# Basics of Current and Voltage Transformers

Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

Page 241

2007-08

Author

Equivalent current transformer circuit

I1 P1

jX1 R1

I 2′ = I1 ⋅

N1 N2

jX2 Im

R2

I2 S1 Zb

N1

N2 U
2

Zm

P2

Ideal CT

S2

X1 = Primary leakage reactance R1 = Primary winding resistance X2 = Secondary leakage reactance Z0 = Magnetizing impedance R2 = Secondary winding resistance Zb = SecondaryAuthor load Note:

Power Transmission and Distribution

Normally the leakage fluxes X1 and X2 can be neglected

Page 242

2007-08

Author

All rights reserved.Current transformer. PTD SE PTI . simplified equivalent circuit 1 : N2 i1 jX2 i2 R2 ZB i'1 = N2 1 ⋅ i1 L2<< LW R2 i2 Power Transmission and Distribution LW im Author RB Page 243 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

Current transformer: Phase displacement (δ) and current ratio error (ε) N1 N2 ε I2 N2 I2 δ Power Transmission and Distribution I1 . All rights reserved. I1 N1 Zb Author Im Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. PTD SE PTI Page 244 2007-08 Author .

5% accuracyat I= n x In Actual accuracy limit factor in operation is higher as the CT ALF ' = ALF × is normally underburdened : Operating ALF: ALF‘ Rated burden (nominal power) PNB Accuracy limit factor ALF Pi + PNB Pi + PBB Dimension criterium: I ALF ' ≥ SC − max × KTF Power Transmission I n and Distribution KTF (over-dimensioning factor) considers the single sided CT over-magnetising due to the d. 30 VA RCT ≤ 5 Ohm Ratio In -Prim / In -Sek.2 × R CT Specification: 300/1 A 5P10.CT classes to IEC 60044-1: 5P or 10P Pi = I sec . All rights reserved. KTF values required in practice depend on relay type and design. Recommendations are provided by manufacturers (see Application Guides) Page 245 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. Author component in short circuit current ISC. PTD SE PTI .c.

PTD SE PTI Page 246 2007-08 Author .Definition of the CT knee-point voltage U2 10 % UKN 50 % IEC 60044-1 Class PX formerly British Standard BS3938: Class X Power Transmission and Distribution Author Im Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.

Current transformer. PTD SE PTI . Standard for steady-state performance IEC 60044-1 specifies the following classes: Accuracy class Current error at nominal current (In) ±1% ± 5% Angle error δ at rated current In ± 60 minutes Total error at n x In (rated accuracy limit) 5P 10P 5% 10 % Power Transmission and Distribution Author Page 247 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.

5 % ± 1. current only) negligible TPS closed iron core Special version for high impedance protection Author (Knee point voltage.0 % ˆ ≤ 10% ε ˆ ≤ 10% ε no limit < 10 % Power Transmission and Distribution TPY with anti-remanence air gap TPZ linear core ε ˆ ≤ 10% (a.0 % ± 1. Standard for transient performance IEC 60044-6 specifies four classes: Class Error at rated current Ratio error TPX (closed iron core) Maximum error at rated accuracy limit Remanence Angle error ± 30 min ± 30 min ± 180 ± 18 min ± 0. All rights reserved.Current transformers. PTD SE PTI .c. internal secondary resistance) No limit Page 248 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

Current transformer saturation Steady-state saturation with AC current Power Transmission and Distribution Author Transient saturation with offset current Page 249 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI .

Transient CT saturation due to DC component ISC Short circuit current DC flux non-saturated ΦS Φ AC flux Power Transmission and Distribution Author Im Page 250 2007-08 Author Magnetising current Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI .

flux a. component − B ω ⋅TN ⋅TS − TN = 1+ (e − e TS ) ˆ TN − TS B ~ t t t TN B BMax B~ total flux ⎛T ⎞ − BMax = 1+ ω ⋅TS ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ B~ ⎝ TS ⎠ TS N TS TN t B Max = TS = t transient d.Course of CT-flux during off-set short-circuit current ΙP primary current d.c. PTD SE PTI .c. All rights reserved.c. flux TN ⋅ TS TS ⋅ ln TS − TN TN LW Power Transmission 1 and Distribution = Ri + RB ω ⋅ tanδ TS = 10900 Author For 50 Hz: B~ δ [min ] [ms] Page 251 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

PTD SE PTI . All rights reserved.CT transient over-dimensioning factor KTF KTF 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 Author ⎛ TN ⎞ KTF = 1+ ωTS⎜ ⎟ ⎜ TS ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ TS TS − TN ∞ (KTF ≈1+ωTN) 5000 Closed iron core 1000 TS [ms] 500 250 100 Linear core Power Transmission and Distribution TN = network time constant (short-circuit time constant) 50 100 150 200 TN [ms] TS = CT secondary time constant Page 252 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

e T N ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 5 10 ms tM → ∞ : Power Transmission and Distribution Author KTF = 1+ ωTN = 1+ XN RN 0 20 40 60 80 Tp 100 [ ms] Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.CT with closed iron core. PTD SE PTI Page 253 2007-08 Author . Over-dimensioning factor KTF‘ for specified time to saturation (tM) 15 14 tM 50 ms 40 ms K‘td tM → ∞ 10 30 ms 20 ms K' TF 6 tM ⎛ ⎜ = 1 + ωTN ⋅ ⎜1 . All rights reserved.

TN) in the case of short time to saturation (tM) KTF 4 3.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 tM 10 ms Θ (tM.TN) 180 (el.5 2 1. PTI TPTD ms N inSE .5 3 2.CT over-dimensioning factor KTF (tM.5 1 0. All rights reserved. degree) 160 140 8 ms 120 100 80 tM 10 ms 8 ms 6 ms Power Transmission and Distribution 4 ms 2 ms 6 ms 4 ms 2 ms Author 60 40 20 0 0 20 100 40 60 80 100 Page 254 2007-08 T N in ms Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

− BR ) ⋅ e BR − t TS Ιm Author t Ιm Page 255 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.Current transformer magnetising and de-magnetising ΙP B t BMax BR Power Transmission and Distribution B BMax B = BR + (BMax. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI .

Current transformer Course of flux in the case of non-successful auto-reclosure B Bmax tF1 = duration of 1st fault t tF1 tDT tF2 tDT dead time Power Transmission and Distribution tF2 =duration of 2nd fault tF1 tDT+tF2 ⎡ tF2 tF1 tF2 ⎡ − ⎤ Author − − ⎤ − ⋅ N ⋅TS Bmax ⎢ ω ⋅TN ⋅TS − TN T ω = 1+ − e TS ⎥ ⋅ e TS + ⎢1+ (e (e TN − e TS ⎥ ˆ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ TN −TS TN −TS B ~ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. PTD SE PTI Page 256 2007-08 Author . All rights reserved.

Current transformer magnetising curve and point of remanence B up to 80% I II III < 10% negligible H = im ⋅ w I: closed iron core (TPX) II: core with anti-remanence air-gaps (TPY) Author Power Transmission and Distribution III: Linearised core (TPZ) Page 257 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. PTD SE PTI . All rights reserved.

Current transformers TPX und TPY Course of the flux with non-successful auto-reclosure BR closed iron core (TPX) Power Transmission and Distribution core with antiremanence air-gaps (TPY) BR Author tF1 tDT tF2 t Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI Page 258 2007-08 Author .

0 · UN 0.1 0.0 % Angle error δ 120 minutes 240 minutes All 3P and 5P protection CTs must additionally comply with one of the below VT metering classes! VT classes for measurement IEC 60044-2 Class designation 0.2 0.1 0.0·UN 5 10 20 30 Not determined Power Transmission and Distribution Page 259 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.0 · UN Voltage error FU ± 3.05 ·UN and 1.5 1 3 Author Permissible angle error in minutes at 1. PTD SE PTI . All rights reserved.Standards of voltage transformers VT classes to IEC 60044-2 Class designation 3P 5P Permissible error at 0.2 0.5 1 3 Permissible voltage error in % at 1.0 % ± 6.

PTD SE PTI . Equivalent circuit 400 kV C1 = 5 nF 3 C2 = 95 nF 20 kV 3 RF LF CF 100 V 3 ZB CE = C 1 + C 2 U*1 = UP ⋅ C1 + C2 C1 RE LO C RF RT LT Power Transmission and Distribution T Author LF CF U*2 R'B L'B Page 260 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.Capacitive voltage transformer. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. to IEC 60044-5 Ratio Measured voltage transients after fault at voltage maximum and zero-crossing (Example) Us (t) Time Ts in ms 10 20 Classes 2 ⋅ Us ⋅100% 3PT1 6PT1 --≤ 10 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 3PT2 6PT2 ≤ 25 ≤ 10 ≤ 2 ≤ 0.2 3PT3 6PT3 ≤4 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 ≤2 t 40 60 90 Legend: UP(t) Primary voltage US(t) Secondary voltage (1) (2) (3) Power Transmission and Distribution Recommendations to IEC 60044-5 Author Fault inception Aperiodic damping of US(t) Periodic damping of US(t) Page 261 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. PTD SE PTI .6 ≤ 0.Transient performance of CVTs. Recommendations acc.

CT dimensioning K OD = KTF Pi + PBN RCT + RBN ALF' = ALF ⋅ = ALF ⋅ Pi + PB RCT + RB P + PB RCT + RB = ALF'⋅ ALF = ALF'⋅ i Pi + PBN RCT + RBN with rated CT burden: PBN internal burden of the CT: Pi=Ri ⋅ I2N2 Actual connected burden : PB= RB ⋅ I2N2 RB=Rl+RR= burden resistance Rl= resistance of connecting cables RR= burden resistance of the relay I ALF ' ≥ K OD ⋅ K IN Theory: No saturation for the total short-circuit duration: No saturation for the specified time tM: K' TF = BMax XN = 1 + ωTN = 1 + ˆ RN B ~ K OD ≥ K TF ⋅ K Re m K Re m = 1 % Remanence 1− 100 Practice: Author − − ω T N ⋅ TS ⋅ (e TN − e TS ⎥ K ' 'TF = ⎢1 + TN − TS ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Power tM ⎤ tMDistribution ⎡ Transmission and Remanence only considered in extra high voltage systems (EHV) KTF-values acc. PTD SE PTI Page 262 2007-08 Author . All rights reserved. to relay manufacturers‘ guides Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.

2 (Saturation free time ≥ 5 ms) KTF≥ 1.75 (Saturation free time ≥ 4 ms) KTF≥ 0.5 (Saturation free time ≥ 3 ms) Author KTF≥ 0. PTD SE PTI Transformer Differential 7UT6 Line differential 7SD61 Bus differential 7SS52 KTF≥ 0.Practical CT requirements Transient over-dimensioning factors KTF (AR not considered) Distance 7SA6 and 7SA522 Overcurrent 7SJ56 Close-in fault: Fault atbalance point: KTF ≥ 5 KTF ≥ 2 ( ≥ 1 if TN < 30ms) ALF‘≥ I>>setting/ IN.5 (Saturation free time ≥ 3 ms) Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.5 (Saturation free time ≥ 3 ms) Page 263 2007-08 Author . at least 20 Internal fault External fault KTF≥ 1.2 Power Transmission and Distribution (Saturation free time ≥ 5 ms) KTF≥ 0. All rights reserved.

4 Ω/km 200/1A 7SD61 ∆ IL F4 1200/1A 7UT61 ∆ IL 200/1A Impedances related to 20 kV: U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 20 2 Power Transmission and Distribution ⎣ ⎦ ZN = = = 0.CT dimensioning for Example differential protection (1) 1.4 = 3.03 Ω SSC ' ' [MVA ] 3000 U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ Author ⎥ ⎢ uT [% ] 110 2 12 % ⎦ ⎣ ZT = ⋅ = ⋅ = 36. Calculation of fault currents 110 kV. : Line : Z L = l[km ]⋅ z L ' [Ω/km ] = 8 ⋅ 0. All rights reserved. zL‘= 0.13 Ω SSC ' ' [MVA ] 3000 U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ uT [% ] 20 2 12 % ⎣ ⎦ ZT= ⋅ = ⋅ = 1. 3 GVA Net 300/1A ∆ IT Impedances related to 110 kV: U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ 110 2 ⎦ ⎣ ZN = = = 4.3 Ω PN -T [MVA ] 100 40 100 F1 110/20 kV 40 MVA uT=12% F2 F3 OH-line: l = 8 km. : Transf.2 Ω PN -T [MVA ] 100 40 100 Net : Net : Transf.2 Ω Page 264 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. PTD SE PTI .

1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.2 Ω Dimensioning of the 110 kV CTs for the transformer differential protection: Manufacturer recommends for relay 7UT61: The saturation free time of 3 ms corresponds to KTF≥ 0.3 kA ZN 4.CT dimensioning for Example differential protection (2) F1 F2 I F1 = 1. PTD SE PTI .13 Ω + 1.55 kA Z N + ZT 0.3 Ω 1.1 ⋅ 110kV/ 3 I F2 = = = 1. Page 265 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.03 Ω + 36.2 for through flowing currents (external faults) Power Transmission and Distribution I 17300 ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F1 = 0.73 kA Z N + ZT 4.75 ⋅ = 43 IN 300 For criterion 2) we get: Author I 1730 ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F2 = 1.2 ⋅ =7 IN 300 The 110 kV CTs must be dimensioned according to criterion 1).75 See diagram.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.1 ⋅ 110kV/ 3 = = 17.2 Ω + 3.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.1 ⋅ 20kV/ 3 = = 2.13 Ω + 1.8 kA Z N + Z T + Z L 0. All rights reserved.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.2 Ω 1.1 ⋅ 20kV/ 3 = = 9.03 Ω F3 F4 I F3 = I F4 = 1. page 59 Criterion 1) therefore reads: 1) Saturation free time ≥ 4ms for internal faults 2) Over-dimensioning factor KTF ≥ 1.

5P20. PTD SE PTI . All rights reserved. 10 VA.8 IN 200 Author The 20 kV line CTs must be dimensioned according to criterion 1‘). internal burden 2 VA.2 ⋅ = 16. page 59 Criterion 1‘) therefore reads: I 9550 ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F3 = 0. Pi + Poperation 2 + 2. Page 266 2007-08 Copyright © Siemens AG 2007.5 VA) Chosen.2 for through flowing currents (external faults) Power Transmission and Distribution For criterion 2‘) we get: Author I 2800 ALF' ≥ KTF ⋅ F4 = 1.1 Pi + Prated 2 + 10 (Connected burden estimated to about 2. 5P?. 10 VA.5 ALF ≥ ⋅ ALF ' = ⋅ 43 = 16. R2≤ 2 Ohm (Pi ≤ 2VA) Dimensioning of the 20 kV CTs for line protection: For relay 7SD61.5 ⋅ = 24 IN 200 1‘) Saturation free time ≥ 3ms for internal faults 2‘) Over-dimensioning factor KTF ≥ 1. it is required: The saturation free time of 3 ms corresponds to KTF≥ 0. 5P20. 10 VA. R2≤ 2 Ohm (Pi ≤ 2VA) Specification of the CTs at the 20 kV side of the transformer: It is good relaying practice to choose the same dimensioning as for the CTs on the 110 kV side: 1200/1.5 See diagram. with a security margin : 300 /1 A.CT dimensioning for Example differential protection (3) We try to use a CT type: 300/1.

5P?.CT dimensioning for Example differential protection (4) For the 20 kV line we have considered the CT type: 200/5 A. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI .04 Ohm ( Pi≤ 1 VA) Power Transmission and Distribution Author Page 267 2007-08 Author Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. 5 VA. 5 VA. 5P10. 200/5 A. R2≤ 0. internal burden ca. we can specify: CT Type TPX. 1 VA Pi + Poperation 1+1 ⋅ ALF ' = ⋅ 24 = 8 ALF ≥ 1+ 5 Pi + Prated Specification of line CTs: (Connected burden about 1 VA) We choose the next higher standard accuracy limit factor ALF=10 : Herewith.

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