'(2r' a r r') are the general coordinates of points on the two given lines
r
9
t
T
r
"~
_
'
~~r
direction cosines of
PP'
r
are proportional to
r'
2r'+a,
a, r
r',
52
Now, we choose
and
r
r'
line
PP' has
direction
cosines
2/ + a_r

TJ
j
= JT r
2
which give
r
3a,
/=.
P and
P',
Putting
r=3a and
'a in
the coordinates of
we
get
and
(a, a, a)
which are the required points of intersection. 4. Find the equations of the perpendicular from
(3,
1, 11) to the line
the
point
l*=J(y2) = i(*3).
Obtain also
The
the foot of the perpendicular. coordinates of any point on the given line are 2r,
3r+2, 4r+3.
This will be the required foot of the perpendicular if the line joining This it to the point (3, 1, 11) be perpendicular to the given line.
requires
2(2r3)+3(3r+2HH4(4r+3ll) =
is (2, 5, 7)
or
r=l.
G
Exercises
1.
(2, 4,
1)
to
t
(it)
(2,2, 3)
(tn) (0, 0, 0)
(;)
(2,
2,
to 2^f yfz
Obtain also the feet of the perpendiculars. [4n. (*) x(.r2)i(2/4) =i(=+l). (4, 1, 3). (ti) a;+2)=(y2)=(s+3) (4, 1, 2). (m) .^2 = ^=2/4, (2/3, 1/3, 4/3). (w) *(a;+2) =(y2) = (2+3;, (4, 1, 2). A line with direction cosines proportional to (7, 4, 1) is drawn to 2.
>
s
^^ ==^1 7 = 2 + 2 ^+ 3 ^2/^3=f~ 5
1
"
'
i'
_$
Find the coordinates of the points of intersection and the length inter[Ans. cepted on it. (7, 5, 0), (0, 1,1), V(66). 3. Find the equations to the line that intersects the lines #+2/+z=l, 2# i/ 2=2 x y 2=3, 2x+4y 2=4 and passes through the point (1, 1, 1). Find also the points of intersection.
;
[Ans.
(3l)/0(y.l)/l(sl)/3
(1, J,
J)
(1, 0,
2).
tWO
LINES
53
origin to
lines
[Ana.
5.
line
x=2y=2z
6.
3x+4y=\
lino
4o;+5z=2.
parallel to
:r/2
drawn
= 2//3 = z/4
so as
to
7.
lino
(4,
3, 1),
x+2y
2, 3,
1)
(2, 1, 3).
measured
9.
4ar12i/33+l
perpendicular to the
= 0.
[Ans.
17/2.
X axis and
point
(2, 3, 4)
x=yz.
[Ans.
10. Find the equations of the straight line intersect tho lines
#=2, 2y
z=2.
will
and prove that the secant is divided at the origin in tho ratio 1 2. 11. Find tho equations of the two lines through the origin which = z at angles of 60. the line (x3)/2 =
:
intersect
[Ans. x = y/2=z z= y = z/2. which 12. passes through the points (11, 11, 18), (2, 1, 3) is intersected by a straight line drawn through (15, 20, 8) at right angles to Jaxis show that the two lines intersect at tho point (5, 3, 8).
;
y3
The
straight line
straight line is drawn through tho origin meeting perpendicularly the prove that tho straight line through (a, b, c) with direction cosines I, in, n direction cosines of the line are proportional to
13.
;
Ik, b
mk,
cnk where
ksal\bm\cn.
are From the point P(a, 6, c) perpendiculars PA, 14. 1 ; find the coordinates of lines y=2x, z=l and t/ 2.r, 2=
PB
Prove that, if P moves so that the angle APB is always a right angle, P 2 z 3y +25z*=25. always lies on tho surface \2x * [Ans. 4[(26+a)/5, (46 + 2a)/5, 1] fl[(o26)/6, (462a)/5, 1].
;
v/3'6.
shortest
To show that tfw shortest distance between two lines. distance between two lines lies along the line meeting them
The
Let
A J5, CD
line is
right angles.
if
it
intersects
two
lines
at
Thus, there is one and only one line which intersects the two and H. given lines at right angles*, say, at
54
A,
is
is, then, the shortest distance between the two lines for, if, be any two points, one on each of the two given lines, then GH clearly the projection of AC on itself and, therefore,
GH
GH^AC
where
is
cos
0,
AC.
Hence Thus GH
3*61.
GIKAC.
is
the
the
shortest distance
lines
AB
and CD.
the
To find
magnitude and
If AB, CD bo t\\o given lines and G /7 the line which meets them both at
y
right angles at
G and
II,
then
GH
is
the
line
of shortest
distance
between the given lines and the length Gil is the magnitude. Let the equations of the given lines be
...(it)
and
let
GH lie
a.__y
P_z
7
...(Hi)
(i)
Line (m)
is
and
(n). Therefore,
we have
m __ m n^n^^
I
j
%
2
~I 2
m
1
sm
where
is
lines.
&m
The
line
Til'
$
~
.
sm0
^ n
sm
of shortest distance is perpendicular to both the lines. Therefore the magnitude of the shortest distance is the projection on the line of shortest distance of the line joining any two points, one on each of the given lines (i) and (n).
line
Taking the projection of the join of (x l9 y l9 Zj), (x 29 y2 z 2 ) on the I, m, n, we see that the shortest^distance
,
where
that
Z,
in (iv).
To
we observe
it is
EXAMPLES
55
lines
(i)
and
n
I,
w,
^
n
lines
(ii)
and
(Hi) is
=0.
I,
...(w)
m.
line
Thus
(v)
/,
where
and (w) are the two equations of the m, n are given in (iv).
of shortest distance,
Note. Other methods of determ>mng Iho shortest distance are given below where an example has been sol\ed by three different methods.
1.
Find
the
the
line
of shortest
"
3
1
/
'
16
::: 2_9 s==
7
2
r5
5
3
First
Method
Let
/,
line
of shortest
distance.
As
and
it is
we have
__
"24 or
36
72'
m
Hence
Z=f,
w=, w=f.
is
shortest distance
5),
the
projection
of the
of the points (8, 9, 10), (15, 29, distance and is, therefore,
on the
= 7.f+38.f5.f=14.
first
of the two
56
8,
y + 9,
10
7
3,
16,
3,
=0,
2,
or
1
llx
f
4?/41z490=0.
the
Also the equation of the plane containing the shortest distance line is
second line
and
xL*)) y
3,
2,
^y, z
8,
5
6
1=0,
3,
or
9#
ty
2=14.
P(3r+8,
15, 8r'
+ 29,
5r'
are the general coordinates of the points on the two lines respecThe direction cosines of PP' are proportional to tively.
Now PP'
and
or
distance,
if
it
is
3(3r3r'7)16( 16r 8r'38)+7(7r+5r' + 5) = 0, 3(3r3r ~7)+8(16r8/38)5(7r+5/+5)0. 157r + 77r' 3110 and llr f 7r' + 25=0
r
which requires
which give
r'
2.
1
Therefore coordinates of
(5, 7, 3)
15).
its
equations are
sometimes very convenient and is specially useful when we require also the points where the line of shortest distance meets the two lines.
This method
is
Third Method.
derations
:
Let AB,
CD
be the given
lines
line of shortest
EXAMPLES
denote the plane through AB and parallel to Let be the plane through CD and parallel to AB.
CD
and
let
*(3'
The
line
is
AB,
CD
of shortest distance GU being perpendicular to both normal to the two planes so that the two planes are
9
The length of the shortest distance is, therefore, the parallel. This distance between distance between the parallel planes a and p. parallel pianos being the distance of any point on one from the other, W3 see that it is enough to determine only one plane say 'a' and then the magnitude of the shortest distance is the distance of any point on the second line from the plane V.
Again, we easily see that the plane through the lines AB, GH is and the plane through CD, GH is perpendicular to the plane perpendicular to the plane 'P' and, therefore, also to V. Thus GH, the line of shortest distance, is the line of intersection of the planes separately drawn through AB, CD perpendicular to the plane V. We now solve the equation.
OH
line
(i)
and
parallel to
;8, y+9,
3,
210
16,
8,
=0
5
...(Hi)
3,
or
2*+3*/+6z49:=0
(15, 29, 5), lying
on the
= 30 f 87+30 49
7
which
(fff) is
is
3,
16,
3,
2,
6
...(iv)
or
(fff) is
117z + 42/4l2490=:0.
(ft)
5
6
=0
2,
3,
or
9#
42/z=14.
...(v)
Hence
(ft;),
(v)
58
2.
Find
and
the line
The
this case.
third
It
will
...(*)
0, 0, 1, if
J_ zaxis,
i.e., if,
i.e.,
k^
c/c'.
Substituting this value of k in (i), we see that the equation of the plane through the second line parallel to the first is
is
= perpendicular from
f
(0, 0, 0), (a
point on zaxis)
2
*
~"
V[(c' 
6'c)
Exercises
Find the magnitude and the equations of the between the two lines
1.
:
lino of shortest
distance
....
(tt)
_ r
4_z+2.
g
j,
j
(n)
x I_y+l_z+  2
3
.
[^4i5.
(t)
x=y=z

(a?4) = (y2)/3 = ( 2
3)/5
V^' >.
2.
line
between
in^.
3.
Find the magnitude and the position of the shortest distance between
the lines
(i)
[^4n.
(t)
4.
(t)
;
132+24 17yC/39. Obtain the coordinates of the points where the shortest distance
7a;22/llzf20=0=13ic
between the
lines
a:23_3/19
_225
'
a?~12_yl ^ g5
^^6
meets them.
"=T~
9
4
[Ans.
2
(11, 11, 31)
and
(3, 5, 7).
59
7,
(6,
1,
Find the coordinates of tho point on the join of (3, 10) which is nearest to the intersection of the pianos 3xy 32 + 32 = and 3x\2y I5z 8 = 0.
[Ana.
13)
and
6.
Show
= 2y =
l2z
and x=i
lines
7.
3"
^T
5~
'
show
(P.U. 1926)
line of shortest
distance
between
the lines
zr'3
9.
""
~
T
T"'
;
r~'
'
x=y=z =
[Ans. 9 32^+ 34^+132 1080, J2^+33z/+ 15z 81=0. Sliow that the loiigth of tho shortest distance botweon the line z=^x tan a, y ^0 and any taiigont to the ellipse x 2 sin 2 a+^ 2 =a 2 ^ = is constant. 10. Show that tho shortest distance between any two opposite edges of the tetrahedron formed by the planes y+z^ 0, 2fo;=0, cef 2/==0, x+y+z=a shortest distance intersect at the point is Sa/y'G arid that tho three linos of
,
a.
37. Length of the perpendicular from a point to a line. the find length of the perpendicular from a given point P(XI, y L zj
,
To
to
given line
(a, (3, 7) on the given line and Q the foot of the perpendicular from P on it, we have,
If
be the point
Fig. 17.
But and
provided
I,
.ffQ
m,
The
expression^for
PQ 2
We
60
ANALYTICAL SOLID
Exercises Find the length of tho perpendicular from the point
.r5_2/{2__26  3
2.
1.
(4,
5, 3) to
the line
_4
.. [Ant.
V(4 
line
#=2/=z
3.
Find the locus of the point which moves so that its distance from tho is twice its distance from the plane #f yf z = l.
[Ana.
= Jt/ = 1)
4,
1)
upon
that
z.
[Ans.
V( 2109 / 110 )
To find
;
the
conditions
planes
a r x\b r y
should have a
c r
z+df=0
(r=l,
2, 3)
common
line of intersection.
common
line of intersection,
then
as
(ii),
we get
=*, (suppose)
three
Eliminating A and k from these four equations, taking them by three, we obtain
a2
=0,
3>
=0,
^3, C 3 , $3
=0,
dj, C 3 ,
Only two of these four conditions are independent for, if the in common, they have the whole line in planes have two points common and this fact requires only two conditions. These four determinants will respectively be denoted by the
letters
Note. The following is the Algebraic proof of the fact that only two of the above four conditions are independent, i.e., if two of these four determinants vanish the other two must also vanish.
i>
b ly c l
,
b 3 , c l9 d 1
Let
a2 62
,
= 0=
6 3 , ca ,
ei
a3
=0
TRIANGULAR PRISM
A,
a 23 or Thus we obtain
2 (a l
61
1
A<*
^3
~k*
dl
a^
Similarly
it
2,
d2
= 0.
be obtained in
3*82 in a
will also
manner.
3'81. Triangular prism. Def. Three planes a.re, said to form a triangular prism if the three lines of intersection of the three planes, taken in pairs, are parallel. Clearly, the three planes will form a triangular prism if the line of intersection of two of them be parallel to the third.
3*82.
To find
(r
= l,
planes
2, 3)
should form a prism or intersect in a line. The line of intersection of the first two planes
is
Fig.
18.
Fig.
19.
three planes will form a triangular prism the third plane but does not lie in the same. to parallel
The
if
this
lines
Then
or
line
(i)
will
if
b l9
3,
'
6 3 , c3
i.e.,
A=0.
if
Again, the planes will intersect in a line plane a 3 x + b a y + c3 z + d^=0. This requires
:
the line
(i) lies
in
the
A
.
0,
.
and
(2)
the point
it
/^IU'9
(
UnU/1
>
IJbiUn
_
>
f~~
f>
/,
__T~/,
^ ies
on
^ w ^ lcn
.
gives
^3(6^2
or
^2^1)
i b^a^d^
a^
= 0,
tte ttrce
line, if
3
A=A
t^i'M
=0,
if
Three distinct nonparallel planes behave in relation to Note. each other in any of the following three ways in a line which requires that two of the (i) They may intersect four determinants /\. Ai> A2> As should vanish.
:
(ii)
should
vanish.
(Hi)
They may
which requires
that
Exercises
 'v^
1.
Show
(ii)
;O
r<
l
:
2
:
f
2.
Show that the following sets of planes form triangular prisms = 0,3a;+y23 + 2 = 0, 2x+4y+7z 7=Q. (i) a:+y+ + 3
(ii)
xzl = Q, a?+2/~223 =
5ij
>
a?2y+3 = 0.
3.
4x
22
z
(ii)
2x+3y
(i)
prism,
(ii)
EXERCISES
44
63
if
x
5.
Show
bxayn,
will intersect in
cybz=l,
azcx=m
t
a line
if
al\
bm\cn~O
6, c.
bzcy = b
pass through one line (say
/),
c,
cxaz^ca, aybx=ab
b)x
f
c)z=c\a,
c)y(ca)x=a + b,
(l ).
Show
and
/'
are at right
CHAPTER IV
INTERPRETATION OF EQUATIONS LOCI
4*1.
tion of the
III, it
z
We now
4*2.
Locus of a variable point with its is current coordinates x, y, z connected by a single equation/ (x, y, z)
Equation to a surface.
The line through (a, p, 0) on the plane. point drawn parallel to the Zaxis, viz., a; a, y=$ meets the locus in points whose zcoordinates are given by the roots of the equation /(a, (3, 2) 0. As this equation has a finite number of roots, the number of points of the locus on every such line is also finite. Hence the locus, which is the assemblage of all such points for different values of a, p, must be a surface and not a solid.
Thus
4*21.
the equation
is
XY
the equation
f (x,
is
y, z)
Equations free
from one
Locus of
f (x,
y)
0.
,
a cylinder with
generators parallel to
axis.
XY
(3)
equation
f(x, y)
(a, p
Let
(a,
Any
line lies
point
z)
on the
line
through this point, drawn parallel f (x, y) = and hence the whole
on
its locus.
locus is the assemblage of lines, parallel to OZ drawn through the points, on the curve and is, therefore, a cylindrical
Thus the
surface.
Similarly the loci of the equations are cylinders with generators parallel to the .Xaxis
respectively. Ex. What surfaces are represented by the equations
(t)
je+y 2 =a,
xy=c*,
(iv)
x*la*y*lb* = \.
l,
(in)
y^=4ax.
4*22.
equation f(x)
Locus of the Equations containing only one variable. = Q is a system of planes parallel to the YZ plane. a 2> a 3 ........................... a n be the roots of the equation
65
is
equivalent to
(x
ct^x
<x
2)
.........
(za n )=0
which are
parallel to the
YZ
plane.
and f(z)=Q, are Similarly the loci of the equations /(?/)= and systems of planes respectively parallel to the planes.
ZX
XY
4*3.
Equations to a Curve.
/(#> y,
z)
Two
equations
= 0,
<l>(x.
y, 2)
together represent
a curve.
points, whose coordinates satisfy these equations simultaneously, are common to the two surfaces separately represented by
The
them and, therefore, lie on their curve of intersection. Hence the locus of a point whose current coordinates connected by two equations is a curve.
Exercises
1.
are
loci
represented by
(ii)
y2^ax,z=c,
2.
Show
y,s)
= 0, 9
(.r,
z)
= y, s) = 0,/(a,
y,
z)W(*,
y, c)
=
the point
:
and
whose focus
is
(1, 2, 3,),
x2
+y + z2+2sy+2yz{2xzC>x\2yl8z+4 2==Q==x2y+z.
t2
Surfaces generated by straight lines. Ruled Surfaces. A straight line subjected to three conditions only, can take up an infinite number of positions. The locus of these lines is a surface called a
ruled surface.
4*41.
To
u l ~Q=v 1
where
U2=Q = v 2
,
^3
= 0=^3,
.
u r =a r x+b ry+c r z + d r
straight line
The
intersects the
first
two
A x A2
,
The condition of
line is
(i)
= 0.
is,
A1
then, obtained
by eliminating
66
4'42. Condition for the intersection of a straight line and a curve. If a straight line intersects a given curve, the coordinates of the points of intersection satisfy the four equations (two for the straight line and two for the curve) so that the four equations are simultaneously valid, i.e., consistent. The condition for consistency is obtained by eliminating x, y, z from the four equations.
Examples
1.
Find
_
I
m
9
...(if)
(ii) y
Eliminating
x, y,
we obtain
n /\
which
is the required condition. Find the locus of the line which intersects the three lines 2.
First
Method.
The
line
first
26
"c
V
,
..
or
c
1
)aA 2
(ii),
Eliminating A l5 A 2 from
(f)
and
,
we obtain
z c
}
c=
or
fc(zfc)
yb
x^a
)
c(x+a)(yb)+a(zc)(yb)+b(x+a)(z+c) =
ayz + bzx f cxy f ctbc
is
or
0,
which
line intersecting
n
line.
1 1
so that (a,

(3,
y)
is
EXAMPLES
67
cy
and
,
a4a
1m
a
==
(u),
...(m)
,.
x
,...
6f p
,
...uv)
m,
ft,
between
(m) and
(iv),
we have
the required locus
As
is
(a,
(3,
7)
is
line,
or
3.
ayz + bzx
+ cxy + a&c = 0.
;
show
which are perpendicular to the line with direction cosines proportional to I, m, 71, and which meet the given lines generate
that the lines
the surface
(M.T.)
be
'
x<x._y~$_zy ~ ~ "A v
(JL
W
,.
/A+m(jL+?iv=0,
...(ii)
and
if
given lines
...(Hi)
...(it;)
aa6
I,
m,
2
or
Z(a&ay
6 cp)
7w(a6py a
is
ca)
+ ?ia&(y 2
2
)
=0.
The required
4.
locus, therefore,
abz(lx
+ my + nz)
,
c(a
mx f b z ly + abcn)
Find
to the
ZX plane
and meets
the curves
2/
=4c2,
#=0
line
be
68
#a =
I
2/
m
o
=z
n
m0.
(n),
2
?/
and
The
if
line
(i)
ZJf plane
f
.(iv)
Eliminating
so that
is
Z,
m, n from
(m) and
(it;),
we obtain
(c .r?/)
= 4c 2
3
Putting # and
y*=4:CZ and xy
=c
we
get
Find the equation of the surface traced out by lines which pass 5. through a fixed point (a, p, J) and intersect the curve
Any
line
through
(a, p,
7)
is
*a_2/P
I
Z,
m,
7i,
being variables.
Eliminating
Z,
m,
TI
n / between
(i)
and
(u),
we
get
or
aa27
is
which
1.
Prove that
all linos
lines
mx,z = c; y~
lie
mx,
zc
to the Xaxis
on the surface
mxzcy.
Find the locus of the
intersect the line
lines
and which
3.
x~y=Q=z
x^^^az, ?/0.
;
x*y*=2az.
Find the surface generated by straight lines which intersect the lines 2/=0, z=c;#=0, z~ c and are parallel to the plane 8* lx/(z{c)+myl(zc)+n~Q.
Of
TWO SKEW
LINES IN
A SIMPLIFIED FORM
by straight
lines
Show that the equation to the surface generated 4. intersecting the three lines
5.
Show
= l, #~0
2;
# = 1, 2/=0
a;
line
t
circle
a*[jc*(z
lines
and the
is
x 2 /a 2 +2/2/&2=l, 2=0 to
straight
line
ellipse
ymx, z = c
ynix, z=c.
the,
Find the equation to the surface generated. 2 2 2 [Ans. a*c*}>i (cymxz)* + b2c (rncxyz)*=a bm*(c2z*)2. 4*5. Equations of two skew lines in a simplified form. To find equations of two skew straight lines in a simplified form.
CD
Let the shortest distance between the two given and be of length 2c. meet them at L and
lines
AB
and
Fig. 20
AB
OG
and
OH
parallel to
Yaxis and
angles. If the
LM as Zaxis.
angle
9
OG and OH
angles 0, cosines of
$n6
AB
between the given lines be 20, the line OG makes %n with the axes OX, OY, OZ so that the direction which is parallel to OG are
70
sin Q, 0.
JTT
makes angles 0, irc + 0, Also, since are therefore the direction cosines of
OH
CD
cos 0,
sin 0, 0.
M are
c)
and
(0, 0,
respectively, for
LM=2c.
AB CD
9
are
c
A" sin
r
r~7r
.
=x
.
tan
and
t
x cos
y
sin
00*
=7r
z+c
i.e.,
?/=
#t an
0>
2=
respectively. Note 7. (r, r tan 0, c) and (/?, p tan 0, c) are the general coordinates of r and p being the parameters. points on the two lines Note 2. Solutions to certain problems relating to two nonintersecting the straight lines are often simplified by taking tho equations of the lines simplified form obtained above.
;
Exercises
1.
lines at
straight line
T C ^L^JL= Z m
1
W
.
(i)
and
so that the points r and p.
(r,
T'r
mr
9
?/
z4c
...
(T
c) lie
<**>
c)
and
(p,
is
r
nip,
on these
values of
The
line
xr
y j
'
rp m(r+p)
As
or
it
__
mr

z
_
c
'
....
2c
lines
(t)
arid (n),
we have
From
(tu)
and
(iv),
we have
xr

== 
z~c

2
so that eliminating
r,
and
A ymr^Q,
we obtain
/7?co;~?/2,
Find the locus of a point which moves so that the perpendiculars 4. drawn from it to two given skew lines are at right angles. Two skew lines AP, BQ, inclined to one another at an angle of 60, are 5. intersected by the shortest distance between them at A, B respectively, and
t
EXERCISES
;
71
P, Q are points on the lines such that A Q is at right angles to BP prove that AP.BQ=2AB*. 6. Two skew lines AP BQ are mot by the shortest distance between them at A B and P, Q aro points 011 them such that APr, BQp. If the planes
y ,
APQ
and
BPQ
is
constant.
are two fixed skew lines. Planes are drawn through them at right angles to each other. Find the locus of their line of intersection. Showthat the locus degenerates into two planes if is perpendicular to CD. are two perpendicular skew lines and the shortest distance 8. AB, between them meets the same at L aud O is tho midpoint of P and ; P' are variable points on and CD such that OP 2 JOP' 2 is constant. Find the locus of the line PP'.
7.
AB
and
CD
AB
CD
AB
LM
9.
Prove that the locus of the point which is equidistant from the c, ytmxQz~+c y mx~
lines
02
is
the surface
mxy f10.
f
m 2 )cz =
of a tetrahedron is fixed in magnitude as well as position, and the opposite edge is of given length and lies along a fixed straight line. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron is a straight line.
One edge
two opposite edges of a tetrahedron are a, b the them is 2c and the angle between them is a prove
;
volume
A, B,
is
(dbc sin
',
oc)/3.
12.
if
C and
lines.
Prove
AB BC^A'B'
:
:B'C'
f the middle points of AA', BB' CC are collinear. Lines aro drawn to intersect the linos 13.
,
(M.T.)
z\c
and
to
make a constant
is
mx=
(I_ m 4)i
z
and
is
y{
mx=
Show
points
an
ellipse
whose eccentricity
or ]>
or (w4_l)i /
m2
according as
14.
?H 2
1
<1
is
1.
P,
Keeoiid.
common perpendicular of two skew lines PQA, P'Q'A' ; points on the first lino and P', Q' any two points on the Prove that the common perpendicular of A A' and tho lino joining the
the
AA
AA'
(M.T.)
CHAPTER V
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES
relatively to
The coordinates of a point in space are always determined any assigned system of axes, generally called the frame of reference and they change with the change in the frame of reference.
5*1.
We shall now obtain the formulae connecting the coordinates of a point relative to two different frames of reference.
5*11. Change of origin. To change the without changing the directions of axes.
origin
of coordinates
Let OX, OY, OZ, be the original axes and 0'X' 0'Y' O'Z', the new axes respectively parallel to the original axes. Let the coordi9
(/, g, h).
be
x, y, z
and
respectively.
Draw PL
meeting them at
YOZ
and Y'O'Z'
LP=x
Now, LL'
the
is
and L'P=x'.
from 0' to
YOZ
equal to the length of the perpendicular plane and is, therefore =/.
P
Fig. 21.
Also
.'.
LP=LL'+L'P
x=x'+f.
Similarly
y=y'+g>
Hence, if in the equation
to
any
surface,
we change
to
x+f, y+g,
z+h
to the
respectively, we obtain the equation to the same surface referred point (f, g, h) as origin.
6*
Ex.
(2,
AXES
3, 4)
Find the equations of the plane 2x+3y{z 7 referred to the point as origin ; directions of the axes remaining the same. [Ans. 2.r 432/44244=0.
5' 12. Change of the directions of axes. of axes without changing the origin.
To change
the directions
Let
/!,
x,
n1
Zt
m
,
2.
n2
,
19
<
ra 3
cosines of the
referred to the
and x y' z' be the coordinates of any point two systems of axes.
_[_
Draw
it
PN

in
N' and
\j ij
"
also
N 'L'
::zz
in L' so that
== x
\
Jj iV
iV L
:=
Now, the projection of OP being equal to the sum of the projections of VC, OL', L'N', N'P on OX', we have, x^x' +I 2 y' +I 3 z'
\i
Similarly
and
3 3
Fig.
22.
By
x+m
y4n 1 z
^
;
>
...(B)
The
results
(A)
easily
1.
with reference to axes through the same origin and with direction cosines [Ans. 2*2432/24622^1. proportional to (1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 1), (1, 2, 1). Show that the equation lx\my+nz = Q becomes 2=0, when referred to 2. new axes through the same origin with direction cosines
n
2
'
Hence show that the curve ax* 4 fy/ 2 2 hyperbola if (a+b)n*+am*+bl =Q.
"2 =
~~^_
~~
__ "
nm
1
//72_L V(
is
2\
)
;
m> n
'
2z,
lximy~\nz=Q
a rectangular
is
unaltered "by
any transformation
first
of axes.
Since, for x, y, z
x, y, z,
it
we always put
for,
expressions of the
otherwise,
degree in
it
Also,
cannot decrease
on retransforming
must
increase.
5'2.
Relations
lines.
; ,
perpendicular
/2 I l9 mi, n L 2> n z ^3? nh> n s being the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular lines OX, OF, OZ, we have the relations
\
/1
/2 Z3
+m
2
1
f
n1 z = l
2
a
3
fw 2 2 f w 2 2 ~l
f w 3 + n 3
a
;")
;
>
(A)
1 ;J
and
/ 8 Z1
=Q + ^3W*i+w % =
3 3
^
(Cor. 3,
...(B)
.J
Page
17)
cosines.
Now,
I l9
Z2
?3
Wj,
m w
a,
n l9 n 2t n 3 are clearly the direction 3 OX, OY, OZ referred to the new. There
...(C)
and
The
relations A, B, G,
relations A,
from the In fact the relations B and vice versa, without any geometrical considerations
Cor.
12) m 2 n 2 l s ra 3 n3 be the direction cosines of // I l9 m 1? n mutually perpendicular straight lines, then
;
,
at
all.
,
three
11,
raj,
n
n
12 ,
2,
For,
if
we have
wi,
2,
2,
*,
m,,
'
3>
^3>
INVARIANTS
78
1,
o,
o,
1,
=
1
o,
o,
Hence
5*3. Invariants. //, by any change of rectangular axes without change of origin, the expression
ax 2
becomes
a'x 2
f
+ by + cz
2
f
+ 2hxy
&y + cz
g
2
+ 2fyz + 2g'zx+2h'xy
f
then
(ii)
ab + bc}caf 2
h 2 = a'b'\b'c
q
t
c'a'
g'
f'
g'*
h'
2
,
h b
h'
h'
V f
9 g f f' c' Consider two sets of rectangular axes Ox, Oy Oz OX, 07, OZ same the Let P be any point so that if (x, y z), through origin 0. (X, Y, Z) be the coordinates of the same relative to the two systems
9 ;
of axes,
we have
see that
Thus we
becomes
Also, as given,
becomes
Then
if
ax*+by*+cz
becomes
+ 2fyz+ 2gzx+2hxy+X(x 2 +y
+z>)
...(1)
If now, for
(1)
any value of A, the expression becomes a product of two linear factors, then,
^,
__, <>
for the
same
/^
ANALYTICAL
$OLit>
This (2) must also become a product of two linear factors. follows from the fact that the degree of an expression does not change as a result of the change of axes so that the linear factors of (1) will become the two linear factors of (2).
2*8, P. 37, the values of A for which the expression (1) are the products of linear factors are respectively the roots of the cubic equations
Now, by
(2)
and
As the equations
1
(3)
and
(4)
roots,
we
see that
'
J__ a+b+c =
a'+b'~+c'
so that
D=D'.
Note 1. The result obtained above shows that any second degree homogeneous expression ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 f 2fyz 2gzx + 2hxy,
if
in
relation
to
x, y, z
a+b + c, bc+ca+abf*g 2 h 2 D
,
are invariants.
Note
2.
It
may
bc
be seen that
2
+ ca+ab f g*h*=A+JB+C,
b, c in
where A, B,
Ex.
the determinant
Z).
Show
x, y, z, to
respectively that
a + 6f
A+B+C, D
c,
are also invariants for change of origin. [In fact, as may easily be seen, the co efficients a, 6, are themselves separately invariants for a change of origin change in the direction of axes].
/, g, h,
without
EXAMPLES
Ex.
1.
77
OA, OB, 00
and
h>
>i>
the origin,
h>
n2
'a>
a>
n z
= If OA OBOC=a, prove
ABC
is
my }nz\pQ.
(*')
The coordinates of A are (a^, am^ cm x ). The plane (^) passes through ^4. Therefore, we have
(//!
+ w&WxfwijJfjp
Q,
O.
...(u)
Similarly,
we have
..
(iz'i)
(iv)
by
x , Z2
/3
respectively,
and adding,
we
get
(From
I
relations D.
Page
74)
or
jP
= h+k+h
*
?.
Similarly
and
= p
,
o "

q
'
Making substitutions, in (i), we get the required result. Ex. 2. / r 7>? r r? r (r=l, 2, 3) arc direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular straight lines and
, ;
Prove that
a/^3r^/w/3+c/W3=0
and a
c~
Z Z
2 ^3
Ex.
3.
about the
line
given by
x\l=y\m^=z]n
into new positions and the direction cosines of the n x ; / 2 7?? 2 n 2 ; ^3, w 8 , n 3 ; and, if are I l9 lf
new
then
/(w 8
wa
=
Examples
1.
Show
Find
the area
and
of
78
lines
of intersection of
the
first
~H9 ^
o"
'
and, as may be easily shown, this line is parallel to the third plane but does not wholly lie in it. Hence the planes form a prism.
Normal
consider the normal section through the origin. of the plane of this section is
We
Equation
'...(iv)
2?/+3z=0.
Coordinates of the three vertices of the triangular section are obtained by solving simultaneously each of three pairs of the given equations with the equation (iv).
Thus the
A(
vertices are
145 T4")>
14>
B(
Y4, "~l"45
1^4)5
C(l4)
1~45 14.)
AB, BC,
'
CA
are
Let
The
tions A'B'C' of A, B, C,
XY plane
T4
1
Let
Az
be the area of
A A'B'C'.
5
Therefore,
4>
15.
145
145
Let
the plane
3
77V
(iv)
and
XOY plane.
Therefore,
COS
Also
Az=A
cos
0.
A^' = A ~cosT
2.
i^i/idl
V14
7'
3= T
on
the
plane
3#
4yf5z
4,
5=0
;
drawn through
t
4)
f/ive?i
fto ^e plane
horizontal.
Line of greatest slope on a given plane, drawn through a given point on the plane, is the line through the point perpendicular to the line of intersection of the given plane with any horizontal plane.
have, thus, to find the line through ^4(3, dicular to the line of intersection of the planes
z
We
4,
4)
perpen
5=0,
EXAMPLES
Equations of
this line in the
79
x+ ~
1
y+2 ^ =~
2
W
P
on the
line are
The
line
AP
l(r
will
r=
are
Hence the
line, ^4P,
#3 ~~
7
of greatest slope
""
1
is
3.
<7P, (7Q, are conjugate diameters of the ellipse 2 x*/a*+y lb*^l,z c',
drawn in
the
same
PQ'
or P'Q.
Let
be (a cos
0, b sin 0, c).
c),
Therefore, Q,
(a cos 0, 6 sin
P\Q'
6,
are
(a
respectively.
sin 0, b cos 0,
c)
(a sin
Equations of PQ' are
0, b
cos
0,
c)
xa cos
+
2/~ &
si n
...
The The
cos 0) sin 6) ^(sin 9 a(cos locus will be obtained on eliminating equations (i) can be written as
2c
({)
x a
'
~2c
may
is
Shoio that the equations of the planes through the lines which bisect the angles between the lines
x
~~
I
m~~ n
z y V ~~m'~~ri
80
and perpendicular
'
(ll')x+(mm')y+(nri)z=0.
Let OA, OB be the given lines such that
lines.
(P.U. 1945}
Take points
and
on the
Take another point A' the midpoint of AA'. The coordinates of A, B, A' are
(Zr,
is
mr, nr),
(lr,
mr,
nr)
respectively.
'
AB
OP,
OQ
Thus the
lines
OP,
OQ
arc
The
Let
lines 0.4,
05, OP,
P$
OR
The
the
lines
OP,
(i.e.,
OQ
and
OR
planes
POQ
ROP
perpendicular.
passes through a bisector OQ and is perpendicular that it is one of the required planes. Being perpendicular to the line OP, its equation is
to the plane
The plane
AOB so
POR
QOR
plane.
Being perpendicular
(lr)x+(mm')y+(nn')z=0.
Revision Exercises I
1.
+ my \nz p,
fce+w2/=0,
my+nz
0,
nz+lxQ.
(D. U. Hona., 1948}
[Ans.
2.
straight lines
z
y
p
x
~~
y
^j3
x
~~
/
z
~~
a
will lie in
oa
cy
'
one p lane,
if
[The three
coplanar,
If
X,
(J.,
lines
(P.C7.
origin.
They
will
be
there exists a line through the origin perpendicular to each of them. be the direction cosines of this line, we have
if
Xa+[Jip+VY==0, aaX+6pixf CYV=O, ZXfmnf nv=0. Eliminating X, ^, v we have the given condition.]
fcJEVISiON
3.
EXERCISES
SI
Show
x
are coplaiiar
4.
if
__
z
'
x
c
z
'
a = b or
,
a/a~ P/&~Y/ C
bc or = a,
a ~~1*~~ Y
x __ y ~aa~~ P6
~~"^
triangle whose vertices have coordinates (a, 6, c), (6, c, a) and (c, 6) is an equilateral triangle. Find the coordinates of the vertices of the two regular totrahodra described on the above equilateral triangle
aSbaSe
'
(C.V.1915)
[4,,,.
(/,/,/) where /
^+V(2a O
2M.
If two opposite edges of a tetrahedron are equal in length and are at 5. right angles to the lino joining their middle points, show that the other two pairs
of opposite edges have the same property. Two edges, AB, CD of a tetrahedron A BCD are perpendicular show 6. that the distance between the mid points of and BC is equal to the distance between the midpoints of AC and BD.
;
AD
Planes are drawn so as to make ari angle of 60 with the line x=yz 7. and an angle of 45 with the line = y z. Show that all these planes make an angle of 60 with the plane ^ = 0. Find the equations of the planes of this family which are 3 units distant ~4 from the point (2, 1, 1). [Ans. 2^j(2i v'2) 2/+(2=F V 2 ) 2==2 or A plane meets a set of three mutually perpendicular planes in the sides 8. of a triangle whose angles are A, B, C. Show that the first plane makes with the other three planes angles, the squares of whoso cosines are cot B cot C, cot C cot A, cot A cot B. (B.U. 1926) A triangle the lengths of whose sides a, b and c, is placed so that the 9. middle points of its sides are 011 the coordinate axes. Show that the equation
a,'
to
its
plane
is
whore
z 2 2 8a 2 =6 2 fc2 2, s^ = c^+a^b 8v =a 2 f & c2. Also show that the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle are
,
10.
Show
(oc, (3, Y), (a, P, Y), (, P, Y ). that there are two lines which intersect the lines
A V.
1938)
and
in
thezaxis.
11. Taking axis OZ, to be vertical, find equations of the line of greatest 1, 0) 011 the plane slope through the point P(2,
2a?+3y42l = 0.
[Ans.
i(o:2)
[The required line is the line through P drawn perpendicular to the line of intersection of the given plane and the horizontal plane z=0.] 12. The plane 3ccf 4^/f5z=0 is horizontal. Show that the equations of the line of greatest slope 011 the plane #f2^/f32~4 through the point (2, 5, 4) are (*2)=(y+5) = i(z4). Find the equation of the plane through (0, 1, 1) and (2, 0, 13. 1) which
is parallel to the line joining ( cular distance between the line
1, 1,
2), (3,
2,
4).
and the
plane.
[Ana.
14.
straight line is drawn through (a, p, y) perpendicular to each of two given straight lines which pass through (a, jB, y) and whose direction cosines are Show that the volume of the tetrahedron formed by (a, P, Y) lit mi, HI ; / 2 ?^2> n 2 and the points where the three lines cut x Q is
where
is
m in
2~~~
m2
7t
i)
(B.U.)
82
If OA, OB, 00 have direction cosines 15. OA', OB', OC', bisect the angles BOO, CO A, AOB COC' pass through the line x y __ _
r,
m rt
nr
(r=l,
2, 3)
,
the planes
AOA'
and BOB',
PC may
A point P moves so that three mutually perpendicular lines PA PJ5, be drawn cutting the axes OX, OY, OZ at A, B, C and the volume of the tetrahedron OABC is constant and equal to a 3 /6. Prove that P lies on the surface
16.
,
17.
common
1, 2),
and the
line joining the points (3, of the line through the origin which
is
Find also the equations (4, 0, 1). perpendicular to both the above lines.
1
18.
Show
y/ll
= z.
19. The plane a;/a + z//6Hs/c=l meets the axes at A, JB C respectively arid planes arc drawn through Ojt, OY and OZ mooting Z?C 6 ^L and ^4# respecShow that these planes are coaxial. tively at right angles.
9
Y
axis meets tho pi MIQ to tho coordinate planes, through the feet of the perpendiculars is
If the
common
ABO
drawn from
5_4be
2/
_+JL=
~^b
2a ^ c
&*c 2
___
ca
+ c2a2f a 2 &2
20.
Prove that
a

2/
5=0 A.+ +2 x
xy
is
(C.U.1927) whose coordinates are (x, y, z), a perpendicular PM drawn to the straight lino through the origin whose direction cosines aro m, n, and is produced to P' such the PM=P'M. If the coordinates of P' are (#', y' z'}, show that
21.
From
a point
).
9
<
(P.U.)
22. 23.
aj=sy/2=2/3
that tho reflection of the plane the plane 3xy 262 + 7 = 0. Prove that the reflection of the plane
is
Show
2,x\Sy
+ z=\
in
the
line
in the plane
the plane
24.
2(aa'+bb'+<x')(ax+by+cz+d)^(a*+b*+c 2 )(a'x + b'y+c'z+d'). Find the equations of the straight line through the point
(M.T.)
(3, 1, 2)
to
and
i(x3)i(2/~l) = i(2~2). 25. The line i(a?+6)=i(yflO) = t(z+ 14) is the hypotenuse of an isosceles rightangled triangle whose opposite vertex is (7, 2, 4). Find the eqations of the remaining sides. [Ana. i(*7) = i (2/2) = i(z4) i(ar7) = i(2/2) = i(z4).
<
4:X+y+5z=Q.
[Ans.
(B.U. 1959)
fiXERCtSES
83
is drawn through a point (4, 1, 7) and perpendicular 26. straight line and the axis are to the plane 2z}3?/ 4? 8. Find tho points in winch intersected by their common normal. (B.U. 1926) [Ans. (6, 4, 3), (6, 0, 0).
AB
AB
OX
27. Find the equations of tho two straight linos through the origin, each of which intersect the straight line
i(*3)(2/3) = 2
and
is
inclined at an angle of 00
to
it.
(L.U. 1937)
2
;
28.
[Ans. x\y=^ Find the direction cosines of the projection of the line
x= y=\z
[Ans. 2/y'6, upon the plane 2x+y 32=4. 1/^6, 29. Find the equations of the straight line which is the projection on the
30. tional to
QP,
a point
P with
is
respectively. Find the equation of the plane and parallel to the perpendicular to the plane
PQR
[Ans. 4x2y{zO ( y ^). that the shortest distance between any two opposite edges of the is 2a/\/6 tetrahedron formed by the planes x+y~Q, ?/f2=0, zf # 0, arid that the three lines of shortest distance meet at the point x = y=z = a.
t
1),
find tho
^^
31.
Show
x+y+za
32.
line
Prove that the coordinates of the points where the shortest distance between the lines
x
I
~
a ='y b ~
 and
xa' =y
I
't)v
b'
=2
n
c'
meets the
a\l
first lino
are
%
2 cosec 2 0(w' cos u) 9 b\m cosoc O(M' cos 6 u) where 6 is the angle between the given straight lines
w),
l(a
a')\m(b
b'}{n(cc')
and
33.
u'=r(aa') + m'(bb'} + n'(cc'}. Prove that the shortest distance between the axis of
(B.U. 1920)
z
and the
line
JL + J =JY 1+ y) b a c \ J
for varying, X, generates the surface
JL_= J(i a
c
X\
abz(x*+y*) = (a b*)cxy.
2
(B.U. 1929)
line
c
34. intersects
2 x=(cYZ cot ac2^)/(Z 2 c ), y = (cXZ tan ac 2 F)/(Z 2 c 2 ), 2=0. (L.U.) Show that the surface generated by a straight line which intersects 35 the lines 2/==0, 2 c #=0, 2= c and the hyperbola 2=0, cc?/jc 2 =0 is the
;
plane
XY at the point
22
2=0
y~x tan a, 2=
surface
xy=c%.
36.
2=0,
Prove that
it is
and
its
locus
is
the surface
Y=().
(M.U. 1912)
Show
x~y
y^z
<[>,
0,
+ 9f $ = ln.
38.
If
(^
Points
lines so that
PQ
is
R divides PQ
39.
line.
[Hint. Take the given plane as given line as origin.] 40. Show that the planes
X Y plane
normal
(3,
and
its
section.
[Ans.
8\/G/3.
points
A straight line meets the coordinate planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY in the A, B C respectively. If a, y denote the angles BOO, CO A, AOB
y
of
the
plane
joining the
line
to
is
= w4 cot2 p =. n (M.T.) y. the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are the points in which the coordinate axes meet a plane a. The perpendicular from O to this plane meets the coordinate planes in A, B, C. Prove that
l cot 2
42.
is
_.__
Fx=Gy=Hz,
,
OA^GB^QC OK
a.
where
is
43.
the foot of the perpendicular from the origin O to the piano Assuming that the equation ax* + 67/2 + cz2 + 2fy Z + 2gzx + 2hxy =
is
where
(7,
ff,
/>
mutually at right angles meet in a point P and two of them intersect the axes of x and y respectively, whiloy the third passes through a fixed point (0, 0, c) on the axis of z. Show that the equation of the
44.
Three straight
lines
locus of
45.
P is
The
triangle
(5,
whose
z +2/ +z =2cz. (D.U. Hons. 1944} vertices have the rectangular coordinates
4,
3), (4,
(10,
5,
2)
respectively is projected orthogonally on to the plane whose equation is Find the coordmates of the vertices and the area of the new triangle.
46.
is
xy =3.
2), 9/v/2.
(M.T. 1950) [Ans. (2, 1, 3), (3, 0, 2), (4, 1, Prove that the plane through the point (a, (3, y) and the line,
given by
X,
>
rz+s
=0.
a>
1,
1,
CHAPTER
VI
THE SPHERE
6* 11.
Def.
sphere
is the locus
of a point
which remains
at
constant distance
The constant distance is called the radius and the fixed point the centre of the sphere. 6*12. Equation of a sphere. Let (a, b, c) be the centre and r the radius of a given sphere. Equating the radius r to the distance of any point (x, y, z) on the sphere from its centre (a, 6, c), we have
or
x*
is
+ y* +
z'*
2ax2by2cz + (a
+b 2 +c*
r2
)=0
...(A)
which
sphere
1. 2.
We
:
the required equation of the given sphere. note the following characteristics of the equation (A)
It
is
of the
The coefficients of x2 ?/ 2 z2 are all equal The product terms xy, yz, zx are absent. 3. Conversely, we shall now show that the general equation
,
ax*ay*+az* + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz+d=Q, a^O having the above three characteristics represents a sphere. The equation (B) can be rewritten as
..
(B)
w
and
this
variable point
manner of re writing shows that the distance between the (x, y, z) and the fixed point w / u v
~\
'
~~
'
"~~
\
is
a )
and
is,
therefore, constant.
The locus of the equation (B) is thus a sphere. The radius and, therefore, the sphere is imaginary when
and
in this case
6*13.
we
call it
a virtual sphere.
General equation of a sphere. The equation (B), when written in the form,
86
or
is
x*+y +z*\2u'x+2v'y+2w'z+d'=Q
taken as the general equation of a sphere. Ex. 1. Find the centres and radii of the spheres
(i)
:
>
(ii)
hy
2^f42/+2+3
;
3. (Hi) (J, 1,J) 0. 4, 5) 7. (ii) (1, 2, 3) Obtain the equation of the sphere described on the join of A(2, 3,4), JB(5, 6, 7) 2 2 2 as diameter. [4ws. x K / f z f 3(.r2/f z) 56 = 0. so that sum A moves the 3. point of the squares of its distances from, the six faces of a cnbe is constant ; show that its locus is a sphere.
[Ana.
(i) (3,
2.
Take the centre of the cube as the origin and the planes through the centre parallel to its faces as coordinate planes. Let each edge of the cube to be equal to 2a.
x=a
If (/, g, h) be
xa
any
we have
k2
(*,
a constant)
or
so that the locus
is
which
is
a sphere.
6, c). is tho
A plane passes through a fixed point (a, the foot of the perpendicular to it from the origin
4, 5.
Show
sphere
drawn
Through a point P throe mutually perpendicular straight lines are one passes through a fixed point C on the zaxis, while the others intersect the ccaxis and z/axis, respectively; show that the locus of Pis a sphere of which C is the centre.
;
The sphere through four given points. General equation of 6'2. a sphere contains four effective constants and, therefore, a sphere can be uniquely determined so as to satisfy four conditions, each of which is such that it gives rise to one relation between the constants.
In particular, we can find a sphere through four noncoplanar
points
(*i, Vi, *i)> (*2>
y>
)>
Let
x*
+ y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=0,
...(i)
be the equation of the sphere through the four given points. We have then the equation
similar
Eliminating u,
v,
(i)
EXERCISES
equations
(ii)
87
just obtained,
we have
x, y,
z,
o,
which
is
Note. In numerical questions, we may first find the values of w, v, w, from the four conditions (ii) and then substitute them in the equation (i).
Exercises
1.
Find the equation of the sphere through the four points (4, 1, 2), (0, 2, 3), (1, 5, 1), (2, 0, 1).
[Ans.
x*+y*+z24x+6y
22+5=0.
2.
Find the equation of the sphere through the four points (0, 0, 0), (a, 6, c), (, 6, c), (a, b, c)
its
and determine
radius.
3.
4.
Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the points
(1,
1),
and has
5.
(3, 0, 2),
its
Show
(
1, 1, 1), (2,
that the equation of the sphere passing through the three points 5, 4) and having its centre on the plane
its
Obtain the sphere having 6. passing through the two points (0,
7.
3?/
and
2,
1).
[Ans. a +y2+s 6a?4y+ lOcf 120. sphere whose centre lies in the positive octant passes through the circles of xadii \/2, \/ 26, \/2c t origin and cuts the planes rr0, y = 0, 2 = 0, respectively show that its equation is
8.
A B
t
plane
(a,
b,
c)
and
is
C.
Show
OABC
OABC
a/a+6/7/+c/z = 2. bo
= Q,
...(1)
so that u, v, w are different for different spheres. cuts the three axes are (2z/, 0, 0), (0, 2v, 0),
the plane
ABC
is
~^M^2v^^^~
_L
4.
88
Since
it
we have
,
____,&
2**
_2t>
c ___i * __ 2M>~"
and
(3),
we obtain
JL+i+^2 x y
z
A sphere of constant radius r passes through the origin and cuts the 9. axes in A, 13, C. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from O to the (P.U. 1940 BJJ. 1955) plane ABC. [Ans. ( x *+y*+zl)*(x*+y* + z*) = r*.
;
in
be two points
OA.OB=l
and
if
P be any variable
PB=
(P.U. 1941}
A sphere of constant radius 2k passes through the origin and meets 11. the axes in A, J5, C. Show that the locus of the centroid of the tetrahedron OABC is the sphere
6*31.
Plane section of a sphere. A plane section of a sphere, common to a sphere and a plane, is a circle.
i.e.,
Let
section.
be the centre of the sphere and P, any point on the plane N being the Let ON be perpendicular to the given plane
;
As ON is perpendicular to the plane which contains the line NP, we have Hence
NP =OP ON*. and N being fixed points, Now, tion shows that NP is constant for all
2
this rela
of
ig 23
t
positions
is
The
as a great
section of a sphere
circle.
centre
is
known
The
Cor.
centre
the sphere.
The circle through three the same three points. through sphere
given
points
lies entirely
on any
is
Thus the condition of a sphere containing a given circle valent to that of its passing through any three of its points.
equi
EQUATIONS OF A CIRCLE
89
The curve of intersection of 6*32. Intersection of two spheres. two spheres is a circle. The coordinates of points common to any two spheres
satisfy
equation
which, being of the first degree, represents a plane. Thus the points of intersection of the two spheres are the same as those of any one of them and this plane and, therefore, they lie on a circle. 6'31]. [See
6*33. Sphere with a given diameter. To find the equation of the sphere described on the line joining the points
as diameter.
Let
diameter.
be any point
(x, y, z)
AB
as
Since the section of the sphere by the plane through the three as diameter, P lies on a points P, A, B is a great circle having semi circle and, therefore,
AB
The
direction cosines of
x
respectively.
x^ y
y\,
2,
if
which
is
Ex.
Show
where
r^
is
Equations of a circle. Any circle is the intersection of its plane with some sphere through it. Therefore a circle can be represented by two equations, one being of a sphere and the other of the plane.
6*4.
which
is
x*+y* + 2gx+2fy+c^Q
with the plane
2 = 0.
90
Examples
1.
Find
the
equations of the
(a, 0, 0),
circle
formed by
(0, 0, c).
this circle.
is
The required circle is the curve of intersection of any sphere through the three points.
To find the equation of this sphere, a fourth point which, for the sake of convenience, we take as origin.
If
necessary,
x*+y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=Q
be the sphere through these four points, we have
These give
d=0,
u=
\a,
v=\b, w=
is
\c.
by
cz= 0.
circle are
a?+y +*axbycz=0,
+f+O
=1.
C
To find the centre of this circle, we obtain the foot of the perpendicular from the centre (\a, \b, \c) of the sphere to the plane
T" +
_i_
T+T =L
J_
1
are
'
ljb~
so that
W
b
y
c
,a
is
T'
'
T+
> i
/
I
'
'
"2
I
is
line.
Its intersection
l"
/1.1,1sl r
\
given by
a2
o ~
62
~r
^
is
2*
Show
x* + y*+z*=r*
f ,
on
the sphere
91
centre
(/, g> h) is
The plane which cuts the sphere in a circle with f(xf)+g(yg)+k(*h)=o. Jt will pass through (#', y', 2'), if f(x'f)+g{y'g)+M*'h)=o,
and accordingly the locus of
(/, g, h) is
the sphere
Exercises
1.
circle
+ 2?/H2c=15,
x*
+ y 2 + z*~2y4z=ll.
[Ans.
(1, 3, 4),
V7.
2.
tho centre.
to the line joining this point to the centre (0, 0, 0) of tho .sphere determines the required section.) 3. Obtain tho equations of the circle lying on the sphere
(.r 1 , ?/j,
drawn perpendicular
2
2/
+z 2
4).
2.T+4*/
6zh3
and having
4.
its
centre at
(2, 3,
is
7z45.
(4,
4,
46).
Show
2 = 29 such that a rotation about it will transfer the point (4, 3, 2) to the point (5, 0, 5) along a great circle of tho sphere. Find also the angle through which the sphere must be so rotated. cos~ 1 16/29). (L.U.) [Ar>s. %x = y =
passs through the ninepoint circles of the Find the equation of the diameter 5.
OABC.
of tho sphere
*r
f?/
2
Jz,
6.
Show
(t)
(5, 0, 2),
6,
0), (7,
(tt)
(8,
5, 2),
(5,
2, 2),
3, (7,
8), (4,
9,
6).
6, 6),
(4,
3, 6).
6*41.
circle.
The equation
circle
with
=0, [7=0,
where
QonateJ
9
t>y
S=*+f+z*+2**+2vy+2 m td
U=lx \my\nz
p.
Mr. N, Sreekanth
M .Sc.(Maths)
O.U *
'
fl=0,
'=(),
where
92
Here A is an arbitrary constant which may be so chosen that these equations fulfil one more condition. Note 1. We notice that tho equation of the plane of the circle through the two given spheres is
S S'=2(u
From
this
tt')x+2(v
v ')y
+ 2(ww')z + d~d'^Q.
any sphere through the
circle
we
S=Q,S' = Q
Sffc(SS')=0;
being any arbitrary constant. This form sometimes proves comparatively moro convenient. Note 2. It is important to remember that the general equation of a sphere through the circle
fc,
is
where k
is
Examples
1.
Find
the
and
The sphere
passes through the given circle for
It will pass through
all
values of
A.
(1, 2, 3) if
+ 15A0
or
A=J.
The required equation of the sphere, therefore, is 2 2 = 0. 3(:r + r+2 )2a;3y4222 Show that the two circles 2.
lie
on
the
its
equation.
(Z>.
U. Hons. 1947)
first circle is
circle is
...(if)
The equations
(i)
and
(ii)
will represent
if A,
\L
give
these values
two equations
Ofr
S3
viz.,
in A,
(x
x*+y*+z*
i.e.,
Exercises
1.
circle
2+,2_j_
2.
Show
its
4x5yz=3
and passing through the
circle
with equations
8 0,
a;
+# 2 +;: 2 4xhr>?/Gzh2=
.
3.
circle
as tho great circle. [The centre of tho required sphere lies on tho piano x{y{z = 3.]
4.
= [Ana. x*+y'A + z*4x+Gy5, 2) at opposite ends of a sphere S has points (0, 1, 0), (3, Find tho equation of the sphere having tho intersection of S with
.
as a groat circle.
[Ans.
. .
[Ana.
f2/
Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the circle 5. a 2__^2 ;= 4 in a circle of radius 3. z Q and is cut by the plane j;2^f 2s ) 2 2 2 4 0.
fz :=62
6.
Show
17^=0,
lie
its
equation. [Ans.
circles
lie
its
equation.
[Ans.
Intersection of a sphere
and a
line.
Let
...(1)
and
line respectively.
&4
line (2)
(1), if r satisfies
the equation
() 9
...(A)
and
equation in
r,
gives
ri> r z of
Then
are the two points of intersection. Thus every straight line meets a sphere in two points which
real,
may
be
imaginary or coincident. Ex. Find the coordinates of the points where the line
iGM3) = J(y+4) = i(28)
1,3)
(5, 2,
2).
6'51.
Power of a
point.
If
/,
m,
cosines of the given line (2) in r l9 r 2 are the distances of the point and Q. intersection
,
(a,
(3,
7)
independent of the direction cosines, /, m, n. if from a fixed point A, chords be drawn in any direction to intersect a given sphere in P and Q, then AP.AQ is constant. This constant is called the power of the point A with respect to the sphere.
is
which
Thus
Example
made by a given sphere on any three mutually perpendicular straight lines through a fixed point is constant. Take the fixed point O as the origin and any three mutually perpendicular lines through it as the coordinate axes. With this choice of axes, let the equation of the given sphere be
that the
Show
sum
The
so that
if
#axis,
(y=Q=z) meets
its roots,
xlt x2 be
Also
we have
.*.
(intercept
on #axis) 2 = (xi
#2 ) 2
d).
Similarly
(intercept
d) y
d).
tANGfcNT PLAN&
The sum
where
the radius of the given sphere and p is the power of the given point with respect to the sphere. Since the sphere and the point are both given, r and p are both constants.
r is
Hence the
Note.
result.
coefficients
The
u, v,
w and
sphere
lines
will
fixed
2
also
fixed,
the expressions
=u 2 +v + w d
and
p^d,
for the
w.r.t.
Exercises
1.
Find the locus of a point whose powers with respect to two given
in.
spheres are
2.
a constant ratio.
of a sphere
6'6.
locus of the midpoints of a system of parallel chords a plane through its centre perpendicular to the given chords.
tangent plane at
any point
lies
(a, p,
As
(a,
(3,
y)
a 2 + P 2 +y 2
+ 2tta + 2^f2^
line
through
(a,
(3,
(Zr+a,
mr+p, nr+y)
By
is
zero
virtue of the condition (i), one root of this quadratic equation so that one of the points of intersection coincides with
(,
p, r).
with
In order that the second point of intersection may also coincide value of r must also vanish and this (a, P, y), the second
requires
So
ANALYTICAL SOLID
Thus the
line
x_
/
a _.y~_P_2^X_
~~
~~
meets the sphere in two coincident points at (a, p, y) and so is a tangent line to it thereat for any set of values of /, m, n which satisfy
the condition (Hi). The locus of the tangent lines at (a, p, y) is, thus, obtained by eliminating I, m, n between (Hi) and the equations (ii) of the line
and
or
this gives
<
=a +P +y 2 + 2wa+2i;3 + 2^y+^=0,
2 2
from
(i)
which
is
(a, p,
y).
Hence
is
(a, p, y).
The
line joining the centre of a sphere to any point on it to the tangent plane thereat, for the direction cosines
w,
v,
w) to the point
(a, p,
y)
to
also the coefficients of x, y, z in the equation of the tangent plane at (a, p, y). Cor. 2. If a plane or a line touch a sphere, then the length of the perpendicular from its centre to the plane or the line is equal
to its radius.
Note. Any lino in the tagent piano through its point of contact the section of the sphere by any plane through that line.
touches
Examples
1.
Show
the sphere
if
d).
Equating the radius \/(u \v \~w*d) of the sphere to the length of the perpendicular from the centre ( u, v, w) to the plane
we
to the
sphere
to the
plane
97
The
is
(2,
This will be a tangent plane, if its distance from the centre 1, 3) of the sphere is equal to the radius 3 and this requires
Thus
A=10or
Hence
3.
8.
2x+2yz
Find
1)
the
at
(1, 1,
1) is
is,
therefore, of the
form
2 x+3yi2z3+k(x+5y6)=0. x*ty* + z
if
r~*is
z=Q.
+y +z*)3x + y +
2
Find
z2 +2/ 2 +z 2
and touching
the
plane
z0.
The sphere
passes through the given circle for all values of A. 2 A, Its centre is (A, fX), and radius is
Since
or
it
2,
This gives
A=l
2
or
J.
+ z2 )2tf4y 5z+l=0.
planes
to the
Find
sphere
x*+y*+z*=9,
which passes through
the line
6,
2^=3.
98
Any
plane
line will
or
2A 2 A1=,0.
This gives
A = l, J.
planes, therefore, are
Exercises
1.
at the point
2.
[Ana.
4z+9?/+ 142640.
at the point
3.
(3,
5, 4).
[Ans.
for
z 2 +2/ 2 +z 2 2:c22/2;>;
4.
6=0.
[Ans.
Show
2x*
and
[Ans. (1,4, 2). [The point of contact of a tangent plane is the point where the line through the centre perpendicular to the plane meets the sphere.] Find the coordinates of the points on the sphere 5.
0,
2).
6.
Show
2)
at
(1, 2,
7.
22+1=0
line
3(16z)=32=2?/+30.
[Ana.
8.
2*+2y22=0,
o;+22/
circle
OP CONTACf
9. Find the equation of the sphere which has which touches the line
its
99
centre at the origin and
[Ans.
10.
Find the equation of a sphere of radius r which touches the three coordinate axes. How many spheres can be so drawn.
[Ans.
11.
2(sHyH2 2 )42^2(
fca;ydb)r+r 1 = 0;
lies in
eight.
Prove that the equation of the sphere which and touches the coordinate planes is of the form
the octant
OXYZ
Show that, in general, two spheres can be drawn through a given point to touch the coordinate pianos and find for what positions of the point the
spheres are
(a) real, (6) coincident. (P.U. 1944) [The distances of the centre from the coordinate planes are all equal to the radius so that we may suppose that X is the radius and (X, ^X, X) is the centre X being the parameter.]
;
12.
Show
Z24:X4:Qy
182+225=0
[Ana.
(12/5, 20/5,9/6).
Find the centres of the two spheres which touch the plane
(64/21,27/21,4).
(2,
Obtain the equations of spheres that pass through the points (4, 1,0), (P.U. 1934) 3, 4),(1, 0, 0) and touch the plane 2x + 2yz=ll.
14.
15.
[Ans.
faces are
a7242/24_;j2_6z+22/4z+5==0 16(a?*f ya+*) 102a?f 50y49* + 86=;0. Find the equation of the sphere inscribed in the tetrahedron whose
;
(t)
z = 0,
[Ana.
(i)
16.
coordinate axes at A> B, C. Show that the locus of the point of intersection of planes drawn parallel to the coordinate planes through A, B, C is the surface
32(x*+y*+z*)S(x+y+z) + l = 0. (ii) 9(*2+ 2 +z 2 )f 6(*2/f z)f 2=0. 2 2 Tangent plane at any point of the sphere # +y 2 + z* =r moots the
2/
(w) s
= 0, = 0, y = 0,
2/
6*61.
Plane of Contact. To find the locus of the points of contact which pass through a given point (a, p, y).
Let
(x
',
z')
7),
or
100
ANALYTICAL
is
SOLlfc GfcOMfefRY
r
which
plane
point
(#',
y' } z
should
lie
on the
x(*iu)
It
is
f y(P
+ v)+z(y+w)
f (ua+t# + u>y+d)=0.
Thus the locus of points of contact is the circle in which the plane cuts the sphere. Ex. 1. Show that the line joining any point P to the centre of a given sphere is perpendicular to the plane of contact of P and if OP meets it in Q, then
Ex.
2.
Show
= (s+3a)/4
2
a; 2
2
f2/
+ 22
c*
fixed point
// a variable line is drawn through a plane. meeting a given sphere in P, Q and point R is taken on this line such that the points A, R divide this line internally and externally in the same ratio, then the locus of R is a plane called polar
6 62.
The polar
plane of
It
and externally
AR
be easily seen that if the points A, R divide PQ internally in the same ratio, then the points P, Q also divide internally and externally in the same ratio.
may
x*+y*+z*=a\
and
let
...(1)
be the point
(Xj
(a, p,
7).
Let
:
y,
z)
through A. A 1 are
The
AR
on any
line
in
the ratio
/Az+yN
V~A+T
This point will be on the sphere (1) for values of A which are roots of the quadratic equation
.e.,
Its roots Aj
ratios in
divide
AR.
Since P,
AR
internally
and externally
same
ratio,
we have
Thus from
which
is (2),
we have
a2 =0,
...(3)
z)
the relation satisfied by the coordinates (x, y, Hence (3) is the locus of R. Clearly it is a plane.
of R.
Thus we have seen here that the equation of the polar plane of
101
(a, p,
7) with
the equation of the polar plane with that of the and the plane of contact ( 6*61), we see that tangent plane the polar plane of a point lying on the sphere is the tangent plane at the point and that of a point, lying outside it, is its plane of contact.
(
On comparing
6'6)
If
TU
is
the plane
6*63.
Pole of a plane.
to the
To find
plane
..
lx+my\nz=p
with respect
sphere
2
(i)
42/
+z2 =a2
is
we
(i)
so that,
on comparing
(i)
and
I
(ii)
we obtain
~~~
ja ~~ p
__ __ _Z._^!.
'
p
y=a?7i/p.
or
discussion,
Some results concerning poles and polars. In the following we always take the equation of a sphere in the form
line joining the centre to the polar plane of P.
1.
The
of a sphere to
any point
is
perpendicular
The direction ratios of the line joining the centre O (0, 0, 0) to the point P(a, p, 7) are a, p, 7 and these are also the direction ratios of the normal to the polar plane a# + pi/f72=a 2 of P(a, p, 7).
2.
the polar
of a sphere to
any point
meets
OP.OQ = a\
where a
is the
We
have,
102
y
Also, OQ which is the length of the perpendicular from the centre 2 0(0, 0, 0) to the polar plane QLX+ (tyfyz^a of P, is given by
Hence the
3.
result.
passes through another point Q, plane of a point then the polar plane of Q passes through P. The condition that the polar plane
If the polar
of P(a 1}
PJ, 7j)
y2
is
which
is also_,
by symmetry,
plane of
passes through P.
Conjugate points. Two points such that the polar plane of either passes through the other are called conjugate points. 4. // the pole of a plane T: L lies on another plane 7T 2 , then the pole
of
7T2
also lies
on
T^.
pole
a\
'
a?mi
'
a2
%\
of
th'^
plane
Pi
Pi
Pi )
lies
on the plane
is
which
of
7r
is
also, clearly,
lies
on
KI.
Conjugate planes. Two planes the other are called conjugate planes.
5.
lies
on
all the
points on a
pass through
another line
point,
(fr+oc,mr+p, nr
?L7J?=y.TP=?i
I
is
or
which clearly passes through the line 2 <x,x+$y+yz a =0, whatever value, r, may have. Hence the
result.
TWO
SPHERES
103
Let this line be V. We shall now prove that the polar plane of every point on /' passes through I. Now, as the polar plane of any arbitrary point P on I passes
through every point of
I',
it
point of passes
through every point of I i.e,, it passes through /. Thus we see that if V is the line such that the polar planes, of all the points on a line l y pass through it, then the polar planes of all the points on V pass through /. Polar Lines, Two lines such that the polar plane of every point on either passes through the other are called Polar Lines.
Exercises
1.
Show
the line
7xf3_2
11
ly __
5
HT
Show that if a lino I is coplanar with the polar line of a line I', then, 2. coplanar with the polar line of I. If PA, QB be drawn perpandicular to the polars of Q and P respec3. tively, with rospoct to a sphere, centre 0, then
I' is
PA^OP
QB~'OQ'
sphere, there exist an unlimited number of tetrahedra such that each vertex is the pole of the opposite face with respect to the sphere. (Such a tetrahedron is known as a self conjugate or selfpolar tetrahedron )
4.
Show
Angle of Intersection of two spheres. The angle of intersection of two spheres at a common point is the angle between the tangent planes to them at that point and is, therefore^ also equal to the angle between the radii of the spheres to
6*7.
Def.
the
common point the radii being perpendicular to the respective tangent planes at the point. The angle of intersection at every common point of the spheres is the same, for if P, P' be any two common points and (7, C the centres of the spheres, the triangles GC'P and CC'P' are congruent
;
and accordingly
/_CPC'=/_CP'C'.
The spheres
of two spheres
6*71.
is
are said to be orthogonal if the angle of intersection a right angle. In this case
To find
Condition for the orthogonality of two spheres. the condition for the two spheres
to be orthogonal.
104
The spheres will be orthogonal if the sguare of the distance between their centres is equal to the sum of the squares of their radii and this
requires
or
Exercises
1.
Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the #2+ 2/ 2_j_ 2_2.rf 3z/4zf 60, 3^ 4y + 5z 15 =
;S
circle
6z+ll =
2
[Ans.
2.
f>(o:
+i/
;2
)13.};+19?/
Find the equation of the sphere that passes through the two points (0,3,0), (2, 1, 4) and cuts orthogonally the two spheres
[Ans.
3.
at the point
2, 1)
4.
a, 2 +2/ 2az+r =0, z = 0, cuts orthogonally every sphere through the circle
Ans. #2+2/21321 7.r  ]0y Show that every sphere through the circle
2
2
= 0.
z 2 +2 =r , 2/=0. are conjugate with respect to a sphere S show that points P, Q the sphere on PQ as diameter cuts S orthogonally. If two spheres Si and 2 are orthogonal, the polar plane of any point 6. on Si with respect to S% passes through the other end of the diameter of Si
2
5.
Two
through P.
Example
spheres of radii r and radius of the common circle is
Two
r2
cut
orthogonally.
Prove
that
the
Let the
common
circle
be
a
let
The general equation of the sphere through 2 2 2 x*+y +z +2kza =Q, the two given spheres through the circle be
We have
r^kS+at.rf^kf+a*.
Since the spheres cut orthogonally,
...()
we have
RADICAL PLANE
105
From
or
(i)
and
&2
we have
Hence the
result.
the
is
Radical plane. To show that 6*8. powers with respect to two spheres are equal the line joining their centres.
P(x, y,
z)
are
and
respectively.
^=0,
unity, is
S,=0,
in both of which the coefficients of the second degree terms are equal to
S 1 AS 2 = 0.
the plane of their
common
6'32).
Radical line. The three radical planes of three spheres 6*81. taken two by two intersect in a line.
If
fli
= 0, S
=0, 5 8 =
fl8
Sifl^O, S 2 S 3 = 0,
$1
fli
= 0,
clearly
meet
in the line
= $2 = $
3.
This
Radical Centre. The four radical lines of four spheres 6'82. taken three by three intersect at a point. The point common to the three planes
106
is
clearly
common
by
three, of the
four spheres
=0.
be
Theorem.
//
$i
= 0,
# 2 ^0,
two
spheres,
then
the
equation
A being the parameter, represents a system of spheres such members of the si/stem have the same radical plane.
that
any two
Let
^1 +A 1 S 2 =0 and fli+Ma=0>
be any two members of the system. Making the coefficients of second degree terms unity, we write them in the form
&i
~TW
l+\
+ \&2 __ n
2
^i
+A $
2
2 __
'~i+V
two spheres
is
The
s^\s
or
I+VL_ ~O U
1+A 2
'
S,Sa = 0.
Since
,
this equation is independent of A! and A 2 we see that of the system have the same radical plane. members two every
members
Coaxal System. Def. A system of spheres such that any two thereof have the same radical plane is called a coaxal system
of spheres.
coaxal and
we say that
it is
#!=<),
=0.
The common
radical plane
is
is
^#2=0
This coaxal system
also given
by the equation
6'41, P. 92.
is is
coaxal
$=0
S+XE70 7=0
a plane
the
common
radical plane
7=0.
Cor.
line.
The locus of
a coaxal system
is
For,
if (x, y, z)
LIMITING POINTS
107
we have
W
A^
y __^

On
eliminating A,
we
on the
line
This result
is
also otherwise clear as the line joining the centres is perpendicular to their common radical plane.
form of the equation of the two spheres. line the joining the centres of two given spheres as By taking Xaxis, their equations take the form
simplified
is
)
2x(u l u 2 + (dj
(say).
d2 )
= 0.
YZ
plane,
i.e.,
we take the
)
we have d 1 = d2 ^=d
x=Q,
Thus* by taking the line joining the centres as Xaxis and the radical plane as the YZ plane, the equations of any two spheres can be put in the simplified form
where u lt u 2 are
Cor.
1.
different.
The equation
x* +y*+z*
+ 2kx + d==0
;
d represents a coaxal system of spheres for different values of k being constant. The YZ plane is the common radical plane and Xaxis is the line of centres.
Cor. 2.
Limiting points. x z +y*+
The equation
can be written as
For k= V^, we get spheres of the system with radius zero and thus the system includes the two point spheres
(v'rf.o.oj, (V<*, o,o). These two points are called the limiting points and are real only when d is positive, i.e., when the spheres do not meet the radical
plane in a real circle. Def. Limiting points of a coaxal system of spheres are the point spheres of the system.
Examples
1.
Find
by the
spheres
108
circle
i.e., x+y + 2z=0. Then the equation of the coaxal system determined by given
3z + 3t/+6z = 0,
spheres
is
The
centre of
(1) is
[~_ 3+A
o
>
A3
9
"1
~~
'
I
*
*
and radius
is
Equating
i.e.,
we obtain
6A
= 0,
A=l.
The spheres corresponding
to these values of A become point spheres coinciding with their centres and are the limiting points of the given system of spheres. The limiting points, therefore, are
which cut two given spheres along great circles (P.U. 1944 Suppl.) pass through two fixed points. With proper choice of axes, the equations of the given spheres take the form
2.
Show
that spheres
a*
...(i)
...(ft)
is
..
+ y*+z*+2ux+2vy+2wz + c=Q
l
(iff)
where
u, v, w,
The plane
of the circle of
(i), if
d)
= 0,
u 1 ) + (cd)
Qy
(fff )
... (iv)
which
is
(i)
along a great
Similarly
is
...(v)
(it)
the condition
sphere
(tit)
along a
(iv)
and
(v)
for
u and
c,
we
get
on u i9 u^ d only.
EXERCISES
169
The sphere (Hi) cuts JCaxis at points whose # coordinates are the roots of the equation
The roots of this equation are constant, depending as they do upon the constants u and c only. Thus every sphere (MI) meets the Jfaxis at the same two points and hence the result.
Exercises
1.
Show
and cuts every member of the system orthogonally, whatever bo the values of
v,
w.
Hence deduce that every sphere that passes through the limiting points of a coaxal system cuts every sphere of that system orthogonally. Show that the locus of the point spheres of the system 2.
is
the
common
circle of the
system
u, v t
w being
3.
member
4.
the parameters and d a constant. that the sphere which cuts two spheres orthogonally will cut every of the coaxal system determined by them orthogonally.
Show
Find the limiting points of the coaxal system of spheres a 2__ 2/ 2__ 2 2_20x+30(/40s429fX(2^ 3i/f4z)= 0.
[An*.
(2,
3,
4).
5.
at the points fourth sphere passes c) and n*+fi*+r 3 *=a*+b*+c*. C. Show that the radical centre of the four spheres A,
ri,
r,
r3 ,
(D.U.)
Show
is
*/2 = (yl)/5=*/3. that there are, in general, two spheres of a coaxal system which touch a given plane. Find the equations to the two spheres of the coaxal system
7.
Show
is
the axes.
9.
Show that the sphere OABC passes through a fixed circle. Show that the radical planes of the sphere of a coaxal system and
line.
are
its
projections on
of
CHAPTER
t
VII
more condition
for
Any
cone
is
called
its generator.
In this book we shall be concerned only with quadric cones, i.e., cones with second degree equations. 7*12. Equation of a cone with a conic as guiding curve. To find the equation of the cone whose vertex is at the point
(,
and whose generators
axt
P,
7)
+ Zhxy+by^ + ZgxiZfy+c^,
to
z=0.
..
(t)
The equations
any
line
through
(a, p,

7) are
. .
* = 2/P = *7
n
in the point
Id I (ii]
I
n
which
will lie
on the given
conic, if
) + 2/(V^)+c =
This
is
0.
...(m)
(i).
(ii)
Eliminating
m, n between
(ii)
and
(Hi),
we
get
or
a(aizxy
is
which
The degrae of the equation of a cone depends upon the nature of the gliding curve. In case the guiding curve is a conic, the equation of the cone shall be of the sejond degree, as is seen above. Cones with second degree
Note.
111
shall
we
almost
be
Exercises
1.
(a, p, Y)
Find the equation of the cone whose^enerators pass through the point and have their direction cosines satisfying the relation
[Ana.
a(:ris
2.
the point
(1, 1, 0)
and
2 2/=0, * + 2 2_ 4> 2 [Ans. x cone whose the of vertex Obtain the equation 3. whose generating lines pass through the conic
= 0.
and
the point
(a,
(3,
y)
0.
[
4.
^'
;rv\ 2
/z
The
section of a cone
z=0 by
whose vertex is P and guiding curve the ellipse the plane x =0 is a rectangular hyperbola. Show that
5.
Show
is
whose base
is
that the equation of the cone whoso vertex the circle through the three points
(a, 0, 0), (0, 2
is
6,0), (0, 0, c)
6.
(B.U. 1958}
is (1, 2, 3)
and guiding
curve
is
[Ans.
7.
in
its
intersection
Enveloping cone of a sphere. To find the equation of the whose vertex is at the point (a, p, y) and whose generators touch
the sphere
The equations
to
_.
2 2 *H2/ +z =a*.
...(<)
(3,
any
I
line
through
(a,
7) are
... ^
'
The points of
given by
(ii)
(i)
are
(See
65)
and the line will touch the cident, and this requires
(Zoc+m[3+n7)
2
sphere,
if
2
(i;
+w +w )(a
2 (ii)
+r ~a
2
...(m)
(i).
112
Eliminating
I,
(u'i),
we
get
which
is
If
we
the equation
or
(iv)
can be
(5P
S l )*=(S2
^
(^ + 2/+2
Def.
2
2
i.e.,
a 2 )(oc +
its vertex.
surface,
Enveloping cone. The cone formed by the tangent lines to a drawn from a given point is called the enveloping cone of the
Exercises
1.
with
its
2.
= 11
which has
its
[Ans. cuts the enveloping oono of the sphere vertex at (2, 4, 1) in a rectangular hyperbola.
z
=Q
Quadric cones with vertex at origin. To prove that the a equation of cone ivith its vertex at the origin is homogeneous in x, y, z
7'14.
and
conversely.
l
We take up the general equation ax *+by* + cz~ + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy+2ux + 2vy+2wz+d=Q ...(1) of the second degree and show that if it represents a cono with its vertex at the origin, then
u=v =
wd
0.
Let P(x'
equation
joining
(1).
y', z')
r
Now,
on the
line
Since
OP
on
is
(1),
the point
should
lie
it
Hence
f
r\ax
t2
must be an
This gives
ax' 2 +by'* tcz'*+2fy'z'+2gz'x'
...
(i)
... (ii)
...(Hi)
From
(m),
EXAMPLE
113
From
ordinates
first
see that if u, v, w, be not all zero, then the coof any point on \hecone satisfy an equation of the degree so that the surface is a plane and we have a contradiction.
(ii),
we
Hence
u
Thus we
origin, is necessarily
w = 0.
vertex at the
second
degree
homogeneous.
of the
Conversely, every homogeneous equation represents a cone with its vertex at the origin.
It
is
x,
from the nature of the equation that if the coordinates for all values of r. ry' rz it, then so do also rx Hence if any point P lies on the surface, then every point on OP and, therefore, the entire line OP lies on it.
clear
f f
y'', z',
satisfy
Note. A homogeneous equation of the second degree will represent a ,air of planes, if the homogeneous expression can be factori/ed into linear factors. The condition for this has already been obtained in Chapter II.
hence,
is is
and
Cor.
1.
If
I,
cone
ax*+by*+cz +2fyz + 2gzx+2hxy=Q, then any point (lr mr, nr) on the generator lies on it and, 2 2 al + bm +cn*\2fmn+2gnl+2hlm^Q.
y
...(1)
therefore,
...(2)
obvious that if the result (2) be true then the line with direction ratios I, m, n is a generator of the cone whose equation is (1). Cor. 2. The general equation of the cone with its vertex at
Conversely,
it is
(,
P,
y)
is
as can easily be
verified
by
transferring
(,
P,
7).
Example
and
the equation of the auadric cone whose vertex is at which passes through the curve given by the equations
Find
the
origin
The required equation is the homogeneous equation of the second degree satisfied by points satisfying the two given equations. We rewrite
Ix {my
\~nz=p
as
lx+my+nz ==l P
is
or
114
Find the equation of the cone with vertex at the origin and direction
[Ana.
Find the equations to the cones with vortex at the origin and which pass through the curves given by the equations
2.
(i)
(ii)
(m)
[Ans.
(i)
(Hi)
3.
sphere
v=l, where q>=^ 2 +?y2f2:2 w an(j ^ aro homogeneous linear functions of x, y, z and c is a constant. Find the equation of the cone whoso generators join the origin O to the points of intersection of S and a. Show that this cone meets S again in points lying on a plane and find the equation of [3 in terms of it, v and c.
(3
+ z<+c=^0
If the radius of
S
(3
varies,
remain
fixed,
prove that
a,
(7, is
given by
CE=
Now
*J?=
C meets S
Siiifo the radius of 8 varies and its centre remains fixed, we see that u is constant while c varies. Also v is constant. This shows that the plane l) passes through the line of intersection of tho fixed pianos
Determination of Cones under given conditions. As the 7'15. general equation of a quadric cone with a given vertex contains five arbitrary constants, it follows that five conditions determine such a cone provided each condition gives rise to a single relation between the constants. For instance, a cone can be determined so as to have any given five concurrent lines as generators provided no three of them * are coplanar.
Examples
1.
Show
that
The general equation of a cone with its vertex at the a&*+ by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=Q.
Since .Jfaxis is a generator, its direction cosines This gives a = 0. Similarly b c 0.
origin
is
...(i)
= =
1, 0,
satisfy
(i).
Show that a cone can be found so as to contain any two given seta 2. of three mutually perpendicular concurrent lines as generators.,
115
lines of
OP, OQ,
OR
'
x
li
^_== z
l
x
12
~y
m
z
x
'
__
nt
n2
/3
n3
'
respectively.
is
OP
and
OQ
as generators, if
!
= 0,
Q.
...(*)
...(ii)
The
we have
.
Adding
condition
(?'),
(A)
(A),
we deduce the
/m 3 7i 3 f 07i 3
so that the cone through
+ w = 0,
7iZ 3
OP
and
OQ
cono
passes through
OR
also.
Exercises
1.
the
z
coorclmate axes as
ell
as the lines
y __=^_=_,
_ = _^__.
x
t
[Ans. 3yz+lGzx + 15xy=Q. Find the equation of the cone which contains the three coordinate axos and the lines through the origin with direction cosines (l^ w if nj).and
2.
Find the equation of the quadric cone which passes through the three 3. coordinate axes and the three mutually perpendicular lines
[Ans.
Condition that the general equation of the second degree should represent a cone. Coordinates of the vertex. We have seen that the equation of a cone with its vertex at the
7'2.
Thus any given is necessarily homogeneous and conversely. equation of the second degree will represent a cone if, and only if, there is a point such that on transferring the origin to the same the
origin
Let
...(1)
its vertex at (x represent a cone having Shift the origin to the vertex (x, y',
',
y', z').
z')
so that
z to
we change
z+z'.
116
The transformed equation is ax*+by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy\.(2) +f(x' y',z) = Q. a cone with its vertex at the origin (2) represents and must, therefore, be homogeneous. This gives
9
The equation
ax'
+ hy'\gz' \u~Q,
0,
...
...
..
(i)
hx'+by'+fz'+v^O,
(ii)
(Hi)
f
,
Also,
f(x',
z')=x\az
'
f
+fy' + cz' 4 w) + (ux + vy' f wz + d) Thus with the help of (i), (ii) and (Hi), we see that (iv) is
z (yx
.
equivalent to
ux'
+ vy'+ivz' + d=0.
(i),
gr,
..
(v)
Eliminating
x' 3
',
z'
between
a,
(ii),
(Hi),
and
(v),
we obtain
A,
7i,
6,
/,
=o,
d
equation
(1)
as
general
of the
second
f
coordinates (x 3 y , z') of the vertex are obtained by solving simultaneously the three linear equations (i), (ii) and (Hi).
Assuming
Cor.
If
(x, y,
z)=ax*+by*+cz* + 2fyz+2gzx
its
I 21
^=0,^=0,^=0,^=0,
where
'f
is
used
to
make F(x,
y, z)
homogeneous and
is
put equal
to
Making F(x,
F(x, y,
z, t)
y, z)
homogeneous, we write
Then
F x =2(ax}hyigz+ut), Fv =2(hx+by+fz+vt),
Putting f = l, we see from y lt Zj) satisfies the equations
(i),
(ii),
(in),
(v)
(X L
^=0,
1^ = 0,
~Q,
^=0.
EXAMPLES
117
Note. The student should note that the coefficients of second degree terms in tho transformed equation (2) are the same as those in the original equation (1). Note. Tho equation #*(><% y, ~) represents a cone if, and only if, the four linear equations F x 0, f =.Q, F Z Q, JP ^ are consistent. In the case of
1
is
Example
Prove
that the equation
./,
2,
3).
we obtain
x, y, z
and
t,
we obtain the
(i)
...
(ii)
...(Hi)
...
I2x
ll?/
+ 6z + SZ = 0.
linear
(iv)
Replacing
tions
(i), (ii),
equa
(Hi) for x, y,
we obtain
1,
x=
The values satisfy Thus the equation
is
y=
2,
2=
3.
(iv) also.
1,
2,
3).
1.
Example
Find
the the equations to the lines
in which
plane
2x\yz0
cuts the cone
Let
m
4Z
2
n
lines in
be the equations of any one of the two meets the given cone so that we have
2Z+w
^=0,
fi
118
ANALYTICAL SOLID
These two equations have now to be solved we have
8Z
2
for
I,
m,
n.
Eliminat
ing n,
i.e.,
+6/m+m2 =0.
JL or _JL
m
Also
:VME^L_ 16
^
I
42
1
we have
m
.
m
we nave
r
when
so that
T,
m
2
*
=^> 2
= 7T
and when
so that
~, we have
I
_
n _ m ___.
]
lines are
z
Hi
y 4
y
2"
If'
1
0~*
Exercises
following pianos
<*')
(')
(m) a?+7y550,
2 that the equation of the quadric cone which contains the three 2. coordinate axes and the lines in which the plane
c"\ JH=jy=JLlm; 2 1 3
'
=j(J ~3~ 1
2
'
Show
7x2+52/2322^0.
3.
yz+lQzx 1 Find the angle between the lines of intersection of x*5y*+z*=Q. ic32/+z=0 and (t)
(tt)
(Hi)
(iv)
20^2 + 7^/2
_ 10822=0.
xy
Syz+3zx
62/+3i/z
5xy=Q.
(v)
[^ln*.
2^=0. ^i/z+^t/ 3^2 = 0. ic+y+^^O and 1 1 cosi(5/6), () cos (16/21), (m) cos (2ij2/3),
f2/+z = 0and
(iv) 7t/3,
(?;)
ic/O.
119
in
perpendicular linos
if
7*3.
To find
Let x A
__
y
[L
z
V
f\
A#
ft
f jiyv3
= 0.
...(iv)
be the direction cosines of any one of the generators If/, m, in which the plane cuts the given cone, we have
and
Eliminating n between
(v)
and
(vi),
we obtain
(iv)
ra,
we
n2
)
cuts
the
(1 2 ,
2,
or
of these
nn
is
further
nn
=*, (say)
(Hi).
rt.
two generators be at
angles,
we have
120
and hence
a+b+c0.
Also conversely, if a+&+c=0, we see from (mi) that these two generators are at right angles. Since c/A=y/fA= r 2/v, is any arbitrary generator anc! the condition obtained is independent of A, pt, v, we see that if
/
then the plane through the vertex perpendicular to any generator of the cone cuts it in two other perpendicular generators. Those two generators will themselves be perpendicular to the first generator so that the
Thus
if
an
infinite
number of
is
sets
of three
mutually perpendicular
r
satisfied,
any generator OP of the cone cuts the generators OQ, OR, so that OP, OQ, OR perpendicular generators.
to
Note.
Tf the general equation
same
is
for,
its
Exercises
1.
Show
\vili
bo perpendicular
if
(P. U. 1939) in the equation of the given see that the given plane will cut the given cone in perpendi
!/+
l/6+l/c=0.
2
?/
coefficients of a 2 ,
and
z2
is
tho
= z/c
is
6c+ca + a6 = 0, i.e., l/o+l/6 + l/c=0.] Prove that the plane lx{ my \nz0 cuts the cone (bc)x*+(c
(bc)l*+(c
in perpendicular lines if If
3.
x$y=z
represents one of a set of three mutually perpendicular generators of the cone
\\yz+zx
find the equations of the other two.
14a:y=0,
z x x y y ___?___ ;__ r _L.., z
r A
[Ant
INTfiRSECflOtt
4.
OF A LINE Wlttt A
COtffi
l2l
If
z
s
p==
find the equations of the other two.
represent one of a set of three mutually perpendicular generators of the cone Szx 3a7/=0, 57/z
i4 ns lAns.
5.
JL =
5
4=
>
j
:LT
the origin and which passes through 2 3c/ 2 and any plane at a the curve of intersection of the Miifaio * //2J2;, distance d, from the origin has three mutually perpendicular generators. 6. Find the locus of a point from which three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect the central conic
is 2
7.
Show that
tho sphere
8.
Throe points P, Q,
so that tho lines joining P, Q, I? to tho origin arc mutually perpendicular. Prove touches a fixed sphere. that tho piano (P.U. 1949}
PQK
7*4.
To find
xu.^y$^zy
I
~'
(l)
z)~ax +bif + cz +2fyz42(jzx + 2hxy=Q. ...(ft) The point (Zr + a, mr+p, nr+7) which lies on the line (i) for all values of r will lie on the cone (ii) for values of r given by the
2 2
f(x, y,
equation
or
r*(al
+bm* + en 2 + 2/
p,
7)
= 0,
see
...(A)
r,
we
every line meets a quadric cone in two points. Cor. A plane section of a quadric cone is a conic, as every line in the plane meets the curve of intersection in two points.
Note.
Hence
P and Q
1.
The equation (A) gives the distances of the points of intersection from the point (a, p, y), if l in, n are direction cosines.
t
Exercises
Show
drawn
ANALYTICAL SOLtD
x\ly\m=^z\n
is
the plane
z(al+hm+gn)+y(hl+bm+fn
[Hint.
If
(a, p, y)
the two roots of the equation (A) are equal and opposite and as such their
is zero.J
sum
2.
Find the locus of the chords of a cone which are bisected at a fixed
point.
7*41.
The tangent
I
lines
at a point.
...(,>
Let
be any
so that
line
*=yV=*7
m
n
through a point (a, p, y) of the cone ax 2 + by 2 t cz 2 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy =
...
(n)
is
Thus one of the values of r given by the equation (A) of Art. 7*4 and so one of the two points of intersection coincides with The second point of intersection will also coincide with (a P y) (a, p, 7) if the second root of the same equation is also zero. This
zero
>
requires
Z(aa
...(m)
corresponding to the set of values of l s m, n, satisfying the relation (Hi) is a tangent line at (a, p, y) to the cone (ii).
line
all
The
Eliminating I, m, n, between (i) and (Hi), the tangent lines through (a, p, y), viz.,
we obtain
the locus of
or
a plane known as the tangent plane. Clearly the tangent plane at any point passes through the vertex. Cor. The tangent plane at any point (&oc, ftp, ky) on the generator through the point (a, p, y) is the same as the tangent plane
which
at
it
(a, p,
y).
see that the tangent plane, at any point at all points of the generator through that point and plane touches the cone along the generator.
Thus we
on a cone touches
we say
that
the
Examples
1.
Show
that
xll=ylm=z/n
is the line
to the
cone
ax*+by*+cz
along the lines in which
it
+2fyz + 2gzx+2hxy=0,
by the plane
(a, p,
is cut
any point
is
12$
hx+b^+f7)+z(g^f^+c7)^Q.
It will contain the line
x]l=zy]m=zln,
if
i.e.,
(a, (^
y)
lies
on the plane
2.
to the
axz + by* + cz 2
=
is the
cone
Let the tangent planes along two perpendicular generators of the cone meet in the line
IL^lL^L..
I
...)
alxbmy\cnz=Q.
Let
X,
pi,
...(w)
be the direction ratios of any one of the two generators so that we have
v,
aZA f
om y< + cnv = Oj
(iv),
...
(m)
aX
Eliminating
If Xj,
tors,
va
v
+ ^ a +cv a =0.
we have
...(it;)
from
(Hi)
and
(Jti,
A2
(jt
2,
v2 ,
we have
or
_
The generators being
at right angle,
Vl v 2
?) fc
we have
or
Eliminating
n from
(f)
and
(v),
we obtain
124
7'42.
lx+myinz=Q,
should touch the cone
...(1)
If
(a, P,
...(2)
~~n
(say).
Hence
...
(i)
...
...
(ii)
m)
(it;)
Also, since
(a, p,
7)
lies
on the plane
(i),
(1),
we have
...
Eliminating
a, p,
I
7, k between
,
(H)
I
(Hi),
(it;),
we obtain
h,
g,
A,
m
=o,
n
m,
...(A)
The determinant
(A),
2
on expansion, gives
2
Al 2 + Bm
A,
i.e.,
Reciprocal cones.
To find
2
the
locus of lines
through the
...(1)
ax
perpendicular
to its
cz
+ 2fyz
tangent planes.
Let
...(2)
be any tangent plane to the cone (1) so that we have Al 2 +Bm 2 +Cn 2 +2Fmn+2Gnl+2Hlm=0.
...(3)
RECIPROCAL CONES
125
The
(2) is
line
X
I
V Z = _J_~^ m n
(3), (4),
Eliminating
Z,
m, n between
is
we
get
..,(5)
its
vertex at
the origin.
to If we now find the locus of lines through the origin perpendicular the tangent planes to the cone (5X we have to substitute for A 3 B, C, F, G, II in its equation the corresponding cofactors in the determinant
A,
II,
H,
B,
F
C
G,
Since,
F,
we
have,
by actual
multiplication,
GHAF=fD,
where
it
IIF~BG^gD
FGCH=hD
is
follows that the required locus for the cone (5) 2 cz* ax* by 2fyz  2gzx 21i xy
= 0,
which
is the same as (1). The two cones (1) and (5) are, therefore, such that each is the locus of the normals drawn through the origin to the tangent planes to the other and they are, on this account, called reciprocal cones.
Cor.
the cone
to
The cone
(i)
will
tangent planes,
if its
three
mutually perpendicular
Ax 2 + By 2 + Cz*+2Fyz + 2Gzx+2PIx?/^0,
has three mutually perpendicular generators and this will be so
if
A+B+C=0,
1.
i.e., if
bc+ca+abf +g +h
2

Examples
Show
the three
coordinate planes is
is
The reciprocal of a cone touching the three coordinate planes a cone with three coordinate axes as three of its generators. Now,
126
or
or or
fx+gyhz=2 Vfgxy~
9
fx+gy2Vfgxy==hz,
(
or
or
or
\/f*
Vgy)*=hz,
V/db Vgy=
$Aow; ^af &e Zoc2is o/ the line of intersection of perpendicular tangent planes to the cone
2.
is the
cone
a(b+c)x
Generators of the reciprocal cone corresponding to the perpendicular tangent planes of the original cone are themselves perpendicular. Also, the line of intersection of the perpendicular tangent planes is perpendicular to the corresponding generators of the reciprocal cone. Combining these two facts, we see that the given question is equivalent to determining the locus of normals through the origin to the planes which cut the reciprocal cone along perpendicular generators.
is
T+T+T"
or
bcx 2
z2
^
'
+ cay* + abz*  0.
The condition
... (t)
...(ii)
for
a(b+c)l +b(c + a)m*+c(a+b)n =Q. The equations of the normal to the plane (ii) are
...(Hi)
x
7==:
I
=:
z 
...(it;) ^
Eliminating
Z,
?n,
n from
(Hi)
and
(iv),
we obtain
a(b + c)
Exercises
1.
[An*.
INTERSECTION OF
2.
TWO CONES
127
Prove that perpendiculars drawn from the origin to the tangent planes
to the cone
lie
on the cone
3.
7z 2 4 82/
4*
are reciprocal.
5.
and
(D. U. Rons. 1957} that a quadric cone can be found to touch any five planes which meet at a point provided no three of them intersect in a line. Find the equation of the cone which touches the three coordinate planes and the planes
are reciprocal.
6.
Show
[Ans. (x)+(6y) + (te)=0. that a quadric cone can be found to touch any two sets of three mutually perpendicular planes which moot in a point. Find the equation of the quadric cono which touches the three co8. ordinate planes and the three mutually perpendicular pianos
7.
Show
a
7*5.
7/4.2
= 0,
2.r437/4z=0,
4.T
5z
2
0.
[Ans.
04a; 2
49</2425^
30^80^+48a;?
vertex.
:0.
common
of two cones, having a common vertex, by any conies which, in general, intersect in four points. The four lines joining the common vertex to the four points of intersection of these two coplanar conies are the four common generators of the two cones. Therefore two cones with a
common
the
four
common
generators.
common
flf=0, flf'0,
common vertex,
then
is clearly the general equation of a cone whose vertex is at the origin and which passes through the four common generators of the cones
fl=0,
fl('
If k be so chosen that S+kS'~Q becomes the product of two linear factors, then the corresponding equations obtained by putting the linear factors equal to zero represent a pair of the
planes through
common
generators.
128
fccubic
equation
a+ka
h+kh',
h + kh',
b+kb'
f}kf
cfic'
pairs of planes through the
g+W,
four
/+*/',
common
generators.
Exercises
1.
common
2*2+47/2+22=0 and
and the
2.
10^2^+5^=0
1, 2, 3.
line
Show
[Ana. 2.i2_4, / 2_ 2 + iO;ej/ 2ys+5z;c = 0. that the equation of the cone through the intersection of the
2
cones
x*2iP + 3z*4vz+5zxQxtj^Q and 2^23// 2 + 4;25^ and the line with direction cosines proportional tD J, 1, 1 is
Show that tho plane 3*+2y4z=0 passes through a pair of 3. generators of the cones 32: 2 0 and 2yz + zx 4xy = Q. 27o; 2 +20,y 2 Also show that the plane containing the other two generators is
common
0*+10H 8.3 = 0.
4.
Show
z 2 3yz 2zx+2xy=Q and 2lx ~4y*5z = Q lines. of in the same pair perpendicular contains tho Also show that the plane 7^+2^ + 5^
cones
remaining
two
common
5.
generators.
cones are described with guiding curves a'2=a 2 y 6 2 , cc = 0, ?y~ and with any vertex. Show that if their four common generators meet the plane in four concyclic points, the vertex linos on the surface z=
,
;
Two
6.
lines of section of
2
?/
cc;
=0 should
[6n2+ Jmn
^iTlS*
cw 2_c2+orna__gm2 gnl
hi
7*6.
The
A right circular cone is a surface generated by a line Def. 7*61. which passes through a fixed point, and makes a constant angle with a
fixed line through the fixed point. The fixed point is called the vertex, the fixed line the axis fixed angle the semivertical angle of the cone.
and the
name
is
contained in
to
section
axis is a circle.
129
Let a plane perpendicular to the axis ON of the right circular cone with semi vertical angle, a, meet it at N.
Let
to the plane
be any point of the section. Since ON which contains the line NP we have
9
is
perpendicular
PN
or
ON^NP
/_NOP=^ta,n
a,
y=y=tan
PA^ONtana,
is
which
of the section.
Hence the
centre.
circle
with
as its
Fig. 24
7*62. Equation of right circular cone. To find the equation of the right circular cone with its vertex at (a, ft, 7), its axis the line
m
be the
n
vertex,,
and
(j
its s amivertical
angle
0.
Let
cone.
and,
OA
P(x,?/Z)
Any point P(x, y, z) on the cone is such that the line joining it to the vertex makes an angle with th axis 6A.
Direction cosines of
tional to cos
OP
are,
therefore, propor
a,
p, z
.'.
Fig. 25
6=
cone, therefore,
is
Cor.
1.
becomes
(Ix+my+nz)*=(l +m*+n*)(x*+y*+z ) cos 0. Cor. 2. If the vertex be at the origin and axis be the
then taking
zaxis,
7=0,
in the preceding Cor.,
m=0, n = l
becomes
...(1)
i.e.,
2 x*+y*=z* tan 0.
we
f
)
2=(a?+y+2
Cor.
3.
cos
0,
The
for,
the sum of the coefficients of #*, / 2 z 2 in the equation of such a cone must be zero and this means that
,
1
i.e.,
[Refer
(1),
Cor. 2.]
130
Cor. 4. The semivertical angle of a right circular cone having sets of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes is
7*43, this will be so if
for
by Cor.
f.c.,
to
[Refer
(1),
Cor. 2]
0=Vitf^tan"
1
or
^.
its
Exercises
1.
vertex at the
origin, axis
2.
\Ans. a;2+7/2^z2 taii2 a> the equation of tho right circular cone with veitex (2, 3, 1), axis parallel to the line xy/'2=*z and one of its generators having direction cosines proportional to (1, 1, 1) is a 2 8?/ 2 4z 2 r12:r2/ I2yz + 6zx 46.*;+ 36/f22z 19 = 0.
Show that
3.
(1, 1, 2)
Find the equation of the circular cone which pusses through the pomt and has its vortex at the origin and axis the lino
ar/2
y/4=s/3.
2
a
= [Ans. 4z H02/ +19z2 48.^ 72^ + 362 e 0. Find the equations of the circular cones which contain the three 4. coordinate axes as generators. [Ans. yzz.rxy=Q. Lines are drawn through the origin with direction cosines proportional 5. to (1, 2, 2), (2, 3, 6), (3, 4, 12). Show that the axis of the right circular cone through them has direction cosines
and that the semivertical angle of the cone
Obtain the equation of the cone
6.
is
cos~
[Ans.
also.
scy~ yz{zx= 0.
lines
Find the equation of the right circular cone generated by straight drawn from the origin to cut the circle through the three points (1,2, 2), (2, 1, 2) and (2, 2, 1).
a
[Ans. 8a? 4y2422 + 5^fy2+52o;=0. the semi vertical angle of the right circular cone which passes 7. through the linos Oy, Oz, x~y=z, show that
If a
is
The Cylinder
cylinder is a surface generated by a straight line which is to a fixed line and is subject to one more condition ; for instance, it may intersect a given curve or touch a given surface. The given curve is called the guiding curve.
7*7.
always parallel
771. Equation of a cylinder. To find cylinder whose generators intersect the conic
the
equation
to
the
and
EQUATION OF A CYLINDER
Let (a, p, y) be any point on the cylinder so that the of the generator through it are

131
equations
xa
=j
=z
/
y
v ...(w) 7
As
in
(i),
if
But
this
is
(a, p,
7)
should
lie
on
the surface
or
which
is,
Cor.
0m and n = I,
as
is
already
known
to the reader.
Exercises
1.
parallel to
the ellipse
0:2+27/2=1,
2
2
)
= 3.
[Ans. 3(x'22?/2f2 + 2(4?/2za;) + G(a;4y33)f24 = 0. Find the equation of the quadric cylinder whose generators intersect 2. the curve axZ+by^ Zz, lx~\my\nz p and are parallel to Zaxis.
[Eliminate
3.
[Ans. nfocH&y*) H2to+2my2p=0. Find the equation of the quadric cylinder with generators parallel to Xaxis and passing through the curve a# 2 f&7/ 2 + cz 2 =l, Ix+my+nzp. [Ans.
4.
2
(6Z
2ap/^?/
2aprcz+(ap
2
)
= 0.
of
Show
(a, p, Y)
the cylinder
through the
point..
132
*
the cylinder
To find
the equation to
x*+y*+z*=a*,
and are
parallel to the line
...(%)
"<
are
n
(i) if
The
But
this
is
(a, p,
y) should
lie
on
the surface
which is, therefore, the required equation of the cylinder and isknown as an enveloping cylinder of the sphere (i). Ex. Find the enveloping cylinder of the sphere
having
its
78.
Cylinder.
cylinder
is
7*81.
right
circular
which
intersects
its
a fixed
guiding
cular to
plane.
to the plane of the guiding circle through its centre called the axis of the cylinder. Section of a right circular cylinder by any plane perpendicular to its axis is called a normal section.
is
The normal
Clearly all the normal sections are circles having the same radius is also called the radius of the cylinder. The length of the perpendicular from any point on a right circular cylinder to its axis is equal to its radius.
which
782.
Equation
of
equation
'
is r.
(x, y, z) be any point on the cylinder. Equating the perpendicular distance of the point from the axis to the radius r, we get
which
is
Example
Find
passes
(2,
the equation of
(/, 2, 3)
through
and has
direction
is
~2~
Let
(/,
<7,
lJ^S^S " 6 3
(/, g, h)
a~l.^y2^z
"2/7"
3
'
^3/7
is
6/7
h)
Equating
(/
it
0> h) satisfies
we
is
Exercises
1.
is
whose axis
2.
The axis
is
equation
is
circle
is
[Hint.
is
rr 2/
= 2.]
Show
is
y'G
Obtain the equation of the right circular cylinder described on 4. circle through the three points (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1) as guiding circle.
[Ans.
x'2 }y z
\z^xyyzzx^=.\.
Examples
1.
Find
which
the
plane
Let
that
I,
lines so
we have
+ 6m + en = 0.
and
(n),
(*")
... (ii)
Eliminating
2
from
2
)
or
(i) 2
we
obtain
l
)
n2 ~
+cu*)=Q.
...(HI)
134
ANAtVnGAL
Let
?!,
SOLID GEOMfcTkY
the direction cosines of the two lines
mi, n x
Z2
>
>i>
separately.
From
(Hi),
n^ be we get
Thus
r f cw 2
af'
1
f
bu &
2
2avw
__ "~
4
_
From
^WjTig
2w\/ [ (?r6c t vca \~wa cacli of these symmetr}^, expressions is equal to n \h~ n Ji ^2_ _
6t(;
cu 2
^=+
__
2
2v\/[(u
bc
?rca4^
a6)]
2
tt;
'
If
be the angle
=+
^)]
y;
lines,
/,_ tan t/
+
V[ 2 (^]W 2 v/ ^h
'
v/f"
 4(
2.
P,
x*^y$^z~y n m
I
= 0.
PQ as
diameter will pass through
where
Any
if
2
point
pi.
will lie
2
on the cone
2
(al
+bm? + cn
r l9
)r
+ 2(alx
6mp + c^7)rf(aa
r
+^
+ cy
)=0.
(t)
Let
P,
quadratic.
are
(foif a,
m^+p,
wr x
f7),
(^ 2
+a
>
Thus
fixE&cisfis
il
135
The sphere on
or
PQ
as diameter
is
through
(0, 0, 0), if
^
2
(Z
f
ray)
2
)
or
i.e.,
+m +n
2
(aa
fcp
+ c7 2  0,
)
2a(H
+v 2 )=0."
3.
z^O, &+y*=a*.
Prove that
is the
Xaxis
(B.U.)
is
rectangular hyperbola
y^O, x*z*=cf.
The equation
centre
is
(0, 0,
JA).
Therefore,
the equations
of
its
...(w)
which
Revision Exercises II
1.
Show
x\ 2?/
in a circle of radius unity and find the circle as one of its great circles.
2.
(2, 3, 6)
+2 2_2^
2/4 2z 42 = 0.
Find the equation of the sphere which passes through the point and the feet of the perpendiculars from this point on the coordinate
planes.
Also find the equations of tangent planes to tho sphere which are parallel to the plane 2x}2y{z~ ; and the coordinates of their points of contact. 2 2 5 4^44i/42z~37 0, [Ana. zH/ 4z 2a;3y62=0 ;
^^{^f =
(1, *,
V)
(,
V).
Show that all the spheres that can be drawn through the origin and 3. each set of points where planes parallel to the plane
cut the coordinate axes form a system of spheres which are cut orthogonally by the spheres
a4j/*4z*42/je420y42/*3=0
if
a/4 bg +ch=Q.
(M.T.)
136
Find the equations of tho lines passing through the point 4. z z 2 and parallel to the plane tangent to the sphere x%{y \z
[Ans.
5.
2 tangent to the sphere x*\y
32x = y=z
2(
1)
= 3(1
y)=s
1.
=9
(3, 0, 3),
and
x= 2y =
[Ans.
6.
2 2=0, lie
x+2y+2z=9 2x2y+z=9.
;
Find the equations of the spheres which touch the planes #=0, 2/=0, on the positive sides of these planes and are cut orthogonally by the
sphere
6=0.
7.
of
3)
(3,
4, 1),
1, 0,
3), (0, 3,
line x=*y, 2
= 0.
points
[Ans.
Show that the line (x a) /I (y 6)/w = (z c)/n is touched by two 8. spheres, each of which passes through the points (0, 0, 0), (2a, 0,0), (0, 26, 0). Show further that the distance between the centres of the spheres is
9.
(3,
0, 1), (5, 1,
Find the equations of tho tangent to the circle through the three points 2), (0, 4, 2) at the point (3, 0, 1). z1 _. rr+3 y [Ans ^isrir
Find the equation of the sphere inscribed 10. by the planes whose equations are
[Ans.
11.
a;
in the tetrahedron
formed
2
r?/
2 f2
(3
+ v/6)a=:l.
If A, A' are points where the lines y nix, z=c y= mx, z~ c, meet the shortest distance betw een them and P, P' are the points, one on each of r as diameter cuts orthogonally the these lines, such that the sphere 011
sphere on
A A'
as diameter,
(1
show that
2/
PP PP lies
f
on the surface
>
W 2)(
2_ m 2 a,2)
==s
o //l
2( z
2_ c 2j
(B.U.)
12. POP' is a variable diameter of the tho plane PP'ZZ' on and a circle is described as PP'O varies, the circle generates the surface
z 2 hyperbola x /a
PP'
13.
variable plane is parallel to a given plane x/a\ylb\ z/c=0 and in A, B, C. Prove that the circle A, B, C lies on the cone
14.
straight line
whose equations
I
in
B.U.)
xa__y 6_z
n
is
is
15.
origin
through a fixed
Find the equation of the system of spheres which touch 2/axis at the and pass through a fixed point (a, 6, c) show that all these spheres pass
;
circle.
kE VISION
fexERClSES
it
13^
lie in
16. Find the equations of the two spheres whose centres octant and which touch the planes
the positive
('')
x2
17.
Find the equation of the sphere which cuts orthogonally each of the
z 2 +2/ 2 +2 2 =a 2 f6 2 jc*,
four spheres
z 2 +y 2 fz 2 +2aa;=a 2 ,
= c2
[Ans.
18.
circle is
(M.T.)
ai+y2 +2
+
CL
fixed sphere
that the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which cuts a orthogonally and is cut by another sphere $'=0 along a great the sphere ' = 0.
Show
=0
19. Prove that the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which cuts each of two given spheres in great circles is a plane perpendicular to their line of
centres.
20.
Find the locus of the centres of spheres which touch the two y = mx, 2 = c.
[Ans.
lines
2 wa?i/fcz(l+m) =0.
;
show that the 21. A sphere of radius R passes through the origin extremities of the diameter parallel to the Xaxis lie one on each of the spheres
0.
(L.U. 1907)
22. Show that the cone yz + zx+xy=Q cuts the sphere # 2 f y 2 +z%=a* in two equal circles, and find their area. [Ans. 23. (i) Find the angles between the lines in which the plane
ux+ vy+wz
cuts the cone
Q,
[Ans.
(ii)
2 tanl!?^!lL
^r?
Show
ax + by+czft,
cuts the cone
in
two
lines inclined at
an angle
)}^
bc}ca)ab
"I
J
(D.U.Hons. 1958)
24.
Show that the angle between the lines given by bzx+ cxy~0
t
and i^
if
a~
(D.U. Hons., 1959)
Find the equation of the cone generated by straight lines drawn from the origin to cut the circle through the three points (1,0, 0), (0, 2, 0), (2, 1, 1) and prove that acute angle between the two lines in which the plane x=2y cuts the cone is cos 1 <v/(5/U). (M.T.)
25.
[Ans.
&z 2
zx5
ANALYTICAL SOLID
26.
its
x=0
is
If the section of the cone by the (0, 0, c). a rectangular hyperbola, prove that tho vertex lies on the fixed
27. Planes through .XTaxis and Faxis include an angle a of their lines of intersection is the cone
two given skew lines such that the length intercepted is constant, are parallel to the generators of a circular cone whose axis lies along the line of shortest distance between the given
28.
lines.
that the plane 2 a meets any enveloping cone of the sphere a conic which has a focus at the point (0, 0, a). (P. U. 1938} 30. A point O is at a constant distance 2a from the origin arid points P Q, R are taken on the axes in such a way that OP, OQ, OR are mutually perpendicular. Prove that tho plane PQR always touches a fixed sphere of radius a. (M.T.) 31. Show that, in general, two spheres rnay be drawn to contain a gi\r en circle and to touch a given piano. If the circle ho in tho plane 2 = 0, and has a 0, show that if tho distance given radius a, and if tho plane is .u cos 0jc sin between tho centres of the two spheres is constant arid equal to 2c, the locus of tho centre of the circle is the pair of linos ar = v^(*+ca cos2 0), z = 0. (P. U. 1949}
29.
Show
# 2 h?/ 2 +2 2 =a 2
t
in
32.
(1,
2,
Find
1),
the equation of tho right circular cone semi vertical angle 00 and the line
'
.
with
the
vertex
as its axis. Prove that the plane 3r 4y f5c = o6 cuts it in a circle. Find its centre and radius. Find tho equation of the right circular cylinder with the above circle as its base. (P.U. 1948}
[Ans.
lx*ly*
centre
25z*
(4,
radius 5^/6. 41z 2 +34^2f25^2f24^+40^30^64.cf 1 52 //j 160; 72360. 33. At what angle does the sphere *2j?/2_j_ 2 2_2.C 4/762+10=0 intersect the sphere which has tho points (1, 2, 3) and (5, 0, 1) as extremities of a diameter. Find the equation to the sphere through the point (0, 0, 0) above two coaxal with the spheres. (P.U. 1948)
34.
(0, 0, a)
A line with
2(^+y2z*)l4x3y+8z=Q.
fixed point
Prove that
m2f2n/=0.
2=0
Find the coordinates of the point P in which this line meets the plane and prove that as the line varies, P traces out the parabola
APPENDIX
Let X, F,
and
let x, y, z,
Z be the cartesian coordinates of any point be any four numbers such that
Then we say that #_, y, z, w are the homogeneous cartesian coordinates (or simply homogeneous coordinates for the purposes of this book), of the point P. Also, if x^ y, z, w are the homogeneous coordinates of a point P then the four numbers kx, ky, kz, kw, (k^O) which arc proportional to x, y, z, iv are also the homogeneous coordinates of the same point, for,
}
^L = JL kw w
^.
pfp 1
t/
1.
In particular, (x, y,z> 1), are the homogeneous coordinates of the point whose ordinary coordinates are (x, y, z). Conversely, if the homogeneous coordinates of a point are (x, y, z, w), then its ordinary coordinates are
(xjw, y/w, zjw).
A. 11.
of a
In
AX+BY+CZ+D=Q,
of a plane, obtain
if
we change X,
Y,
to
xjw,
y\w,
z/w,
respectively,
we
which
is the general equation of a plane in homogenous cartesian coordinates a?, y, z, w, being the current coordinates.
;
A. 12. Equation of a line in Homogeneous coordinates. As above we can easily see that, in homogeneous cartesian coordinates, the equations of the straight line through (x, y', z', w') with direction
ratios
Z,
w, n are
xw'
I
wx _yw'
wy __zw
wz'
m
i
>
n
are
Also,
we may
w t)
146
Ex.
ANALYTICAL SOLlb
Show
that any point on the line j oining
(
x l>
yi> z l>
w l) and
(*2> 2/2> 2
A. 2. Elements at infinity. Let (x, y, z, w) be the homogeneous coordinates of any point. If x, y, z are not all zero and w > then, one at least of the three ordinary coordinates x/w, y/w z/w f tends to find it convenient to express this idea by saying that infinity. and x, y, z are not all 0, is a point at infinity. (x, y 9 z, w), when The aggregate of the points (x, y, z, 0) where x, y, z take up different sets of values, not all zero, is the aggregate of the points at infinity. The equation of the locus of points at infinity is
t
We
wQ
t0=0,
locus of the points at the plane at infinity. Consider parallel lines meet at a point at infinity.
first
degree,
and
m m
x
I
_
I
n
y
__ z
_^
Putting
^=0, we
obtain
meet at the point (i), (ii) at infinity (/, m, ?i, 0). It is useful to remember that (I, m, n, 0) is the point at infinity on every line with direction ratios I, m, n. A. 22. Line at infinity on a plane. The aggregate of points the equation (x, y z, w) which satisfy
for
both
so that
we
of the plane at
infinity,
Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0
of any arbitrary plane, is said to be the line at infinity, on the plane (iv). Thus, for the line at infinity on the plane (iv), we have the equations
A. 23.
Putting
Two
w=0 in
parallel planes have a common line at infinity. the equations of the two parallel planes
Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0,
we
see that they both contain the
same
APPENDIX
Note.
141
of the notions of joints at infinity* and 'lines at the fact that in certain cases we can replace directions of lines and orientations of planes by points and lines lying on the plane at infinity.
infinity'
lies
The importance
in
A.
1.
3.
Illustrations.
the equation of the
Find
plane through
the points
and
In the notation of homogeneous coordinates, find the plane through the three points
(1,0,
we
are required to
1,
2,3,0);
the last one being the point at infinity on the given line.
is
3
Ax+By+Cz+Dw=0
...(1)
simultaneous
A B C D
: : :
in (1),
we
is
4x
i.e.,
2zfav=
y
2z
4x
6=0,
Find
to be
coplanar.
first
In the notation of homogeneous coordinates, we see that the line is the join of the points
the join of
is
0%
The necessary and
is
2/2,
2 2)
and
2>
0).
sufficient condition for the two lines to be coplanar that these four points be coplanar for which we have the condition
J9
m w
l9
nl9
2,
2 , 7& 2 ,
142
2'
/1
o/2>
2>
o,
l9
n l9
^2>
^2>
or
which
3.
is
the
same as obtained
in
infinity,
we can deduce
Regarding a cylinder as a cone whose vertex is a point at the equation of the cylinder whose guiding
curve
is
ax*+2hxy+by*+2gx+2fy + c=0,
and the direction
(a, p, 7).
...(1)
of whose generators are I, m, n> from the equation of the cone whose guiding curve is (1) and whose vertex is
ratios
A. 4. Sphere in Homogeneous coordinates. Changing x y, z to x[w, yjiv, z\w respectively in the general equation of a sphere, we see
9
that
...(1) x*+y"+z +2fxw+2gyivt2hzw+dw =Q, equation of a sphere in Homogeneous cartesian co2 z
A. 41.
w=0
in
(1),
Section of a sphere by the plane at infinity. Putting we see that the section of (1) by the plane at infinity is
the curve
z2 +2/2 +
z 2 =0,
w=Q.
...(2)
the fact that the equations (2) do not involve the arbitrary constants /, g, h, d, we deduce that every sphere meets the plane at The plane curve (2) which lies on every infinity in the same curve. sphere is known as "The absolute circle/' or the "Circle at infinity"
From
We
shall
infinity is
at
To prove this, we consider the general second degree equation 2 ax*+by + cz*+2fyz + 2gzx f 2hxy + 2pxwt2qyw2rzw+dw*=0. ...(3) Putting w=0, we obtain
ax*+by*+cz*+2fyz+2gzx+2hxy=Q
which
will
if,
and only
if,
a=6 = c and/=0,
<7=0,
^=0,
APPENDIX
A.
5.
143
The
Relationship of perpendicularity in terms of conjugacy. and T, m', ri, be the direction ratios of two lines. I, w, n, points at infinity
Let
(Z,
m,
7i,
on these two
infinity, if
lines will
be
to
the circle at
ll'+mm'+nn'=0
the two lines are perpendicular. Thus, we see, that two lines are perpendicular if the points at infinity on them are conjugate with regard to the circle at infinity.
i.e., if
The
lines at infinity
ax\by\ cz
0=w
a'x\b'y{cz
Q=w,
on the two planes ax+by\cz + dw0, a'x}b'y+c'z{d'w~Q, will be conjugate for the circle at infinity, if
i.e., if
the two planes are perpendicular. Thus we see that two planes are perpendicular
on them are conjugate with respect to the circle at infinity. It may also be easily shown in a similar manner that a line is perpendicular to a plane if the point at infinity on the line is the pole of the line at infinity on the plane with regard to the circle at infinity.
CHAPTER
VIII
THE CONICOID
The general equation of the second degree
8*1.
The
ax*
x, y, z is called a conicoid or a quadric. easy to show that every straight line meets a surface whose equation is of the second degree in two points and consequently of such a surface is a conic. This property every plane section " Conicoid" as applied to such a surface. justifies the name
The general equation of second degree contains nine effectiveconstants and, therefore, a conicoid can be determined to satisfy nine conditions each of which gives rise to one relation between the constants, e.g., a conicoid can be determined so as to pass through nine given points no four of which are coplanar. The general equation of the second degree can, by transformation of coordinate axes, be reduced to any one of the following forms the actual reduction being given in Chapter XI. (The name of the particular surface which is the locus of the equation is written
;
x*/a
+ y*lb*\z z jc 2 =
2
i/ /fc
+ z*\<? = 1
Ellipsoid.
I,
Imaginary
ellipsoid.
5.
6.
7.
z 2 /a* +y*lb*~z t lc*=\, Hyperboloid of one sheet. #2 /a 2 y 2 /b 2 z*/c*=l, Hyperboloid of two sheets. 2 zj +z t /c^=0 Imaginary cone. x^la
ty^/b
t
8. 9.
10. 11.
12.
13.
14.
y // = l, Hyperbolic cylinder. 1 Imaginary cylinder. x /a* + y 2 /b* z 3 /a2 y*jb z =Q, Pair of intersecting planes. x2 la?y*/b* = 0, Pair of Imaginary planes.
a;
x2 la?+y 2 lb*=2z/c, Elliptic paraboloid. # 2 /a 2 y 2 /6 2 =2z/c, Hyperbolic paraboloid. z 2 /a2 +yV& t==1 Elliptic cylinder.
2
/a
2
i/
15.
a 2 y ==a
Two
2
,
16.
17.
The equations representing cones and cylinders have already been considered and the reader is familiar with the nature of the surfaces represented by them.
THE ELLIPSOID
145
In this chapter we propose to discuss the nature and some of the important geometrical properties of the surfaces represented by the
equations
8*2.
1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8.
821.
The
Ellipsoid
Fig. 26
of any point satisfy the equation, (i) If the coordinates x, y then so do also the coordinates x, y,z. But these points are on a straight line through the origin and are equidistant from the origin. Hence the origin bisects every chord which passes through it and is, on this account, called the centre of the surface. (ii) If the point with coordinates x, y, z lies on the surface, z. But the line joining these then so does also the point .r, ?/,
z
plane. Hence the XOY points is bisected at right angles by the plane bisects every chord perpendicular to it and the surface is symmetrical with respect to this plane. Similarly, the surface is symmetrical with respect to the YOZ and the ZOX planes.
XOY
These three planes are called Principal Planes in as much as they The three lines of interbisect all chords perpendicular to them. section of the three principal planes taken in pairs are called Coordinate axes are the principal axes in the Principal axes.
present case.
(Hi) x cannot take a value which is numerically greater for otherwise y 2 or z 2 would be negative. Similarly y and z be numerically greater than b and c respectively.
than a, cannot
lies
x=a, x=
and so
is
y=b
a closed surface.
146
(iv)
and
the surface in the two points (a, 0, 0) Thus the surface intercepts a length 2a on .Xaxis. Similarly the lengths intercepted on 7 and Zaxes are 26 and 2c
JTaxis meets
(
The
a, 0, 0).
respectively. Lengths 2a, 2b, 2c intercepted on the principal axes are called the lengths of the axes of the ellipsoid. k which are (v) The sections of the surface by the planes z parallel to the plane are similar ellipses having equations
XOY
x2
2
?/
k lying between
=l ~
k2
c
2~'
Z=fc;
have
their centres
c.
 (1)
The
on Zaxis may, as k varies from
ellipsoid
ellipses
and diminish
(1)
It may similarly be shown that the sections by planes parallel to the other coordinate planes are also ellipses and the ellipsoid may be supposed to be generated by them. Note. The surface represented by the equation
which
is
jc
y,
~ is
imaginary.
822.
Fig.
(i)
27
it
The
and
is,
therefore,,
the
147
(Hi) Tho Xaxis meets the surface in points (a, 0, 0), (a, 0, 0) and thus the surface intercepts length 2a on Xaxis. Similarly the length intercepted on Faxis is 26, whereas Zaxis does not meet the
surface in real points. (iv) The sections by planes plane are the similar ellipses
z~ k which
k2
XOY
xz
?/
whose centres lie on Zaxis and which increase in size as k increases. There is no limit to the increase of k. The surface may, therefore, be oo to +00. generated by the variable ellipse (1) where k varies from Again, sections by the planes x=k and y k are hyperbolas
if
~*~~^~
respectively. Ex. Trace tho su
a*
)X ~
'
"a*
_ T C
b*
9y ~*
_i.
62
8*23.
b2
;
~C
1.
(I)
planes
coordinate planes are the principal Origin is the centre and coordinate axes the principal axes of the surface.
a, 0,0) (ii) Xaxis meets the surface in the points (a, 0,0) and ( whereas the Y and Zaxes meet the surface in imaginary points.
(Hi)
The
sections
+v
T2
i/ 2
c/A/
by the planes
Z2

z
JU
k and?/
~2
~2 A

nt
1*2
i
respectively.
The plane
in the ellipse
t I
'
/y
V 7
^
_I_
,
z c
2
fc
2
7 i
'
a*
which
is imaginary for a<k<a. Thus there is no portion of the 2 the When surface included between the planes x~ a, x=a. 2 section is a real ellipse which increases in size as k increases.
F>a
148
The
Ex.
W
8'24.
T2
,2
~2
TT+Jrii'2
()
~^^+;T= L
above
...(1)
#2
?/
Z2
are
all
The
rtor+fy/
+ c;r].
a,
b,
are all positive, virtual ellipsoid ellipsoid, if all arc negative, hyperboloid of one sheet, if two are positive and one negative and finally hyperboloid of two sheets if two are negative and one positive. All these surfaces have a centre and three principal planes and are, therefore, known as central conicoids.
is
The surface
an
if
On the basis of the preceding discussion, the reader would do well to give piecise definitions of (i) Centre, (ii) Principal plane and (ii) Principal ff.n'.s of a conicoid. In what follows, we shall consider the equation (1) and the geometrical results dcduciblo from it will, therefore, hold in the case of all the central conicoids. Ex. Show that the surfai e represented by tho equation ai z +l>!/ 2 +cz* + 2f /z + gzv + 2hw = d
1 t
origin being the centre. Note. Cone is also a central conicoid, vertex being tho centre this fact clear from tho general equation of a cone with its vortex at the origin.
is
a central conicoid
is
8'3.
conicoid.
To
?i?=^rP == ?.y
/
in
f)
...(ii)
Any
on the
or
r
point
(fr
+ a, wr + p,
nr + 7)
(ii), if
line
(i)
on the surface
..(A)
Let
r l9 r 2
Then
a, rarj y), (Zr 2 +a, mr 2 +p, nr 2 + y) (fri p, n^ are the two points of intersection. Hence every line meets a central conicoid in two points. also see that any plane section of central conicoid is a conic for every line in the plane meets the curve of intersection in two
We
points only.
The two values r^ and r 2 of r obtained from equation (A) are the measures of the distances of the points of intersection P and Q from he point (a, p, y) provided /, m, n are the actual direction cosines of he line.
149
be used in what
The equation
Ex.
1.
J(*+5) = (2/4)=4(:H)
with the conicoid
Any
drawn thiough a
fixed point
Q\y Q%
^i ^2 respectively JV'2
(
prove that
a
,
'1\*.< 'Aj
CPi.dV
aie constants.
11,1
2
QiQJ
(^.r 'Q^
^2
( 'ft
'W'AV
i
2 .<
t (^.C
Cl^.CJtz
at a point.
8*31.
Tangent
lines
Let
'm"
p_,
 (0
...(J)
be
a?i?/ line
(a,
7) of the surface
2
aor+tyHcz
so that
a>.
2

!,
/^
+cy 2 =l.
is,
...(m)
One
8*3
therefore, zero.
p,
The
values of
(ii) at (a, (i) will touch the conicoid 8'3 are zero. given by the equation (A) The second value will also be zero, if
line
7)
if
both the
a/a+fcwtprc/iy^O,
...(iv)
which
is
(i)
surface
(ii)
7).
of the tangent lines to the surface, obtained by eliminating l m, n between (i) and (ii), is 0, aa(o;a) 4 &fty p; + cy(zy) or
locus
y
The
at
(a,
(3,
7),
which
is
a plane.
lines at (a,
(3,
7)
lie
in the plane
y) to the conicoid
Note. A tangent line at any point is a lino which inetth the surface in t\\o coincident points and the tangent plane at a point is the locus of tangent lines at the point.
150
8' 32.
ANALYTICAL soLto
Condition of Tangcncy. To find the condition that
the
plane
...(0
lx+my+nz^p,
should touch the conicoid
...(if)
...
(Hi)
same as the plane (?'). two the equations (i) and (Hi), we get Comparing I m n a
oc=
,
ap and since
P=
7=
up
cp
we obtain
V
a
m
b
ji
^ ~
is
2
*
m
bp
\ap
cpJ
Thus
\ve
(ii)
/,
m,
n.
To find the locus of the point of interDirector Sphere. 8*33. section of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes.
Let
D/jmjSmjTii
2Z 1 a
2^?! = 0,
2
=2m
2
1
=2%
=1.
...(fv)
The coordinates of the point of intersection satisfy the three equations and its locus is, therefore, obtained by the elimination of / 3 m 3j w a / 1 19 m,, ri! 2 ra 2 n 2 This is easily done by squaring and adding the three equations and using the relations (iv), so that we obtain x 2 +y 2 +z 2 =l/a+l/b+l/c,
;
is
EXAMPLES
Examples
1.
151
Find
planes
to
the line,
7s
Any
i.e.,
plane
7360
line will
r7cz
= 3fc
8
9,
73 2 30 2 z 2 +2i=0
if
if
17
+
.*
=l,
a
= (3fc9) +f 21
i.e.,
2fc
+ 9fc+'1:=~0.
This gives
*=4, 1.
Therefore the required pianos are 736043 21
73 60
2.
i3
+ +
= 0, / = 0.
to the ellipsoid
+ y*lb*t**lc*~I,
\
plane
Ix
M0f nz~().
to
to
ellipsoid,
If 2r is the distance between two parallel tangent planes prove that the line through the origin and perpendicular
the
the
2)lanes lies
on
the cone
x 2 (a 2  r 2 )
+ y\b*  r + 2' (c 3  r 2 = 0.
5
)
)
^3 = 0,
Ilx=^YaV.
The distance between these
distance of either from the origin
parallel planes
is
...(1)
which
is
twice the
Thus we have
or
.*.
2
)/
= 0.
x/lylmz/n,
which
is
(1), is
ANALYTICAL SOLID
The tangent planes to an ellipsoid at the points P l5 a tetrahedron A^A^A^A^ where A l is the vertex which Prove that the planes tangent plane at P x
3.
.
P2
is
not
^3 ^* on
the
A,A 2 P 21
have a line in common.
M
P3
A,A,P,
The tangent planes at points P\( x n 2/i> *i) *V#2 2/2, 2). A(T 2>
to the ellipsoid
#3, 23)
^4(24,
2/4,
24)
are
respectively.
The point AI
is
(n), (MI),
and ^2
is
(Hi),
(iv).
Thus the
and
is
(iv).
Also
P2
is
(^,
?/ 2)
z2 )
We may now
easily
A A 2 PZ
1
^4 1 .1 3
P 3 and
^1 1 ^1 4
P4
are
(*?'
From
the line
these
it
X 1 ?all
)
follows
that
pass through
Hence the
1.
result.
Exercises
that the tangent planes at the extremities of any diameter of a central comcoid are parallel.
2.
Show
Show
that
= 0,
the
and
touches
[Ana.
the
conicoid
(1,2,2/3).
3.
also.
\Ans.
4s+20i/21*13 =
(1,
line
=F4, =p3).
Find the equations to the two planes which contain the 30=0, SySz^Q 7.efl0.y
ellipsoid
given by
[Ana.
5.
7j?+6y+3230=O 14^+5^49260 = 0.
f
P, <9 are any two points on a central conicoid. Show that the plane through the centre and the line of intersection of the tangent planes at P, Q will bisect PQ. Also show that if the planes through the centre parallel to the tangent planes at P, Q cut the chord PQ in P', Q', then
PP'=QQ'.
6.
Prove that the locus of the foot of the central perpendicular on varying
the surface
7.
(*a+y2 +2 S)2 !=B0 2 2 + &2i,2 + c 2,2. (B. U. 1915) Find the locus of the perpendiculars from the origin to the tangent
i;
which cut
constant
8.
off
l/k.
from
its
sum
of whose reciprocals
is
equal to a
\Ans.
lines
through
(a,
(3,
y)
tangent planes to
a,*la*
it
2 2 2 If P is the 9. point on the ellipsoid +2?/ f \z =\ such that the perpendicular from the origin on tho tangent piano at P is of unit length, show that P lies oil 0110 or other of the planes 3^/ ^z.
834.
at any point of a guadric is the line through the point perpendicular to the tangent plane thereat. The equation of the tangent plane at (a, p, 7) to the surface
Def.
atf+bif + cz^l,
is
...(,')
The equations
to the
normal at
(a, p, 7),
therefore, are
6p so that aa, 6(3, c7 are the direction ratios of the normal. If. p, is the length of the perpendicular from the
aa
origin
to
the
tangent plane
(if),
we have
or
which shows that aap, b$p, c?p are the actual direction cosines of the normal at (a, p, 7).
,
154
8*35.
ANALYTICAL SOLID
Number
then,
If the normal
of normals from a given point. a given (Hi) at a point (a, p, 7) passes through
point
(/, g, h),
Since
(a, p,
y)
lies
on the conicoid
(t),
\ve
which, being an equation of the sixth degree, gives six values of r, to each of which there corresponds a point (a, p, 7), as obtained
from
(iv).
Therefore there are sic points on a central quadric the normals at which pass through a given point, i.e., through a given point, six normals, in general, can be drawn to a central quadric.
8'36.
six normals
The feet of the central quadric are the intersections certain cubic curve.
to
a,
where
the parameter. points (x, y, z) on this curve, arising from those values of r which are the roots of the equation (v) are the six feet of the normals from the point (/, g, h).
r is
The
by
which determines three values of r. Hence the curve plane in three points and is, as such, a cubic curve.
Therefore, the six feet of the normals from intersections of the conicoid and the cubic curve (vi)
.
(vi)
cuts any
are the
(/, g, h)
8'37. Quadric cone through six concurrent normals. The six normals drawn from any point to a central quadric are the generators of a quadric cone. We first prove that the lines drawn from (/, g, h) to intersect the cubic curve (vi) generate a quadric cone.
If
any
line
x f==y9 z  h
I

tt
i /,,
jV vn
\ i
TH&
through
(/,
COHlCOtfi
186
we have
f
l\ar
I
f J
~~
l+br
g
~~
~h
1f cr
h
m
balm
=r::
n
chin

or
afil~ ==
1far
l\br
1+cr
whence eliminating
r,
we
get
which
curve
is
the
(vii)
to
intersect
the cubic
(vi).
I,
Eliminating
condition,
line
and
this
we
get
af(bc)_^bg(ca)^ch(a~b)^Q
xf
yff
h
which represents a cone of the second degree generated by drawn from (/, </, h) to intersect the cubic curve.
lie
lines
As the six feet of the normals drawn from (/, {/, h) to the quadric on the cubic curve, the normals are. in particular, the generators of this cone of the second degree. Note The importance of this result lies in the fact that while five given
,
concurrent linos determine a unique quadric cone, the six normals through a point he ou a quadric cone, i.e the quadric cone through any of the five normals through a point alto contains the 6ix normals through the point.
8*38.
of the normals.
The coordinates
from
(/, g, h) satisfy
(a, (3, y) of the foot of any of the six normals the relations
ay^pgr^rA
aa
6p
cy
lie
Hence we
cylinders
see
of the normals
on the three
ax(yg)=by(xf)
by(z h)=cz(yg)
(bc)yzbhy+cgz=0
(c
cz(xf)=zax(zh) normals are the common points of the three and the conicoid cylinders
cfz{ahx=Q.
a)zx
The
The equation
satisfied by the six feet of the normals and contains three arbitrary constants fc 1 k 2 , k 3 Therefore it represents the general equation of the conicoid through them.
is
, .
156
ANALYTICAL SOtlD
Examples
1.
The normal
at
any point
P
;
GI,
G 2 Gz
,
of a show
PG PG PG
The equations
of the normal at
(a, p,
7) are
aap
since aap, bftp, cjp, are the actual direction cosines each of these fractions represents the distance between the points
(a, p, 7) and (x, y, z). Tims the distance PG lt of the point P(a, p, 7) from the point where the normal meets the coordinate plane x=Q is
Now
c' 1
the
2.
Show
to
that
the
lines
drawn from
origin parallel
to the
normals
planes
lx\my \nz p,
generate the cone
b

c/Va
Let/,
g,
...(1)
The normal
af
by
ch'
is
The
line
Also
(/, g, h)
(1)
so that
we have
...(3)
a/
(2)
The required locus is obtained by eliminating and (3). The equations (3) give
/, g,
between
which is a second degree homogeneous expression obtain the required locus. (2) and (4), we can easily
3.
in /, g, h.
From
to the ellipsoid
EXAMPLES
lie
157
in the plane
the line
and
to
a(b*c )mn, W(c*a*)nl, c*(a*b )lm. Also obtain the coordinates of these points.
ket
point
is
(/>
(7)
A)
ellipsoid.
The normal
(M.T.) at the
A ?r^=^r?=^i: 2
//a
glb*~
if
'
h/c*
This
lies in
These give
_//  = c
2
2
)
17/6
2
6w/(c
a
=
2
)
*/c
dm~(a*
~*  6 2
=
)
b*nl(c*a?) "~
" /m(a
6 a n
J
where
d
direction cosines of the line joining these points are propor
The
tional to
a ? ??in(6 2
4.
c
A_,
2 ),
etc.
Prove
the
normals
i
'
to the
conicoid
(a, p,
7) mee^
2
the
plane
in points
(6
c 2
3o:
t
+ (c 2 a2 )a7/ +
r2
?/
6 2 )a;y=0, 2
= 0.
It can be
the normals to
+ ^ + + A 6HA c
7)
is
z2
2
=1
fA
(a, p,
a:
Thus
it
0,
where
a a
or
2
a(i/p)(c
or
158
on the normal
I ~f>Cl "f"/ t/o I I
at
any point
of the ellipsoid
T>/"J
~f^d ss i Cf \
J3/^ * ^3
is
,
a 2* 2 2fc2_~ c 2)2 a (2
2.
(2&
62^/2
j^
If a length
PQ
of the ellipsoid
such that PQ k^lp where k is a constant and p is the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane at P, the locus of Q is
"
2. 2
3.
Show
that, in general,
two normals
to the ellipsoid
Determine the coordinates of the IIB in a given plane. soid the normals at which he in tho plane
ellip
[Ana. (rkVia. l*>, Jc). that the locus of points on a central quadric, the normals at which intersect a given diameter is the curve of intersection with a cone having tho principal axes of the quadric as generators. Show that tho normals at the points (x^, y^ Zj), and (.r 2 y^ z z) ^ 5.
4.
Show
a2
intersect, if
^1^2
and that
if (/, g, h)
2/12/2
1
2/2
Deduce that 'the points on the surface, normals at which intersect the normal at a given point, ho on a quadric cone having its vertex at tho given
point.
meet a
(
Prove that six normals drawn from any point to a central conicoid principal plane in six points which he on a rectangular hyperbola. The normals at six points on a,<2 /a 2 f y2lb z +z 2 lc 2 ~I meet in the point 7. show that the mean position of the six points is V* ft ^)
6.
J
7
(c
+q226 2 )6 2
A(q 2
8*4.
Plane of contact.
axx'
+ byy' + czz'
2
2
1
2
at (x ',
if
T/',
2')
to the quadric
(ot^p 5
This shows that the points on the quadric the tangent planes at which pass through the point (a, (3, y) lie on the plane
which
is
POLAR PLANE
8*5.
159
a point. // any secant APQ through a meets a conicoid in P and Q and a point R be taken on this line such that points A and E divide the line PQ internally and externally in the same ratio, then the locus of R is a plane called the
given point
polar plane of
It
if the points and divide internally and externally in the same ratio, then the points P,Q divide also internally and externally in the same ratio.
may
PQ
AR
Let A, be a point
of R.
(a, p,
7) and let
(x, y, z)
be the coordinates
.47? in
The coordinates
A
:
of the
point
which divides
the ratio
are
/
VA + 1
This will
lie
'
A+l
'
A+l/
on the conicoid
for values of A
i.e.,
+ (a** + bp + c7*l) = 0.
same
ratio,
...(1)
The two roots A 1? A 2 of this equation are the ratios in which the Since P, Q divide AR internally and points P, Q divide the line AR.
externally in the
so that, from
we have
(1),
avx+bfy+cyzl^Q.
...(2)
(x, y, z)
Now
point R.
plane.
the relation between the coordinates Being of the first degree, the equation (2)
(2)
is
of the
represents a
Thus
conicoid
s
the
polar plane
of the point
(a, p,
7)
Any
point
is
Rote. Tho reader acquainted \vith cross ratios and, in particular, harmonic cross ratios, would know that tho fact that the points P, Q divide All internally and externally in the same ratio is also expressed by the statement
This
is
Cor. The polar plane of a point on a conicoid coincides with the tangent plane thereat and that of a point outside it coincides with the plane of contact for that point.
Conjugate points and conjugate planes. It is easy to show, that if the polar plane of a point P passes through another point Q, then the polar plane of Q passes through P.
8*51.
such points are called Conjugate points. Also, it can bo shown that if the pole of a plane a plane p, then the pole of p lies on a.
Two
lies
on another
Two
8*52.
a_?/
P__2
7
n
nr\y)
9
m
(Jr
+ a, mr + P,
on
this lir
a(1r+.)x\b(mr+)y + c(nr+y)z = l
f
or
aaa;
b$y + cYz
1 f
r(alx \bmy
+ cnz)
0,
which
and
alx
for all
+ bmy f cnz
all
values of
r.
]pass
through
I
Now,
on
passes
through every point of /'_, therefore the polar planes of any point on V will pass through the point P on /and, as P is arbitrary, it passes through every point on /, i.e., passes through /. Hence if the polar plane of any point on a line I passes through the line Z', then the polar plane of any point on I' passes through I. Two such lines are said to be polar lines with respect to the
conicoid.
To find the polar line of any given line, we have only to find the line of intersection of the polar planes of any two points on it.
8*53.
.
Conjugate
lines.
..
liet I,
intersect
lines
and
Z',
lines.
Let m'
that the line V also intersects the line m. m' and also on I, its polar plane contains the polar As P lies on lines m and /' of m' and I respectively i.e., the lines m and I' are coplanar and hence they intersect. Hence if a line I intersects the polar of a line m, then the line m
intersects the polar of the line
/.
We
now show
Two
such lines
and
EXERCISES
161
Example
the locus of straight lines drawn through at right angles to their polars with respect to
Find
a fixed point
(a,
(3,
7)
ax* + by*+cz*=l.
(P.U. 1937)
Let
I
"''
Now
the polar line of
(1)
be any
is
line perpendicular to its polar line. the intersection of the planes 1, aaLX + b$y + cjz alx f bmy f cnz = 0.
If A,
{/,,
line,
we have
These give
aA
_
ly
6[^
_
= 0.
,
cv
n$my
_
na
ma
a
~r
or
or
Eliminating
locus
is
l>
m
c
>
n between
(1)
and
(2),
we
x<*.\ b
__
y
zy\
Exercises
1.
with respect to
is
the conicoid
^ + PV +
a
b
t!^ JSBslc
2.
where X
is
the parameter,
is
a straight
line perpendicular to
162
3.
(*l)/2=(2/2)/3=(z3)4
with respect to the quadric
a:
Find the locus of straight lines drawn through a 4. whose polar lines with respect to the quadrics a*2&2/2f c^i and
are coplanar.
[An..
5.
Show
perpendicular to
its
6.
^_+J' +__ =
/v>2
7/2
92
in
'
I'
rti'
n'
should be
(t)
polar,
(ii)
(ii)
The enveloping cone. Def. The locus of tangent 8*61. a quadric through any point is called the enveloping cone.
lines
to
To find
with
its
az
vertex at (a, p, 7).
line
Any
if
through (a, p, 7) will meet the surface in two coincident points equation (A) of 8*3 has equal roots, i.e., if
Eliminating
l
the
m, n between
(i)
and
(ii),
we obtain
which
we
as
see that the equation of the enveloping cone can briefly be written
ENVELOPING CYLINDER
163
Note. Obviously the enveloping cone passes through the points common to the conicoid and the polar plane aoLX+bfiyt cz*f 1 of the vertex (a, p, y) Thus the enveloping con e may be regarded as a cone whose vertex is the given point and guiding curve is the section of the conicoid by its polar plane.
Exercises
1.
point
moves
so that
P as
z2
the section of the enveloping cone of vertex by the plane z=0 is a circle show that
;
x2
22
2.
is
P by the
plane
z0
j2
is
T3.
(Agra, 1938)
Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular 2 tangent lines can be drawn to the conicoid a:r +&7/ 2 fcz 2 =l.
[Ans.
4.
;passes
on the cone
Show
lies
[The required locus is the locus of the line of intersection of perpendicular tangent planes to the enveloping cone of the given ellipsoid with vertex at
(0,0,
A).]
8'62.
Def.
is called
lines to
with
x
I
"~~
~~
(a, p, 7) be any point on the enveloping cylinder, so that the equations of the generator through it are
Let
m
As
in
8*61, the line
(i)
n
touch the conicoid,
7)
is
if,
will
(a,
(3,
the surface
which
cone*
Note.
the required equation of the enveloping cylinder* Equation of Enveloping cylinder deduced from that of Enveloping Use of elements at infinity. Since all the lines parallel to the line
is
x\ly\m=*z\n
pass through the point (I, m, n, 0) which is, in fact, the point at infinity on each anember of this system of parallel lines, we see that the enveloping cylinder is sthe enveloping cone with vertex (I, m, n t 0) .
164
is
is
c. Clearly the generators of the enveloping cylinder touch the quadricat points where it is met by the plane aljc^bnnj \cvzQ which is known as the* plane of contact.
Exercises
1
.
of the ellipsoid
with generators perpendicular to Zaxis meet the plane z=Q in parabolas. 2. Enveloping cylinders* of t lie quadnc r/.t 2 & 2 {c:: 1 meet the planetliow that the ctiitral perpendiculars to their 111 rectangular hyperbola planes of contact generate the cone
20
<
j/
3.
ellipsoid
4+^1+^1,
2
fc
c2
whose
meet the
lane
c=0
in circU
..
(P. U. 1937}
Section with
(a, p, 7).
m
of the quadric ax 2 \by 2jrcz 2 =l TI and 7*2 of the equation (A) of
r1 +r 2 =0, and therefore
is
n"
(a, p, 7),
bisected at
that.
aZoc+6mp+cny=0.
Therefore the required locus, obtained by eliminating
Z,
...(2)
m,
n,.
between
(1)
and
(2), is
which
is
section of the quadric by this plane is a conic whose centre for this point bisects all chords of the conic through it. is (a, p, 7)
The
Cor.
cuts
centre is (a, p, 7)
a#*r&y
+c2 2 =l,
in a conic whose
EXERCISES
165
Example
2?
to the ellipsoid 2 2 2 /& fz /c =l. Show that the locus of the centre of section of the surface by the plane through their points of contact is
2
/a
?/
Suppose that (a, P, 7) is the centre of section of the surface by a plane through the points of contact of a triad of mutually perpendicular tangent planes. of the director sphere
The
The equation
of the section
is
Tj
$j
i.e.,
as
A)
be
its pole,
the equation
(i)
$+&+'
Comparing
(i)
and
,
J
(w),
we have
jc 2 2 2(a /a )'
2 / +
n=
f/
r
S(a /a
2
E(a /a
2 )'
4
)'
Since
we have
a2
+
x, y, z respectively,
Replacing
result.
a,
p,
y by
Exercises
1.
to the plane
at the point
(5, 7, 6).
[Ana.
5jj
4,r+9.yf4s=
15,
2r23.?/2f 4s
(w)
3.
2*2y
5s+5=0, 3z 2 +2y2_i5 2 2 = 4
[,Jn,. () (2, 3,1) () (2,3,!). Prove that the plane through tho three extremities of the different axes of a central conicoid cuts it in a conic whose centre coincides with the centroid of the triangle formed by those extremities.
4.
Show
is
the point
/ lp
mp
np
where
J 2 f ??i 2 fn 2
=l and Po
variable plane makes intercepts on the axes of a central conicoid whose sum is zero. Show that the locus of the centra of the section determined fcy it is a cone which has the axes of the conicoid as its generators.
5.
166
6.
point.
Show that the centres of sections of ax 2 +by 2 +cz*=l by planes which. 7. are at a constant distance, p, from the origin lie on the surface
8.
Find the locus of centres of sections of a# 2 f&2/ 2 {cz 2 =l, which touch1.
[Ans.
a 2 a
19
8*72. Locus of midpoints of a system of parallel chords. Let m, n be proportional to the direction cosines of a given system of parallel chords and let (a, p, 7) be the midpoint of any one of them. As the chord
m
(a,
(3,
n
7),
'
of the quadric
is
bisected at
we have,
as in
8*71,
Now
I,
m,
n.
(a, P,
7)
of
+ bmy + cnz
0,
is
which clearly passes through the centre of the quadric and as the diametral plane conjugate to the direction I, m, n.
Conversely any plane
known>
is
A x+ By\Cz=Q
al
I,
the
bm
en
Thus every
direction.
parallel to
central plane is
to
some
point on the conicoid, then the plane bisecting chords called the diametral plane of OP. know that the Note. Another method. Use of elements at infinity. is the harmonic conjugate of the point at infinity on midpoint of any line and B. Thus the locus of the midpoints of a system of parallel the line w.r. to
Note.
If
OP
P be any
A
is
We
AB
chords is the polar plane of the point at infinity common to the chords of the system. know that (I, m, n, 0) is the point at infinity lying on a line whose direction ratios are /, m, n. Its polar plane w.r. to the conicoid,
We
is
+ cnz
w.
= 0,
alx+bmy{cnz=().
Exercises
1.
P(l, 3, 2)
is
(2,
Find the locus of the midpoints of chords drawn parallel to OP. [Ans. x 62/4 6e=(X Find the equation of the chord of the quadric 4# 2 5y2+6z 2 7 through 2. 3, 4) which is bisected by the plane 2# 5y+3z=Q.
[Ans.
(a:2)J(y3)(4).
167
Conjugate diameters and diametral planes. In what follows, we shall confine our attention to the ellipsoid only.
Zj)
OP
The equation
is
tcr
Let Q(x2 y^
>
^2)
we have
ellipsoid
by
which is the condition that the diametral plane^ of OP should pass through Q and, by symmetry, it is also the condition that the diametral plane of
OQ
Thus
if the diametral
OP passes
metral plane of
OQ
2/3,
Let R(x3
Since
is
be one of the two points where the line of OP and OQ meets the conicoid. on the diametral planes OP and OQ, the diametral plane
of
OS
sets of relations
"^ +
T+
"c
r==1
'
semidiameters OP, OQ, OR, which are such that the plane containing any two is the diametral plane of the third are called conjugate semidiameters. The coordinates of the extremities of the conjugate semidiameters are connected by the relations A and B above.
The three diametral planes POQ, QOR, ROP which are such that each is the diametral plane of the line of intersection of the other two are
catted Conjugate planes. shall now obtain
We
two more
sets of relations C,
D, equivalent
we
see that
168
and the relations (B) show that these also mutually perpendicular. Hence as in 5*2,
lines
xl
y
b
7
>
?/ 2 "~T~ )
^3.
T
be
>
z1
3
z2
'
z 
cosines of
three
mutually
perpendicular
Therefore,
we have
8*81. constant.
The sum of
Adding the
which
is
we
get
constant.
The volume of the parallelopiped formed by three conjugate 8*82. semidiameters as coterminous edges is constant. The results (B) give
be
ca
ab
___
V
f for
is
v/
between two perpendicular
z2
c
1 ana
lines
whose
x2
a
y
~T~J b
y2
x3
a
>
7/3
zs c
_
"
~*~>
"
are
_
'
'
6c~
ca
ab
Now
OP, OQ,
OR
0,
0,
0, 1
CONJUGATE DIAMETERS
169
2/2,
2/3,
a;
Y = dba&c, which
is
a constant.
:
The same
2/2>
2/2,
2/3,
2/3,
(By the
8'83.
(Z>).
The sum of the squares of the areas of the faces of the paral>lelopiped formed with any three conjugate semidiamehrs as coterminous
edges is constant.
Let AI,
A2 A3
,
and
let k, mi,
n t> (i=l>
be the areas of the triangles OQR, ORP, OPQ, be the direction cosines of the normals 2, 3)
Now
OQR
(0,
2 2 ),
y^
\ (2/2232/322)
Also this
is
AJt. .bcx 1
!
~2^'
2c
Squaring, we have
AS=
!,
ORP
and
OPQ
on the coordinate
4a 2
"^
46 2
,^V 46
2
"
4c 2
'
170
Adding we get
^ 1 2 + J 22 + ^ 3 2 == X( 62c2 +c2 at 4
which
is
a26 2)
a constant.
The sum of the squares of the projections of three semiany line or plane is constant. Let 1 9 m, n, be the direction cosines of any given line so that the sum of the squares of the projections of OP OQ, OB on this
8*84.
conjugate diameters on
line is
which
is
a constant.
n be the direction cosines of the normal to any Again, let I, given plane so that the sum of the squares of the projection of OP, OQ, OR on this plane is
y
which
is
a constant.
Examples
1.
Show
Zfch^l,
a2
If
"*"
62
any plane
lx+my+nz=p
passes through the three extremities, then
we obtain
Similarly
and
nc 2
EXAMPLES
2*
171
Find
OR
We
have
Let
where
a^+yi'+si^KaHft'+c'),
and
V + ! + ^ =1
or
o2
c
2
From
(2)
and
(3),
we
^+y+^JH^yjL^i a? a'JfeMc'"
c
2
'
'"
M w
Eliminating
locus, viz.
a^,
yl9
zl
from
(1)
and
aj
(4),,
we
!+^^) ^4.^4.^.?( ^ 6 ^ c2 a2
2
e?+6*+c 2
'
3.
Show
its
has three of
then
.
z i)
(2
2/a
22),
lie
on the
and two
similar results.
results
D of
we
relations
and'
4. With any point on the surface of any ellipsoid as centre, a sphere is described such that the tangent planes can be drawn to it from the centre of the ellipsoid which are conjugate diametral planes of th& Show that its, radius is the same for all positions of its centre. ellipsoid.
172
on the
2
_i_
I
ellipsoid
S 2
x*
or
o
+2/ "To
1
22
62
__i A
"be
tangent planes to a sphere with centre (/, ^, 7&) and radius r. The distance of (/, #, &) from each of the three planes being equal to r,
we have
Sfa')
r ts?L.
relations
2
C and D
of
8*8,
we
r
or
r a =(2a~ a ) 1
Hence the
Show
result.
Exercises
1.
~~
.T
?/
'
Find the equations of the diameter in the plane x+y+z^Q, conjugate = 4>;with respect to the comcoid 3*c 2 +?/ 2 2z 2 =l. What are the equations of the third conjugate diameter ?
2.
to .T=
J?/
==
s==
T'^IIcplf'
3.
"34'
l2
"3""
Show
{z
that
for
the
%x$y
4.
ellipsoid
2 a,
4z/
f
5z 2
=l,
the
two
diameters
conjugate diameter.
If PI, p%, PQ
Ttj, 7r 2 ,
^3, be the projections of three conjugate diameters then pi^iip^z^'P^^ * s constant. If three conjugate diameters vary so that OP, OQ lie respectively in 5. the fixed planes
lines,
locus of
OR
is
the cone
EXERCISES
[The required locus of OR is obtained from the fact that the lines of intersection of the diametral plane of OR with the given planes are conjugate lines.] From a fixed point are drawn to the 6. HB, perpendiculars
HA
HC
OR
respectively
show that
constant.
7.
OP, OQ,
OR
At Q and
tangent lines are drawn parallel to OP and p^ p% are The perpendicular from O to the tangent plane at
9
their
right
Show
9.
Show
by the plane
PQR is
the ellipsoid # 2 /a 2
Prove that
this locus coincides with the locus of the controid of the triangle
PQR.
10.
PQR
at the centroid of the triangle PQR. (D.U. Hons. 1948) 11. Find the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre of the ellipsoid to the plane PQR. [Ans. a*x2 + b2y2+c*z2 3(x2+y2+z2)2.
12. If one of the three extremities P(x, 2/i Zj) of conjugate diameters kept fixed, show that the locus of the line joining the centre to the centroid
be of
the triangle
PQR is the
cone
13.
If
(a?!, 2/1,
Zj), (# 2 , 2/2
2 2)
x&
2/3>
z a)
show that the equation of the plane through the three points
(x l9 x 2 ,
a?
8 ), (2/1, 2/2,
2/ 3 )
(i
22
*s)
and that
it
14. The enveloping cone from a point P to the ellipsoid 2# 2/a2 =l has; three generating lines parallel to conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid ; show that the locus of P is the ellipsoid
^2~
15.
V^4+ 62 +
C2
~
2
x X
'
(B.U. 1958}
lie
Show
quadric cone.
that any two sets of conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid (Deduce from, Example 3, page 171).
on a
174
Having discussed the nature and geometrical properties of central conicoids, we now proceed to the consideration of paraboloids.
8*9.
891.
The
Elliptic Paraboloids
We
Y
Fig. 29
(i)
The
coordinate planes
x=0
its
We
positive.
z= k,
XT
whose centres lie on Zaxis and which increase in size as k increases there being no limit to the increase of k. The surface may thus be supposed to be generated by the variable ellipse (i).
;
Hence the surface is entirely on the z=0, and extends to infinity. (iv) The section of the surface by planes
the
YZ and
.ZX
planes are clearly parabolas. The Fig. 29 shows the nature of the surface. Ex. Trace the surface x*la2+y*lb*^ 2zjc. (c>0)
892.
(i)
The Hyperbolic Paraboloid x*/a*  y*fb* = 2z/c. The coordinate planes x = 0, y = Q are the two Principal
planes.
LINE
(ii)
AND A PARABOLOID
175
The
sections
by the planes
z2 v2 &_
a 2"~6 2 ~~c
2k
7*
'
Fig. 30.
If & be positive, the real axis of the hyperbola is parallel to Jaxis, and if k be negative, the real axis is parallel to Faxis. The section by the plane 2=0 is the pair of lines
a
(Hi)
= f,
b
*==()
and
f b
*=0.
planes are
The
section
by the planes
parallel to
YZ and ZX
parabolas.
The
Note.
Fig. 30
shows the nature of the surface. The two equations considered in the last two
8*93.
The
__ ~~~
mr+p, nr+y)
...(A)
We
.
thus see that every line meets a paraboloid in two points. It follows from this that the plane sections of paraboloids are
conies.
176
Also, if /=w=0, one value of r is infinite and hence any lineto Zaxis meets the paraboloid in one point at an infinite distance from (a, (3, y) and so meets it in one finite point only. Such lines are called diameters of the paraboloid.
parallel
tfie surface at the origin only. From the equation (A) 8'94. 8*93 above, we deduce certain results similar to those obtained for central conicoids. The proofs of some of them are left as an exercise to the student.
1.
The
is
tangent plane
to
(a,
(3,,
7)
on
the surface
is
is
is called the vertex of the The origin paraboloid and Zaxis,. the axis of the paraboloid. Condition of Tangency. The condition that the plane 2.
may
^
a
b
ax*+by*=2cz,
...(1)
+ 2np c
p
>
and
~ lc an
me
)
\
/
.
on
Thus
the
plane
touches the surface (1) for all values of I, m, n. Locus of the point of intersection 3.
of the three
mutually
2n r (l
>
x+m y + n z)+c(^+
r
r
JYI
^)==0,
(r=l 9
2, 3)
be three mutually perpendicular tangent planes, the locus of their is obtained by eliminating Z r ra r nr , which ispoint of intersection done by adding the three equations and is, therefore,
,
and
is
to the 2axis
paraboloid.
4.
(a, p,
7) are
c
5.
The
(a,
J3,
7)
is
EXERCISES
6.
177
(a, P,
as
its
vertex
SS l
T 1z
y)
i.e.,
is
ao# + b$y
of the vertex
7.
(a, p, 7).
cz
c7 =
= JL=JL m n
.
is
(ax*+by
2cz)(al
+bmz )=(alxibmycn) 2
en
= 0.
(a,
j3,
8.
The
locus
7)
is
the plane
is
9.
The
focws
I,
direction ratios
m,
of midpoint of a system of parallel chords with n, is the plane alx bmy ~cn Q
which
is parallel to Zaxis, the axis of the paraboloid. The plane is called a diametral plane conjugate to the given direction. Q parallel to the axis of the paraboloid Any plane is easily seen, by comparison, to be the diametral plane for the system of parallel chords with direction ratios
Ax+By +D =
Any
is,
thus, a dia
metral plane.
Exercises
1.
Show
(*)
that
4t/
the plane 2#
the plane 8x
(ii)
6y
2=6 touches
*l/2y*/3*
;
the paraboloid
and
(D.U. Hons. 1958) 3), (ii) (8, 9, 5). Show that the equation to the two tangent planes to the surface
[Ana.
(i)
(3, 3,
line
ttsa&efwylnz
p=0,
(IV
w'
/
Za
tit*
+ mm'r>p'n'p)+u'*
f
fr
 2np
\ J
= 0.
178
3.
US
the axis of the paraboloid. 4. Find the equation of the plane which cuts the paraboloid
#2
i2/
=z
[Ans. 4# 3t/ z+5=0. the locus of the centres of a system of parallel plane sections of a paraboloid is a diameter. Show that the centre of the conic 6.
5.
Show that
is
the point
\
an
&2
'
bn
2
1
where
b
is
Find the chord through the point (2, 3, 4) which 7. diametral plane \Qx24y=2l of the paraboloid 5x 2 >6yZ= Iz.
8*95.
bisected
by the
Number
If the normal at
(/, g, h),
then
/a
so that
Since
(a,
(3,
M~M
(/p = fcy
^c =
=r
'
(say)
7)
lies
which, being an equation of the fifth degree in r, gives five values of r, to each of which there corresponds a point (a, p, 7), from (i). Therefore there are five points on a paraboloid the normals at
a given point, i.e., through a given point five normals, in general, can be drawn to a paraboloid. Cor. 1. As in 8*36, page, 195, it can be shown that the feet of the five normals from the point, (/, g, h) to the surface are the points of intersection of the surface with the cubic curve
where
parameter. Lines drawn from (/, g, h) to intersect the eubio curve (Hi) generate the quadric cone g ,c(6a) _/ pQ' y 9 ab ( z *)
r is the
Cor. 2.
*/
___
and, in particular, this cone contains the five normals from as its generators.
f
t
g, h)
179
Q.
...(ii)
The plane
(i)
y
(ii)
Tfc^mlb^pTc
which
will
if
 + mm' ^=0.
...(.*)
The symmetry of the result shows that the plane (?) is also parallel to the chords bisected by the plane (ii). Thus if a and p be two diametral planes, such that the plane a is parallel to the chords bisected by the plane P, then p is parallel to the
chords bisected by
a.
<ii)
such planes are called Conjugate diametral planes. Equation (iv) is the condition for the diametral planes to be conjugate. Ex. Show that the diametral planes
x
conjugate for the paraboloid
Two
(i)
and
.are
CHAPTER IX
PLANE SECTIONS OF CONICOIDS
have seen that all plane sections of a conicoid are9*1. now proceed to determine the nature, the lengths, and conies. the direction ratios of the axes of any plane section of a given. conicoid.
We We
We
shall
and
then:
of paraboloids.
While determining the nature of plane sections of conicoids, we assume that the orthogonal projection of a parabola is another parabola, of a hyperbola another hyperbola and of an ellipse is
another
9*2.
ellipse or in
some
cases a circle.
To
deter
mine
by
the
plane
lx+my+nz=p.
The equation
to
...(2}
1
having its from (1) and (2), is x 2 (an2 f cl~) f 2clmxy j y z (bn 2 + cm2
the cylinder passing through the section and generators parallel to Zaxis, obtained by eliminating
2
)
2cplx
2cpmy\ (cp
n 2 ) = 0.
The plane 2=0 which is perpendicular to the generating lines of the cylinder cuts it in the conic whose equations are
3
2
= 0,
x (an + cl ) + 2clmxy+ y*(bn f cm 2 ) 2cplx 2cpmy+ (cp 2  n 2 ) = 0,, and which is the projection of the given section on the plane
2
2 2
25
= 0.
The
hyperbola or
is
a parabola,.
or
bd*+cam*+abn* ^ <0.
L>
Thus we
find that the section
")
is
a parabola a hyperbola
f
bcl
2
an
ellipse
^according as j
+cam 2jrabn 2 ^
[^
>
181
Axes of central plane section. To determine the lengths 9*21. <and direction cosines of the section of the central conicoid
az 2 +fy2 +cz 2 =l, by
the central
...(1)
plane
lx+my+nz=Q.
Take a concentric sphere
* 2 +</ 2
...(2)
+zW
2
.
..(3)
extremities of all the semidiameters of length r of the <;omcoid lie on the curve of intersection of the conicoid and the sphere.
The
The
is
(1)
(ar
l)x +(6r
l)2/ +(cr
2 ~l)z =0.
(2) cuts this cone in two generators which determine the directions of two equal diameters of length 2r of the section and which are, therefore, equally inclined to the axes of the section.
The plane
In case 2r becomes the length of either axis of the section, the generators coincide and, therefore, the plane touches the cone, the generator of contact being one of the axes. Now, the condition for the plane (2) to touch the cone (4) is
*
*L
ar
2
!^
4.
2
!
+_*
cr
2
_
2
!'
or
(bcl
+cam*+abn*)r*[(b+c)l
f(/
+m
+ra )0,
9
...(5)
which
a quadric in r and has two roots r^ squares of the semiaxes of the section.
is
r2 2
If A 5
plane
(2)
v be the direction ratios of the axis of length touches the cone (4) along the line
(JL,
2r,
2(JL
...(6)
:and
is,
which
{6)
is
so that
we have
I
n
axis of length 2r
;
which determine the direction ratios of the given by the equation (5).
9*22.
being
TTT^,
V(bcl
+cam2 +abn2
=:
9V
)
182
If, p, be the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane to the conicoid,
lx+my+nz=
which
is
+ T +),
lx}my+nz~^s we have
z
./(*.+!#+) V \a b c /
so that
the
9*23.
v(bcl
f f 2 +cam 2 jabn
._
)
area=
pV(abc)
For a rectangular hyperbola, we have
and hence
(b+c)!
Ex.
2
+ (c+a)m +(a+b)n
2
=0.
by the plane
circle
should be a parabola, an
9*21
ellipse,
a hyperbola or
a.
(For a circle r 1 2 = r 2
[Ans.
2
)
The conditions
Z
= 0,
m2(c
= n2(
6)
or
w=0,
n*(a
6)=Z 2 (6
c)
or
9*24.
To find
the
jOL^JL^JL. OL^IL^JL, m m
Z
Tij
12
n2
to be the
The quadric
lines in (1) will bisect chords of the section see that each of them must belong to the diametral plane conjugate to the other. the diametral plane conjugate to
we
Now
is
aliX
+ bm y + cr^ z =
1
]
for the
same
is
al 1 l 2
+bm m +cn
also
n 2 ==0.
...(2)
The
condition
(2) is
(2),
In addition to
we
have
EXAMPLES
183
Examples
1.
in rectangular hyperbolas. Prove that the normals the origin lie on a quadric cone. Consider any plane
to the
planes through
lx+my+nz=Q
(b
.(1)
through the origin. The condition for this plane to cut the given quadric in a rectangular hyperbola is
...(2)
is
The normal
= _.= .!. m n
"
...(3)
Eliminating
question,
lie
7,
(2)
and
(3),
we
in
which
2.
is
the
quadric
;
proportional to the area of the perpendicular central section the locus of their extremities is a quadric
show
that
x a
+ ~+ b
tj
z
c
= constant.
conic
where, p, the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane parallel to the plane (1) is given by
S T) v( Y 
sa
I,
We require the
cosines.
xlAk, y=mAk,
k being the constant of proportionality.
vTt
i
znAk
I
where fc'=?
Hence the
result.
184
3.
Show
the line
m
y
n'
lie
on
the cone
(b~6)(
y).
(ca)(nxlz) .(a
_~
Let
ni
..
line
m n I The axes being perpendicular to each other, we have = 0. Zj/ 2 + Wjmg h n^s Also as in 9 '24, page 182, we have
...(fw)
= 0.
Also the lines
(?'),
(ii)
and
Therefore
m,
or
Eliminating
Zt,
mi,
from
(fv), (v)
and
(vi)
lm^ 0. we have
bm 2
cn 2
=0.
..
(vii)
?2
2,
^2 ^rom
(**)
an(^
(*'*'*")>
we obtain the
Owe
aa;i
lies in the
plane
Show
on
the cone
(bc)uyz+(ca)vzx+(ab)wxy=*Q
(C.u. 1924)
EXERCISES
"Oet
185
be the two axes of a central section such that the second given plane for which we have the condition
ul 2
lies
in
the
+vm
1
2 }im 2
= 0.
...(*)
Also, as in
9'24,
+ w^ + n n = = 0. + alJz 6m m + cn n
IJ 2
t
... (it")
...
(iii)
Eliminating
I 2t
ra a
n<i
from
(i), (ii)
and
(iii),
we have
= 0,
or
c)
+ 071^, (c
ar/Z 1
a)
+ wl/m (ab) = 0.
l
this condition,
1
we
=y/m =2/w
the cone
Exercises
1.
Show
by the plane
is
an
ellipse
fAns.
2.
Show
sections of
4.
a> f7?/ 102 49=0, 42^/43^0 a hyperbola whose transverse axis is 6 and the direction cosines of whose axes are proportional to (6, 3, 22, 9). 4) and (17, 3. AI, A 2 A$ are the areas of three perpendicular central ~2 ~ 2 mutually an show
.7;
is
ellipsoid
that J.j2f A 2
\A 3
is
constant.
Show
that
all
plane sections of
(a,
which are rectangular hyperbolas and which pass through the point touch the cone
+
5.
cfa
lies
af6
Any
on the cone
The
Show
If a length
PQ
P of the ellipsoid
equal in length to l^A/nabc where Zis a constant and A is the area of the section* of the ellipsoid by the diametral plane of OP, show that the locus of Q is
C2 2 2
(
C 2H 2 ) 2
^ ne
Prove that if l^ 9 m^ n^ ; 1%, w 2 , ^?2 are 8. principal axes of any plane section of the quadric
direction ratios of
the
mi??? 2
6
9.
c~~ c
~ r&iWg
a
b
"
ax*+by*+cz*=l
which has one of its axes along the
line
[Ana.
that central plane sections of an ellipsoid of constant area touch a quadric cone.
10.
Show
and
by
Axes of noncentral plane sections. To determine the lengths 9*3. direction ratios of the section of the central conicoid
plane
the
is
Centre of the plane section, now, is not the origin. If (a, p, 7) the centre of the section, the plane (2) is also represented by the
equation
so that
we
get
=k
oc
(say) .
__ Ik ==
j
p ==
Q__& ~
j
__nk / ==:
C
<
CD
Hence
+cr 2 _
p
or
i / \ a
2
I
2
'
m 6
2
,
n2 \
J
>
c /
If
we
write
m
we
get
Ip
n2
mp
np
1ST
or
PQ
PQ
...(4)
fa+my4nz=0.
Now
the conic
...(5)'
the
same
as the conic
Q,
...(6)
for,
points whose coordinates satisfy the equations^) also satisfy the equations (6).
Putting
and replacing the a, b, c by aid?, b[d*, c/d* respectively tions (5) and (6) of the previous article, we get
in the
equa
m* _P _ ~^br*~ ar*
,
_,. """
n*
cr*
_n
'
...(7)'
m
section.
'
lengths r lt r 2 and the direction ratios at the corresponding semi axes of the section.
I,
m, n respectively
we have
~~
its
,72
V/(
\b bcl*+cam*+abn 2
P
9*32.
*lb+n*/cJ
V/(
\bcl*+cam*+abn*
and
that
(8) if
Comparing the equations (7)' with the equations (5) and (6) of the previous article, we see a, p be the lengths of the semiaxes of the section by theParallel plane sections.
central plane
188
and
=p
dp,
...(10)
and the corresponding axes are parallel. Thus we see that parallel plane sections of a central conicoid are similar and similarly situated conies. Again, if A Q and A are the areas of the sections by the planes (9) and (10), we have
^
and
Thus
Note. pfojQ can easily bo seen to be the ratio of tlio lengths of the perpendiculars from the centre to the given plane and to the parallel tangent plane.
Examples
that the area of the section of an ellipsoid by a plane which passes through the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters is in a constant ratio to the area of the parallel central section.
1.
Show
Let P(xly ylt zj, Q(x 2 y 2 z 2 ), E(x3) y3 z 3 ) be the coordinates of the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid. The equation of the plane PQR is
, , ,
The
is
Ix+my+nz=l
two sections
<
9 32)
'
Again
2
o
Oj
C,
D of
8*8.
CIRCULAR SECTIONS
2.
189>
Find
we have
Exercises
N*
Find the lengths and directions of the axes of the section of the ellipsoid 62/2{ 1432=3 by the plane z+y+z=*l. [Ans. A, (22)44, (4, 5, 1), (2, 1, 3).
1.
2.
Show
in a hyperbola
3.
and
x\Zy\3z~
3, 1,2
1,
5,4.
The
ellipsoid
x 2 J2?/ 2 f32 2 =l
sections
1, 4,
3.
2x}3?/+ 42=2,
planes are in the ratio 59 Find the locus of the centres of the sections of the ellipsoid
made by the
29.
^2
7r/c
2
,
Ans
[
9*4.
Circular Sections.
To
ellipsoid
+y, +2,_ a
two planes
we
meet the
ellipsoid
circle,
we
find that
the
(1) in circles.
190
Similarly, if
we
...(4)
we
and
which cut an
ellipsoid
If a >6 2 >c 2 > the second of these equations only gives real planes so that in this case the real pair of central planes of circular sections
is
*
a
2 2 V(a &
2 2 V(& c )=0.
..(5)
and
''which
are parallel to those given by the equations (5) cuL the ellipsoid in
o/A and
[JL.
9*41.
lie
Any
on a
sphere.
Let
vV& +
2
)
2 2 V(6 c )=A
and
V(
6 1
)
V(&
 c2 =
)
I*,
The conicoid

z 2 V( & )
a 2 V(& c )n
=o,
...(i)
EXERCISES
191
~^~
+ ~~~tf
^
6
'
^T*
9
c*
Now,
>clearly satisfies these
in (1),
we
get
c
<which represents the sphere through the two circular sections. Hence the proposition is proved.
Exercises
1.
Show
+ c 2 )=0
and
^
Also show that any two circular sections of opposite systems in the case of either hyperboloid ho on a sphere.
2.
Find the
10o;2
(ii)
2?/2+z2+2=0.
[A us.
[Ans.
(rii)
15a;2_ 2/ 2__iO2__4 == 0.
4^+32=X,
4^32 = ^.
Find the equation of the sphere which contains the two circular sections of the ellipsoid a; 2 3?/ 2 2^ 2 =4 through the point (1, 2, 3).
3.
[Ans.
4.
circle in
circle
Obtain the equation of the sphere which passes through the given circle of the opposite system and determine the radius of the circle in which the given plane cuts it.] Show that the circularsections of the ellipsoid 5.
[Hint.
and any
r,
where
Zi = ^z
62
6.
~o2C*"
ellipsoid at
a distance
6\/(l
p 2 6 2 /a 2c 2 ).
192
Show that the locus of the centres of the spheres which pass through* 7. the origin and cut the ellipsoid
is
the hyperbola
Pj,
e lengths of the perpendiculars from the extremities If PI, >2 #3 De of conjugate semidiameters on one of the planes of central circular sections of the ellipsoid,
8.
,
P2 P 3
(B.U. 1931)
vertex at the centre of the ellipsoid If the is a circular section of the ellipsoid. cone contains three mutually perpendicular generators, prove that the distance of the section from the centre of the ellipsoid is
is
obc
942.
Umbilics.
on a quadric such that the planes parallel to the tangent plane at the point determine circular sections on the surface
Def.
is
A point
called
an umbilic.
Clearly, umbilic is a pointcircle which lies on a quadric. are the extremities of the diameters which passof the systems of circular sections. the centres through
The umbilics
To determine
at the point
is
ct
Q == ^ anci
tf
~
,
ay(a
n a
rrr
"i"
But
Hence
f2
a2
^+fr
Show
SECTIONS OF PARABOLOIDS
2.
193
Find the
z2
3.
2 ellipsoid 2z
+ 3# 2 +6z 2 =6.
0, [Ana. that the four real nmbilics of an ellipsoid lie upon a circle. Prove that the perpendicular distance from the centre to the tangent 5. (U.P. 1937) plane at an uinbilic of the ellipsoid is ac/6.
(K/,
4.
Show
9*5.
Sections of paraboloids.
To
determine
the
nature of the
by
the plane
lx+my{nz=p.
Let 1 7^0 so that the plane
As
in
9*3,
is not perpendicular to the YZ plane. the equations of the projection of the section on the YZ
plane are
2 2 i z
2apmy
also
3
>
= 0.
ellipse,
an
an*(am*+bl
)<{
f< =0
or
abn 2 ! 2
Thus for a parabola n=0. If n^O, the section will be an ellipse or hyperbola according as ab is positive or negative that is according as the paraboloid is elliptic or hyperbolic. and ra^O then, by projecting on the If Z plane_, we get a
XZ
similar result.
If
clearly
then n cannot be equal to zero and the section is then hyperbola according as ab is positive or negative. Thus we have proved that all the sections of a paraboloid which
Z=ra=0
an
ellipse or
are
parallel
elliptic
of an
to the axis of the surface are parabolas all other sections paraboloid are ellipses anil of an hyperbolic paraboloid are
:
hyperbolas.
9*51.
Axes of plane
sections of paraboloids.
To determine
the
lengths
and
...(1)
plane
(a, p,
Let
also represented
(2)
is
Comparison gives
gg__ffi_ ~~
I
~c a ~~ m~~ n
194
Therefore
a=
an
B=
bn
>
If we write
7
m
Zc
*T+T+T'
we
find that the centre of the section
/
is
Tip
me
9
kc\
'
an
bn
w2 /
referred to
this point as the
a{
f \
o
a;
N an)
*C
7
2
,
^ \ +&{
r/
2/ y
or
ax*+by*
2c (Ix+my+nz)
now becomes
Now
lx+my+ nz=0.
the conic
V t'/
y+w2=0
is
Let us write
pQ *^c(kc+np)=c[^+ ~+2np
The
semi diameters of length r of the conicoid
J.
a
^)~2V0
The plane
will touch this cone if
...(4)
or
195
,
2 2 is a quadratic equation in r and has two roots r^ r 2 2 which are the squares of the semiaxes of the section. AlsOj if A, JA, v be the direction ratios, of the axis of length 2r, the plane (2) touches the cone (4) along the line
is,
so that
we have
m
which determine the direction ,given from the equation (5).
9*52.
n
;
being
The
This requires
(a+b)n
Ex.
9*53.
of this article.
Area of the
section.
9*54. rthen as in
section,
(V+ r
2 2 2
)
Show
ft>y
6 a a rectangular hyperbola. 2. Prove that the axis of the section of the conicoid az%+by2=s2z by the splane lx+my+nz=Q lie on the cone
(is
(a
b)n__
196
3.
is
9*6.
To
The equation
(1)
y(6a)cw
and
f
a!
o,
(2>
...(3)
(a&)&2:=0
>
determine circular sections through the origin. If a or 6 is negative and the other positive, neither of the equations (2)
and
(3)
Hence
no
(3),
one
will
be real
if
a and
6*
a>6>0,
3 2 (a6)6z a =0,
gives real circular sections through the origin of circular sections are given by
A,
real
systems
a?V(a
b)
Exercises
1.
an
elliptic
paraboloid
2.
on a sphere.
real circular sections of the paraboloid
.
Find the
[Ans.
[Ans.
2x3y=l.
2/22=X*.
0,
9*61.
Umbilics of a paraboloid.
To
of
the parctboloid
by the planes
x\/(ab)+<\/'bz~'h,
XT/iaty^bz
afx+bgyc(z+h)**Q
thereat
is
UMBILICS OF A PARABOLOID
197
Also,
Therefore,
n
IT
~~s~ir
2ab
b
Hence
~~
.O/^
(ii)
a b)c~\
the two real umbilics of the paraboloid. Ex. 1. Find the umbilics of the paraboloids
(**)
4^2
+ 5^2 = 40 2
2
2, t)
;
[Ans.
(i)
(0,
CHAPTER X
GENERATING LINES OF CONICOIDS
10*1.
We
a2+
4
z __ 1
a
62
'
m  (1>
l_fl _i_,
This
may
x a
'b
i\y
b
...(2)
V_
X a
Z
J?Li_?L "*" a c
b
or
=*z
/ox
(3)
We
two families of lines obtained by putting and (3) equal to arbitrary constants A and \L
To each value of the constant A corresponds a member of the family of lines (A) and to each value of the constant \L corresponds a member of the family of lines (B). Now it will be shown that every point of each of the lines (A) and
,
(B) lies on the hyperboloid (1). If (xQ9 y Q z ) be any point of a we have obtained for some value A of
,
member
_.,,
c
of the family
(A),
b /
On
(SQ
2/
is
(1)
GENERATING LINES
199
A
each
Thus as X and
similar proof holds for the family of lines (B). we get two families of lines (A) [i vary,
and (B)
of each of which lies wholly on the hyperboloid. These two families of lines are called two systems of generating lines (or generators) of the hyperboloid. We shall now proceed to discuss some properties of these systems of generating lines.
member
Through every point of the hyperboloid there passes one each system. generator of
10*11.
Let
(xQ ,
yQ
zQ )
Now
the line
a
will pass
__JL =A
c
H.JL(if), b J b \
, ,
if,
and only
if,
A has a value
+f)/^)Now, by virtue of the relation (4), these two fractions Thus the member of the system (A) corresponding to
,
are equal.
either of the equal values (5) of A will pass through the given point (x y z ). Similarly it can be shown that the member of the system (B) corresponding to either of the equal values
,
of,
[i,
yQ
ZQ ).
intersect.
10*12.
No
Let
fT'C'f )<'+ f
be any two different generators of the A system. Subtracting (Hi) from (i), we obtain
(AiA 2 )
Again, from
(ii)
or
for
+=O
or y
=~ b
>
for
Thus we see that these four equations are accordingly the two lines do not intersect.
inconsistent
and
200
10" 13.
Any
to different
systems intersect.
Let
be two generators, one of each system. Firstly, we solve simultaneously the equations
(i), (ii)
and
(Hi).
Now
(i)
and
(Hi) give
?/
in
>
(i)
a;
and
2 c
(ii),
~
we
2
obtain
x a
2A(ji
c ~Ajf>t
2=0.
lAtj
also.
Now, as may easily be seen, these values of x, y, z satisfy (lv) Thus the two lines intersect and the point of intersection is
A ^
Another method.
The planes
__y_ b ) J
fc
r L
pass through the two lines respectively for all values of k and Now, obviously these equations become identical for
lc
k'.
\L
and fc'=A.
A+fx
Cor.
1.
AHfA
Afpt
the plane (7) through two generators of the opposite systems is the tangent plane to the hyperboloid (1) at the point of intersection (6) of the two generators. Since also through every point of the hyperboloid there pass two generators, one of each system, we see that the tangent plane at a point of hyperboloid meets the hyperboloid in the two generators through the point.
through a generating line is the tangent plane Now like every plane section, the section of the hyperboloid by any plane through a generator is a
Now
Cor. 2.
Any plane
at
GENERATING LINES
201
conic of which the given generator is a part. Thus the conic is degenerate and the residue must also be a line. At the point of intersection of the lines constituting this degenerate plane section, the plane will touch the hyperboloid.
Ex.
also.
Equations
.
,
of
u.
the
hyperboloid.
1

The
co
x=a
14 Apt.
.
A+
2/= y
ALL 
JJL'
are the parametric equations of the hyperboloid A, [i being the two parameters. These coordinates satisfy the equation of the hyperboloid for all values of the parameters A and (JL.
;
Example
Find
four
the lengths of the side of the generators of the hyperboloid
the
the
5, 1) (14, 2,
2).
the form
we
lines of
JL_ 2
f
*
The generators
for
(i)
and
(ii)
(10, 5, 1)
and
(14, 2,
2)
,
The two
.are
pairs
...
(m)
(v)
~+z =ly
...
(w)
202
Solving in pairs (m), (vi) and (iv), (v)> we see that the two other vertices of the skew quadrilateral formed by the four generators are
(14,
i,), (V,
H,
tt).
sides are
now
easily seen to be
[Ans.
(i)
#f3tJi2/2=3X, l
x
(n)
3[A2/
2=3^.,
^+3t/4^2=3
a;
3?/
;
z=3, 2=2,
cc
4x3y+ 22+4 = 0,
10*2.
To find
6,
any
point (a cos
z=0.
b sin
Let
x
a cos 6
I
m
b
sin 0, 0).
The point
(Ir+a cos
6,
mr+b
sin 0, nr)
all
is
f
(mr+b 
r sin 0) a __7i2_
cos
if
values of r~
^t
"
,
sin
in r
must be an
identity.
This will be so
and
I
cos 6
m sin 6
r
These give
1
__
m
b
cos
sin
GENERATING LINES
203*
Thus we obtain
xa cos
a sin
0___.y
b sin
6 cos
0^3
c
Ex.
10'3.
Show
projections of the generators of a hyperboloid on any principal plane are tangents to the section of the hyperboloid by the principal plane.
the
0),
jx
= cot
(in
40).
a cos
a sin
b sin 6 cos
__ z
'
The equation
x
a cos
a sin
b sin
b cos
represents the plane through the generator perpendicular to the XOY~ plane is plane so that the projection of the generator on the
XOY
a
cosj?_yfr
sin
'
__ ~~"
~
a sin
or
6 cos #
x cos a
is
+
,
?/ 
sin b
=1, 2=0,
which
of the hyperboloid
by the
Again
x a cos 0__ a sin
is
z c
the plane through the generator perpendicular to the XOZ plane so* that the projection of the generator on the XOZ plane is z x a cos
a sin
or
a;
2/=0
sec
tan
c
= 1, v=
.
which
is
of the hyperboloid by the principal plane y~0 at the point (a sec 0, 0, c tan 0).
*204
we may show
Example
that points of intersection systems drawn through the points
Show
E S
9
of the
generators
of opposite
+ y*lb*z*lc* = l
,sin \(0
<l>}
'
sin
(0<
The question can, of course, be solved by solving simultaneously the equations of the generators obtained in 10'2, but we shall give another method which is perhaps simpler. Let R (xi, 2/1, zj be either of the two points of intersection of the
generators.
^j.?yi_??i
62
c
2
==
"a*
at
which
is
Q whose equation
is
known
to be
Also
we have
we obtain
Exercises
are the points of intersection of generators of opposite systems drawn at the extremities F, Q of semi conjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section ; show that
1.
/?, iS
(i)
(ii)
PSQR
taken in order,
is
con
= (a 2 + 62)/ c 2 where
/_RPS=2(X. and
(iv)
RQS=W
to
iabc.
EXERCISES
2.
205
the hyperboloid
P on
meet the principal elliptic section in points whose eccentric angles differ by a* constant 2oc show that the locus of P is the curve* of intersection of the hyper;
3.
on the hyperboloid
meet the
one
is
principal elliptic section in two points such that the eccentric angle of three times that of the other, prove that P lies on the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid with the cylinder
Show that the generators through any one of the ends of an equi4. conjugate diameter of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid
are inclined to each other at an angle of 60 if a 2 j6 2 =6c 2 . condition for the generators to be perpendicular to each other.
Find
also the
[An*.
5,
intersects generators of the same system through the extremities of and P' ; show that of the principal elliptic section in points
Show that the shortest distance between generators of the same system at one end of each of the major and minor axes of the principal ellipticsection of the hyperboloid
6.
drawn
7. Show that the shortest distance between generators of the same* system drawn at the extremities of the diameters of the principal elliptic section.
Show that the lines through the origin drawn parallel to the line of* 8. shortest distance between generators of the same system through the ends of semiconjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid,
generate the cone
2
2c 2 z 2 =0.
variable generator meets two generators of the system through the extremities B and B' of the minor axis of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid
9.
in
and
any point
22 2
2c 2
and Q
is
'206
11.
P on the hyperboloid
;
in A, B and the volume of the tetrahedron formed by the meet the plane generators through A and B is constant and equal to abc/4 show that the locus of P is either of the ellipses
zQ
To find the locus of the points of intersection 10'4. cular generators of the hyperboloid
of perpendi...(1)
y l9
Zj)
'perpendicular.
The generators
a2
62
c2
W
.ox
,at
(1)
homogeneous with
a8
+
,
2/
6a
fxxi 2+ ~"^~U
22
__
2/2/1
62
The curve of intersection of (1) and (2) being a pair of lines, the cone with its vertex at the origin and with the curve of intersection of (1) and (2), as the guiding curve, represented by the equation (3), .reduces to a pair of planes. If, 1 m, n be the direction ratios of either of the two generators,
9
we
lie
(2)
and
'
(3),
6*
/fa,
Now,
(5),
(4),
reduces to
c2
2"
^ 62 ~F+T2 a2
,
72
m2
n  = 0(5),
n*
Eliminating n from
(4)
and
we
obtain
Z2 >
2>
nz ^ e ^ ne
two gene
m
or
Since
*
y +m m +n w
2
l
=0,
we obtain
EXAMPLE
or
6Va: 1 2 (c a
or
(6
207
We re write it as
(a?lf
yx zj
,
lies
on the hyperboloid,
this
Thus we see that the point of intersection of perpendicular generators lies on the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid and the director sphere
Another method. Let PA, PB be two perpendicular generators through P and PC be the normal at P so that it is perpendicular to the tangent plane determined by PA and PB. The lines PA, PB, PC are mutually perpendicular and as such the three planes CPA, APB, BPC determined by them, taken in pairs, are also mutually perpendicular.
.at
The plane CPA through the generator PA is the tangent plane some point of PA and the plane CPE through the generator PB is the tangent plane at some point of PB. Also the plane APE is the
tangent plane at P.
Thus the three planes CPA, APE and BPC are the mutually perpendicular tangent planes and as such their point of intersection P lies on the director sphere. Thus the locus of P is the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid with its director sphere.
Example
Show
any point P on
hyperboloid is given by
+c*)/2abc, where, p, is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at and, r, is the distance of from the centre. (D.U., M.A. 1947, 59) at The tangent plane P(x l9 y l9 zj is
0=p(r*a*b
xxj
yyl
2*1
~^r+p
^T
1
...(1)
As
in
two
10*4, it can be shown that the direction ratios I, m, n, of the generators through this point are given by the equations
208
tan
VL
j
4
2
\a*
2"
Now,
tangent plane
the
1
.1
p*=
\JJi
. n ^"^ +*
/2
?L.
&
}
tan
_VL?(: 02
Line of Striction.
Parameter of Distri
position
generator, Z, is the limiting point of intersection with the line of shortest distance between it and another generator, m, of the same system ; the limit being taken when, m, tends to coincide wilh I.
1.
Def.
of
its
sacrifice of precision, one may say that the central a of generator is the point of intersection of the generator given point and the shortest distance between it and a consecutive generatoi of the system.
With some
Def. 2.
striction.
The locus of
of
The parameter of distribution of a generator, I, is 65, is the shortest distance and, 8^, the angle between I where, lim($sl<\>) and another generator of the same system, the limit beincf taken when tends to coincide with the generator I. the generator
Def.
3.
GENERATING LINES
10*51.
209
We
yb sin0
b cos#
z ~~ c
Z,
xa xa
a
z c
...(i)
sincp
We, now,
consider
b sin?'
z
c
...(2)
81119'
~~b cogq/
of the same system. Let the shortest distance between these generators meet them in P and Q respectively so that we have to find the limiting position of the point P on the generator I when 9'Kp. Let C be the limit of P.
is a chord of the hyperboloid, its limit will be a tangent the point C. Let Z, m, n be the direction ratios of the shortest distance PQ and Z n be those of its limit. We have
Since
line
CD
PQ
at
at 81119
bm
cos? fen=0,
al
_
cos9
siii9'
bm
sin9
en
'
sin (9'
9)
or
al __
sin
$(9'+^)
cos
i(""'
co&9
1
bm
en
Let 9'9.
Thus we obtain
sin?
Let
[a(r sin9
+ cos9),
6(sin9
r cos?), cr]
(1).
(3)
on the generator
r
'
is
b
Z
,
w
r
lies
on
this
cos)
a
or
in 2 9
'
62
r + ~w~ + cd = f L"^^^" J
,
cos 2 9
11.
sl sln9 cos?
210
or
r=
so that
cV(a 6
2
COS?
cos 2 9+6 2c 2 sin 2 9)
'
+aV
we have obtained
r.
Substituting this value of r in (3)* we see that the coordinates of the central point C(x, y, z) are given by
2
_q*(fr
+c2 )cos9
6 8 (c 2
+a
2
)
sin9
c 3 (q a ~6 2 ) sin9
0089
where
Jt=a2 52 +q2 c2 cos2 9f6 2c2 sin2 9
Eliminating 9, we see that the line of striction intersection of the hyperboloid with the cone
is
the curve of
Ex. Find the central point for a generator of the second system and that the line of striction is the same for either system.
10*52.
generator,
I.
show
the
To
determine
the
parameter
of
distribution
of
and
(2)
of
10*51,
we have
j.
tan
ci od= T
smcp
0039 0039
We
we
write
9'=
so that
69^0 as 9'>9.
obtain
Again we
Now
shall now find the S.D., 65, between the two generators. the equation of the plane through (i) parallel to (2) is
xa
a
COS9,,
yb sin9,
b cos9,
b 0039'
z c
a sin9,
sin9',
eo that on cancelling a common factor sin (9' 9), we obtain bcx sinj(9 +9)4 cay cosJ(9'+9)+a&z cosj(9' 9)
;
+abc
The
S.D.,
6,9,
sinj(9
which
.
is
(a 0089', b sin9
0)
GENERATING LINES
211
from
by
Again putting
rf$
9'
=9 +6 9, we
abc
obtain
ds
10*6.
...(1)
of a hyperbolic paraboloid
form
*
6
in either of the
two forms
x__ y_ b a
2
T+
X L.JL
b
Now,
member
and
[i
Vary,
each
lies
wholly on the hyperbolic paraboloid (1). Thus we see that a hyperbolic paraboloid also admits of two systems
of generating lines. As in the case of hyperbole id of one sheet, it can be shown that the following results hold good for the two systems of generating lines of a hyperbolic paraboloid also. 1. Through every point of a hyperbolic paraboloid there passes one member of each system.
2. 3.
No two members of the same system intersect. Any two generators belonging to different
plane through them
is the
and
the
section.
4.
at
the paraboloid in
two
212
5.
is the curve
An
important Note.
~b
in the plane
O+i}
which
is
whatever value A may have, we deduce that all the generators belonging to one system of the hyperbolic paraboloid
are parallel to the plane
xja+y/b=0.
It may similarly be seen that the generators of the second'system * are also parallel to a plane, viz.,
xlay/b=0.
Example
Show
x 2 +y*+z*=a*
of the generators of the quadric
x2
all lie
2 y =2az.
2
on
the quadric
x2
=2az,
x2
as
y ~2az,
(xy)(x+y)=2az
we
is
x'ha__y\'ha_ z
1
~2?T
Xa, 2rA),
on the A generator
is
w.r.t.
the sphere
CENTRAL POINT
i.e. 9
213
a)
=Q
on
lines lie
a2
y = 2az.
(JL
the
generators.
Exercises
Obtain equations for the two systems of generating 1. hyperbolic paraboloid
lines
on the
and hence
express the coordinates of a point on the surface as functions of two parameters. Find the direction cosines of the generators through (a, 0, y) and show that the cosmos of the angle between them is
on any
Show that the projections of the generators of a hyperbolic paraboloid principal plane are tangents to the section by the plane. Find the locud of the perpendiculars from the vertex of the paraboloid 3.
2.
a;2/a
2
z/ /62=2z/c
x2+y*+2z*(a z +b z )xylab = Q.
Parameter of Distri
10*7.
Central point.
Line of
the
striction.
bution.
10*71.
To determine

central
point of
any
generator of the
system of generators
_.
a
6
9
'
"
"
We, now,
consider
The
If
ly
(1)
a, 6, 2c/p'. a, 6, 2c/p m, n be the direction ratios of the line of S.D. between and (2), we have
albm+2cnlp =0,
These give
I/a, 1/6,
as the direction ratios of the line of S.D. Being independent of p and p' 9 we see that the line of S.D. is parallel to a fixed line.
214
Let (a?i, yl9 zj be the central point of (1). As in 10*51, the limiting position of the line of S.D. is a line contained in the tangent
plane
Thus we have
lies
on
(1),
we have
Solving
(3)
and
__
(4),
we
obtain
3 __20
_ ""
2fe
_2c(0 ~
is
~62 )
the curve of
Eliminating ^?, we see that the line of striction intersection of the surface with the plane
Ex. Find the central point of a generator of the second system and showthat the corresponding line of striction is the curve of intersection of the surface with the plane
10*72.
To determine
the
parameter of distribution.
(1)
and
(2).
Wp'*p.
dp
Now
is
JL a
Also taking 2=0,
+ y.=L. b
p
,
we
b/p', 0) is
a point on
(2).
V/(U
.*.
1
""
4"^
as before
ds
2ab
which
is
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
Ex.
given by
215
2,2/62=23
z x j_ y {=, r b X
x a
a&
~rb
= 9\
f
6A,
is
is
268X
lie
ylb*=Q.
10*8. General Consideration. We have seen that hyperboloid of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid each admit two systems of generators such that through each point of the surface there passes one member of each system and that two members of opposite systems intersect but no two members of the same system intersect. Also we know that through each point of a cone or a cylinder there Thus hyperboloids of one sheet, hyperbolic passes one generator. paraboloids, cones and cylinders are ruled surfaces inasmuch as they can be generated by straight lines.
now proceed to examine the case of the general relation to the existence of generators.
will
We
quadric in
Condition for a line to be a generator* A straight line 10*81. be a generator of a quadric if three points of the line lie on the
quadric.
...(1)
a^yfi
= g "" y
n
the point
will
if
mr+p, nr+7)
for all values of r, i.e., the equation obtained on substituting these coordinates for x,y>z in (1) is an As this equation is a quadric in r, it will be an identity identity. if it is satisfied for three values of r, i.e., if three points of the line
line lies
lie
on the
on the quadric
on the quadric.
Cor.
1.
in r obtained
and
.(4)
(4)
(a, p,
y)
lies
on
216
Since (2) is a homogeneous quadric equation and (3) is a homogeneous linear equation in I, m, n, these two equations will determine two sets of values of/, m, n. Thus we deduce that through every point on a quadric there pass two lines, real, coincident or imaginary lying wholly on the quadric.
skew
2. quadric can be drawn so as to contain three mutually lines as generators, for the quadric determined by nine points, three on each line, will contain the three lines as generators.
Cor.
Quadrics with real and distinct pairs of generating lines. 10*91. Of all real central quadrics, hyperboloid of one sheet only possesses two real and distinct generators through a point.
10*9.
The
direction ratios
/,
m, n of any generator
/
m
(or,
n
p,
7) are given
by the equations
we obtain
if,
and
4a2 fc 2 <x 2 p 2
i.e., if
> 0,
will
4a6c7 (aa
Since aa 2 +&p
distinct, if
2
+ b$* + c7 > 0.
8
)
+c7
if,
l,
we
abc
be real and
and only
is
negative.
be the case if a, b, c are all negative or one negaIn the former case the quadric itself is imagitive and two positive. it is a hyperboloid of one sheet. and in the latter nary
this will
Now
10*92. Of the two paraboloids, hyperbolic paraboloid only possesses two real and distinct generators through a point.
*=0,
...(1) ...(2)
=0.
The equation (1) shows that for real values of / and m, we must have a and b with opposite signs, i.e., the paraboloid must be
hyperbolic.
EXERCISES
10*10.
217
Lines intersecting three lines. An infinite number of lines For the quadric three given mutually skew lines. through the three given mutually skew lines a, 6, c, the three lines will be generators of one system and all the other generators of the other system will intersect a, b, and c. In fact the quadric through three given mutually skew lines can be determined as the locus of lines which intersect the three given lines.
is
4*41 on page 65 Thus the locus determined in equation of the quadric through the three lines
really
the
u r =Q = v r
r=l,
2, 3.
Exercises
Find the equation of the quadric containing the three lines y=b, z= c z=c, #= a x=a,y = 6. Also obtain the equations of its two systems of generators. (See Ex.
1.
; ;
2.
page
65).
[Ana.
2.
y~ 6fX(zf c) = 0, 6(a?fo) X(as+ca;)=0. [L(az+cx)~ (z+c] =0, vb(x+a) + (y6) =0. Find the equations of the hyperboloid through the three lines z=0. y z=\ x=Q z #=1, j/=0
;
ayz+bzx+cxy+abc =
xy=\
its
x*+y2{z22xy2yz2zx=l
xy
l=Xc, l(x
xyl=\(2x+2yz),
ax\by
The generators of one system of a hyperbolic paraboloid are parallel 3. to the plane Ix \rny }nzQ and the lines
= Qz\c axby~Q=z
;
are two
members of the same system. Show that the equation of the paraboloid
abz(lx \my\nz}
is
4.
Show
(See Ex. 3, p. 65) that two straight lines can bo drawn intersecting four given
lines.
mutually skew
Examples
1.
A(f,
2
g, h)
perpendiculars are
?2
let
fall
on
r_4_ 2
a
77
2
i
2/_
_f___i 2 c
'
prove that the plane passing through the feet of the perpendiculars goes through the fixed point
i?!),
Q(x 29 y^
z 2 ),
R(x 3
/3 ,
zj be the extremities of
OP
6O that (rxl9
ryi,
218
line.
The
if
and
(rxlt ryl}
to OP,
i.e., if,
from
(/, g, h)
to
OP i
S/*,
Similarly, the feet
(Zfx,
2fo
Zfx,
and
f**.._
S Aa,
The plane
LMN
is
=0,
1
2
ZO^
or
=0.
the relation in
Adding third and fourth rows to the second and making use of 8*8, this becomes
x,
y>
a2/,
0,
EXAMPLES
219*
or
=0,
This form of the equation of the plane clearly shows that passes through the point
it>
2.
Show
that the
normals
_
/y>2
4 .2
i
to the ellipsoid ~2
i
y~.
_. =1
Find
at all points of a central circular section are parallel to 'a fixed plane.. the angle which this plane makes with the plane of the section.
aa
'
b*
'
ca
direction ratios of the normal to the ellipsoid at (/> 9> h) of the section are
flat,
The
any point
Also
we have
the relation
which we
re write as
+
plane
If, 0,
c2
0.
This relation shows that the normals are parallel to the fixed*
this plane
section,,
we have
cos
0=
a
c'
ac
220
3.
on
the hyperboloid
.meet
the
PAB
on
B such
that the
median
is parallel to the
fixed plane
show
that
lies
surface
The equations
of the line
AB
I*
x^.M/i 2 +
<*
_,
'
(x l9 y l% Zi) of the hyperboloid, containing as tors through P, meets the plane are
at P
x0
it
= +f =
l, Z
=0.
...,
Let (/, g, 0) be the midpoint of AB. chord of the principal elliptical section
x*fa*+y*lb*=l,
>with (/, g, 0) as its middle point
is
= 0,
$+>
Comparing
(1)
and
(2),
we have
These give
l + zfl**
Also the median of the
__ _
y\
to
have
...(5)
Eliminating/, g from
(3), (4)
and
(5)
we obtain
result as required.
y> z )
Prove that if is the angle between the central radius to the on the ellipsoid
point?
and normal
at P,
2.
ellipsoids
A2
x.2
(BJJ. 1956)
lie
on a sphere of radius
3.
Show
that
if
three central radii of an ellipsoid be mutually perpendithrough their extremities will envelope a sphere.
1
normals can be drawn from any point P to a central quadric surface and that those six normals are generators of a quadric cone with vertex at P. Prove that the conic in which the cone meets any one of the principal planes of the quadric surface remains fixed when P moves along a straight line (Birmingham) perpendicular to that plane. Show that the length of the normal chord at any point (x, y, z) of the 5.
ellipsoid
^.4^.411^1 2 2 2
a
"*"
'
vhere
)2
j4
6^
C^
6.
If PI,
perpendiculars from the extremities on the two central circular sections ofT
then
7.
21 ^t
#a^_'V
Z
?/i
_g
n
is
na)&2/
(ma
/3)cz=0^
t222
If rj, r 2 , 7*3, r4 , r 6 , r 6 , are the lengths of the normals drawn from any 8. /point to a central conicoid and pi p% t p$, p^, p$ 9 #> 6 , are the lengths of the perpendiculars from its centre to the tangent planes at their feet,
$
tie
constant.
9.
planes are drawn through the six feet of the normals drawn to the 2 2 2 2 = 1 from a given point (/, g t h) ; each plane containing three ; prove that if (a, (3, y), (a', (3', y') be the poles of these planes with respect to the ellipsoid then,
ellipsoid
2 2 /a f2/ /& f z /c
Two
and
10.
3ie
ellipsoid
on the plane
is
show that the equation of the plane through the other three
an^bim^&n^ p
Also, show that
if
4
y 4f
4
0
one of the planes contains the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters, the other plane cuts tho coordinate planes in triangle whose centroid lies on a coaxal ellipsoid. (B.U. 1929) 11. Pairs of planes are drawn which are conjugate with respect to the 2 2 2 2 2 2 ellipsoid # /a fy /6 }z /c =l, the first member of each pair passing through
the line
ymx, z=k
and the second member of each
prove that the
2
ymx, zk
two members of any pair lie on the surface (6 a w ) ( z *k*) + (y*mW) ( c 2 +fc 2 )=0. (Bm. U. 1926) 12. The normal to the ellipsoid a; 2 /a 2 +2/ 2 /6 2 fz 2 /c 2 =l at a point P meets the plane z=0 at Q and GO is drawn perpendicular to this plane and equal to
line of intersection of the
2
OP.
Show that
the locus of
Q
c
is
the surface
c2
_____..a 2_ 262_
show
also that
if,
C2
'
<
the foot of the perpendicular from P to the principal plane on which O lies and the normal at Q to its locus meets this plane at K, then O is the midpoint of KN. (L.U. 1914) 13. Through a given point (a, P, y) planes are drawn parallel to three 2 2 2 2 2 2 conjugate diametral planes of tho ellipsoid a; /o 2/ /^ +2 /c =l. Show that the sum of the ratios of the areas of the sections by these planes to the areas of the parallel central planes is 2 2 a2 y
is
_p_
a*
14.
62
~~^ 2
~'
If
Ai A%
9
by the diametral planes of three mutually perpendicular semidiameters of lengths rj, r a , r3 , show that
l 2 a
+ d* +
^W
/62c2
(/, g, h) lines
is
an
REVISION EXERCISES
III
223
2 16. If a plane lx\ my\nz=p cuts the surface a# 4&2/ 2 Hcz 2 =l in a parabolic section, prove that the direction cosines of its axis are proportional to l/a, m/b t njc and the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola satisfy the equation
b
17.
_
c
r m\
r n\a
(A.U.1920) Prove that the generating lines through any point P on the section 2 2 2 z=c of the hyperboloid z /a f 7/ /&2 z2/ c 2=l meet the principal section by the (M .T.) plane 2 = at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters.
18.
B of semi con jugate diameters of the principal elliptic section of the hypershow that the median through P of Iboloid x z la^+^/b^z^lc 2 = l meet in P ,the triangle PAB lies on the cone
A,
;
The generators
of opposite systems
19.
z 2 /c 2
=l which
are parallel
_ C2
in perpendicular generators.
2 2 generators of the surface # {2/
(P.U.,
z2
on
=l
M.A. 1938)
which intersect
Show
at
which the generators are perpendicular lie on the cylinder (c a)z2+(c b)y*+cd(a+b)lab=Q.
22.
If (a cos
sec 9, b sin
Z
sec 9, c tan 9)
is
line
4+
X x I ^
1 i
4+
y
6
\
,
rator,
of the hyperboloid x z /a 2 {y 2 lb 2 z 2 Jc^= 1, prove that for points along the gene(P>U. t M.A. 1943) 9 is constant. Show that the most general quadric surface which has the lines 23.
o;=0,
2/
;#=0, z=c
2/=0,
z=
as generators
is
where/,
24.
g,
Find equations in symmetrical form for the two planes whose equations are
where
(JL
line of intersection of
(M.T.) the
are constants. Find also the coordinates of the point in X and this line meets the plane z=0.
which
rela
tion X 2 +H 2 =
If
now
1>
and are taken to be variable parameters connected by the show that line traces out a right circular cone.
\j.
CHAPTER XI
GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
Reduction to canonical forms and Classification of Quadrics
A quadric has been defined as the locus of a point satisll'l. fying an equation of the second degree. Thus a quadric is the locus* of a point satisfying an equation of the type
F(x, y, z)~ax^ + by
2
+c
which we
may
rewrite as
splitting the set of all terms into three homogeneous subsets. have considered so far special forms of the equations of the second degree in order to discuss geometrical properties of the various
We
types of quadrics. In this chapter we shall see how the general equation of a second degree can be reduced to simpler forms and also thus classify the types of quadrics.
proceed to determine the equations of various a quadric given by a general second degree equation. In this connection we shall start obtaining a quadric in r, which will play a very important role in connection with the determination of the equations of these loci.
Firstly
shall
loci associated
we
with
(a, p,
The
(3,
7) and any line through the same with. coordinates of the point on this7) are
This point will lie on the quadric F(x, y z)=Z,(a for values of r satisfying the equation
y
i.e.,
r^(al
P,
7)=0
...(2).
may
(2)
where 9J^/9a
to #,
2/,
3*Y3P.
partial derivative of
F w.
r.,
225
Tangent plane at
(a,
p,
y).
>
P,
7)
lies
y)=0
(2)
is
zero.
The
vanishing of one value of r is also a simple consequence of the fact that one of the two points of intersection of the quadric with every line through a point of the quadric coincides with the point in question.
A
tangent
(a, p,
line through (a, p, y) with direction cosines line if the second point of intersection also
i.e.,
I,
m, n
will
be a
y)
if
if
This will be so
fl
...(3)
to be a tangent line at
(a, p, y).
The
through
(4) is,
(a, p, y),
obtained on eliminating
m, n between
(3)
and
.e.,
x(
Adding
P,
y)=0.
lines at (a, p, y) is
(a, p, y).
1112. Normal at (a, p, y). The line through (a, p, y), perpendicular to the tangent plane thereat, viz., XCL z y y p _
is
the normal at
11* 13.
(a, p, y).
Enveloping cone from a point. Suppose now that (a, p, y) Then any line through is any point necessarily on the quadric. (a, p, y) with direction lines (I, m, n) will touch the quadric i.e., meet the same in two coincident points, if the two roots of the quadric
equation in
r,
are equal.
The condition
.
for this is
l [XKL+*P+jr+u)] [S(rf+2/mn)]
^(a,
p,
y)
...(5)
The
n
through (a, P, /, w, w, between
y) touching the quadric, obtained on eliminating
(5)
and
(6) is
a, p,
y)
...(7)
226
To put
Then
.e.,
(7)
^
is
the equation of the enveloping cone of the quadric with the point (a, p, 7) as its vertex.
11*14.
which
$=0
given and
(Z,
we
n).
Enveloping Cylinder. Suppose now that (I, m, n) are require the locus of tangent lines with direction cosines If (a, p, 7) be any point on any such tangent line, we
y, z),
known
is
as Enveloping Cylinder.
11*15. Section with a given centre. Suppose now that (a, p, 7) a given point. Then any chord with direction cosines I, my n through (a, p, 7) will be bisected thereat if the sum of the two roots of the rquadratic (2) is zero, i.e.,
B(a+Ap+0y + iO=0,
so that the locus of the chord
...(8)
through (a, p, 7) and bisected thereat, obtained on eliminating from (8) and (9) is
I,
m, n
2(a:a)(aa+p + i77+tt) = 0,
which,
we may
rewrite as,
T^.
Clearly the plane at (a, p, 7).
T=S
l}
its
centre
Polar plane of a point. If any line through A(v. p, 7) 11*16. meet the quadric in Q, E and a point P is taken on the line such that the points A and P divide QR, internally and externally in the same ratio, then the locus of P for different lines through A is a
y
plane called the polar plane of A with 'respect to the quadric. It is seen that if A and P divide QR internally and externally in the same ratio then the points Q and R also divide AP internally and externally in the same ratio.
easily
(x, y, z).
Consider any line through A (a, p, 7) and let The point dividing AP in the ratio A 1 is
:
be the point
/Aa+a
Ay+p
'
\\+I
A+l.
Az+7\ A+l /
227
It will
lie
on the quadric
(a, (3, y)0. The two values of X give the two ratios in which the points Q and R divide AP. In order that Q and R may divide AP internally and externally in the same ratio, the sum of the two values of A
.should be zero,
i.e.,
0,
...(10)
which
the required locus of the point P(x y*z). Thus (10) is the required equation of the polar plane. Note. The notions of conjugate points, conjugate planes, conjugate
is
9
lines
forms of equations
f
c
be denoted by
part.
We may
As
verify that
g,
cofactors of a,
6, c,
It can
aH+hB+gF=0
oG+W+flfC
11*22.
9
f
r
gG+fF+cC=D.
(1) in
11*21 above.
228
Ex.
If
D=0
if
Z>=
A=Q, #=0,
^4
(2 = or #=0, =0,^=0. = 0, #=0, then F> O, H must all be zero but C may
IfD=Q
and
A + B+C=Q,
then
A, B, C, F, G,
are all zero.
As Z)=0, we have
so that A, B, C are all of the we deduce that
same
sign.
Since, also
4=0,
Also then
=0, (7=0.
will
be
(i)
same
Pi
if
=0,
P*
parallel but not
0,
(ii)
same
to
if
Pi
**i
=0,
Pz
(Hi) neither parallel
if to
= 0,
will intersect in
nor same^,
i.e.,
a straight line
Pi
to
or
Pz
to
to
11*25.
229
x, y, z
i.e.,
a solution wherefor
Ci
are
not
and only
if,
=0.
11*3. Diametral plane conjugate to a given direction. We know {Refer equation (2) p. 223] that if 1 9 m, n, be the direction cosines of any chord and (x, y, z) the midpoint of the same, then we have
I
7
^ h
.
in
nA
A =0.
(I)
Thus
if I, m, n be supposed given, then the equation of the locus of the midpoints (x, y z) of parallel chords with direction cosines This locus is a plane called the 1, m, n is given by (1) above. We can re write the 'diametral plane conjugate to the direction I, m, n.
y
equation
(1)
Z,
ra,
n as
...(2)
x(al \hrn +
gn)+y(hl+bmfn)+z(gl+fm}cn)}(ul{vm{wn)==Q.
does not necesdirection.
Note. In this connection we should remember that there sarily correspond a diametral piano conjugate to every given we see from above that there is no diametral plane conjugate 2, m, n if these are such that the coefficient of x, ?/, z in the
all zero,
Thus
As
I,
m, n are not
a
h
f7
if
f
c
=0,
Principal Directions and Principal Planes. A direction I, m, n is said to be principal, if it is perpendicular to the diametral plane conjugate to the same. Also then the corresponding conjugate diametral plane is called a principal plane. Thus, I, m, n will be a principal direction if and only if the direction ratios
11*4.
al+hm+gn, hl + bm+fn, gl 4/mf en of the normal to the corresponding conjugate diametral plane are
proportional to
i.e.,
there exists
al
+ hm + gn = ZA, + en =
gl \frn
230
We
rewrite these as
These three linear homogeneous equations in a non zero solution in /, ra, n if and only if,
a
Z,
w, w
will possess*
6A
<7
=0.
On expanding
the cubic
this determinant,
we
see that A
must be a root of
...(4)
A 3 ~A 2 (a+6 + c)+A(^+J5+(7)Z)=0.
This cubic
the same
is
known
The equation (4) has three roots which may not all be distinct. Also to each root of (4) corresponds at least one principal direction /, m, n obtained on solving any two of the equations (1), (2) and (3).
Note /. If I, m, n be a principal direction corresponding to any root X of the discriminating cubic, then we may easily see that the equation ofthes corresponding principal plane, takes the form X Ix f my f nz )  (nl f vm + wri) = 0.
(
This equation shows that we can have no principal plane corresponding to X=0 if X=0 is a root of the discriminating cubic. In spite of this, however, we shall find it useful to say that I, m, n is & principal direction corresponding to X=0. This every direction l y m, n satisfying the equations (1), (2), (3) corresponding to a root X of the discriminating cubic (4) will be called a principal
direction.
Note 2. In the following, we shall prove three important results concerning the nature of the root of the discriminating cubic and the corresponding
principal directions.
11*41.
real.
Theorem
I.
The
19
Suppose that A is any root of the discriminating cubic (4) and m. n any nonzero set of values of I, m, n satisfying the correspond(1), (2), (3).
I,
ing equations
Here
real, for
it is
m, n a&
In the following, the complex conjugate of any number will bem, n will denote expressed by putting a bar over the same. Thus the complex conjugates of /, m, n respectively. Now we have
,
hi f
bm +/w = mA,
gl+fm+cn=ri\.
231
2irf7+S/(ww+ww)=A22 T
h are all real. Also 1 1, m m, n n being the products of pairs of conjugate complex numbers, are real. Further we notice that m n is the conjugate complex of m n so that
Now
a, b 9 c, /, g,
mn +m n
is real.
Similarly
n 1+n
are real.
lt
m+l m
_
2
I I
Finally
is
the ratio of two real numbers from necessarily a real number. Hence the roots of the discriminating cubic are all real. therefore, I, m, n corresponding to each A are real.
Thus
A,
being
is
Also,
to
AI,
A2
We
(7)
(8)
then have
(6) aZ1
+Am 1 +gr%=A
l
1Z1 ,
,
(9)
W +6m
+/n 1
A1 m 1
,
(10)
(11)
12 ,
fifZi+/w,+cw l s=sA 1 w 1
(6), (7), (8)
Multiplying obtain
by
ra 2 ,
n2
respectively
and adding we
...(12)
SaljIt+Z/lm^+mjnJXxH^
Also multiplying (9), (10), (11) by I l3 l9 adding, we obtain ^al 2 l l +I.J(m l n 2 \m 2 n l )=='h 2 J2l l 2
m %
respectively
and
...(13)
From
so that
(12)
and
(13),
we obtain
AiBA^sU,
(AiA 2 )2V 2 =0.
Hence
ZZA=0,
Thus the two
11*43.
set
for
AjA^O.
Theorem
For every
of three mutually perpendicular principal directions. We have to consider the following three cases
:
(A)
When
all distinct.
232
(B) these.
(C)
and the
equal.
third
is
different
from
(A) The roots being distinct, there will correspond a principal direction 1 9 m, n satisfying (1), (2), (3) on page 230 to each of these and by theorem II, these three directions will be mutually perpendicular. The three principal directions are unique in this case. (B) Let A be a root of the discriminating cubic repeated twice so that besides satisfying (4), on page 230 viz.,
W\*(a+b+c)+\(A+B+C)D=0
it also satisfies
...(4)
3A a 2A(a+&+c)4
(A+B+C)=0
w.r.t. A.
...(14)
which
is
We
It has been
shown
in
D=Q, A+B+C=Q,
then
A, B, C, F, G, H,
are
all zero.
(4)
and
(14)
above
we
G,
H

we
have here
aA) =
2
<7 ,
a A)(6A)^2 fl
(c*)h=fg. J These relations show that the equations (1), (2), (3) on page 230 for the determination of Z, m, n, corresponding to A are all equivalent.
*)g=hf,
[Refer
I,
(aA)J+ftm + 0w=0
[or
is
a principal direction corresponding to A. Suppose now that Z, m, n is* any direction satisfying (16). Further we determine a direction 1 2 m 2 n 2 satisfying (16) and per2 , r& 2 are determined from pendicular to l lt m^ n v Thus Z 2 ,
,
,
(a
may
EXAMPLES
233
li>
Thus we have obtained two perpendicular principal directions m2> n2 corresponding to the twice repeated root A. Z2 i9 n\ Also let ? 3 w 3 n 3 be the principal direction corresponding to the third root A 3 By Theorem II, this direction 7 8 , ra 3 n 3 will be each of the two perpendicular principal directions to perpendicular l la m l9 n 1 2 , ra2 n 2 Thus the theorem is true in this case.
'>
Note. It is important to notice that in the case every direction perpendicular to the principal direction corresponding to the nonrepeated root X 3 is a principal direction for the twicerepeated root X.
(C)
all
In this case A
..,(14)
...(17)
(4)
and
We re write
Also by (15),
(17) as
(a
(6 _A) (c _A)
=/2
so that
A, b
A, c
A
in
must
all
sign.
Thus as
11 '23,
page 228, we
deduce that
A=a=&=c.
Also then
it
follows
that/=0, 0=0,
/&=().
for
til+(b A)m+/n=0, glfm+(c A)r&=0 the determination of the principal direction are identically satisfied, i.e., they are true for every vaJue of Z, m, n, so that every
a principal direction. this case also a quadric has a set of three mutually ^perpendicular principal directions. In fact, any set of three mutually perpendicular directions is a set of three mutually perpendicular
direction
Thus
in
is
Examples
Find a
Jor
1.
set
2yz+2zx2xy+2z=Q.
2.
3.
234
1.
We
have
A=
1.
1
1
5A
1 =0,
3A
1
i.e.,
A=2,
The
I
3, 6.
A=2
is
given by
mf7i=0,
These give
n==l
1.
Thus the
=2
is
given
by
is
given
by
m +tt=0,
so that
I
:m n = l
:
1,
to
A=6
is
given.
I Z
m m
n=0,
3tt=0,
is
wherefrom we
may
The
we may
2o;2zl=0, 3x43^+32+1=0,
EXAMPLES
2.
235*
We
have
8A
6
2
7A
4
3A
=0,
4
i.e.,
A 3 +18A 2 45A=0.
A=0,
3, 15.
Thus 0, 3, 15 are three distinct characteristic roots. The principal direction /, m, n corresponding to
8Z6ra 42710,
A=0
is
given
by
62 + 7771471=0,
Solving these,
we
see that
I
:
TI=!
2.
Thus the
A=0
is
given by given
A=3 is
by
6w+2ri=0,
These give
I
:
m n=2
:
2,
is
given by
f.
A= 15 is given by
7Z6m+
6Z
2w=0,
47i=0,
8m
which give
I
:
m n=2
:
1,
is
given by
directions are
mutually
perpendicular.
principal plane corresponding to A being
236
we may see that the two principal planes corresponding to the nonzero values 3, 15 of X are
.and
15(2z22/+2)+10=0,
3.
i.e.,
We
have
6A
2
3~A
=0,
2
2
3A
rf.e.,
whose
roots are 2, 2, 8. Thus two roots are equal. Firstly we consider the nonrepeated root 8. The principal direction corresponding to this is given by
2Z5w2Z
= 0,
m5rc = 0.
:
:
These give
I
:
m n^2
;SO
A=8
is
given by
A=2 is
given by
21+
21
7i=0,
m+
n=0.
It
./,
is
m, n are
in
easily seen that these three equations for the determination of all equivalent. This fact had been generally established Theorem III for principal directions corresponding to twice
Thus every
I,
ra,
2lm\n=Q
determines a principal direction. <l, m, n, satisfying (1) say
...(1)
1, 1,1.
We write
Then we determine
12 ,
2l
n2
satisfying (1)
and perpendicular to
CENTRE
237
Thus
2/ 2
Za
m +n
2
w
:
These give
I2
:m 2
%=0
1.
set
__i_
j_
;^i
1
^i
V3'
_L.
JL
\/2'
JL
\/2'
V6' V3
The
V3
choice of principal directions is not unique in the present case as two characteristic roots are equal.
Note. It may be verified that every direction perpendicular to the> principal direction corresponding to the nonrepeated root 8 is a principal) direction for the twice repeated root 2. [Befer note at the end of 1 T43 B>
page
231.]
Exercises
Examine the
planes.
2.
3.
and
principal*
x*+2yz4x+6y+2z=Q.
1=0. 2^f22/ 42/24 2/z ^4 za; _4 a 3x*y 2 z*t6yz6x+6y2z2=Q.
;
2/
4.
Answers
1.
Principal directions
Principal planes
:
1, 0,
0,
0,
#=1,2/
;
zf3=0.
,
2.
Principal directions
to
it.
:
fO,
^J
and
t/
any
;
plane
through
the
line,,
Principal directions
j
1111211^1 _, _ _, _;_
.
,
Principal planes.
2(a?
right angle
toa?=2/2J
.
4.
Principal directions
0,
,
1, 0,
0,
Principal planes
2/fzfl
= 0, a;~l, y
Z,
2=1.
(x> y, z) is
11*5.
Centre,
We know that if a
point
the midpoints
m, n of a quadric
then we have
<
if (x, y, z) is
such that
238
then the condition
i.e.,
whatever values
is
Z,
m, n
may
have,
is
We
...(2)
...(3)
...(4)
0.
It should be remembered that a quadric may or may not have a line of centres centre ; also it may have more than one centre or a plane of centres, depending upon the nature of the solutions of the three equations (2), (3), (4).
&
In the following, we shall consider the different cases regarding the possible solutions of these equations. This discussion will be facilitated a good deal, if, regarding x, y, z as variables, we consider the three planes represented by these equations. We have thus to examine the nature of the points of intersection, if any, of these three
planes to be called Central planes. Case of Unique Centre. 11*51.
(3), (4)
(2),
by A, H, G,
respectively
Dx+(Au +Hv+Gw)=Q
Again, on multiplying (2), and adding separately we obtain
by H, B, F, and by G, F,
Dz+(Gu+Fv+Cw)=Q.
we obtain from
these
z=
Substituting these in same are satisfied.
(x 9 y, z)
Thus if IMG, the quadric has a unique have the values given above.
where
=Au+Hv+Gw.
1121, p. 226]. [Refer This shows that the three equations cannot have a solution, i.e., the quadric will not have a centre if
common
of
Considering H, B, F and G, F, C as sets of multipliers instead A, H, G, we may similarly see that the quadric will not have a
centre if
D~0 and
my one
Is
of
not zero.
CENTRE
11*53.
239
ft
O
(hx+by+fz+v)
ax+hy+gz+u=j
(ii)
j(gx+fy+cz+w).
Also
if
A ^0,
hx+by+fz+v=Q
=are
neither ^because
same nor
line.
This
is
f
[Refer
11'24, p. 228]
From
passes
(i)
and
(ii),
we deduce
ax+hy+gz+u=Q
through the
case
line of intersection of the
hx+by+fz+v=Q, gx+fy+cz+w=Q.
Thus in
i>=0,
.the three central
Au+Hv+Gw=Q A^Q,
3
planes
all
centres.
or
if
Note
We
we must
also simultaneously
then
In fact we have
A(Hu+Bv+Fw)=sH(Au+Hv+Gw)
and
A(Gu+Fv+Cw)s*G(Au+Hv+Cw),
the equalities holding for
all
values of u, v and w.
Thus
if
Ay6Q we have
9
Cw=
A.
The
result stated
now
follows.
It may be remembered that if 4=0 then also H=0, (7=0, so .Au+Hv+Gw&Q. In this case when 4=0, T=0, #=0, we may not have Hu+Bv+Fw=Q or Gu+Fv+Cw~Q.
that
240
Here
0,
#0,
/t=l,
w=l,
t>=J,
w=l,
>=().
so that
4=0,
H=0,
Thus we have Au+ Hv+Qw*Q but Gu+Fv+Cw?4Q. Note 2. The cases treated above in 11*52 and 11*53 cover the cases when D=0 and one at least of A, B C is not zero. If we suppose that A, B, C are all zero, then it follows that F, G H are
t
as
much
In the next subsection we consider the case when A, B, C, F 9 G, are all' The vanishing of D then follows from the vanishing of these cofactors inas
we have
so that
DQ even
if
A, H,
only are
known
to be zero.
11'54.
In this case
0, F, G,
We
(1)
fugv^Q
11*55.
or
fuhw^Q,
Suppose now
that
fugv=Q
i.e.,
and fuhw~Q,
(1)
fu=gv=hw.
Then
if
above in
11*54 that
(ax+hy tgz+u),
a point of the other two central planes. Thus of centres in this case. Similarly we may show that if
we have a
plane
fu=gv~hw
and some two of
centres.
/,
h are not
has a plane of
Note.
/, g,
is
known
It can be easily seen that if A, B, C, F, G, Hare zero and one of to be zero, then one more of /, g, h must also be zero. For
instance, suppose
it
that/=0.
Then, because,
9
can.
the quadric
is zero
andfugvhw,
then
241
is
h are zero
treated here
11'56.
F, G,
zero
and fu=gv~htv.
(1)
In
this case
we
see
from
above,
g0~h
so that a
h=0, 0^0, u = 0. The vanishing of u also follows from the fact that fu = gv~ hw and 7 0, 7^ Consider now the two central planes
= 0,
ax+hy+gz+u^Q
gx+fy +
the coefficients of the third central plane being g are both zero, we can re write these as
all
zero.
As h and
Here
b
i
f
C
2 =:6C/ =:^ = 0,
/

=>(
and
if
Thus,
if fw
centre
fw
ci?=0,
We
or
when
11*57.
0=(/,
suppose that/, g, h are all zero in addition to the vanishing of A, B, C, F, G, PL In this case two of a, b, c must be zero. Suppose that 6=c and tty^O Then the first of the three central planes is
Now
Qx+Qy+Qz+w^Q.
the quadric has no centre and the quadric has a plane of centres.
if
Thus
v^O
or
w^O
if
Summary
1.
D^O.
{
Unique
centre.
2.
3.
= f> 0, Au\Hv+Gw^Q.
242
4.
5.
A, B, C, F, G, A, B, C, F, G,
of centres.
H all zero &ndfu^gv or gv^hw. No centre. H all zero, fu=gv=Jiw, /^O, g0, h^O. Plane
fu=gv=hw, g=Q,h=Q,
9
6.
No
7.
8. A, B, C, F G, H all zero f,g,h all zero. Then two of a, must be zero and one nonezero. Then we have no centre if
9
;
A, B, C F,G Ha.U zero fu*=gv=hw 0=0, h=0, Plane of centres. We may have results similar to (6) and (7) when/=0, (7=0, Ji^O or when A=0,/=0, g^O.
9
6, c
a^O,
and a plane of
centres if
t;^0, or
We have
Note.
similar results
results given
The
(1, 1,
1).
2z2
2yz
2zx+2xy+3xy 2z+l=0.
[Ans.
Line of centres

=\.
=
\.
^5 &
centre.
3.
4.
4a;2+9i/2t.422f 12x2/+
\2yz+8zx
[^!ns.
No
2x2y+ 2z+l=0.
[^4n^.
5.
6.
No centre.
y, z\l=Q.
[.4n5.
Line of centres
x =3
7.
18^2f22/242022_12zx}12yz+2a:~222/6zf.l=0.
8.
3?/z+12x
Transformation of Coordinates. Before we take up the 11*6. problem of the actual reduction and classification, we shall consider two important cases of transformation of coordinates.
The form of the equation of a quadric referred to centre 11*61. as origin. We suppose that the given quadric has a centre. Let (a, (3, 7) be the centre of the quadric with equation,
Consider now a new system of coordinate axes parallel to the given system and with its origin at (a, p, 7). The equation of the quadric w. r. t. the new system, obtained on replacing x9 y, z by
,
2+7 respectively, is
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES
I.e.,
243
As
(a, p,
y)
is
a centre,
we have
Further, as
may
be easily seen,
F(*>
P,
y)=
2(az h 2fyz) + (uot. + v$ +w7 +d) = 0. so that the second degree homogeneous part has
2
is
remained
unchanged.
Note 1. The discussion above is applicable whether the quadric has one oentre, aline of centres or a plane of centres. In case the quadric has more than one centre, then (a, (3, y) may denote any one of the centres. Note 2. The coordinates w. r. t. the old as well as now systems of axes has both been denoted by the same symbols, x, y, z. 11*62. The form of the equation of a quadric, when the coordinate axes are parallel to a set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions. Suppose that
/!,
mv
nl9
12 ,
2,
n2
13 ,
g,
n3
...(1)
.are
the direction cosines of three mutually perpendicular principal directions corresponding to the three roots
\>
t)f
^2> ^3
zero.
We take now a new coordinate system through the same origin such that the axes of the new system are parallel to the directions
given by
Teplacing
#> y, z
(1)
above.
referred to the
The equation
new system
of axes
is
obtained on
by
l
respectively.
a;,
As homogeneous linear expressions are to be substituted for we may note that a homogeneous expression of any degree will be transformed to a homogeneous expression of the same degree. Thus we may separately consider the transforms of the homoy, 2,
geneous parts
We
is
shall
now prove a
transform
...(1)
244
On
direct substitution,
(1) is
we may
the transform of
fr
[by
Similarly the coefficients
11%
P 229}
shown
to be
A 2 and A 3
respectively.
Again the
transform of (1)
Finally
we
Z(ax
11*7.
classification.
We
shall
now
by
one.
When D^O.
In
this
case
has a
Shifting the origin to the centre (a, p, y), the equation takes the
form
11'61 p. 242) S(oof 2/z) (ta+vp+tiO' + d!)=0. ( rotating the axes so that the axes of the new system are parallel to the set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions, we see that the equation becomes
Now
which is the required canonical form. Below we shall find an elegant form We have
we
write
Eliminating
a,
(3,
1
7 from
a
k
b
and u
(4)
we obtain
h
g
f
V
u
t.e.,
(dk)
a h
h
b
g
c
k
left
form
\x
^characteristic roots.
2
\
A 2 7/ 2 +A 3 z 2 +
=0.
the s shown in This equation represents various typos of surfaces refers to It may be remembered that the word 'rootb' following table.
roots all>0 or
A0
A/I0
A/D>0 A/D>0 A/D<0
 !
Two Two
A/D<0
1172.
>0 <0 Two roots >0 and ono<0 Two loots <0 and on e>0
Roots Roots
Imaginary cone, Real cone. Real cone. Imaginary ellipsoid. Real ollipsoid. Hyperboloid of two sheets. Hyperboloid of one sheet. Real ellipsoid. Imaginary ellipsoid. Hyperboloid of one sheet. Hyperboloid of two sheets.
In this case the Case II. When'D=Q, quadric has no centre and the discriminating cubic has one zero root and
two nonzeroroots.
We denote the nonzero roots by Aj, X We rotate the coordinate axes through
2.
The
new
axes are parallel to the principal directions. The new equation takes the form
.(1)
3,
Let,
possible,
.(2)
246
We
have
As
Z3 ,
3j
we have from
v
b
w
=0,
f
i.e.,
Au + Hv + Gw=0
is
which
q, r,
we
fL
V V
r=
I
we
form
where
This
is the required canonical form in the present case. This equation represents an elliptic or hyperbolic paraboloid according as \, A 2 are f tne same or opposite signs. Axis and vertex of a paraboloid. It is known that zaxis is the axis and (0, 0, 0) is the vertex of the paraboloid
Also the 'principal directions of the paraboloid are those of the coordinate axes the principal direction corresponding to the characteristic root zero being that of zaxis and the principal direction corresponding to the nonzero roots A 1? A a being those of rraxis and Further it can be easily seen that the principal yaxis respectively. planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots are the planes #=0, y=0 whose intersection zaxis is the axis of the paraboloid. Thus we have the following important and useful result
;
:
line of intersection of the principal planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots is the axis and the point where it meets the
The
Also the axis is parallel paraboloid is the vertex. direction corresponding to the characteristic root zero.
1173. Case llI.J*When Z>=0, case the quadric has a line of centres and the one zero and two nonzero roots.
to
the principal
Au+Hv+Gw=Q, A^O.
discriminating
if it
In
this,
cubic haa
We may
have A, E,
all
were
A^O
247
Since and A+B+C^Q, the discriminating cubic would have only one zero root.
D=0
Let (a, (3, y) be any centre. Shifting the origin to (a, p, y) and rotating the axes so that the new axes are parallel to the set of mutually perpendicular principal directions, we see that the equation
becomes
which
in
is
We
the required canonical form. may, as follows, obtain an expression for the constant term
all
a form free from a, (3, y. In this case the central planes *We select the two lines
line.
Now
(a,
P,
y)
is
any point
satisfying
these
two equations.
=0,
so that
few
v
d
is
shown
in the follow
*These are so selected that they are not the same. ensures the nonsameness of these two planes.
The
condition
248
The
zaxis is
known
to be the axis
As in the case of a paraboloid, we have the following result regarding the axis of a cylinder. The axis of a cylinder is the line of intersection of the principal planes corresponding to the nonzero characteristic roots. Also it is parallel to the principal direction corresponding to the characteristic root
zero.
The axis
of centres.
It
Cor. 2. Planes bisecting angles between two planes* seen that planes bisecting angles between the two planes
are
may
be
the
two
nonzero
Cor.
3.
The equation
Q.
1174. Case IV. When A,B,C, F, G, are all zero and fu^gv. In this case the quadric has no centre and two roots of the discriminating cubic are zero and one nonzero.
We
new axes
mutually
directions.
?2>
As the two roots A 2 \ are equal, both being s an y direction satisfying 2> W 2>
>
0,
we know that
...(1)
al+hm+gn=0.
We
and
suppose that
1 , 2
2 , ra 2
ulz+vm 2 +wn 2
Then
Z3 ,
ra3 ,
n 3 are chosen
,
so as to satisfy (1)
and
r,
we
rewrite the
...(3)
Again we re write
(3)
as
..(4)
QUADRIGS OF REVOLUTION
Also
centre.
249
have a
as
we
becomes
which
is
The equation
H'75. Case V.
When A,
B, C, F, G,
and no one
off, g, h is zero. In this case the quadric has a plane of centres ing cubic has iwo zero and one nonzero root.
Let (a, p, 7) be any centre. Shifting the origin to (a, (3, 7) and rotating the axes so that the axes of the new system are parallel to a set of three mutually perpendicular principal directions, we see
that the equation becomes
The equation represents a pair of parallel or same planes. Note. The case when some two or all of /, </, h are zero can be easily considered and it can bo shown that we shall have a parabolic cylinder in case the quadric does not have a centre and a pair of parallel planes if the quadric has a plane of centres.
11*8. Quadrics of revolution. Firstly we shall prove a lemma concerning surfaces of revolution obtained on revolving a plane curve .about an axis of coordinates.
Lemma.
revolv
about
Consider any surface of revolution obtained on revolving a curve craxis. Let the equations of the section of this surface by the 3=0 be plane
=/(*),
= 0,
...(1)
and
M the foot
P
on
If
from
o:axis,
we have
as
...(2)
so that
we can
Now
yf(x) MP=f(OM).
re write
remains unchanged as the curve revolves about a?axis so that P describes a circle with as its centre.
this relation
260
position,
we have
of the point
in
any
MP=
so that
we can now
rewrite (2) as
Hence the
vV+*
result.
2
2
)
=/(*)
Similarly the equations of the surfaces of revolution obtained ?/axis and z axis are of the form
V(2
respectively.
+*3)=</.
(y),
(2)
W+t?)^
Cor.
equal
A quadric is a surface of revolution, if and only if it has nonzero characteristic roots. To see the truth of this result, we examine the various canonical forms which we have obtained. These are as follows
:
Case I
A^+A^ + V'+A/^O,
A 1 cc 2 +A 22/ 2 +2r2:0,
...(!>
...(2)
Case II
Caselll
Case
IV CaseV
A^+A^+fcO, A^+2^0,
...(3)
...(4)
we
On comparison with the equations of the surfaces of revolution, see that for the surface (1) to be that of revolution we must have two of A o A a A 3 equal and for the surfaces (2) and (3) to be of re,
Aj=A 2
The quadrics
(4)
and
(5)
cannot be
Clearly the equation (1) will represent a sphere roots A 1? A 2 , A 3 are all equal.
if
the characteristic
Hence the
11*81.
result.
Conditions for the general equation of the second degree to represent a quadric of revolution. We have been in 11*43 (B), 232 that if the has two roots each equal cubic p. discriminating to A, then,
(6A)(cA)=/2,
It can be
c _A)(aA)=<7
2
,
(aA)(&A)=fc
h.
...I
^(aA)/,
shown that
if
hf=(b*)g, /<7=(cA)
...II
these conditions are satisfied, then we 11*43 (B) p. 232 so that (4) and (14) of
will
be obtained on eliminating
A.
We can show 11*82. Firstly suppose that none off, g, h is zero. that in this case the set of conditions I is deducible from II so that I is not an independent set of conditions and can, as such, be ignored. Let us assume the set II.
Now
and
since
^=(a
hf=(b
QUADRIGS OF REVOLUTION
251
we
get
on multiplication
fgh*(a
Dividing by/gr^O,
we obtain
deduce other conditions of the set I from II
We may similarly
Now
from
II,
we have
so that
 u  a^ft^c^ h
U>
'9
is the required set of conditions for the general equation of the second degree to represent a surface of revolution in case none of These conditions can clearly be re written as /, gs h is zero.
Cor. Assuming the conditions to be satisfied, obtain the equations of the axis of revolution.
we
shall
now
Replacing
a, 6, c
A 47"'
A4
y*
we
get
+^
This form of the equation shows that any plane parallel to the
plane
^+A4_L U + + h =0
/
g
(1) U
'
cuts the surface in a circle. The axis of revolution, being the locus of the centres of the circular sections, is the line through the centre of the sphere
(1).
Thus the
v
axis of revolution
is
I//
1/0
~
I/A
1183.
is zero.
We
shall
now
off, g}
we
see that
either </=0 or
A=0.
252
Putting
/~0~0
c~A,
in I
(a
and
c)(b
II,
c)
we obtain
= h2
and taking
f0=h,
6 = A,
we obtain
(c
b)(ab)=g\
sets of conditions,
,
..
(1)
...(2)
we
shall
obtain
of
...(3)
h are not
all
nonzero,
(3).
we have three
alternative
and
Suppose that the conditions (1) are satisfied. Since (a c)(b c)~h* we must have a  c, b c both of the same sign. Suppose that they are both positive. We have
ax" f by* f cz 2
Axis of revolution.
Thus
f
or
according as h
is
positive or negative.
parallel to
V(ac)a
(&c)y =
...(4)
<mt the surface in circular sections. the line through the centie
(
Hence the
w/c)
axis of revolution is
w/c,
v/c,
of the sphere
perpendicular to
x+ulc
/
/
 ~i = "T
may
y+v/c
/
/
f"
x
+ w c^Q.
,
The other
11*9.
alternatives
be similarly discussed.
Reduction of equations with numerical coefficients. We shall now discuss the procedure to be followed when we have to reduce any given equation with numerical coefficients to canonical form. It will be seen that when A, B, (7, F G, are all zero, then we need not follow the method given in 11*74 and instead obtain the required reduction by the method given below. When A,,C, F, G, are all zero. We shall first show that
9
when A, B, C F, G,
9
part
must
be
a perfect square.
253
we have
bc=f
2
,
ca=g
2
9
ab=h 2
be of the same sign. Without any loss of generality, we may suppose that a, 6, c are all positive, for other1 and have the same wise we could throughout multiply with rendered positive.
see that a, b, c
we
must
all
Again, because
we
see that/,
g,
gh a/, Jif= If], /;/ = ch h are either all positive or two negative, one positive.
,
Thus we have
so that the second degree terms form a perfect square. Let the given equation be
Case
I.
Suppose
first
that
: :
\/a
uk, \/b
vk,
\ic=wk.
rewritten as
so that the given equation represents a pair of parallel planes whose separate equations can be obtained on solving (1) as a quadric for ux vy + wz.
Case II. Now suppose that the set of numbers not proportional to the set u, v w so that
y
\/a, \/&>
V/c
is
We
re write
\/c^v
w.
This requires
or
a+o+c
Having chosen
A,
__
we
rewrite (2) as
254
where
a+b+c
Taking
we
Y*=zkX,
so that the surface
is
a parabolic cylinder.
The following procedure is suggested for the reduction of numerical equations when the second degree terms do not form a perfect square. Find the discriminating cubic and solve. 1.
2.
If no characteristic root
is
zero,
then put
down the
centre
giving equations and solve. If (a, p, y) is the centre and Aj, A 2 , A 3 are the characteristic roots, then the reduced equation is
If one characteristic root is zero, find the principal direction 3. m, n corresponding to the zero characteristic root by solving two of
.the three
equations
gl+fm+cnQ.
Then
is
find
ul+vm+um.
If this
is
A!,
roots.
If
ul+vm+wn=Q,
and only two of the three centre giving equations will be independent. Find any point (a, p, X) satisfying two of the three equations. Then
case
line of centres
we have a
In
this
is the required
reduced equation.
Note. If one characteristic root is zero and two nonzero, then the line of intersection of the two principal planes corresponding to the two nonzero roots is the axis, if the quadric is a paraboloid or an elliptic or hyperbolic cylinder and the line of intersection of the planes if the quadric is a pair of intersecting planes.
In the case of ellipti3 and hyperbolic cylinder, one pair of intersecting planes, the line of centres is also the axis.
EXAMPLES
Examples
1.
255
Reduce
the equation
to
a canonical form.
is
A3 + 3A*90A+216=0.
D=
216^0.
The
2z+3=0.
Solving these
we
by
is
Denoting
this
(a,
P 7),
UK+vp + wy+d^
x*+2y*4z*=l,
which shows that the given quadric
is
...(1)
a hyperboloid of one sheet. The equation (1) represents the given quadric when the origin of coordinates is its centre and the coordinate axes are parallel to the principal directions i.e., (1) is an equation referred to principal
2.
Reduce
to
3=0.
3.
principal direction correspond
Thus.Z>=0.
The
ing to
A=0
I,
ra,
n of the
These give
I
:
m n=2
:
1.
Thus
.so that
in this case
we have
we proceed
256
on
it.
These three planes meet in a line. Clearly Denoting this by (a, (3, A), we have MX + t>p+wy + d= 3.
is
(0, 0, 0)
is
a point
of intersecting
first
The
shows that
3.
(0, 0, 0) is
degree terms
Show
that
^represents a paraboloid.
Obtain
is
its
reduced Aquation.
(D.U. 1951}
A V
5+V2~f 2
5V21"
2
I,
direction cosines A0 are given by to direction corresponding principal 4ra 2w=0, 4Z
D=0.
The
m, n of the
...(!>
...(2)
+2w=0,
Clearly
ol) tain (1)
and
(2)
Solving
(2)
and
(3),
wo
n=r2
V
Thus the reduced equation
is
4.
is
and find
It
and equations
to its axis.
may
(Lucknow, 1949} be shown that the roots of the discriminating cubic are
0,
2,
4.
EXAMPLES
257
principal direction
corres
The
8Z=0,
2m+ 27i=0,
These give
Z=0,
m=l/V2, n=
2
Then
Thus the quadric
is
a paraboloid.
axis
and the
vertex.
corres
A=
principal direction
6Z+OwtOn=0,
These give
Z=0,
ra
is
t/z+3=0.
...(1)
to A
=4 are given by
OZ
OZ+m 5n=0.
These give
I
:m: n=l
4z4=:0
is
x=l.
Thus
is
...(2)
the required axis of the paraboloid. The vertex is the point where the axis meets the paraboloid. Rewriting the equations of the axis in the form
z
~0
we
see that
T~~T'
any point
will lie
(1, r3, r), on the surface for
on the axis
r=f,
so that the vertex
is the
point
(i,
i
i).
258
5.
=
12H6=0
(Calcutta, 1953)
Find
A3 18A2 +72A=0
12.
0, 6,
The
ding to
A=0
5m
4n=0
so that
Thus
We
have,
therefore,
to
proceed to put
down
centre
giving
equations.
These are
...(1)
...(2)
...(3)
Clearly (3) can be obtained on adding (1) and (2) so that as expected, these three equations are equivalent to only two. Putting 2=0 in i(l) and (2), we obtain
=
so that
(
1,
y=l, z=0,
6.
1, 1, 0) is
a centre.
Thus
ua+fl(Hwy+d= 66+6=
Hence the reduced equation
.e.,
is
The
crosssection
is
2z 2 +r=i, 2=0.
Its eccentricity is
now
is
easily seen to
be l/\/2.
that the equa
= 0, x+y f 2z  0.
EXAMPLES
6.
259
Shaw
represents
(1A)(A ~1)=0,
(Ml)(Al) =0,
1,
1, I
Two of the characteristic roots being equal, equation represents a quadric of revolution. Further re writing the equation as
2
we
i.e.,
(x
+y*+z*I)(yz)*=Q,
2/*=0
...(1)
is
we
line
cut the quadric in circles. Thus the axis of revolution which through the centre of the sphere
the
(1) is
xQ_y
~~<r
i.e.,
0_3
'
#=0, y=z.
7.
Prove that
and find
the coordinates
focus.
The
discriminating cubic
is
n U
3.
>
2) 2'
Two
The
is
a surface of
revolution.
ponding to
direction cosines I, m, n of the principal direction corresA=0 are given by any two of the three equations
I
\m
ft=0,
These give
I
:
m n=l
:
1.
n
260
Now we
have
JL
2
'
JV3
.
JL
2
l
'
V3
V'c
is
2 /ya
, I
V3
'
i.e.,
generating parabola
This form of the equation shows that the latus rectum of the is 4\/3.
With
are
respect to the given system of coordinate axes, the direction which is also the axis of revolution
i, i, i.
We rewrite the
or
Thus the
the sphere
and perpendicular
to the plane
x+y+z=Q,
is
which
the axis of the paraboloid. is the point where this axis meets the paraboloid. It can be shown that any point
is
The vertex
on the axis
will
be on the paraboloid
if
r=l.
Thus
paraboloid.
(0,
1,
2)
is
EXAMPLES
261
\/3
is the point on the axis (1) at a distance Rewriting the equations of the axis in the form
x~Q
we
see that the point
~l
22
from
(0, 1, 2) is
on the
Thus
8.
(1, 2, 3) is
//
ax+hy+gz
x
hx+by+fz
y
gx+fy+cz
=0.
As the given equation represents a pair of planes, we must have D=0. The line of intersection of the two planes is parallel to the
that
root zero so principal direction corresponding to the characteristic if I, ra, n be the direction cosines of this line we have
These give
I
~G^~F^~C'
As
by FG/H, that
I,
m, n are
1 proportional to jp
G" 1 H~ l
,
if
we
Now we know that the two bisecting planes are the principal planes corresponding to the two nonzero characteristic roots.
Suppose that (x, y, z) is any point on either bisecting plane. this bisecting plane, as a principal plane, bisect chords with The direction cosines 1 19 n^ and perpendicular to the plane.
Let
m^
...(1)
we
see that
satisfies this
equation.
^i>
Further the plane being normal to the i, MI, its equation is also
][
a;+m 1 2/4"Wi2==0,
o that
262
Finally, the principal direction Zi, l9 corresponding to a nonzero characteristic root being perpendicular to that corresponding to the zero characteristic root, we have 1 1 1
m %
^ +m
(3),
+%^"
=0.
...(3)
From
(1), (2)
and
we have
ax+hy+gz
hx+by+fz
y
gx+fy+cz
=o.
Hence the
9.
result.
ax2 +by*+cz 2 +2ayz'+2bzx+2cxy+2ux+2vy+2wz+d=Q represents either a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic paraboloid. (D. U. 1952^
is
is zero.
We have
so that either
a +b+c=0,
or
(I)
The condition
i.e.,
(2) is
equivalent to
a=b=c.
(2)
...(3)
to be satisfied,
2
we
a(x+y+z) +2(ux+vy+wz)+d=Q
a parabolic cylinder ^ if u^kv or
is
v^w.
(1) is satisfied
zero.
The direction cosines I, ra, n of the principal direction corresponding to the zero root are given by
so that
I
acb
As
_ m _
2
be
a2
n abc2
a+6+c=0, we may
ac
a2 =a&
c2 .
EXERCISES
263
is
direction
1
1
'
V3
Also
V3
V3'
is
Thus in this case the quadric is a paraboloid. This paraboloid hyperbolic for the two nonzero characteristic roots given by
Exercises
1.
Show
that
represents a paraboloid. Find the reduced equation and the coordinates of the vertex. (Lucknow 1952) Reduce to its principal axes : 2.
22/2
2yz+2zx
2xy
and
4.
(i)
(ii)
x*+2yz4x+6y+2z~Q.
x*y*+2yz2xzxy+z=Q.
yz+zx\xy'lx6y~5z25Q.
(Hi)
(iv)
4y^4yz+4zx4 xy2x\2y^l==0.
:
(v)
(vi)
2x*+2y2+z*+2yz2zx4xy+x+y=0.
(x cos a
(Lucknow 1947)
(MtC7< 194 f)
y sin
a)
f (y
(vii)
3*2+6i/22/2__. 2 2_.6z+62/2z2=0,
(viii)
(ix)
5.
x)(x
y}+b(xy}(y z)+c(y
is
z)(z
x)=0,
Show
is
reduced equation.
Show
is
a right
Show that
2=~1
2=1,
is
a hyperboloid of revolution.
264:
9.
10.
Prove that every quadric of the linear system determined by the two*
2/2
equations
2#f:c=0, #2f 2/2f2#2=:0
is
a cone.
11.
as
m varies from
to
f
Obtain the reduced equation of the quadric corresponding to m=l, 12. Show that there is only one paraboloid in the system of quadrics
if/, g t
h u9
t
v,
this*
(72
~+ m T+
2
is
n2
its
axis
I
ax
13.
cz
14.
Show
to be a cone
is
C2JX
15.
are given
by the equations
s(/Xr f F)*=y(g\+G)z(h\r +H), (r=l,2,
3)
where
Xj,
h
g
k
6X
1
=0
cx
and the
of,
G*=hfbg,
Hfgch.
(B.U. 1953)
Also show that the cone which touches the coordinate planes conicoid is principal planes of the above
^((gHhG)x]+</[(hFfH)y]+y(fGgF)z]=0.
16.
from
P to the
.
ellipsoid
"^2"
T*"
c2
>
EXERCISES
lie
265
is
the cone
x*y*
lie
on the cone
(B.U. 1953)
will represent
provided that
6)
Given the
ellipsoid of revolution
a2
(a
2
62
~'
is
>6 2 ), show
whose vertex
is
one of the
foci of the
is
ellipse
z=0,
#2
s
+ pr = 1
ty2
a nd whose base
any
a surface of
(D.U. 1948)
revolution.
19.
Prove that
if
we have
we have
also
and that
if it
T + T + T =0
Answers
i,
'
(D
1950
'
2x* y *+v2*=o.
3x 2 y =^.
2
(i.
2. 3.
Hyperbolic cylinder.
3x2+62/2922+1=0.
(t)
4.
^2+2/222=10.
3rc232/2
2
(ft)
2;.
(Hi) 2a;22/
2 2 =102.
sin
a cos
2
2
a)?/
+2
sin2a/^(l
sin 2 x cos 2
a)=0.
^2+^2 = 2
(vii)
if
sin a
= Oand?/ +2 =2
if
cos a
= 0.
2x2+3^2422^4.
32/2=^/6x.
(ix)
'6.
7.
266
11.
The
is
APPENDIX
Spherical Polar and Cylindrical Coordinates.
Various systems of coordinates have been devised to meet, of problems which arise in Geometry and in various Cartesian system which is one of these has applications of the same. already been introduced and this is the one system with which we have been concerned all along. It is now proposed to introduce two
different types
more systems,
1.
viz.
Cylindrical Polar,
2.
Spherical Polar
Let
Draw
I
PN
Then
point P.
r,
0,
are
called
the
VI
N(r,0,o)
If x, y^ z be the cartesian coordinates of P referred to OX, OY OZ as the three axes, we may easily obtain the following formulae
9
Fig. 33
giving relations
between
y}
and
r, 0, z.
x~r
Ex.
(i)
cos 0,
yr sin
6,
z.
surfaces represented
by
(ii)
(Hi)
= constant 2 = constant.
Let
We
268
POZ
Then
of P.
and XOZ.
We now
obtain the
for
Draw NA_iOX have /_OPN=0. From the rightangled angle OPN, we have
We
tri
z=NP=OP cos
=r
=r
cos
6.
N
OAN, we have
cos cos cj)=r sin
,x=OA = ON
^
<f>
sin
x=r
;
y=r
sin
sin
<f>,
z=r
cos
0.
= constant
r= constant
0= constant
and
its
(ii)
at the origin
(Hi)
OZ
vertex
0== constant represents a semiplane through OZ. It may be easily verified that if a point r, 6, varies in the interior of a sphere whose centre is at the origin and the radius is to a to 2n varies from a then r varies from 6 varies from
(f>
:
<j>
tO tOTU.
INDEX
(Numbers
Angle between, two
lines,
refer to pages)
two planes,
a line arid a plane,
21
of
,
,
42
103 133
common
,
two spheres,
lines of intersection of a cone and a plane, asymptotes of plane
124
128
section,
189
31
181, 187 181, 186, 193
Area
of, triangle,
Bight circular, Enveloping, normals to a , through quadric from a point, Conjugate, points,
planes,
lines,
225
169
plane section,
Axes of plane
section,
16
29
208 213 89
142
at infinity,
diametral planes, 167, Curve, Equations of, Cubic Coordinates, Cartesian Cartesian homogeneous, , Transformation of, of vertex of cone, Cylinder, with generators parallel
, ,
160 179 65
159
1
139
72
115
to an axis,
64, 130*
132 132
7 10
v
43
14 21
of the join of two points, Director sphere, Distance, between two points
(shortest)
lines,
150 3 63
between two
59 28 4
140< 111
44
162 177
61
103 115
69
107
198 211 203
99'
perpendicular
generators,
119
75 30
107
208, 213
140>
49
Co axial system
Limiting points of, Cone, with vertex at origin, with given vertex and
base,
110
216*
270
perpendicular tangent
planes,
Normals,
Orthogonality of two spheres,
'Parameter of Distribution, Plane of contact, Plane at infinity, Power of a point, Polar piano,
^Projection on, a straight line, a plane,
Prism, Triangular,
<Quadric, cone,