RAJASTHAN RAJYA VIDYUT PRASARAN NIGAM LTD.

(Regd. Office: Vidyut Bhavan, Janpath, Jyoti Nagar, Jaipur–302005)

CONSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR SUB STATIONS

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

FOREWORD

The Engineers experienced in the field of Transmission have made this effort to compile the experience gained over the past 40 years in the form of a Manual and make it available to the Engineers and Technical Supervisors of the Company. This is a step forward to disseminate knowledge so that uniform practices and procedures are followed in the construction activities in the Company.

This Manual covers all the activities related to the construction of Sub Stations.

I appreciate the work done by the members of the Committee in preparing and bringing out this Construction Manual for Sub Stations.

I hope that the Manual will be of immense use and reference to the Engineers of the Transmission & Construction Wing.

April, 2007 Jaipur

Shreemat Pandey Chairman & Managing Director Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd.

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

PREFACE

The construction practices in the transmission wing of RVPN have been built over the past 40 years and passed on from seniors to juniors. The new generation of Engineers, skilled Technical Supervisors and Workmen has, from time to time, constantly updated the construction practices according to the latest developments in the field of Transmission Engineering.

It was felt that the construction practices built over the years be compiled in the form of a Manual and made available to Engineers and Technical Supervisors engaged in the construction activities so that uniform practices and procedures are followed in the Company.

A Committee of the following Engineers experienced in the field of Transmission was assigned the task of preparing the Construction Manual: Shri S. Dhawan, Chief Engineer (MM) Shri B. N. Saini, Superintending Engineer (400 KV Design) Shri Raghuvendra Singh, Executive Engineer (Prot. II) Shri Mohan Singh Ruhela, Executive Engineer (C&M–400 KV GSS), Heerapura Shri A. D. Sharma, Assistant Engineer (Civil – 400 KV Design) Shri Atul Sharma, Assistant Engineer (TLPC) I appreciate the work done by the members of the Committee in preparing and bringing out this Construction Manual for Sub Stations. I am confident that the Manual will be of great help to the Engineers posted in the Transmission & Construction Wing in discharging their duties.

April, 2007 Jaipur

Y. K. Raizada Director (Technical) Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd.

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

11. 19. 3. 25. 2. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING 1. 9. 21. 24.CONTENTS Section – I: SITE SELECTION & SUB STATION DESIGN 1. 4. 23. 15. 18. 13. 8. 16. 22. 6. 4. 7. General Instructions Structures Bus Bar and Earth Wire Aluminium Pipe Bus Bar and Joints Power Transformers Circuit Breakers Isolators Current Transformers Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT) / Potential Transformers (PT) Lightning Arresters Post / Polycone Insulators Wave Traps Line Matching Unit (LMU) / Line Matching Distribution Unit (LMDU) Capacitor Banks Earthing Cable Laying and Wiring Battery Sets (Valve Regulated Lead Acid / VRLA) DC Panels Battery Chargers Control & Relay Panels LT Panels PLCC Carrier Sets Carrier Protection Couplers PLCC Exchange Commissioning of Sub Station Bibliography 97 99 103 117 121 125 127 129 133 137 141 143 145 87 91 93 95 41 43 47 53 57 71 79 83 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 12. 20. 3. Selection of Land Layout Design Safety Clearances Earth Mat Design 5 7 33 35 Section – II: ERECTION. 5. 10. 17. 14. 2.

SECTION – I SITE SELECTION & SUB STATION DESIGN Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

This needs meticulous planning.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . b) As far as possible rectangular or square in shape for ease of proper orientation of bus – bars and feeders.4 1. skillful observation and handling so that the selected site is technically.1 SELECTION OF SITE: Selection of site for construction of a Grid Sub Station is the first and important activity. and should have the sufficient area for future extension of the buildings and / or switchyard.5 The site should have as far as possible good drinking water supply for the station staff. REQUIREMENT OF LAND / AREA: The site should have sufficient area to properly accommodate the Sub Station buildings. This facilitates reduction in leveling expenditure.0 1. equipments. Free from master plans / layouts or future development activities to have free line corridors for the present and in future. tanneries and other obnoxious areas. etc. 2. economically and socially optimal and is the best suited to the requirements. As far as possible near a town and away from municipal dumping grounds. fore-sight.2 1. Easily accessible to the public road to facilitate transport of material. environmentally. The main points to be considered in the selection of site for construction of a Grid Sub Station are given below. burial grounds. structures. 1.CHAPTER – 1 SELECTION OF LAND 1. Above highest flood level (HFL) so that there is no water logging. The distance of a Sub Station from an aerodrome should be maintained as per regulations of the aerodrome authority.0 2. Preferably fairly leveled ground. Approval in writing should be obtained from the aerodrome authority in case the Sub Station is proposed to be located near an aerodrome. to permit easy and safe approach / termination of high voltage overhead transmission lines. The site of the proposed Sub Station should not be in the vicinity of an aerodrome. Far away from obstructions.3 c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 1. The site should be: a) As near the load centre as possible. Sufficiently away from areas where police and military rifle practices are held.

3.6 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 2. the area of land for respective Grid Sub Stations shall be taken into consideration as mentioned in para 2. 1.0 Hectare 3. the requirement may be made liberally but in other cases. Voltage Class of GSS 400 kV 220 kV 132 kV Required Area 20. 2. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .2 The requirement of land for construction of Sub Station including staff colony is as under: S. the requirement should be restricted to the limit mentioned in para 2.3 While preparing proposals for acquisition of private land and allotment of Government land. where payment is to be made for the land acquisition.5 Hectare 2.0 Hectare 6.2 above.2. While selecting Government land.No.

As in the case of single bus arrangement. bus coupler breaker and Auxiliary bus isolators.1 1. it employs ‘n + 1’ circuit breakers. for ‘n’ number of circuits. the associated feeder has also to be shutdown. c) Double bus bar. This arrangement offers little security against bus bar faults and no switching flexibility resulting into quite extensive outages of bus bar and frequent maintenance of bus bar isolator(s). The entire Sub Station is lost in case of a fault on the bus bar or on any bus bar isolator and also in case of maintenance of the bus bar.3.1 1.3 1.CHAPTER – 2 LAYOUT DESIGN 1. Another disadvantage of this switching scheme is that in case of maintenance of circuit breaker.. This bus arrangement has been extensively used in 132 kV Sub Stations. This scheme suffers from the disadvantage that when any circuit breaker is taken out for maintenance.4 1. The additional provision of bus coupler circuit (Auxiliary bus) facilitates taking out one circuit breaker at a time for routine overhaul and maintenance without de – energizing the circuit controlled by that breaker as that circuit then gets energized through bus coupler breaker. i. DOUBLE MAIN AND AUXILIARY BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT: The limitation of double bus bar scheme can be overcome by using additional Auxiliary bus.0 BUS BAR SCHEMES: The commonly used bus bar schemes at Sub Stations are: a) Single bus bar.1 1. SINGLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT: This is the simplest switching scheme in which each circuit is provided with one circuit breaker. the associated feeder has to be shutdown. Typical Main and Auxiliary Bus Bar arrangement is shown in Annexure -2. this scheme also suffers from the disadvantages that in the event of a fault on the main bus bar or the associated isolator. Typical Single Bus Bar arrangement is shown in Annexure – 1. the entire substation is lost.4.2 1. Each circuit is connected to the main bus bar through a circuit breaker with isolators on both sides and can be connected to the auxiliary bus bar through an isolator.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .2 1.2 1.2.1.e.3.3.2.3 1.1.2. Each circuit can be connected to either one of these bus bars through respective bus bar isolator. Typical Double Bus Bar arrangement is shown in Annexure – 3. a double bus bar arrangement is provided. MAIN AND AUXILIARY BUS ARRANGEMENT: This is technically a single bus bar arrangement with an additional bus bar called “Auxiliary bus” energized from main bus bars through a bus coupler circuit.1 1. Bus coupler breaker is also provided so that the circuits can be switched on from one bus to the other on load. DOUBLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT: In this scheme.2 1.3 1. d) Double Main and Auxiliary bus bar e) One and a half breaker scheme. This Bus bar arrangement was generally used in earlier 220 kV sub stations. b) Main and Auxiliary bus bar. The feeder is transferred to the 1.

both the bus bars are in service.0 3.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . therefore. 220 kV and 400 kV sub stations are given at Annexure – 15 to Annexure – 17 respectively. any circuit breaker can be taken out for maintenance without causing interruption. However. ELECTRICAL LAYOUT DRAWING: Typical electrical layout drawings and sectional drawings of 400 kV. Any other equipment / structure / material which may be required for construction of Sub Station as per layout and other requirements and not included in the above typical lists of material are also to be added. 1. protective relaying is somewhat more involved as the central (tie) breaker has to be responsive to troubles on either feeder in the correct sequence. Load transfer is achieved through the breakers and. Besides. the operation is simple. three circuit breakers are used for controlling two circuits which are connected between two bus bars.3 2.4. 1.5.2 1. 220 kV and 132 kV sub stations with different bus bar arrangements generally adopted in RVPN are shown in Annexure – 6 to Annexure – 14. Typical Double Main and Auxiliary Bus Bar arrangement is shown in Annexure – 4. The breaker and a half scheme is best for those substations which handle large quantities of power and where the orientation of out going feeders is in opposite directions.5 1.0 2.8 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Auxiliary bus during maintenance of its controlling circuit breaker without affecting the other circuits. BILL OF MATERIAL: Lists of material showing the particulars of the material generally required for construction of 132 kV. The lists of material are only typical and cover the general requirement. each element of the bay has to be rated for carrying the currents of two feeders to meet the requirement of various switching operations which increases the cost.4.1 3. A fault on any one of the bus bars is cleared by opening of the associated circuit breakers connected to the faulty bus bar without affecting continuity of supply. Typical One and a Half Breaker arrangement is shown in Annexure – 5.5.1 3. Similarly. This scheme has been used in the 400 kV substations. ONE AND A HALF BREAKER ARRANGEMENT: In this scheme.5. Normally.1 1.2 This Bus bar arrangement is generally used nowadays in 220 kV sub stations.3 1.

Layout Design 9 ANNEXURE – 1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

10 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 11 ANNEXURE – 3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

12 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 13 ANNEXURE – 5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

14 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 15 ANNEXURE – 7 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

16 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 17 ANNEXURE – 9 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

18 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 10 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 19 ANNEXURE – 11 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

20 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 12 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Layout Design 21 ANNEXURE – 13 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

22 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – 14 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

0 Meters) Beam 11. GF – type Beam (5. 132 kV Lightning Arrester 10. Y – type Column (without stub) 14. Y – type Column (with stub) 13. 33 kV CT type B. 33 kV Lightning Arrester 20. 110/√3) 19. 132 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (110 V DC) 6. 33 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (110 V DC) 16. AO – 5 type for LA’s / CT’s / Bus CVT’s 19. 33 kV Potential Transformer (110/√3. 132 kV Current Transformer for feeder (250 – 500 / 1A. BT – 4 type Column 3. 33 kV Isolator without Earth Blade 14. X – 15 type for 33 kV Isolators 21. Q – type Column (with stub) 8. BO – 1 (T) type for 132 kV Tandem Isolators 18. X – type Column 12. Outdoor Equipment 1. BO – 1 type for 132 kV Isolators 17. 33 kV Horn Gap Fuse Set 23. 250 KVA Station Transformer 22. BB – 1 type Beam 6. 3C) 8.415 kV. 132 kV Isolator without Earth Blade 3. No. 132 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 4. Structures / Beams with nuts. bolts.4 Meters for 33 kV) 16. 5C) 17. 33 kV Current Transformer for transformer (250 – 500 / 1A. bays) Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 22 kV Post Insulators 21. 3C) 7. 110/√3) 9. 132 kV Marshalling Kiosk 13. R – type Column (with stub) 10. BT – 7 type Column 5. Q – type Column (without stub) 9. 132 kV Post Insulators 12. 132 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (110/√3. 33 / 0. 132 / 33 kV Power Transformer 2.Layout Design 23 Annexure – 15 LIST OF MATERIAL (TYPICAL) FOR CONSTRUCTION OF 132 kV GRID SUB-STATION S. 110/√3. 132 kV Wave Trap 11. 2C) 18. Z – type Column (with stub) 15. 132 kV Current Transformer for transformer (125 – 250 – 500 / 1A. 33 kV Current Transformer for feeder (125 – 250 – 500 / 1A. P – type Column 7. PIS type for 132 kV PIs 20. 33 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 15. washers. etc. complete. BT – 1 type Column 2. BT – 6 type Column 4. 33 kV Marshalling Kiosk (one for 2 nos. 1. GD type (10. Particulars A. 132 kV Tandem Isolator 5.

S. type. mm. Fire Fighting Equipment 1. 200 AH Battery Charger 8. G. P. P.15 mm. Channel 100 × 50 × 6 mm. C. C. 7 / 3. LT Power Cable (Aluminium) 1. P. I . 110 Volts D. T. GSS Earth wire 19. 5. T – Clamps for Panther to Panther 12. 12 / 10 core × 2. S. P. 110 Volts. T – Clamps for Zebra to Zebra 10. Clamps for 7 / 3. Flat 50 × 6 mm. Bus Bar Material 1. 120 KN 6. 132 kV side of Transformer Control & Relay Panel (110 V. T – Clamps for Zebra to Panther 11. L. G. 6 core × 2. Distribution Board (110 V DC) D. Tension Hardware for 7 / 3. F.5 sq. G. 33 kV side Control & Relay Panel for Transformer & Bus Coupler (110V. ACSR Panther Conductor 9. Copper Earth Bond I.Clamps for Zebra 16. 45 KN 7.5 sq. 2. 6. Single Tension Hardware for Single Zebra (Bolted type) 2. Single Suspension Hardware for Panther 5. M. I .Clamps for Panther 17. CO2 type. 2.5 sq. Earth wire E. Single Tension Hardware for Panther (Bolted type) 3. 1A) 4. M. 4 core × 2. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .15 mm. P. 11 KV Disc Insulators. mm. Copper Control Cables 1. G. 4. mm.15 mm GSS Earth wire 18. Clamps for Zebra to Zebra 13. No. Particulars C. 2. H. 18 / 16 core × 2. 132 kV Feeder Control & Relay Panel (110 V. ACSR Zebra Conductor 8. mm. 3. Flat 50 × 10 mm. Distribution Board 9. 1A) 2. 1A) 6. M. D. 11 KV Disc Insulators. Earthing Material 1. 4 core × 4 sq. Control Room Equipment 1. Single Suspension Hardware for Single Zebra 4. G. 33 kV Feeder Control & Relay Panel for two nos.5 sq. mm. 1A) 5. P. Clamps for Zebra to Panther 14. mm. mm. S.5 sq. 132 kV Bus Coupler Control & Relay Panel (110V. 3 core × 2.24 Construction Manual for Sub Stations S. P. Round 25 mm. M. 3. 3½ core × 300 sq. Others / Miscellaneous 1. 200 AH Battery Set 7. 2. dia. 110 Volts. 1A) 3. S. feeders (110V. Clamps for Panther to Panther 15.

132 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 15. etc. AB – 1 type Beam 7. 110/√3) 9. BT – 1 type Column 8. 220 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (220 V DC) 7. 220 kV Post Insulators 12. 132 kV Post Insulators 22. Particulars A. 220 kV Marshalling Kiosk 13. Outdoor Equipment 1. 132 kV Isolator without Earth Blade 14. AT – 8 type Column 6. AO – 3 type for 220 kV CT’s 15. 132 kV Tandem Isolator 16. washers. 33 / 0. 220 kV Lightning Arrester 10. 220 kV Wave Trap 11. complete. 132 kV Marshalling Kiosk 23. AO – 5 type for 220 kV LA’s & for 132 kV CT’s. AO – 1 type for 220 kV Isolators 13. BB – 1 type Beam 12. 220 kV Isolator without Earth Blade 3.Layout Design 25 Annexure – 16 LIST OF MATERIAL (TYPICAL) FOR CONSTRUCTION OF 220 kV GRID SUB-STATION S. BT – 6 type Column 10. LA’s 17. PIS type for 220 kV & 132 kV PI’s B. 1. AT – 4 type Column 4. No. 220 kV Isolator with Double Earth Blade 5. 132 kV Current Transformer (250 – 500 / 1A. 110/√3) 19. 220 kV Tandem Isolator 6. bolts. 220 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 4. BO – 1 (T) type for 132 kV Tandem Isolators 19. 4C) 18. 132 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (110/√3. AT – 6 type Column 5. AT – 3 type Column 3. Structures / Beams with nuts. 132 kV Lightning Arrester 20. AT – 1 type Column 2. AO – 1 (T) type for 220 kV Tandem Isolators 14. 220 kV Current Transformer (400 – 800 / 1A. BT – 4 type Column 9. BT – 7 type Column 11. AO – 4 type for 220 kV CVT’s 16.415 kV. 250 KVA Station Transformer Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . CVT’s / PT’s. 220 / 132 kV Power Transformer 2. BO – 1 type for 132 kV Isolators 18. 132 kV Wave Trap 21. 5C) 8. 220 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (110/√3. 132 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (220 V DC) 17.

P. mm. 132 kV Feeder Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC. 1A) 2. 1A) 4. 4 core × 2. Earthing Material 1. I . 11 kV Disc Insulators. M.00 mm. Distribution Board 10.00 mm GSS Earth wire 22. Single Tension Hardware for Panther (Bolted type) 4. mm. 120 KN 8. 220 Volts D. mm. G. P. 6. Single Tension Hardware for Double Zebra (Bolted type) 2. P. No. Tension Hardware for 7 / 4. P. Flat 50 × 6 mm. mm. ACSR Zebra Conductor 10. T – Clamps for Panther to Panther (P – P) 16. T – Clamps for Zebra to Zebra (Z – Z) 14. Single Suspension Hardware for Single Zebra 6. P. T – Clamps for Zebra to Panther (Z – P) 15. 4. G. mm. Control Room Equipment 1. L. M. 6 core × 2. 6 core × 6 sq. 220 kV Feeder Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC. 1A) 5.5 sq. 1A) 3. Clamps for Zebra to Zebra (Z – Z) 17. 3. 220 kV Bus Coupler Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC.5 sq. 7. 70 KN 9. 3½ core × 300 sq. 3 core × 2. 220 kV side of Transformer Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC. 132 kV Bus Coupler Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC. F. 400 AH Battery Set 8. S. ACSR Panther Conductor 11. 1A) 6. mm. 2. C.00 mm. mm.5 sq. Clamps for Panther to Panther (P – P) 19. Round 28 mm. mm.26 Construction Manual for Sub Stations S. S.Clamps for Zebra 20. G. Distribution Board (220 V DC) D. 2. G. GSS Earth wire 23. Single Suspension Hardware for Double Zebra 5. S. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 220 Volts. Bus Bar Material 1. Spacer T – Clamps for Double Zebra to Zebra (ZZ – Z) 12. G. I . dia. Single Suspension Hardware for Panther 7. Clamps for Zebra to Panther (Z – P) 18. 220 Volts. 132 kV side of Transformer Control & Relay Panel (220 V DC.5 sq.Clamps for Panther 21.5 sq. M. Spacer T – Clamps for Double Zebra to Panther (ZZ – P) 13. Clamps for 7 / 4. 12 / 10 core × 2. 18 / 16 core × 2. 1A) 7. 4 core × 4 sq. 400 AH Battery Charger 9. 3. Copper Control Cables 1. T. Earth wire E. Flat 50 × 12 mm. Particulars C. 7 / 4. LT Power Cable (Aluminium) 1. 5. P. Single Tension Hardware for Single Zebra (Bolted type) 3. 11 kV Disc Insulators.

type 2. Others / Miscellaneous 1. D. M. S. Particulars H. C. P. Channel 100 × 50 × 6 mm. 2. Copper Earth Bond I.Layout Design 27 S. Fire Fighting Equipment 1. No. CO2 type Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

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Construction Manual for Sub Stations

Annexure – 17 LIST OF MATERIAL (TYPICAL) FOR CONSTRUCTION OF 400 kV GRID SUB-STATION S. No. Particulars A. Structures / Beams with nuts, bolts, washers, etc. complete. 1. EhT – 1 type Column 2. EhB – 1 type Beam 3. AT – 1 type Column 4. AT – 3 type Column 5. AT – 4 type Column 6. AT – 6 type Column 7. AT – 8 type Column 8. AB – 1 type Beam 9. 400 kV Isolator Structure 10. 400 kV CT Structure 11. 400 kV CVT Structure 12. 400 kV LA Structure 13. 400 kV PI Structure (8.0 Meter Bus Height) 14. 400 kV PI Structure (10.0 Meter Bus Height) 15. 400 kV PI Structure (13.0 Meter Bus Height) 16. 400 kV Wave Trap Structure 17. AO – 1 type for 220 kV Isolators 18. AO – 1 (T) type for 220 kV Tandem Isolators 19. AO – 3 type for 220 kV CT’s 20. AO – 4 type for 220 kV CVT’s 21. AO – 5 type for 220 kV LA’s 22. PIS type for 220 kV PI’s 23. 33 kV PT structure 24. 33 kV PI structure for PI and Horn Gap Fuse B. Outdoor Equipment 1. 400 / 220 kV Power Transformer 2. 400 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 3. 400 kV Isolator with Double Earth Blade 4. 400 kV Isolator with Double Earth Blade (Individual Pole Operated) 5. 400 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (220 V DC) 6. 400 kV Current Transformer (500 – 1000 – 2000 / 1A, 5C) 7. 400 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (110/√3 V , 110/√3 V, 110/√3V) 8. 400 kV Lightning Arrester 9. 400 kV Polycone Insulators with corona ring 10. 400 kV Wave Trap (Pedestal Type) 11. 400 kV Marshalling Kiosk 12. 220 kV Isolator without Earth Blade 13. 220 kV Isolator with Earth Blade 14. 220 kV Isolator with Double Earth Blade 15. 220 kV Tandem Isolator 16. 220 kV Circuit Breaker with structure (220 V DC) 17. 220 kV Current Transformer (500-1000-2000 / 1A, 5C) 18. 220 kV Capacitor Voltage Transformer (110/√3 V, 110/√3V)

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

Layout Design

29

Particulars 220 kV Lightning Arrester 220 kV Wave Trap 220 kV Polycone Insulators 220 kV Marshalling Kiosk 52 kV Potential Transformer (110/√3 V, 110/√3V) for tertiary winding of Transformer 24. 33 / 0.415 kV, 630 kVA Station Transformer 25. 22 kV Post Insulators 26. 33 kV Horn gap Fuse 27. Junction Box 28. WCSM 90 / 30 mm insulation for 33 kV pipe bus with tube roll C. Control Room Equipment (220 V DC, 1 Amp.) 1. 400 kV Control Panel for line, Tie CB and Transformer (One and a Half Breaker Scheme) 2. 400 kV Relay Panel for 400 kV line 3. 400 kV Relay Panel for 400 kV Tie CB 4. 400 kV Relay Panel for 400 kV side of transformer 5. 400 kV Bus Bar Protection Relay Panel 6. 220 kV Control Panel for 220 kV side of transformer 7. 220 kV Control Panel for 220 kV feeders 8. 220 kV Control Panel for 220 kV Bus Coupler 9. 220 kV Relay Panel for 220 kV side of transformer 10. 220 kV Relay Panel for 220 kV feeders 11. 220 kV Relay Panel for 220 kV Bus Coupler 12. 220 kV Bus Bar Protection Relay Panel 13. Disturbance Recorder 14. Event Logger Panel 15. 220 Volts, 600 AH Battery Set 16. 220 Volts, 600 AH Battery Charger 17. 220 Volts D. C. Distribution Boards 18. L. T. Distribution Boards 19. 220 V DC / 240 V AC Inverter (2.5 kVA) 20. Master and Slave Clock System (1 No. Master and 6 Nos. Slave) 21. Air Conditioning system 22. Mulsifier Fire fighting System 23. Synchronizing Panel / Trolley D. Bus Bar Material a) 400 kV Side: 1. Double Tension Hardware for double Moose 2. Single suspension Hardware for double Moose (Dropper Type) 3. Single suspension Hardware for double Moose (Jumper Type) 4. 120 KN Disc Insulators (Antifog type) 5. Spacer for Double Moose (Rigid type) 6. Spacer for Double Moose (Flexible type) 7. T – Clamp for Moose 8. Double Moose to 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe clamp (Vertical & Horizontal take off) 9. 400 kV Isolator clamp for Double Moose

S. No. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

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Construction Manual for Sub Stations

S. No. Particulars 10. 400 kV Isolator clamp for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 11. 400 kV CT clamp for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 12. 400 kV CB clamp for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 13. 400 kV PI clamp for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 14. 400 kV PI clamp for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Rigid type) 15. 400 kV PI clamp for 114.2mm dia. Aluminium pipe (Sliding type) 16. 400 kV LA clamp for Double Moose 17. 400 kV CVT clamp for Double Moose 18. 400 kV Wave Trap clamp for Double Moose 19. 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe 20. Corona End Shield for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe 21. Angular Connector for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe, 20 Deg. 22. Angular Connector for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe, 80 Deg. 23. Angular Connector for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe, 90 Deg. 24. Angular bend Coupler for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe, 110 Deg. 25. Angular bend Coupler for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe, 135 Deg. 26. Straight Run Coupler for 114.2 mm dia. Aluminium pipe 27. Transformer clamp for 400 kV Bushing for Double Moose b) 220 kV Side: 1. Double Tension Hardware for Quadruple Zebra 2. Double Tension Hardware for Double Zebra 3. Single Tension Hardware for Zebra 4. Single Suspension Hardware for Quadruple Zebra (Jumper type) 5. Single Suspension Hardware for Double Zebra (Dropper type) 6. Single Suspension Hardware for Double Zebra (Jumper type) 7. Single Suspension Hardware for Single Zebra 8. 70 KN Disc Insulators (Antifog type) 9. Spacer for Quadruple Zebra 10. Spacer for Double Zebra 11. P. I .Clamps for Double Zebra 12. T – Connector; Quadruple Zebra to Quadruple Zebra 13. T – Connector; Quadruple Zebra to Double Zebra 14. Spacer T – Clamps for Double Zebra to Zebra (ZZ – Z) 15. T – Clamp; Zebra to Zebra 16. P. G. Clamps for Zebra to Zebra (Z – Z) 17. Transformer clamp for 220 kV Bushing for Double Zebra 18. LA Clamp for Double Zebra 19. LA Clamp for Single Zebra 20. CVT Clamp for Single Zebra 21. CT Clamp for Double Zebra 22. CT Clamp for Single Zebra 23. CB Clamp for Double Zebra 24. Isolator Clamp for Double Zebra

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

S. S. I. 3. M. Aluminium pipe (Rigid type) E. 2.5 sq. F. 12 / 10 core × 2. Fire Fighting Equipment 1. 6. mm. 3½ core × 95 sq. 25. G. Channel 100 × 50 × 6 mm.5 sq. No. mm. S. mm.00 mm. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 4 core × 4 sq. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 3. 2. S. M. M. LT Power Cable (Aluminium) 1. 4.5 sq.03 mm dia. G. 3. c) 1.03 mm dia. 5. dia. 22 kV PI Clamp for 72. Copper Control Cables (FRLS) 1. mm.5 sq. 18 / 16 core × 2. 3 core × 2. Round 40 mm. 7. H. mm. 4 core × 2. CO2 type S.00 mm GSS Earth wire 7 / 4. Earthing Material 1. GSS Earth wire P. Copper Earth Bond I. Clamps for 7 / 4.03 mm dia. M. Flat 50 × 12 mm. C.5 sq. P. 3½ core × 300 sq. 6 core × 2. 2. Flat 75 × 12 mm 4. Flat 100 × 12 mm. 28. type 2. mm.Layout Design 31 Particulars ACSR Conductor ‘ZEBRA’ Tension Hardware for 7 / 4. 27. mm. mm. S. 5. 22 kV PI Clamp for 72. 2.00 mm. 26. 6 core × 6 sq. D. Others / Miscellaneous 1. M. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 2. G.03 mm dia. 52 kV PT Clamp for 72. Aluminium pipe (Expansion type) 4. mm. Flat 50 × 6 mm. Earth wire 33 kV Side: Transformer clamp for 52 kV Bushing for 72.

32 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

These include the minimum clearances from live parts to earth. For safety of personnel moving in the switchyard with tools & plant.0 1. temperature and moisture. wind effects and safety of personnel. The Table below gives the minimum values of clearances required for Sub Stations up to 765 kV: Table for Minimum Clearance Switching Impulse Voltage (kVp) Nominal System Voltage (kV) Highest System Voltage (kV) Lightning Impulse level (kVp) Ground Clearance* (mm) 3700 3700 4600 4600 5500 5500 8000 13000 Safety Clearances (mm) 2600 2800 3700 3800 4300 4600 6400 10300 Minimum clearances$ (mm) Between Phase and Earth 178 320 1100 1300 1900 2100 3400 -6400 -Between Phases 229 320 1100 1300 1900 2100 -4200 -9400 1. effect of short circuits. between live parts of adjacent phases and sectional clearance between live parts of adjacent circuits / bays. It must be ensured that sufficient clearance to ground is also available within the Sub Station so as to ensure safety of the personnel moving about within the switchyard. A correction factor of 1.2 11 33 132 220 400 12 36 145 245 420 70 170 550 650 950 1050 1425 ----1050 (Ph – E) 1575 (Ph – Ph) 1550 (Ph – E) 2550 (Ph – Ph) 765 800 2100 $ * These values of air clearances are the minimum values dictated by electrical consideration and do not include any addition for construction tolerances.1 SAFETY CLEARANCES: The various equipments and associated / required facilities have to be so arranged within the substation that specified minimum clearances are always available from the point of view of the system reliability and safety of operating personnel. 2) “Safety Clearance” is the minimum clearance to be maintained in air between the live part of the equipment on one hand and earth or another piece of equipment or conductor (on which it is necessary to carry out the work) on the other. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .CHAPTER – 3 SAFETY CLEARANCES 1. etc.25 percent per 100 Meters is to be applied for increasing the air clearance for altitudes more than 1000 Meters and up to 3000 Meters. Notes: 1) The values in the Table above refer to an altitude not exceeding 1000 Meters and take into account the most unfavourable conditions which may result from the atmospheric pressure variation.

excluding over head lines of HV and EHV installations: Table for Safety Working Clearance Sl. Nominal System Voltage (kV) 11 33 132 220 400 765 Highest System Voltage (kV) 12 36 145 245 420 800 Safety Working Clearance (mm) 2600 2800 3700 4300 6400 10300 Notes: i) The above values are valid for altitudes not exceeding 1000 Meters. 1956.3 As per Rule 64 (2) of the Indian Electricity Rules.25 percent per 100 Meters is to be applied for increasing the clearance for altitudes more than 1000 Meters and up to 3000 Meters. “Safety Working Clearance” is the minimum clearance to be maintained in air between the live part of the equipment on one hand and earth or another piece of equipment or conductor (on which it is necessary to carry out the work) on the other. 2. the following safety working clearances shall be maintained for the bare conductors and live parts of any apparatus in any Sub Stations. which is the height of lowest point on the insulator (where it meets the earthed metals) from the ground. 1. 5. No.34 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 1. A correction factor of 1. 6. iii) Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . ii) The above safety working clearances are based on an insulator height of 2440 mm. 3. 4.

Each of these earthed points should be interconnected with the station earthing mat.0 1. All the structures & equipments in the Sub Station are connected to the earthing mat so as to ensure that under fault conditions. The earth resistance Megger is placed on a steady and approximately level base.1 2. It is. avoiding the two ends of the scale as far as possible. none of these parts is at a potential higher than that of the earthing mat.4 EARTH MAT DESIGN 1. The Step Potential. therefore. is then selected to obtain clear readings. should also be within safe limits.3 1. An appropriate range on the instrument.4 2. MEASUREMENT OF EARTH RESISTIVITY: Weather Conditions: The resistivity of earth varies over a wide range depending on its moisture content.2 To meet these requirements. advisable to conduct earth resistivity tests during the dry season in order to get conservative results.CHAPTER . the link between terminals P1 and C1 is opened and the four electrodes are connected to the instrument terminals as shown in the figure. The primary requirements of a good earthing system in a Sub Station are: a) The impedance to ground should be as low as possible but it should not exceed 1. The neutral points of different voltage levels of transformers & reactors are separately earthed at two different points. an earthed system comprising of an earthing mat buried at a suitable depth below ground and supplemented with ground rods at suitable points is provided in the Sub Stations.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1 BASIC REQUIREMENT: Provision of adequate earthing system in a Sub Station is extremely important for the safety of the operating personnel as well as for proper system operation and performance of the protective devices. which is the maximum value of the potential difference possible of being shunted by a human body between two accessible points on the ground separated by the distance of one pace (which may be assumed to be one metre).0 (ONE) Ohm. b) c) 1. should be within safe limits. 1. Touch Potential. Test Procedure: Four electrodes are driven in to the earth at equal intervals s along a straight line in the chosen direction. which is the maximum value of potential difference between a point on the ground and a point on an object likely to carry fault current such that the points can be touched by a person. The depth of the electrodes in the ground shall be of the order of 30 to 50 cm.0 2.

25 and 50 metres. along with a sketch showing the directions in which earth resistivity readings have been taken. 5. s = distance between two successive electrodes in metres. and R = Megger reading in ohms. It is desirable to get information about the horizontal and vertical variations in earth resistivity over the site under consideration. These readings.3. A diagram showing the typical layout for earth resistivity measurement in 6 directions is enclosed.1 Testing Soil Uniformity. shall be submitted to the Superintending Engineer (400 KV Design) for designing the earth mat.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 15.3 2.36 Construction Manual for Sub Stations The resistivity is calculated from the equation given below: ρ = 2π s R where ρ = resistivity of soil in ohm – metre. 10.3. 2. increasing from 1 metre to 50 metres in the steps of 1. The horizontal and vertical variation may be detected by repeating the tests at atleast 6 (Six) different location with a number of different electrode spacings. 2.

10 M 5. Sl. 25 M 7. 2M 3. No. 50 M Direction 2 1. 1M 2.3 An example of the format in which the earth resistivity readings are to be recorded is given below. 10 M 5. 5M 4. 25 M 7. 5M 4.3. 1M 2. 15 M 6. 15 M 6. 2M 3. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 50 M Similarly for Direction 3 to Direction 6. Electrode Spacing Megger Reading in Ohms Earth Resistivity in Ohm – metres Remarks Direction 1 1.Earth Mat Design 37 2.

38 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

TESTING & COMMISSIONING Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .SECTION – II ERECTION.

Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

all surplus material including bolts and nuts.0 5. Erection of equipment shall be carried out as per and in the manner prescribed in the erection. All support insulators.charge of the GSS stating the date. etc.0 3. shall not be treated as wastage and shall also be deposited in the store.0 4. The Work – In – Charge shall ensure that the portion of the switchyard under shutdown has been isolated and that effective earthing of the equipment / bus bar. etc. etc. testing and commissioning manual / instructions procedures of the manufacturer.0 Transportation and unloading of the sub station material and equipment at the location shall be done in a safe manner so that they are not damaged or misplaced. Whenever the work is required to be got done at the existing GSS where the adjacent portions may be charged. on which work is to be carried out. After completion of the erection work.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. templates.0 11. has been done.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .0 6. All the material and equipment shall be checked as per Bill of Material (BOM). scratching by sling ropes. Sling ropes.0 7. etc.0 10. Mulmul cloth shall be used for cleaning the inside and outside of hollow insulators. testing and commissioning of sub station equipment.0 12. shall be returned to the store. The Work – In – Charge shall ensure that the work is completed within the requisitioned time. They should be checked for breakages of strands before being used for the erection of equipments. All unusable cut lengths of material such as conductor.0 13. Wherever it is necessary to avail shutdowns of energized circuits for carrying out any work. earth wire. 2. Transformer bushings and other fragile equipment shall preferably be handled carefully with cranes having suitable boom length and handling capacity. The slings should be of sufficient length to avoid any damage to insulator or other fragile equipments due to excessive swing.CHAPTER .0 8. wherever necessary. time and duration of the shutdown and the section / portion which is to be kept out of circuit during the shutdown. effective earthing must be ensured for safety against induced voltages so that work can be carried out without any danger / hazard to the workmen.0 9. The services of the manufacturer’s Engineer.Charge shall submit a requisition to the Engineer In . may be utilized for erection. circuit breaker poles. the Work – In . should of sufficient strength to take the load of the equipment to be erected. aluminium pipes.

42 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

T & P such as levelling instruments. jacks. winches.5 and 7. AB C.3 (Width) A.1 1. ropes.5 7.5 12. 5.0 / 11.0 / 7.2 (Width) 2. 132 kV Structures: BT1 BT3 BT4 Column with Peak Column without Peak Column with Peak and Beams at two levels for Bus Bar stringing Column without Peak Column with Peak Beam 20.5 16.0 / 20.0 2. 220 kV Structures: AT1 AT3 AT4 Column with Peak Beam 4. No. Templates of structures. BT6 BT7 BB P Q R GD Column with Peak Column without Peak Column with Peak and Beams at two levels for Bus Bar stringing Column without Peak Column with Peak Beam Peak Column Extension Beam 16.5 16.5 / 7. 8.5 3. 1.5 12. The following are required to be made available to the workmen for erection of sub station structures / beams and equipment structures: i) ii) iii) Drawings and bills of material of structures / beams / equipment structures.0 / 9.5 25.5 12. EHT1 2.0 / 11. AT6 5. 7. derrick. 10. spanners. 9.6 (Width) 4. 3.1 TYPE OF STRUCTURES: The types of structures generally used at sub stations are given below: Sl.0 (Width) Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .2 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The structure material shall be stacked member / item wise.5 15. etc.5 10.0 / 9. AT8 6. 400 kV Structures: 1.0 / 14. Name of Structure Type of Structure Height of Column / Height of Conductor (Meters) 27.0 / 14.0 / 11. 3.5 and 9. 2.0 / 14.0 1.5 20.5 8. 2.5 15.CHAPTER .0 10.0 / 7. 6. tackles.2 STRUCTURES 1. EHB B. 1. 2.

the following points should be checked: 3.5 / 5. The template is levelled & centered with reference to its location on the foundation. No. 1. BO1 7. X – 15 9. shall be placed on the foundation. nuts and lock nuts can be tightened fully and 2 – 3 threads are left above the lock nut. The foundation bolts shall thereafter be grouted ensuring that there is no displacement during the placing of the concrete and use of vibrator.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .44 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Sl. Name of Structure Type of Structure Height of Column / Height of Conductor (Meters) 33 kV and 11 kV Structures: X Y Z GF – 5. washers. 3. the assembled lower part of the structure is placed on the foundation.5 5.0 3. BO1 (T) 8. The stubs / lowest member shall thereafter be grouted ensuring that there is no displacement during the placing of the concrete and use of vibrator. 132kV. 33 kV & 11 kV PI ------------ 3. the template.5 3. E. AO1 (T) 3. 5. AO1 2. This is levelled & centered with reference to its location on the foundation.3 3. CVT / PT. In case of structures with stubs. LEVELLING AND GROUTING: In case of structures with foundation bolts.4 GF – 4. D.6 Peak Column Extension Beam for 33 kV Beam for 11 kV 1. CT Structure 11. AO5 6. the template with stubs shall be placed on the foundation. PI Structure 220 kV Isolators 220 kV Tandem Isolators 220 kV CT 220 kV CVT 220 kV LA & 132 kV CT. The length of the foundation bolts above the template shall be sufficient so that all parts of the base plate assembly of the structure. 4.4 (Width) 4. LA 132 kV Isolator 132 kV Tandem Isolator 33 kV & 11kV Isolators 33 kV & 11kV Tandem Isolators 33 kV & 11kV CT. along with the foundation bolts tightened on it with nuts on both sides.6 (Width) Equipment Structures: 1. X – 15 (T) 10.0 5. AO4 5. 2. While levelling and centering the structure / template.1 SETTING OF STUB / FOUNDATION BOLTS. AO3 4.2 3. PT 220 kV. In case of structures in which the lowest member is used as a stub.

the first face of the second section is erected.4.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Ground Assembly Method: This method is used for erection of equipment structures and is the preferred method for erection of sub station structures when crane facility is available.Structures 45 a) b) c) d) Level of structure / template with reference to the finished foundation level or the ground level. to eliminate / minimize stress on the structure members.3. Alternatively. ii) Section method.3.2.1 ERECTION OF STRUCTURES: Method of Erection: There are mainly three methods of erection of structures.2.4 4. A mobile crane is used for erecting the structures.2 4. After the two opposite faces have been erected.2 4. particularly structures which are to be connected together. which are as below: i) Ground assembly method.2. The two faces / sides of the complete structure are assembled on the ground and then erected. Section Method: This method is used for large and heavy structures when crane facility is available. Centre to centre distance between structures.5 4. as required.1 4. the two faces / sides of the major sections of the structure are assembled on the ground and the same are erected as units.4. by a common beam. The last lift raises the top of the structure.3. The structure members are kept on ground serially according to erection sequence so that they can be sent up conveniently. One side is held in place with props or rope guys while the other side is being erected. On sloping or uneven ground. the structure is picked up from the ground with the help of a crane and set on its foundation. The level of the structure / template with reference to level of other similar structures. iii) Built up method or Piecemeal method. In case where the major sections of the structure have been assembled.1 4. This method consists of assembling the structure on the ground and erecting it as a complete unit.2.0 4.2 4. 4.3 4. The two opposite sides are then connected together with cross members.3 4.3 4. 4. for example.3.1 4.4 4. all the guys are thrown off. The complete structure is assembled in a horizontal position near its location. the bracings on the other two sides are bolted up. This method consists of erecting the structure member by member. Distance of centre line of the structure from the center line of other structures or from a reference point.4 4. After the structure top is erected and all side bracings have been bolted up. After the assembly is complete.3. Each assembled side is then lifted clear of the ground with the crane and is lowered into position on its foundation or fitted on to stubs or foundation bolts which are already grouted. Built up method or Piecemeal method: This method is used for large and heavy structures when crane facility is not available. suitable packing is provided in the lower level area before or during assembly.

0 7.2 5. The bracings of the upper and lower faces of the beam are then raised up and fitted. If these have been assembled on the ground.4 4. The ends of the beam are connected to the column as per fixing arrangement provided on the columns. This derrick is used for raising parts of second section. ERECTION OF BEAMS: The two faces of the beam are assembled on the ground. For assembling the second section of the structure.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . a derrick is placed on one of the corner legs.1 5.3 The erection progresses from the bottom upwards. then they are lifted up as a unit. Measures taken to bring the column to verticality and beam to horizontality should not result in strain on the structure members so as to cause distortion / bending of the members. The four main corner leg members of the first section of the structure are first erected. All bolted connections shall be well tightened using spring washers & then punched at three points on the circumference of the bolt.46 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4.3 6. The columns shall be truly vertical and the beams truly horizontal after erection. Each face of the beam is raised with the help of crane or using derricks which are placed on the top of the already erected structures on both the sides of the beam.4.0 5.5 4.0 8. The cross bracings of the first section are raised one by one and bolted to the already erected corner leg angles. 4. The derrick is then shifted to the corner leg members on the top of second section to raise the parts of third section of the structure in position for assembly.4. This process is continued till the complete structure is erected. The work of erection of beams on erected columns and erection of equipment on erected structures shall not be taken up until these have been checked for tightening of the bolts & nuts.4.6 5.4. The derrick is thus moved up as the structure grows. The leg members and bracings of this section are then hoisted and assembled. Single or multi – way pulleys with polypropylene / steel ropes are used as per load requirement.

8.3 2. 11 kV Auxiliary Bus 17. Bus Bar and Jumper Material 114. 220 kV Main Bus 5. Aluminium pipe Twin ACSR Moose Quadruple / Twin ACSR Zebra / Twin AAC Tarantulla ACSR Zebra Twin ACSR Zebra / Single ACSR Zebra Twin ACSR Zebra / Single ACSR Zebra ACSR Zebra ACSR Panther ACSR Zebra / ACSR Panther ACSR Panther ACSR Zebra ACSR Zebra 1.2 mm dia. 400 kV equipment interconnection 3. 400 kV Main Bus 2. The tying of the binding wire shall be done such that the binding wire does not get tightened in the groove of the T – Clamps or the PG (Parallel Groove) – Clamps or the terminal connectors of the equipment. 220 kV Auxiliary Bus 6.2 1. The ends of the cut piece of conductor / earth wire shall be tied with at least two rounds of binding wire so that the strands do not open out. 220 kV overhead bus & droppers in all bays. 15. 1. 220 kV & 132 kV substations is given below: Sl. Aluminium pipe 114. Cut lengths of conductor and earth wire which are available as surplus / left over material from line works should preferably be used for stringing of bus bars & earth wire.3 BUS BAR & EARTH WIRE 1.1 ACSR Zebra ACSR Panther Twin ACSR Zebra ACSR Zebra Twin ACSR Zebra / Single ACSR Zebra ACSR Zebra ACSR Panther Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 33 kV equipment interconnection.CHAPTER . 4.0 1. 132 kV equipment interconnection 11. 132 kV Auxiliary Bus 10.2 mm dia. 12. 132 kV overhead bus & droppers in all bays. Description No. 132 kV Main Bus 9. overhead bus and droppers: (i) Transformer bay (ii) Bus coupler (iii) Feeder bay. 11 kV equipment interconnection. 400 kV overhead bus & droppers in all bays.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Care shall be taken during sagging operations so that no damage or deformation is caused to the structures. overhead bus and droppers: (i) Bus coupler & transformer bay (ii) Feeder bay. 220 kV equipment interconnection 7. BUS BAR MATERIAL: The bus bar material generally used in 400 kV. Cut lengths of conductor and earth wire left after stringing of bus bars and earth wire can be used for jumpering work. 33 kV Auxiliary Bus 14.0 2. 11 kV Main Bus 16. 33 kV Main Bus 13.

6. small lengths can be unwound from the drum. 3.6 3. 2000 where.2 D× F Sq. D = Diameter of the disc in cm. 1. the conductor shall be fixed and tightened in the clamp of the tension hardware on one side of the bus. The suspension and tension hardware shall be assembled as per their respective drawings and the disc insulator string shall be fitted in the requisite portion of the hardware assembly. No. When the conductor is to be taken from drums.1 STRINGING OF CONDUCTOR BUS BARS: The conductor shall be handled with care to prevent scratches on it or damage to the strands of the conductor.4 Suspension String Tension String E&M E&M Nos. etc. For longer lengths. 3. 3.5 3. the mouth of the W – clips / R – clips shall be widened to prevent any inadvertent removal during service. The conductor shall be cut to the marked length after deducting the length of the tension hardware with insulators and fixed on the clamps of the tension hardware. 2. the complete hardware assembly with the conductor shall be hoisted up and fixed on the beam at this end. 20000 b) Total Glaze Defect = 1. Strength (kN) Strength (kN) 400 kV (Anti – fog type) 25 120 2 × 25 120 220 kV at 400 kV GSS (Anti–fog type) 15 70 2 × 15 70 220 kV 13 70 14 120 132 kV 9 45 10 120 33 kV 3 45 4 120 11 kV 3 45 4 120 System Voltage After assembly of the strings. The limits of the area of defective glazing are given by the following formulas. 5. Sl. The conductor along with tension hardware set shall then be again pulled up and connected to the beam. The conductor shall be paid out in a manner so that there are no scratches or damages caused to the conductor due to rubbing on the sides of the drum.0 + D× F Sq.3 The disc insulators shall be assembled on the ground to form the suspension and tension strings as given below.48 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 3.0 3. 4. Thereafter. Disc insulators having any hair cracks or chipping or defective glazing or any other defect shall not be used. Nos. F = Creepage distance in cm.5 + 3. Sagging arrangement shall be made on the other end of the bus and the conductor shall be tensioned. a) Single Glaze Defect = 0. For stringing of bus bars. Disc insulators shall be cleaned and examined for any cracks / chipping. cm.7 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . cm. the conductor drum shall be placed on a turn table or jacked up on a suitable size of steel shaft. 3. Measurement of length of conductor required for the bus shall be made thereafter and the conductor shall be released so that it returns to the ground.

bus bar conductor(s) and the jumper conductor(s).0 4.1.4.3 4. the spacers shall also be fitted at a suitable spacing on the jumpers in order to maintain their shape. Conductor of approximately the length required for the jumper shall be cut and straightened so that kinks are removed. the bus bar conductor(s) shall be again connected with the jumper conductor(s) using properly curved & shaped Y – conductor(s) and 2 nos.4. JUMPERING OF BUS BARS: For jumpering of different sections of bus bars on the beam..4 4. i. A typical diagram of Y – type jumpering is given below. In case of jumpers for twin and quadruple conductors. to ensure equal sag of all the sub – conductors or between phases of the bus section as well as that of adjacent or parallel sections.2 4. The jumpering between equipment shall be done with single / twin / quadruple conductors as per the terminal connectors provided on the equipment.9 4.1 4. The spacers shall be fitted on the twin and quadruple conductor bus bars at the spacing shown in the drawing. if required.2 4. the suspension hardware set along with disc insulators shall first be hoisted and fitted on the beam. Thereafter. 3.e.8 Equalizing of tension in the different sub – conductors of the same phase and in the different phases shall be done.3 For making Y – type jumpers. G. This shall be connected to the bus bar conductor on one side of the beam after taking into consideration the natural curve of the conductor.Bus Bar & Earth Wire 49 3.1 4.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Spacers are not used at jumper points in case T – Spacers are used for taking jumpers from multi conductor bus bars. 4.1.1. PG – clamps as shown in the diagram above. JUMPERING OF CONDUCTORS: The jumpers connecting different sections of the bus bars as well as those connecting equipment to bus bars shall be of Y – type. the jumper conductor(s) shall be first connected to the bus bar conductor(s) using T – Clamp / Spacer T – Clamp which is suitable for clamping the respective conductors. clamps. The spacers shall also be provided at points where jumpers are taken from the bus bar using T – clamps and / or P.

The jumper conductor shall then be connected to the terminal connectors of both the equipments and straightened or shaped as per site condition to give a neat and proper look. 4. The earth wire shall be strung from one peak to another peak of the structures as per layout of the GSS.4 4. In case the jumper is to be connected to equipment / pipe bus near or under a beam. For longer lengths. Vertically supported insulators of equipments and Post Insulators should be checked for verticality again after jumpering on both sides. The measurement of length of the conductor up to the equipment / pipe bus shall be made. Generally. When the shield / earth wire is to be taken from drums.5. The length of the conductor used and its natural curve should be such that a neat and proper curve is obtained in the jumper without any kinks or bends. The other end of the conductor shall then be taken up to the bus bar conductor on the other side and measurement of the length shall be taken. if required.6.5.2 5. After cutting the conductor to the required length. JUMPERING FROM BUS BAR TO EQUIPMENT / PIPE BUS: Approximate length of the conductor required for the jumper shall be cut and then connected to the bus bar conductor.3 5. the suspension hardware along with disc insulators is first fitted on the beam.6.5 4.50 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. The tension hardware shall be assembled as per the relevant drawings.6 4. JUMPERING BETWEEN EQUIPMENTS: The distance between terminal connector of one equipment and terminal connector of other equipment is first measured. The clamp of the suspension hardware shall then be tightened after ensuring proportional lengths of the conductor on both the sides of the beam.2 4. The shield / earth wire shall be paid out in a manner so that there are no scratches or damages caused to the shield / earth wire due to rubbing on the sides of the drum. The methodology followed for system up to 400 kV is by suitable placement of earth wire so as to provide coverage to all the station equipment.3 This shall then be passed through the clamps on the suspension hardware so that the proper curve is obtained.0 5.5.3 4. it shall be connected to the equipment / pipe bus.3 5.1 5. The end of the conductor shall be taken up to the terminal connector of the equipment / connector fitted on the pipe bus. the wire drum shall be placed on a turn table or jacked up on a suitable size of steel shaft.1 4.5 4.4. The clamps of the suspension hardware shall be tightened thereafter. The appropriate length of the conductor shall be cut and then straightened so that curves and kinks are removed. STRINGING OF SHIELD / EARTH WIRE: Sub Station is shielded against direct lightning strokes by overhead shield wire / earth wire.5. small lengths can be unwound from the drum.5.6. The conductor shall be cut to the appropriate length and then connected to the bus bar conductor on the other side. an angle of shield of 60° for zones covered by two or more wires and 45° for single wire is considered adequate.1 4.2 4. The conductor shall be passed through the clamp of the suspension hardware.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . and corrected. The shield / earth wire shall be handled with care to prevent scratches on it or damage to the strands of the wire.

Bus Bar & Earth Wire 51 5. JUMPERING OF SHIELD / EARTH WIRE: The lengths of the earth wire which remain outside the tension hardware on the peak of the structures shall be cut. The shield / earth wire shall be cut to the marked length after adding the length of the wire required for jumpering and fitted in the clamp of the tension hardware at the marked point.1 6.5 The shield / earth wire shall be fitted and tightened in the clamp of the tension hardware on one side. if required. Sagging arrangement shall be made on the other end and the shield / earth wire shall be tensioned. Adjustment of tension in the earth wire may be done. Thereafter.7 6. if required.6 5. for the purpose of connecting the shield / earth wire to the earth mesh of the sub station.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . which is used as a down conductor from the peak. so that these lengths when joined together form a smooth and proper curve. the complete hardware assembly along with the shield / earth wire shall be hoisted up and fixed on the peak of the structure at one end. The shield / earth wire along with tension hardware set shall then be pulled up again and connected to the peak of the structure. 5. These shall be connected together using a PG –Clamp. The earth bond provided with the earth wire tension clamp shall be connected to the specified point on the peak of the structure and to the earthing riser. Measurement of length of shield / earth wire required shall be made thereafter and the shield / earth wire shall again be released so that it is returned to the ground.0 6. to ensure equal sag of all the earth wires in adjacent or parallel sections.

52 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

CHAPTER - 4

ALUMINIUM PIPE BUS BAR AND JOINTS
1.0 1.1 ERECTION OF ALUMINIUM PIPE BUS BAR: Aluminium pipes are used for 400 kV and 33 kV bus bar jumpers and interconnections at 400 kV GSS. The diameter of the pipes is 114.30 mm and 73.03 mm for 400 kV and 33 kV respectively. The height of the 400 kV main bus is 8 meters & 10 meters and that of jumpers is generally 8 meters, 10 meters & 13 meters. Fixed, sliding and expansion type clamps are fitted on the already erected post insulators as per the drawing. The standard length of aluminium pipes is generally 6.0 to 7.0 meters. To reduce welding work at the bus height in case longer lengths are required, a maximum of 4 to 5 lengths of aluminium pipes may be welded together on the ground using straight run couplers. The pipe length is then lifted and erected on the post insulators. If required for the bus length, the already erected pipe lengths are welded together at the bus height. In case the bus height changes, then the pipes at the different levels are welded together with a piece of pipe using appropriate angular couplers (90° or 110° or 135°) as per drawing. JUMPERING OF ALUMINIUM PIPES: Jumpers between equipment to equipment and equipment to bus may either be direct or supported on post insulators. In cases where the length required for jumpers is more than one pipe length and where angles are required to be given in the jumpers, welding of aluminium pipe to pipe or pipe to angular connectors is got done. Such welding may also be required to be got done after erection / fitting of pipes on clamps / connectors. For jumpering between equipments, the pipes are erected between the equipments, supported & fitted on the clamps on the post insulators where provided, and fitted on the terminal connectors of the equipments. For jumpering between equipment and bus, the pipes are erected between the equipment and the bus, supported & fitted on the clamps on the post insulators where provided. One end is fitted on the terminal connectors of the equipment. The other end is then welded to aluminium pipe using appropriate angular connector(s) (20° or 80° or 90°) as per drawing. All the open ends of pipes are closed with corona end shields. JOINTING OF ALUMINIUM PIPES / COUPLERS / CONNECTORS: The joints / couplers shall be got machined in order to perfectly match their inner / outer diameter with the aluminium pipe. All the surfaces to be welded must be thoroughly cleaned with Acetone or Alcohol to remove any oxide layer and foreign contaminants present on it to attain a fast joint and avoid porosity. In addition, a stainless steel wire brush shall be used for cleaning the surfaces.

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Construction Manual for Sub Stations

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Straight Run Coupler: Before fitting the straight run coupler, the edges of the pipes to be welded for straight joints are to be beveled at an angle of 45° with a flat file to make a V – groove at the ends of joint. In cases where outer diameter of sleeve does not match the inner diameter of pipe, the sleeve shall be got turned to match the inner diameter of the pipe. The straight run coupler is then to be pressed and both the pipes are pushed on to it till their ends come near the centre of the coupler. The centering pin of the coupler is fitted in the hole provided for it and the pipe ends are brought together until they touch the centering pin. The straight run coupler is then split open so that it fits tightly on the inner surface of the pipe. It is held in this position till at least 25% of the welding of the coupler has been done. The welding of the joint is then done till the V – groove between the pipes is filled with the fused metal. Angular Coupler: For jointing of pipes with angular coupler, the ends of both the pipes are fitted into the coupler. The pipes are then welded on the coupler. Angular Connector: For jointing of pipe with angular connector, the end of the pipe is first fitted into the connector and welded. The connector with the pipe is then fixed on the pipe bus and the connector is welded to the pipe bus. ALUMINIUM WELDING: The following material / T&P / consumables are required for carrying out the work of welding of aluminium pipes / couplers / connectors. a) T.I.G. / M.I.G. welding set with Tungsten wire. b) Argon Gas. c) Oxy – acetylene torch with accessories or blow lamp. d) Filler wire. e) Water tank for welding. f) Tools such as chipping hammer, files, sand paper, steel wire brush, wind screen, blue glass slits, hacksaw frame, blades, power saw, etc. g) Cleaner, dye and developer. h) All safety equipments. T.I.G (TUNGSTEN INERT GAS) welding utilizes high frequency A.C. generating set and welding torch having tungsten wire with outflow of inert gas like Argon, etc. M.I.G. (METAL INERT GAS) welding process is used as an alternative when T.I.G. welding is not available. To avoid cracks in the joints after welding, the surface should be preheated uniformly with oxy – acetylene torch or blow lamp. During welding, continuous flow of inert gas shall be maintained over the joint as well as inside the pipe to avoid oxidation on the inside surface. This flow of inert gas on joint should continue for at least 15 seconds after the welding of joint is completed.

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Aluminium Pipe Bus Bar and Joints

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All the welding at a joint must be in one layer. If more layers are required at the joint, every bottom layer shall be cleaned with wire brush and checked for cracks before starting welding of the second layer. If any crack is observed, the whole layer shall be chipped off and refilled. The joint, when completed, must be filed smooth with a wood file and fine sand paper. Wind shield shall be used, if required, for protecting the joints from the blowing wind which may take away heat and inert gas flow at the surface of joints. Every care shall be taken for preventing the scratches and roughness on the aluminum surface. The welding should be got done so that molten mass is filled in gaps and no cracks or imperfections are present in joints. Unacceptable joints shall be chipped off for re – welding. Each and every joint shall be subjected to: a) Physical examination. b) Liquid penetration test. For liquid penetration test, the following three items are required: a) Cleaner for cleaning the joint. b) Red dye for spraying on the cleaned joint which will penetrate into the cracks, if any. c) White developer to be sprayed on the joint that will draw the red dye from the cracks and make these cracks visible, if present. Depending upon the site conditions, some welding can be got done at ground level and the rest is to be done at a height of 8.0 to 13.0 meters from the ground level as per requirement. The necessary arrangements for welding of joints at such heights shall be made.

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56 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

L. oil flow indicators. Oil surge relays. it should be maintained by filling in gas from the cylinder on the transformer. Buchholz relays. conservator.7 1. 1) issued by the Central Board of Irrigation & Power.CHAPTER – 5 POWER TRANSFORMERS 1. A positive pressure (generally 0. etc..0 1. headers. 1.4 All the accessories should generally be stored in a closed shed / room. Manufacturer’s Erection Drawings. The Bushing CT’s fitted in the turrets should be got tested by the protection wing before erection of turrets. Check the open and closed conditions of contacts provided in equipment such as M. Transformer oil drums should not be stored in low lying areas.8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . The weather conditions during transformer erection should be dry. The transformer tank should not be opened when it is raining. accessories such as condenser bushings.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The erection work shall be got done generally as per instructions / procedures prescribed in the following documents: a) b) c) d) Manufacturer’s Erection & Installation Manual. The core and winding should be exposed to the atmospheric air for the minimum possible time period and for not more than 8 hours at a time. before they are installed. pipe work and A – frame can be stored under covered sheds.5 1. 1.15 kg / cm2 at 30° C) should always be maintained. radiators. However. Transformer Manual (Technical Report No. 1. The gas pressure in transformers received gas filled should be checked periodically. Installation and Maintenance of Transformers: Installation.G.O.3 1.6 1. IS: 10028 (Part II) – 1981: Indian Standard Code of Practice for Selection. In case of reduction in pressure.2 The work shall be carried out under the supervision of Work – In – Charge/ Manufacturer’s Engineer and as per instructions given by him / them. They should be stored so that the air release hole (smaller hole) is on the upper side and at an angle of 45° to the vertical as shown in the diagram below.

0 2.2.1. Connect a transparent plastic pipe (either reinforced or having wall thickness of 5 to 8 mm suitable for withstanding vacuum) between the top and bottom valves of the transformer to check the oil level.3 2.4 2.5 2. then vacuum of 1. The vacuum pipe is generally connected to the pipeline between transformer tank and conservator.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1.2. This oil is then filtered in the tank(s). Internal Inspection: Internal inspection of transformers up to 145 kV class may be carried out if recommended by the manufacturer and as per procedure prescribed by him. Erection of the part of the pipeline between the tank and the conservator up to the Buchholz relay.2 2.10 2.2.4.2 2.2. and for erection if required. Apply vacuum to the transformer. Connect a breather to any valve above the tank oil level through a suitable pipe. IR values should not be measured when the transformer tank is under vacuum.2 2.1 2.4 2. The oil is drained from the tank for internal inspection. 2.3. The oil level can be seen in the transparent plastic pipe provided.1 2.00 torr (maximum) is to be applied for at least 12 hours for transformers of up to 145 kV class and 24 hours for transformers of higher voltage class.1 2.9 The top oil temperature should invariably be noted during measurement of IR values of transformer.58 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 1. Vacuuming of the Transformer: Provide equalizing connections between main tank and OLTC Diverter Switch chamber(s) and isolate those parts of the Transformer which are not designed for vacuum.2 2.4. The rate of release of vacuum should be kept very slow so that the silica gel in the breather does not get sucked into the tank. In case this is not specified by the Manufacturer. The extent of vacuum and the time duration of its application shall be as per Manufacturer's recommendations.3 2. The following oil values shall be attained so as to facilitate early and effective dehydration of transformer: a) b) Break Down Voltage: Moisture Content: 70 kV (Minimum) 10 ppm (Maximum) 1.1 2.2. the oil is refilled after the day’s erection activities are completed. Initial oil filling in Transformers received gas filled: Oil Preparation: The oil supplied in oil drums (for first filling.1 The oil temperature thermostat in the filter machine should be set at 60°C. Where connections are required to be made inside the tank and when the erection work is to be continued on the next day.3. Oil Filling: The treated oil shall then be filled into the transformer tank under vacuum until the oil level reaches 250 mm below the top cover level. topping up & OLTC) is first filled into oil storage tank(s) through filter machine. The vacuum in the tank is then slowly released by slightly opening the valve on which the breather is connected so that only moisture free air goes inside the tank.

The arrow marks on the Buchholz relays should point towards the conservator.0 5. Assembly and fitting of Buchholz pipeline.0 4. 4.1 4.0 The oil received in drums (for topping up & OLTC) for transformers received oil filled is filled into a storage tank through filter machine. The arrow marks on the oil pumps and oil flow indicators should point towards the transformer tank. if provided. turrets. inspection covers. Placing on foundation. and connecting it to the equalizing pipeline and the main conservator. Grouting of cooler bank supports (A – frame).6 6. etc. Erection of Explosion Vent. LV. Ensure that diaphragms are fitted on both ends of the vent pipe.6 5.4 6. as provided.Power Transformers 59 Additional precautions prescribed by the Manufacturer for dry air and human safety during such erection activities should be followed. LV and TV turrets.2 4.2 6. the relay near the tank is designated as Buchholz Relay – I and the relay near the conservator as Buchholz Relay – II. This oil is filtered in the tank until the values given at para 2. if not of blue colour). if provided.8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Assembly and fitting of pipelines for breathers of main and OLTC conservators and fixing of breathers after checking the silica gel (to be replaced / regenerated. Pumps. Where two Buchholz relays are provided.3 6.1 5. as required. Assembly and fitting of equalizing pipeline between tank cover. Non Return Valves. Erection of HV. oil flow indicators. TV & neutral bushing(s) and making their connections inside the tank.7 6. Erection of radiators on headers / tank. as per General Arrangement (GA) drawing.5 4.0 6. Erection of Accessories: Erection of main conservator & On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) conservator along with their supports. Assembly and fitting of upper and lower cooler pipe line from transformer tank to respective headers including fixing of Valves. if provided.2 are attained.2 6.3 4. fitting of valves. Erection of Radiators on the headers.1. Transformers with tank mounted cooler bank / radiators: Erection of headers. Transformers with separately mounted cooler banks: Large size EHV Transformer (generally 245 kV class and above) are provided with separately mounted cooler banks.1 6. Erection of lower and upper headers on the A – frame. expansion joints as provided and Buchholz relays. Erection of HV.5 6. Fitting of Pressure Relief Devices along with pipes.4 4. expansion joints. 3. levelling and centering of cooler bank supports (A – frame).. when supplied separately. etc.

6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . then the IR values at constant temperature will remain the same. During this process. centered and then grouted. levelled. then. then the dehydration at constant temperature is carried out for a minimum of 72 hours or until the oil values given at para 8. In such a case. These reach a constant value after the drying out is complete.10 6. If there is no moisture in the windings. oil is drawn from the top and fed at the bottom. The test voltage of 5 kV is applied for one minute. The dehydration process is thereafter continued for a minimum of another 24 hours or until the oil values given at para 8. If no such time is prescribed. 6. During dehydration. Filling of topping up oil in the transformer tank and conservator. the IR values will start rising as the dissolved moisture in the oil is removed.e. The readings of IR values shall not be taken during this process since these will be misleading due to erroneous indication of winding temperature. Ensure that the sealing provided on the air passage of the breathers has been removed. If there is moisture in the windings. Dehydration of Transformer by Hot Oil Circulation: When starting the dehydration. if provided.60 Construction Manual for Sub Stations and also filling of oil in the oil cup.. The winding temperature is assumed to be the same as top oil temperature under steady state conditions.9 Assembly and fitting of pipeline for the OLTC Diverter Switch including valves and oil surge relay and connecting it to the OLTC conservator. In case these are ground mounted. oil is drawn from the bottom of transformer into the filteration plant and let into transformer again at the top for removing any settled moisture / impurities. the air release valves / plugs provided on the top of the conservator should be kept open. The levelling. Erection / placing of fan control cubicle / marshalling box & OLTC drive mechanism. A typical indicative drying out curve is shown below: 6. The arrow marks on the oil surge relays should point towards the conservator.7 are attained. i.11 7. including fitting of supports. the IR values drop down as the temperature increases. the IR values at constant temperature will drop down as the moisture is removed from the insulation and gets dissolved in the oil.2 8. centering and grouting of ground mounted supports is to be got done before erection. The oil shall be filled up to 1/3rd level in the conservator.0 8. After the moisture has been removed from the winding. After about 8 – 12 hours of circulation in this manner.7 are attained. then these are to be placed on the foundation.5 8. The moisture in the oil is continuously removed by the filteration plant. Allow the transformer to cool down to atmospheric temperature. Assembly & fitting of cooler fans.0 8. IR values can be plotted against time. the cycle is reversed. In the beginning. the dehydration is stopped after the time prescribed by the manufacturer. measure insulation resistance values of the transformer every 2 hours.1 8.3 8. Measure the IR values at 2 hour intervals during the cooling period.4 8.

Heating. a) b) c) d) Hot air circulation. as convenient.4:1. Previous Test Results. 295) and in the IS : 10028 (Part – II) – 1981.9 If the specified IR values are not attained. (b) and (c) are described in the CBIP Manual on Transformers (Publication no. vacuum pulling and Nitrogen filling. After maximum top oil temperature is attained. the manufacturer is to be contacted. the hot oil circulation is continued for 2 – 3 volumes of the transformer oil. 8. in case of transformers within guarantee period. For a 10°C change of temperature. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . then carry out further drying out by adopting any of the following processes. Hot oil circulation and vacuum pulling.10. Insulation resistance varies inversely with the temperature. The process at (d) is mostly adopted and is described at para 8. The IR values and the temperature are noted. the transformer can be charged.1 Drying by Hot oil circulation and vacuum pulling: Carry out hot oil circulation on the transformer. If the specified IR values are achieved.10 8. the insulation resistance changes by a ratio generally in the range of 2:1 to 1.8 Compare the insulation resistance values with the following reference values: i) ii) New transformers: Old transformers: Factory Test Results. 8. However.9 below. Hot oil circulation and short circuit heating.Power Transformers 61 8. The processes at (a).7 The following oil values shall be attained in order to increase the time interval before re filteration of oil is required when the transformer is in service: a) b) Break Down Voltage: Moisture Content: 80 kV (Minimum) 10 ppm (Maximum) 8.

Inject air into the Air Bag / PRONAL through the air filling device to a maximum pressure of 0. The IR values as measured above at para 8. Start hot oil circulation and continue for 2 – 3 volumes of the transformer oil after maximum top oil temperature is attained.2 & para 8.1 9.1 & para 8. 9. If there is no change in the IR values as measured above at para 8. If still there is no change. otherwise it is continued till two consecutive readings are same.10. which is provided with a pressure gauge and a filling pipe in which a non return valve is fitted.2 & para 8. This can be checked by ensuring that there is no oil in the Buchholz relay(s).1) as well as for allowing dry air into the transformer while draining oil (para 2.11 9. The IR values are then measured and the temperature is noted.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . then the drying out process is stopped. Connect the air filling device.10.10. then another cycle of the above process as given at para 8. If the previous IR values are achieved. If there is improvement in the IR values. The precautions.0 9.5 8.3 Remove the breather. Any valves in the breather pipe should be kept open. These are compared with the reference values.2 Drain the oil from the tank and apply vacuum immediately and maintain for 12 hours. then the above process as given at para 8.3 are compared.10.3 is continued till two consecutive readings are same.1 & para 8.3 is carried out.1 9. Fill the oil again into the transformer.5) are to be followed. the drying out process is stopped and the transformer is allowed to cool down to atmospheric temperature.1.1 kg / cm². 8.1. Drain the oil from the transformer through the bottom filter valve till the conservator is empty. After constant IR values are achieved.10. Pressurizing of air cell in the main conservator: Method recommended by the Manufacturer: Open the air release plugs / valves provided on the top of the conservator.10. for application of vacuum (para 2.4 8.3 8.2.10.10.62 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 8.1.10. the transformer can be charged.10.3. as given earlier.2.2 9. The IR values and the temperature are noted.10.10.1.10.6 8. to the breather pipe.

1.2. Filling of oil in OLTC and its Dehydration: Fill filtered oil (as per para 2. The air in the conservator outside the Air Bag / PRONAL is pushed out through the air release plugs / valves.2. to the breather pipe.1. will indicate full oil level. This oil is filtered in the OLTC diverter switch chamber(s) until the values given at para 8.2.1 kg / cm². Continue the oil filling. 9. only oil will come out through the air release plugs / valves.4 9. The oil is allowed to come out until there are no air bubbles in the oil. Any valves in the breather pipe should be kept open. Release the air pressure thereafter. Close the air release plugs / valves while still maintaining the air pressure. Inject air into the Air Bag / PRONAL through the air filling device to a maximum pressure of 0. Refit the breather on the pipeline. Release the air pressure thereafter. When all the air has been expelled.1.1.2. Open the air release plugs / valves provided on the top of the conservator. if provided on the conservator.1 10. The air release plugs / valves are then closed while still maintaining the air pressure. Temporarily stop the oil filling operation when oil along with air bubbles starts coming out of the air release plugs / valves. The prismatic oil level gauge.1 9. Oil mixed with air bubbles shall start coming out. Refit the breather on the pipeline.1 / para 3.8 9.6 9. Carry out dehydration of the oil.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . The prismatic oil level gauge provided on the conservator will indicate full oil level. Continue the oil filling in the transformer till the level shown on the Magnetic Oil Level Gauge (MOLG) corresponds to the oil temperature as per the reference mark given on the MOLG.6 9.1. Alternate Method / Field Practice: Keep the oil level in the conservator at approximately 1/3rd level.7 are attained.0 10.0) in the OLTC diverter switch chamber(s) and the OLTC conservator.3 9.9 9. they should be fitted but not fully tightened.Power Transformers 63 9.2.5 Slowly pump the oil through the bottom filter valve.2.2.8 9.7 9. Remove the breather. Where air release plugs are provided.2 9.5 9.9 10. Stop the oil filling after ensuring that no air bubbles come out with the oil. Close the air release valve such that the flow of oil will be very slow.2.10 9. which is provided with a pressure gauge and a filling pipe in which a non return valve is fitted. The level of oil shown on the Magnetic Oil Level Gauge (MOLG) is checked with respect to the oil temperature and the reference mark given on the MOLG.2 9. Connect the air filling device. oil along with air bubbles starts coming out of the air release plugs / valves. When all the air has been expelled.2.7 9.1.1.

1 12.0 15. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . if provided. Condenser type Bushings. the transformer is to be made ready for commissioning. Lock the bolts & nuts of the coupling brackets of the operating shaft(s).1 Air Release from the Transformer: Release air from the following air release points till there are no air bubbles in the oil coming out from these air release points. Prior to putting the transformer into service. When connecting the operating shaft(s). Check the operation of the OLTC manually and make adjustments so that there are equal numbers of free turns of the operating handle after each tap change in the diverter switch both during Raise & Lower operations.1 13. attention should be paid to the checks and tests given in the following paras.2 13. Protective covers for OLTC operating shaft(s). P. Assembly of OLTC Drive Mechanism & Operating System: Fix the brackets. Drill holes in the cable gland plates of the fan control cubicle / marshalling box / Temperature meter box as per requirement. as provided. 12. Fitting of sensors / probes for oil & winding temperature indicators after filling oil in the pockets provided for them. I. g) Air release screws / plugs if provided on the mounting flange of O. The checks / tests given hereafter are generally applicable. protective relays. Fitting of terminal connectors on the bushings. I. Fix / fit minor accessories as below: a) b) c) d) e) f) Clamps / Brackets for pipes and fixing of pipes on them. bushing / WTI CT’s. Fix the cables on these cable gland plates and connect the wires as per schematic drawing.2 12. f) Air release screws on through oil type Bushings (up to 33 kV). h) Upper terminal of O. ensure that the tap position indicated in the OLTC drive mechanism and at the head of OLTC diverter switch(es) are the same. e) Pressure relief device (PRD) and Explosion Vent (if provided). gear boxes and operating shafts between OLTC drive mechanism and OLTC diverter switches. Any other accessories. Headers and Cooler Bank pipelines. to the fan control cubicle / marshalling box / Temperature meter box. Synchronize the operation of all the three OLTC diverter switches so that all the three phases operate almost simultaneously.0 13.0 11.3 13. c) Buchholz Relays.4 14. b) Air release plugs provided on the Radiators. Specific checks / tests prescribed by the manufacturer are also to be carried out. etc. etc.0 After installation work is over. Cabling on the Transformer: Carry out laying of control cables from fans. a) Air release plugs provided on the Main tank cover and bushing turrets.0 12. Fixing of cable trays / brackets on the tank cover and clamping of cables on them. Prepare the cables at both the ends and fit into cable glands. d) Float type Oil Surge Relays (OSR).3 13.64 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 11. Condenser type Bushings i) On Load Tap Changer / Diverter Switch Chamber. Problems arising out of peculiar situations are to be assessed and solved on case to case basis. P.

10 16.14 b) Winding Temperature Indicator (WTI): Fan / Fan Group – I: Oil Pump / Fan Group – II: Alarm: Trip: Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .8 16.9 16. Minimum clearances between live parts and between live parts to earth are as per General Arrangement drawing. WTI. Isolating valves in Buchholz pipe line and all the radiators and any valve if provided in the breather pipeline are fully opened and locked in the open position. The thermometer pockets provided for oil and winding temperature indicators are filled with oil. Close these after the above check has been carried out. Setting of all the mercury switches for Alarm.12 16. the settings are made as given below: a) Oil Temperature Indicator (OTI): Alarm: Trip: ON: OFF: ON: OFF: Start: Stop: Start: Stop: ON: OFF: ON: OFF: 70°C 60°C 80°C 70°C 55°C 50°C 65°C 60°C 80°C 70°C 90°C 80°C 16. Oil level in the main conservator and OLTC conservator is as per the oil temperature.0 16. oil flow indicators. Arrow on the oil flow indicators and the oil pumps is pointing towards the transformer tank. Oil level in the condenser bushings.3 16.5 16. Arrow on the Buchholz Relays & Oil Surge Relays is pointing towards the Conservator.6 16. Inspect the transformer all over and check all flanged joints and fittings for oil leakages. OTI. Buchholz relay. The transport locks provided in equipment such as the MOLG. and tank cover until oil appears. etc. OLTC oil surge relay (float type) and gas collection pipe. if provided. Release air from the inside of the transformer tank by opening all plugs / venting screws / valves on radiators. As per general prevailing practice.2 16. If found necessary.Power Transformers 65 16.4 16.1 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: All equipments are mounted in position as per General Arrangement drawing of the manufacturer. bushings.11 16.13 16. The colour of silica gel in the breathers is blue and that oil is filled up to correct oil level mark in the oil cup. have been removed.7 16. Buchholz relay contacts are not locked and these are in ‘SERVICE’ position. Trip and Cooler control in the Oil and Winding Temperature Indicators. re – tighten the bolts.

Winding Temperature Trip (HV). higher settings of the winding temperature alarm & trip contacts may be adopted for which the manufacturer’s recommendations are to be followed. Master Trip relays and alarm annunciation on actual operation of the transformer mounted protective Relays and supervisory equipments. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Main Conservator Low oil level alarm.17 16. No oil is visible in Explosion Vent sight glass. Neutral Displacement alarm. Bolts & nuts of the coupling brackets of the operating shaft(s) of the OLTC have been locked. if the transformer is to run in parallel with another transformer. Winding Temperature Trip (LV). 16.2 Trip Alarms: Operation of the corresponding auxiliary relays. cooler bank. V. Restricted Earth Fault (REF). marshalling box. temperature meter box. Setting of overload / protection relays / MCBs for fans & pumps and for OLTC motor as per their rating.3 Testing by the Protection Wing of Over current. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Buchholz Alarm (I & II) by draining oil from the relay. Winding temperature high alarm (LV). The Transformer tank. Oil temperature high alarm. Winding temperature high alarm (TV). 16.21 17.20 16.1 PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Non Trip Alarms: Operation of the corresponding auxiliary relays if provided and alarm annunciation on actual operation of the transformer mounted protective Relays and supervisory equipments. Jumpering arrangement to achieve phase matching. OLTC Conservator Low oil level alarm.0 17. Winding Temperature Trip (TV). etc. Pressure Relief Device. Buchholz Trip (I & II) by draining oil from the relay. Circulating Current Differential Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Air cell fail alarm. OLTC drive mechanism.15 The Transformer neutral is connected to earth at two separate earth pits / electrodes which in turn are connected to the earth mat. Earth fault.18 16. cooler control cabinet. as provided are earthed. Winding temperature high alarm (HV). OLTC Surge Relay (U. if provided. 17.16 16. W / common.66 Construction Manual for Sub Stations If the site and load conditions warrant. Proper connections and tightness of terminal connectors provided on Bushings. 17.19 16. Oil Temperature Trip. Over flux. as provided).

. associated Master Trip relays. etc.7 17. Verify the reading of Tap Position Indicator (TPI) on Remote Tap Changer Control (RTCC) panel on all the tap positions. Check functioning of operation counter. This may be checked for operation of each Master Trip Relay for 2 or 3 protective relays. Lamp indications on RTCC Panel for fans and pumps. Confirm functioning of electrical limit switches at extreme tap positions. Check tripping of MCB in OLTC Drive mechanism by pressing “Emergency Push Button” from local and from RTCC Panel. “Stand by Pump Fail: Group – 1 & 2”. Check phase sequence of the A.C. Never start this OLTC operation from extreme tap positions. 17. as provided. 1 to the maximum tap position & back to tap no. etc. Testing of alarm annunciations. alarm annunciations. Manual operation of OLTC: a) b) Operate by handle from tap no. Transformer Differential protection relays..10 17. “Stand by Fan Fail: Group – 1 & 2”. Operation of stand by fans / pumps on failure of each fan / pump. as provided in the RTCC Panel. b) c) d) e) f) Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .11 c) d) e) 17. Confirm functioning of mechanical locking at extreme tap positions. “Pump Fail: Group – 1 & 2”.14. supply to the Cooler Control Cubicle (CCC) / Fan Control Cubicle (FCC) / Marshalling Box. Operate On Load Tap Changer (OLTC) from tap no. such as “Fan Fail: Group – 1 & 2”. RTCC Panel.1 from local and from remote. “Cooler Control Supply Fail”.. Step by step operation of the OLTC (only one tap should change in one pulse or with continuous pulse).e.8 17. i. Observe any abnormal sound during this operation.5 17. Direction of rotation of fans and pumps. There should be no electrical operation of the OLTC with handle inserted.C. supply to the OLTC drive mechanism. 17. 1 to the maximum tap position & back to tap no.Power Transformers 67 protection.12 Electrical operation of OLTC: a) Operation of handle interlock. Operation of fans / oil pumps as per settings made in the winding temperature indicators as per para 16. Phase sequence of the A.6 17. 1.9 17.4 Tripping of HV circuit breaker & inter tripping of LV circuit breaker on operation of Master Trip Relays.

connect an analogue type AVO / multi – meter on the HV winding and operate the OLTC from tap no. “OLTC Motor MCB Trip”. in case all the three phases of the TV winding have been brought out. the voltage is applied one by one between phases of the TV winding keeping HV & LV windings open.13 Reading of Oil & Winding temperatures on Remote Temperature indicators provided in RTCC Panel with reference to the OTI & WTI fitted on the transformer. etc. There should not 17. 1 to the maximum tap. If the transformer is to be run in parallel with another transformer. single phase supply is applied between phase and neutral of TV winding one by one keeping HV & LV windings open. “OLTC Control Supply Fail”. b) Magnetizing current measurement of all three phases of HV winding at Tap no.14 c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 1 with single phase supply applied between phase and neutral one by one with LV winding short – circuited and TV winding open – circuited. LV and TV WTI CT testing by measuring the current in the leads from the WTI CT terminals to the winding temperature indicator(s) during the above short circuit current measurement tests. provided in the RTCC Panel. Magnetic balance test on all three phases of LV winding by applying single phase voltage one by one between phase and neutral of one phase and measuring the induced voltage on the other two phases. by applying single phase voltage one by one between phase and neutral on one phase (for star connected winding) or between phase to phase (for delta connected winding) and measuring the induced voltage on the other two phases. Checking of continuity of contacts in diverter switch: During short circuit current measurement test above. “OLTC out of Step”. i.. Testing of Transformer: a) Magnetizing current measurement of all three phases of LV winding with single phase supply applied between phase and neutral one by one keeping HV & TV windings open. Short circuit current measurement of all three phases of HV winding at Tap no.68 Construction Manual for Sub Stations g) h) Checking of Lamp Indications provided in the RTCC Panel. Magnetic balance test on all three phases of TV winding. 1 with single phase supply applied between phase and neutral one by one with TV winding short – circuited in case all the three phases of the TV winding have been brought out. i) 17. Testing of alarm annunciations. In case of delta connected TV winding. Short circuit current measurement of all three phases of HV winding at Tap no. operation of OLTC Drive mechanism by making one transformer as ‘Master’ and another one as ‘Follower’ & vice versa. HV. LV winding is kept open – circuited.. such as “Tap Changer Stuck / Tap Change Delayed”. Magnetizing current measurement of all three phases of the TV winding in case all the three phases have been brought out.e. For star connected TV winding. 1 with single phase supply applied between phase and neutral one by one keeping LV & TV windings open. “Master – Follower Operation of Transformer”.

The top oil temperature is to be recorded. Pour point (ºC). Density at 29. Dissolved Gas Analysis Viscosity at 27ºC (cSt). LV and TV windings. HV – LV. 6. Max.03 0. Min. testing of TV winding by giving 3 – phase supply to HV.1 6 80 For Reference 27 140 -6 35 0. 8. (ii) Sludge (percent by mass). HV – TV & LV – TV using turns ratio measuring instrument. Max. LV – Earth. HV – TV & LV – TV using 5 kV megger.4 0. and 60 sec. The limits for unused mineral oil filled in New Power Transformer as recommended in Table – 1 of the above Indian Standard are given below. It is not advisable to carry out this test when the relative humidity is above 75%.89 0. Max. Insulation resistance measurement (meggering) and recording the readings for 15 sec.015 0. Appearance 2. Min. 3. Testing of transformer oil. 12.5ºC (g / cm3). 10. Transformer Turns ratio measurement between HV – LV. Winding resistance measurement of all three phases of HV (at Tap no. 13. Oxidation Stability of inhibited oil (i) Induction Period (hours) Similar values as before filling Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .89 0. j) In case of tertiary winding where two terminals have been brought out. 5. 1). Resistivity (90ºC) × 1012 (ohm – cm). 1. 11. Max.5 to 170 > 170 Clear. S. Interfacial Tension (mN / m).Power Transformers 69 be any break in the current during tap change which is indicated by the sudden deflection in the multi – meter reading.010 6 80 27 140 -6 35 0. Breakdown Voltage (kV). 7. Dielectric dissipation factor at 90ºC and 40 Hz to 60 Hz. 9. TV – Earth. Property of Oil Highest Voltage of Equipment (kV) < 72. Min. Checking of Vector Group of the transformer. between HV – Earth.015 0.1 k) l) m) n) o) p) 14. Max. measurement of Capacitance and Tan δ of condenser bushings and transformer windings for reference. Max. The top oil temperature is to be recorded.4 0. free from sediments and suspended matter 0. then shorting each LV phase with neutral one by one and measuring open delta voltage and closed delta current. Min. Max. The 60 second value shall be taken as the reference value for future comparison. Water Content (ppm). The following tests are generally desired to be got carried out on transformer oil as per IS 1866 : 2000 – Code of Practice for Electrical Maintenance and Supervision of Mineral Insulating Oil in Equipment.89 0.5 72. No.03 10 10 10 0.4 0.03 0. Max. 4. Oxidation Stability of uninhibited oil (i) Neutralization Value (mg KOH / g). Subject to availability of testing instrument.1 6 80 27 140 -6 35 0. The top oil temperature is to be recorded. Flash Point (ºC). Neutralization value (mg KOH / g).

free from sediments and suspended matter 0.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . This may be checked for operation of each Master Trip Relay for 2 or 3 protective relays.03 0. Neutralization value (mg KOH / g). r) Density at 29. Tap position (same voltage ratio) should also match with the transformer already in service in case of parallel operation. Then take load on the transformer. tap position of the transformer is to be fixed according to HV side voltage available. Resistivity (90ºC) × 1012 (ohm – cm). Dissolved Gas Analysis Other tests as prescribed in the Operation and Maintenance Manual of the Manufacturer. 1.4 18. Max. 18.015 0. Max. Max. Breakdown Voltage (kV). 6.70 Construction Manual for Sub Stations q) The following tests as recommended in IS : 1866 are the minimum tests which should be got done on the transformer oil.89 0. Recharge the transformer at Tap no.5ºC (g / cm3). 2. Dielectric dissipation factor at 90ºC and 40 Hz to 60 Hz. 4.03 10 10 10 0.3 18. Max. The limits as recommended in Table – 1 of IS 1866: 2000 are also given below. Appearance 2.5 to 170 > 170 Clear. the operation of the OLTC is to be checked by increasing the tap position upto the tap corresponding to the system voltage. CHARGING OF TRANSFORMER: Check the tripping of HV circuit breaker & inter tripping of LV circuit breaker on operation of Master Trip Relays.6 18. No. the “MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS” of RVPN (erstwhile RSEB) should be followed. After re – charging. 3.0 18. 2 otherwise transformer may trip on differential protection due to high magnetizing inrush current.010 6 80 6 80 For Reference 6 80 S.15 18. After charging.7 18. 17. During this period observe the temperature rise of the oil & winding. 8. Manufacturers recommend that transformer be kept on no load for 24 hours. De – energize the transformer and check the Buchholz relay for any collection of air / gas.89 0. 7.2 18. Property of Oil Highest Voltage of Equipment (kV) < 72.1 The results of all the above tests are to be recorded for future reference. Water Content (ppm).8 19. 5. Transformer is to be charged at tap no.015 0.5 18. For operation and maintenance of Power Transformers. Min. Min.89 0.5 72.03 0.

check that there is positive pressure of the SF6 gas in the breaker poles. Erection of Supporting Structures: Assemble the supporting structure(s) if the members are received in loose condition. Level the top of the already erected supporting structure(s) and check their verticality. erect the base channel along with breaker poles on the supporting structures. This should be done through cold bending using a bending machine only. Erection of Circuit Breaker Poles: In case of CBs received with poles already fitted on a common base channel. Cutting of the pipes.2 1. Thereafter.6 2. In case of SF6 Circuit Breakers.5 1.3 4.2 2. Erect the supporting structure(s) on the foundation and carry out their levelling. Erect the middle pole first followed by the side poles. 1. The procedure / steps generally followed for erection of Circuit Breakers are given below. shall be done in a manner such that the inner diameter of the pipe is not reduced.1 2. In case of CBs with common base channel but in which the poles are received separately. c) Reconnect the linkage of the individual pole to the operating lever. The services of the Manufacturer’s Erection & Commissioning Engineer may be utilized wherever required. Installation & Commissioning Manual of the Manufacturer. The SF6 gas should be filled in one pole at a time to ensure that gas is filled in all the three poles. first erect the base channel on the supporting structure(s) and carry out levelling. centering and grouting.0 2. Release the moving contact rod suddenly. tested and commissioned as per the instructions given in the Erection.3 1.4 1.0 4. if required. check the vacuum in the individual poles as follows: a) Remove the linkage of the individual pole from the operating lever. Only a proper pipe – cutting tool shall be used. In case of Vacuum Circuit Breakers. erect the poles on the base channel. wherever required. by opening the cover of the pipe connection and pressing the non – return valve.CHAPTER – 6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS 1. and the support columns if provided. b) Pull the moving contact rod of each interrupter manually towards ‘OPEN’ position during which operation appreciable force should be encountered.0 3.2 3.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1 4. It should return automatically to ‘CLOSED’ position with a loud metallic noise. shall be done such that there is no flaring of the ends of the pipe. Preparation & Checking of the Circuit Breakers Poles: Clean the insulators of the breaker poles and check for cracks in the insulators.0 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The circuit breakers are to be erected. Bending of compressed air piping.1 3.3 3.

erect it on its foundation and carry out its centering.0 5. first erect the operating mechanisms on the supporting structures and carry out levelling.3 In case of CBs in which the poles are to be erected on the operating mechanism.5.1 7. on its foundation & carry out its centering. Gas Filling in SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers: CBs with Common SF6 Gas Pipeline: Fit the SF6 gas density monitor on the support structure / base channel as provided and connect to the SF6 gas pipeline. levelling and grouting. Attend to the leakages.4 6. or on the common base channel. In other cases. if any. levelling and grouting. erect the CB poles on the supporting structures. erect the operating mechanism on the supporting structure / base channel as provided.1 7. In case of ground mounted operating mechanism. as applicable. Thereafter erect the arc chamber assemblies on the support columns of individual phases. if provided.5. erect the CB poles on the operating mechanisms. In case of circuit breakers up to 33 kV. levelling and grouting. or as applicable. Erect the operating mechanism / operating drive on the supporting structure of the designated phase.7 4. For Gang Operated Circuit Breaker: Connect the operating shaft / rod between the poles and between the first pole and the mechanism. Fit the pre – insertion resistors and voltage grading capacitors. Check the verticality of the erected poles of the CBs and correct the same wherever required.2 6. if provided separately. the operating mechanism is generally received mounted on the assembled structure. erect it on its foundation and carry out its centering.6 4. on the arc chambers. Thereafter.8 5. Accessories & Associated Equipment: In case of ground mounted control cubicle.4 4. or on the common structure. In case of CBs with horizontal arc chambers.1. Fit the protective covers for operating shaft / rod. Connect the SF6 gas pipeline to one pole & fill SF6 gas in the pole up to about 2 kg / cm2. Erection of Operating Mechanism. erect the control cubicle on the supporting structure / base channel as provided.3 4.1 5. or on all the three individual phases / poles.2 5.1. Place the air compressor.1 6. if provided. first erect the support columns on the supporting structures.0 7.1 4. Check for leakage of SF6 gas in the pole and in the SF6 gas pipeline.2 4. In case of other types of CBs. 4.5.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Fit the terminal connectors on the three poles of the breaker.0 6. IMPORTANT: DO NOT CHANGE OR ADJUST THE LENGTH OF THE OPERATING SHAFT / ROD.3 7. In other cases.72 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4.3 5.

g.8 7. Check phase sequence of the A. The filling pressure should correspond to the ambient temperature at the time of filling as per the chart given in the manufacturer’s manual.1.1. Attend to the leakages.5 8.7 7. Check for leakage of SF6 gas in the second pole.) and attend if any leakage is detected. Attend to the leakages.2 7.4 7.4 to para 7. joints. if any. Finally fill SF6 gas in all the three interconnected poles up to prescribed rated / filling pressure. The setting and operation of the lockout contacts (closing) and the alarm contact (opening). provided in the density monitor.0 8. Check operation of the alarm and lockout contacts provided in the density monitor during SF6 gas filling. Check for leakage of SF6 gas from all the points (e.3 7. Fill SF6 gas up to prescribed rated / filling pressure in each pole one by one. brazing.1 8.. Ensure that the alarm and lockout contacts are in normal condition after SF6 gas filling.2 7. Fit the pipeline as per drawing. The gas pressure in the first pole will fall.2.10 7. if any. if any.1.1.2. are checked during SF6 gas filling.1. The filling pressure should correspond to the ambient temperature at the time of filling as per the chart given in the manufacturer’s manual. Fill SF6 gas in each pole one by one up to about 2 kg / cm2. supply to the air compressor and check direction of rotation of air compressor motor. A small air pressure is injected in the pipeline and then suddenly released by removing the plug so that the pipeline is flushed.6 7.1. one end of the pipeline is connected to the air compressor and the other end is plugged. Connect the SF6 gas pipeline to the third pole. etc.9 7.3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . The procedure from para 7. Thereafter.2.1. CBs with SF6 Gas Density Monitors on Individual Poles: Fit the SF6 gas density monitor on each pole alongwith pipeline if provided. Also check that the V – belt is at the correct tension.2 8.11 7.C.9 ensures that SF6 gas is filled in all the three poles.4 7.1.1.1 7.1. couplings.1. Circuit Breakers having Pneumatic Operated Mechanism: Fabricate the compressed air pipeline as per pipe layout drawing & clean it. Attend to the leakages.5 7.2. Connect the SF6 gas pipeline to the second pole.Circuit Breakers 73 7. Check for leakage of SF6 gas in the third pole. 7. Fill the SF6 gas in the two poles simultaneously up to the prescribed rated / filling pressure. Check for leakage of SF6 gas in the poles and in the SF6 gas pipeline.2.3 Fill SF6 gas in the pole up to the prescribed rated / filling pressure. Check and top up oil in the air compressor. The pipeline is first cleaned by passing a mulmul cloth through it with the help of a wire. cementing on insulator & metallic joints. Ensure that the alarm and lockout contacts are in normal condition after SF6 gas filling.

4 9.g. Check operation of safety valve and verify its setting. joints. as and when required.) and attending to the leakages if detected.4 Pressurize the compressed air pipeline and air storage tank(s) to about 5 kg / cm2 and check for air leakage from all possible points (e.9 9. supply to the compressor. During falling pressure. Start the compressor in the manual mode and build up pressure. “Low Oil Pressure Alarm”. “Low Oil Pressure Alarm” & “Oil Pump Stop”. During the rising pressure.74 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 8. Start the oil pump in the manual mode and build up pressure.3 9.6 8. Top up oil. During the falling pressure. of the designated grade as supplied with the Circuit Breaker.8 9. “Low Air Pressure Alarm”. supply to the oil pump motor and check its direction of rotation. Pressurize the compressed air pipeline to the rated pressure. in the storage tank(s) up to the fill mark.. for “Low Air Pressure Lockout”. Open bypass valve to reduce the oil pressure to normal.0 9. brazing. “Auto Reclose Lock out”. If the safety valve does not operate even when the prescribed pressure is exceeded. “Auto Reclose Blocking” & “Low Air Pressure Lockout”. as per manufacturer’s recommendations. stop the oil pump motor and adjust the setting to the required value and re – verify this setting. Check the auto / manual operation of air compressor.10 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . check the operation of pressure switches and verify their settings. check the operation of pressure switches and verify their operating and differential settings. joints.1 9. control blocks.C. Open bypass valve to reduce the oil pressure.5 9. Circuit Breakers having Hydraulic Oil Operated Mechanism: Clean all the prefabricated hydraulic oil pipes by passing a mulmul cloth through them with the help of a wire. C. Build up pressure in the hydraulic oil pipeline. Adjust the pressure settings if required. Fit the prefabricated hydraulic oil pipeline as per drawing. brazing. Check for oil leakage from all the points (e.) and attend to the leakages if detected. If the safety valve does not operate even when the prescribed pressure is exceeded. Open the drain valve on the air storage tank such that air is released slowly. Switch off the A. 8. “Auto Reclose Lock out”. Check the auto / manual operation of the oil pump.7 8. During increasing pressure. as per manufacturer’s recommendations. couplings.g. Drain air so as to maintain normal pressure in the storage tank(s). stop the air compressor and adjust the setting to the required value and re – verify this setting. to maintain oil level in the storage tank.8 9. and “Low Oil Pressure Lockout”.5 8. check operation of pressure switches and verify their settings for “Oil Pump Start”. Fill hydraulic oil. Check operation of safety valve and verify its setting. “Low Air Pressure Alarm” & “Compressor Stop”. Start the oil pump motor and release air from the venting screw(s) provided. etc. for “Compressor Start”. check operation of pressure switches and verify their settings for “Low Oil Pressure Lockout”. Check phase sequence of the A.6 9.. “Auto Reclose Blocking”.7 9.2 9. couplings. etc.

4 10. Discharge the spring as per directions in the manufacturer’s manual.1 11.0 10. e) Remote tripping signal.1 Circuit Breakers having Spring Operated Mechanism: ENSURE THAT THE CLOSING SPRING IS FULLY DISCHARGED.3 11.2 11.0 11. iii) Air filter is clean. k) Contacts of pressure switches for annunciations of low SF6 gas / air / oil pressure alarms & lockout conditions and for loss of N2 pressure. f) Protection trip signal. Connect the cables as per schematic diagram of the circuit breaker. i) Auto Trip / Spring Charged Lamp indication.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . iii) V – belt is properly tensioned. Fix the cables in cable glands and then fix the cable glands on cable gland plates in the respective equipment.5 11. If it is not fully discharged. Carry out slow mechanical operation (closing and tripping) of Circuit Breaker as per procedure prescribed by the manufacturer. j) Air pressure / Oil pressure / Spring charging limit switch contacts for auto reclose blocking. then discharge the spring as per instructions given in the manufacturer’s manual. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check the following in the Air Compressor: i) Oil level is upto the mark. Charge the spring electrically and verify the operation of the limit switch. Take all the precautions mentioned in the manufacturer’s manual.2 10.Circuit Breakers 75 10. 10. iv) Control cubicle and Control & Relay Panel. g) Trip circuit supervision. ii) Compressor and control cubicle. The following typical connections are made at the circuit breaker end. ii) Oil colour is not black. a) DC positive & DC negative for local operation. d) Remote closing signal. Cabling & Wiring: Carry out laying of cables between the following: i) Operating mechanisms of individual phases (R. Adjust the setting of the limit switch if required. h) ON / OFF indications (Lamp & Semaphore). if applicable. Manually charge the closing spring and check electrical limit switch. Dress and fix the cables in cable trays / trenches / supports / brackets.3 10. m) Auxiliary contacts as required for various control circuits. Y & B) and control cubicle.0 12. b) DC positive for remote closing. l) Contact for annunciation of pole discrepancy trip alarm. v) Control cubicle and bay marshalling kiosk. mechanical latches and stopper(s) as provided. iii) Density Monitor and control cubicle.4 12. c) DC positive for remote tripping.

20 13. Check the oil level in the oil storage tank(s) of all the three poles of CBs with hydraulic oil operated mechanism. Check resistance of closing and tripping circuits. and attend if required. control cubicle. Check settings of air / oil pressure switches.7 12. AUTO TRIP and SPRING CHARGED conditions. as applicable. if provided.17 12.10 12. Check functioning of operation counter. Check clamping of the pipe line for SF6 gas / hydraulic oil / air.5 Check SF6 gas / hydraulic oil / air leakages.16 12.6 12.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . SF6 gas / hydraulic oil / air pressure lockout and loss of N2. as applicable. Check alarm annunciations in the C&R Panel for low SF6 gas / hydraulic oil / air pressure alarm.8 12. Check closing and opening operation of circuit breaker from local. remote and protection.0 13. Check closing of Circuit Breaker through auto – reclose scheme.2 12. Check the Trip Circuit Supervision circuits in both CB open and closed conditions by removing the wires of the tripping circuit.15 12. in the C&R Panel for CB OPEN.18 12.19 12. Check the contact wear indication mark or the specified gap as given in the instruction manual in case of Vacuum Circuit Breakers with the circuit breaker in the closed position. 12.12 12. top up with oil. Check the pressure of SF6 gas / hydraulic oil / air in the circuit breaker. as applicable. Check lamp and semaphore indications.76 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 12. as applicable. Check and adjust the resistance in the closing / tripping coil circuits. Check earthing of the poles.14 12.13 12. Check operation of pole discrepancy relay. Confirm that the correct pole of the Circuit Breaker has operated. if provided.4 12. operating mechanism. Check operation of dash pot / damper. as applicable. compressor and structure(s). CLOSED. and its alarm annunciation in the C&R Panel. The breaker should close and then trip and should not close again. Lubricate all the moving parts and the pins in the operating mechanism. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Measure insulation resistance with 5 kV megger of all the three phases between lower terminal to earth and between upper and lower terminals with the breaker in the open position. base channel. if required.3 12. otherwise. It should damp the speed of the Circuit Breaker at the end of both closing and tripping operations.9 12. as applicable. Check functioning of space heater and internal illumination circuits. The oil level should be between the maximum & minimum level marks. Check operation of anti – pumping / hunting relay by giving continuous closing and tripping signals simultaneously.11 12.

Manufacturers of Vacuum Circuit Breakers recommend the following method for testing the vacuum in the interrupters with the circuit breaker in ‘OPEN’ condition: Using high voltage testing equipment. check the vacuum as given at para 3. if provided.4 The vacuum interrupters should withstand the applied voltage. Opening (O) and Close – Open (CO) operation timings of the breaker with CB Timer or CB Analyser.Circuit Breakers 77 13. apply the voltage as given below across the upper & lower terminals of the VCB for 60 seconds. Since the above facility is not available.3 above.3 13. (a) (b) 33 kV CB 11 kV CB 70 kV 28 kV 13. Test the operation of the CB with the emergency tripping arrangement. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .2 Measure Closing (C).

78 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

3 1. Fit the main operating down pipe to operating mechanism for the Isolator. base frames of individual phases on the structure(s). Carry out adjustment / alignment of individual phases for smooth opening and closing and proper making of contacts.0 2. Fit the male and female contact arms on the polycone insulators / insulator stacks in case of single break Isolator.9 1.CHAPTER – 7 ISOLATORS 1.7 1.8 1.10 1. Fix the arcing horns (make before & open after the main contacts) or corona rings.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .6 1. 1. Fit the operating mechanism box for the Isolator. Adjust the mechanical end stoppers on the base channel for both the closed and open positions.1 2.13 1.4 1.5 1. Erect the 3 nos.14 1.11 Fit the inter – phase connecting pipes between the rotating parts of the base frames of the individual phases.1 ERECTION OF ISOLATORS: Level the already erected structure(s) and carry out minor fabrication works.0 1.2 1. as applicable. Fit the fixed contacts of earth blades in case of Isolator with Earth Switch. Fit the moving contact (earth blade) of the earth switches and counterweights.15 1. For single break isolators. Erect the above assemblies on the rotating parts of the base frames. In case of double break Isolator. including fixing of hardware for interlocking with earth switch wherever provided. 1. ERECTION OF EARTH SWITCHES: Fix the earth blade mounting arrangements on the base frames of all the three phases. Fix the link pipes on the rotating parts of the base frames of the individual phases. for erection of the Isolator and operating mechanism(s). Fit the terminal connectors on the Isolator.12 1. 6 nos. Carry out levelling and centering of the base frames. if required. Clean and assemble the polycone insulator / insulator stack. moving contacts are fitted on the polycone insulators / insulator stacks.16 2. as applicable. the quantity will be nine. synchronized and complete operation as one unit. fixed contacts and 3 nos. Check the operation and final adjustment / alignment of all the three phases of main Isolator for smooth. there will be six polycone insulators / insulator stacks whereas for double break Isolators. wherever provided.

Fit the main operating down pipe to operating mechanism for the earth switch. Carry out the adjustment of limit switches in CLOSED and OPEN positions of Isolator in case of motor operated mechanism. OPERATING MECHANISM: Carry out the adjustment and setting of auxiliary switches.80 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 2. Fit the inter – phase connecting pipes between the earth switches of the individual phases. Fit the earth bonds and other accessories as provided.8 2.4 2. The following typical connections. including fixing of hardware for interlocking with main Isolator. c) DC positive for remote closing. b) Interlocking supply. a) DC positive & DC negative for local operation. Y & B) in case of individual phase operating mechanism. h) Contact for annunciation of pole discrepancy trip alarm. i) Auxiliary contacts as required for various control circuits. as applicable. Carry out the adjustment of mechanical end stoppers for both the CLOSED and OPEN positions. 2. d) DC positive for remote opening. Fit the operating mechanism box for the earth switches. Check the operation and final adjustment / alignment of all the three phases of the earth switch for smooth. Dress and fix the cables in cable trays / trenches / supports / brackets. ii) Operating mechanism and Control & Relay Panel. g) OPEN / CLOSE indications (Lamp / Semaphore).2 4. iii) Operating mechanism and bay marshalling kiosk. f) Remote opening signal.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . e) Remote closing signal.3 4.1 4. are made at the isolator and earth switch end. Cabling & Wiring: Carry out laying of cables between the following: i) Operating mechanisms of individual phases (R.4 4. Carry out the adjustment of mechanical end stoppers for the OPEN position of earth switch.5 2.9 2. Carry out the adjustment and setting of mechanical interlock between main Isolator and earth switch to ensure that earth switch does not operate if the main Isolator is closed.2 3.1 3.10 3.6 2.7 2. Fix the cables in cable glands and then fix the cable glands on cable gland plates in the respective equipment.3 Carry out the operation and adjustment / alignment of earth switch of each phase for smooth opening and closing and proper making of contacts. Connect the cables as per schematic diagram of the isolator and earth switch. Carry out the adjustment of interlocking coil and plunger in CLOSED and OPEN positions. and that main Isolator does not operate if the earth switch is closed. synchronized and complete operation as one unit.0 3.0 4.3 3.

5.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . ii) Complete insertion and making of contacts in close position. Keep the isolator in half closed position before checking the phase sequence. Check phase sequence of the A. if applicable. Check operation of the electrical emergency opening arrangement. Check functioning of space heater and internal illumination circuits in the motor operated mechanism. Measure the Contact Resistance of 400 kV Isolators in the CLOSED position. which should be earthed through flexible earthing connectors.3 5. for Bus Isolators. Check operation of interlocking coil in the Isolator and earth switches. if provided.9 5. including interlocking between main isolator and earth switches.5 5. Check local and remote electrical operation of the isolator.4 5. vi) Operation of auxiliary switches.C.11 6. Check operation & verify setting of timer for Isolator operation and pole discrepancy. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Measure the insulation resistance with 5 kV megger of each phase to earth in the Isolator CLOSED position. Check operation & verify setting of overload relay / MCBs for motor. Check operation of Isolator and earth switch for following: i) Smooth operation. GENERAL CHECKS: Re – check the adjustment / alignment of the Isolator main contacts for smooth opening and closing and proper making of contacts after jumpering on both sides.6 5. as provided.2 6.Isolators 81 5. Check earthing of the main Isolator and earth switch.1 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Lubricate all the moving parts and the pins of the Isolator & earth switch and in the operating mechanism. v) Setting of end stoppers in close and open conditions. if provided. supply to the motor and check direction of rotation of isolator.2 5.1 6.10 5.0 5.0 7.7 5. in the C&R Panel for Isolator and earth switch OPEN and CLOSED conditions.3 6. Check earthing of moving parts such as operating handles of isolators.4 7. Check lamp / semaphore indications.1 7. if provided. iv) Functioning of mechanical interlock between main Isolator and earth switch. iii) Complete opening of contacts in open position. Also check operation of voltage selection relay.8 5. as applicable. Check operation of electrical limit switches in motor operated mechanism. Check earthing of the operating mechanism. if applicable.0 6.

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Core 3 0. Core 2 0. Core 1 PS Differential Protection 2. 250 – 500. 125 – 250 – 500. 1. 125 – 250 – 500.5 Metering: Indication & Energy Meter 132 kV Feeders at 220 kV GSS CT Ratios: 100 – 200 – 400. Core 2 PS / 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3. The secondary windings are rated for 1 Amp or 5 Amp.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Core 2 PS / 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3. 1.5 Metering: Indication & Energy Meter 1. 1200. Core 2 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3. Core 4 PS / 5P20 Bus Bar Protection 132 kV side of 132 kV class Transformers CT Ratios: 60 – 120 – 240. 1. Core 1 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 2. Core 3 0. Core 1 PS Distance Protection 2.0 Metering: Indication 4. Core Number Accuracy Class Purpose 11 kV Feeders CT Ratio: 100 – 200 – 400. Core 2 PS / 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3. 1. Core 1 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 2. Core 3 0.2 Metering: Check Energy Meter 132 kV Feeders at 132 kV GSS CT Ratios: 100 – 200 – 400. 1. Core 2 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3.2 Metering: Main Energy Meter 5.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: While erecting the Current Transformers. 1. it must be ensured that the P1 terminal is towards the Main Bus side.CHAPTER – 8 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS 1.5 Metering 33 kV Feeders CT Ratios: 60 – 120 – 240.5 Metering 11 kV side of 132 kV Class Transformers CT Ratios: 200 – 400 – 800. No. 250 – 500. Core 3 0. 1. Core 2 0. 250 – 500. Core 1 PS Distance Protection 2. Core 4 0. Core 5 0. The different cores of the secondary winding of the Current Transformers are used for the following purposes.5 / 1. Core 1 PS Differential Protection 2. Core 1 PS Differential Protection 2.5 Metering: Indication & Energy Meter 33 kV side of 132 kV Class Transformers CT Ratios: 150 – 300 – 600.5 Metering: Indication & Energy Meter 4. Core 3 0.0 1.

400 – 800. Core 4 PS Bus Bar Protection (Main Zone) 5.5 Metering 4.1 2. Core 5 PS Bus Bar Protection (Check Zone) 220 kV side of 400 kV class Transformers CT Ratio: 500 – 1000 – 2000. Core 1 PS Differential Protection Main – 1 / Distance Protection Main . Core 3 0. Core 2 PS Differential Protection Main – 2 / Distance Protection Main – 2. Earth fault and LBB Protections 3. Core 3 0.5 Metering 4. Core 3 0. Core 5 PS Bus Bar Protection (Check Zone) 220 kV side of 220 kV class Transformers CT Ratio: 150 – 300 – 600. Core 5 PS Bus Bar Protection (Check Zone) 400 kV Bays CT Ratio: 500 – 1000 – 2000. Core 1 PS Distance Protection Main . Core 1 PS Differential Protection Main – 1 / Distance Protection Main – 1 2. 2. Core 4 PS / 5P20 Bus Bar Protection 220 kV Feeders CT Ratios: 200 – 400 – 800. Earth fault and LBB Protections 3. CT CORE USED FOR Differential / Distance Protection Bus Bar Protection Over current & Earth fault (Back up Protection) Metering PREFIX FERRULE A B C D Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .84 Construction Manual for Sub Stations No.5 Metering: Indication & Energy Meter 4. Earth fault and LBB Protections 3. 4. Earth fault and LBB Protections 3. Core 4 PS Bus Bar Protection (Main Zone) except for CTs in Tie CB Bay 5. Core Number Accuracy Class Purpose 132 kV side of 220 kV class Transformers CT Ratios: 150 – 300 – 600. Over current. Core 2 PS Over current.5 Metering 4. Core 1 PS Differential Protection 2. No. 1. Core 4 PS Bus Bar Protection (Main Zone) 5. 1.1 2. Core 3 0. 250 – 500. Core 5 PS Bus Bar Protection (Check Zone) except for CTs in Tie CB Bay 1. Core 2 PS Distance Protection Main – 2. 1. Over current. Over current. Core 3 0. Core 2 PS / 5P20 Over current & Earth fault Protection 3. 1. Core 1 PS Differential Protection 2. Core 2 PS Differential Protection Main – 2 / Distance Protection Main – 2. 400 – 800.5 Metering 4.3 Ferrule markings as mentioned below are generally used as prefix for indicating the wires of different cores of the Current Transformers: S. 1. 1. Core 4 PS Bus Bar Protection (Main Zone) 5. 3.

for erection of the Current Transformer.4 2. Fix the cables in cable glands and then fix the cable glands on cable gland plates in the respective equipment.5 3. Erect the Current Transformer on the structure.0 2.3 3. Connect all the cores of the secondary winding from the secondary terminal box of Current Transformers (R.0 3. Clean the insulator of the Current Transformer.4 3. if required. Dress and fix the cables in cable trays / trenches / supports / brackets.1 3.2 3. Fit the terminal connectors on the Current Transformer. Y & B phases) to the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box. All the cores of Current Transformer which are not used must be shorted and earthed in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.5 3.3 2. Measure the IR values of primary terminals to earth with 5 kV Megger. A typical wiring connection for Core – 1 of Current Transformers in the Bay Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box is shown below: 2. The secondary windings of different phases of Current Transformers are generally star connected. Cabling & Wiring: Carry out laying of cables from secondary terminal box of the Current Transformer to the bay Marshalling Kiosk (MK) / Junction Box.2 2.6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1 ERECTION: Carry out levelling of already erected structure(s) and minor fabrication work.Current Transformers 85 2.

Verification of all the current ratios between the primary winding and all the secondary windings. Testing of knee point voltage of all the protection cores.1 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check tightening of connections of wiring of the secondary windings in the secondary terminal box of Current Transformer and also in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box. 4. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS (By Protection Wing): Measurement of insulation resistance between primary winding to earth.5 5..3 5. Check that all the spare cores of the secondary winding of the Current Transformer have been shorted and earthed.6 5. such as meters and relays.4 4. 33 KV AND 11 KV INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS (CT’s. B) by applying current through primary injection in each Current Transformer and measuring the current in the respective equipment in the control room. Check that the neutral point of the secondary windings has been earthed in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.2 5.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .0 5.5 4. Checking of continuity of the current circuit of the secondary windings and the verification of phases (R. etc.3 4. Check that the star / neutral formation of the secondary windings of the three phases of the Current Transformers has been made correctly. ELECTROMAGNETIC PT’s AND CVT’s)” of RVPN (erstwhile RSEB) should be followed. the “MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR 132 KV. primary winding to all the secondary windings with 5 kV Megger and all secondary windings to earth with 500 V Megger. For operation and maintenance of Current Transformers.86 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. for each core at a time while shorting all the other cores in the Current Transformer.0 4.2 4. Checking of use of the secondary windings as per their accuracy class / knee point voltage / burden for protection / metering.4 5.1 5. Y. Verification of polarity between the primary winding and all the secondary windings.6 6. Check the oil level in the Current Transformer. Check the earthing of the Current Transformers and Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.

Core 2 3.0 1. and Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT) are used for protection and metering. Erect the Capacitor Voltage Transformer / Potential Transformer on the structure. Core 2 220 kV 1. Clean the insulators of the VTs.2 A ferrule ‘E’ is generally used as prefix of the ferrule markings for indicating the wires of different cores of the VTs. Core 1 2.1 2.5 Metering Metering Metering Metering Metering Protection & Metering (connected in star) Directional Earth Fault Protection (connected in open delta) Protection & Metering (connected in star) Directional Earth Fault Protection (connected in open delta) Protection (connected in star) Directional Earth Fault Protection (connected in open delta) Protection & Metering (connected in star) Purpose 1.5 3P 0. Core 1 2.5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Measure the IR values of primary terminal to earth with 5 kV Megger.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Electromagnetic Voltage Transformers. The shorting should be finally removed before energizing the CVT.2 2. ERECTION: Carry out levelling of already erected structure(s) and minor fabrication work. Core 3 132 kV 1.2 0.5 0. Core 1 2. Core 3 1. for erection of the Capacitor Voltage Transformers / Potential Transformers.5 0. 2. Core 1 2.3 2. Core 2 3. Core 1 2.0 2. Sl. if applicable. The different cores of the secondary winding of the VT are used for the following purposes.CHAPTER – 9 CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (CVT) / POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS (PT) 1.4 2. The secondary windings are rated for 110 / √3 Volts.2 3P 0.No.5 0. generally referred to as Potential Transformers (PT). Core 2 33 kV 1. The term Voltage Transformer (VT) is used to cover both PT and CVT. if required.4 Accuracy Class 3P / 0. The CVT or its individual units should be kept shorted and earthed to prevent shock from accumulated charge. Core Number 11 kV 1. Core 2 400 kV 1.3 1. Assemble the different units of the same serial number of the CVT. This shorting may be temporarily removed for testing.5 3P 3P 0.

6 2.3 3. Fit the terminal connectors on the VT’s.1 3. if applicable. Connect all the cores of the secondary winding from the secondary terminal box of VTs (R. Y & B phases) to the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.88 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 2.2 3. Cabling & Wiring: Carry out laying of cables from secondary terminal box of the VTs to the bay Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box. The secondary windings of different phases of VTs are connected either in star or open delta.7 3. Dress and fix the cables in cable trays / trenches / supports / brackets. Typical wiring connections of 2 core CVTs and PTs in the Bay Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box are shown below: Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .0 3.5 3. Fix the cables in cable glands and then fix the cable glands on cable gland plates in the respective equipment.6 Fit the covers on the joints between different units of the CVT. One end of these windings must be earthed in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.4 3. The cores of VTs which are not used should be left open.

Verification of all the voltage ratios between the primary winding and all the secondary windings. 4. Check the tightness of the connections of the wiring of the secondary windings in the secondary terminal box and in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box. Check that the temporary shorting and earthing of the CVT or its units has been removed. Check that the formation of the star / neutral point or open delta connections of the secondary windings of the three phases of the VTs has been made correctly and that the neutral end of the star connected winding and one end of the open delta connected winding have been earthed in the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.5 4.3 5. Verification of use of the secondary windings as per their accuracy class / burden for protection / metering.Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT) / Potential Transformers (PT) 89 4. Check that the fuses provided in the VT secondary circuits are of correct rating and that there is proper grading of the fuses.2 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Earth the HF Terminal of CVT.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . if it is not used for PLCC system.7 5. Check the earthing of the VTs. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS (By Protection Wing): Measurement of insulation resistance between primary winding to earth.0 4.1 4.4 4.6 4. Verification of polarity between the primary winding and all the secondary windings. Check that there is no shorting in the wiring of the secondary circuit of the VTs.1 5.0 5. and all secondary windings to earth.3 4. primary winding to all the secondary windings.2 5.

6. and measuring the voltage at all points in the respective equipment in the control room. etc.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .90 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 5.. Y. such as meters and relays. ELECTROMAGNETIC PT’s AND CVT’s)” of RVPN (erstwhile RSEB) should be followed. B) by applying voltage through variac in each wire of the control cable from the VT to the control room. For operation and maintenance of Capacitor Voltage Transformers / Potential Transformers (CVT’s / PT’s). 33 KV AND 11 KV INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS (CT’s. the “MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR 132 KV.5 Verification of the connections of the voltage circuit of the VT secondary windings and verification of the phases (R. for each core at a time while keeping all the other cores in the VT disconnected.

3 3. The installation of the Lightning Arresters should be such that the direction of the open end of the explosion release vent (at top & bottom) is away from adjacent expensive equipment such as transformers. Clean the insulators of the Lightning Arresters. The insulated base unit should be erected in case of Lightning Arresters provided with surge monitors. Erection of 33 kV & 11 kV LAs: Make mounting arrangements on the beam of the already erected sub – station structures. as required.6 2.0 2.4 2. Clean the insulators of the Lightning Arresters. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Ensure that there is appropriate clearance (Min.4 4.10 LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 1.3 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The serial number of all the units of a multi – unit Lightning Arrester (LA) should be the same. if applicable. if provided. The units of a multi – unit Lightning Arrester should be assembled in the sequence shown on the rating plate of the LA or in the catalogue of the manufacturer. 25 mm) between the structure and the connection from the bottom most unit of the Lightning Arrester to the Surge Monitor as shown in the drawing below: 1.0 4.0 3.3 2.0 1. Fit the corona / grading ring on the top of the Lightning Arrester.1 3. carry out fitting of the corona rings between different units. Also.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1 2. Fit the terminal connectors on the Lightning Arresters. Assemble the different units of the same serial number of the Lightning Arresters.2 1.CHAPTER . if provided. Erection of LAs of 132 kV Class & Above: Level the already erected supporting structure(s) and carry out minor fabrication work thereon for erection of the Lightning Arresters and surge monitors. Fit the Surge Monitor on the structure and connect it to the lowest unit of the Lightning Arrester above the base insulator. Erect the Lightning Arresters on the already erected and levelled supporting structure(s).2 3.5 2.4 2. Fit the terminal connectors on the Lightning Arresters. Erect the Lightning Arresters on the already prepared arrangement on the beam of the substation structures.8 3.7 2.

0 5. and between the Surge Monitor and earth. check the tightness of the connection between the Lightning Arrester and the Surge Monitor.4 5. Note down the initial readings of the surge counters in the Surge Monitors. Check the tightness of the earthing connection of the Lightning Arrester for 33 kV & 11 kV LAs.92 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. Measure the insulation resistance between line end of LA to earth with 5kV Megger.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . with 5 kV Megger.3 4.1 5. if applicable.2 For LAs of 132 kV class & above.2 6. 4. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Measure the insulation resistance of individual units of the Lightning Arrester. The reading should be well within the “green zone” marked on the scale of the leakage current meters. Check the leakage current meters in the Surge Monitor after the Lightning Arresters are energized.

0 3.2 1.1 PRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS: Measure the insulation resistance between top and bottom part of the Post / Polycone Insulators with 5 kV Megger.0 1. Fit the clamps on the Post / Polycone Insulators. Assemble the parts of Post / Polycone Insulators. if provided.1 PRE-COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check the tightness of the earthing connection of the base of the Post / Polycone Insulators.0 2.3 1.6 ERECTION: Level the top plate of the already erected structure for Post / Polycone Insulators. 2.5 1. 3. Erect the Post / Polycone Insulators on the already erected supporting structure. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Fit the corona ring on the Post / Polycone Insulators. Clean the Post / Polycone Insulators.4 1.11 POST / POLYCONE INSULATORS 1.1 1.CHAPTER . if required.

94 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

3 4.3 4.4 2. ERECTION OF SUSPENSION TYPE WAVE TRAPS: Fit the hardware for fixing the Wave Trap to the suspension string assemblies of the designated phases.0 1. Line Type Type of Coupling Phase to Phase Inter – circuit Phases on which Wave Traps are to be erected Two phases of the line Same phase of both the circuits 1. S. ASSEMBLY: Clean the Wave Trap and its associated equipment.2 1.0 4.12 WAVE TRAPS 1.2 2.4 3. then the connecting plate between the joints of the parts of the Polycone Insulators is also fitted.No.CHAPTER .2 and para 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The Wave Traps are erected as below. For double circuit lines. Double Circuit 1.3 2. and position them correctly.2 4.0 2. Fit the Wave Trap on the already erected suspension string assemblies through suitable attachment. Fit the terminal connectors on the Wave Traps. Fit the tuning pot and associated equipment in the Wave Trap. Erect the polycone insulator(s) on the supporting structure. the Wave Traps are generally erected on the Y phase of both the circuits. Erect the Wave Trap on the polycone insulators.1 3.5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . if applicable. 1. In case three Polycone Insulators are provided for each Wave Trap and these are in parts. Hoist the Wave Trap through lifting arrangement on the beam of the sub-station structure.1 2. Assemble the parts of the Polycone Insulators. The Wave Traps may be required to be erected on phases different from those mentioned at para 1.1 4.4 4.0 3.3 For single circuit lines.3 above in case the end to end return loss is not found satisfactory during testing of the PLCC Carrier Sets. the Wave Traps are generally erected on R & B phases. Fit the end covers on the wave traps. ERECTION OF PEDESTAL TYPE WAVE TRAPS: Level the top plate of the already erected structure for wave trap.2 3. Single Circuit 2.

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Check that the strappings inside the LMU / LMDU are connected in the required manner so as to match with the impedance of the co – axial cable (75 ohms / 125 ohms as the case may be).4 3. Visual check for any dry solder in the circuits of the LMU / LMDU.1 3.5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Lay the co – axial cable between LMU and LMDU. ERECTION: Make arrangements / carry out minor fabrication work (if required) on the supporting structure of the 2 nos. Prepare the ends of the co – axial cable and fix the connectors at the ends.2 2. designated Capacitor Voltage Transformers (as per coupling requirement) for fixing of Line Matching Unit (LMU) / Line Matching Distribution Unit (LMDU).0 2.0 1. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check the tightness of the connection of HF terminal of the CVT and the connections in the LMU / LMDU. Fit the co – axial cable on the LMU and LMDU.1 2.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Open the earthing of the HF terminal of the CVTs and the LMU / LMDU before testing the system.0 3.13 LINE MATCHING UNIT (LMU) / LINE MATCHING DISTRIBUTION UNIT (LMDU) 1.5 2.CHAPTER .7 3. Check the tightness of connections in the LMU / LMDU.6 2. Earth the LMU / LMDU by connecting the earthing terminal to the earth mat.4 2.2 3.3 2. 2.3 3. These CVTs shall be of the same phase on which the wave traps have been / are to be erected. Fit the LMU / LMDU on the already erected structure. Check earthing of the LMU / LMDU. Connect the HF terminal of the Capacitor Voltage Transformer to the HF terminal of the LMU / LMDU.

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In case no erection plan is provided.6 4. ERECTION OF CAPACITOR BANKS: Erect the post insulators on the already erected structure(s). Measure the IR values to earth of Series Reactors with 5 kV Megger. centering and grouting.2 2.14 CAPACITOR BANKS 1.5 3. Refer to instructions in Chapter–11 for erection of post / polycone insulators. Erect the supporting structures on the foundation carry out their levelling.1 2. erect the frame of the first phase on the post insulators.0 1.3 3. Series Reactors and Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: DURING ERECTION WORK ON CAPACTIOR BANKS.1 4. Level the top of the already erected supporting structures and check their verticality. CAUTION: CAPACITOR BANKS SHOULD NOT BE SWITCHED ‘ON’ WITHIN 5 MINUTES OF SWITCHING OFF TO ALLOW THE CAPACITOR UNITS TO GET DISCHARGED.0 4.0 3.CHAPTER .2 3.1 3. Erect the capacitor units on the already erected frames as per the erection plan of the manufacturer so that the capacitances of all the phases are balanced. ERECTION OF STRUCTURES: Assemble the structures for the Capacitor Banks. Fit the post insulators and connecting strips for jumpering as per manufacturer’s general arrangement drawing. including fitting of external fuses if provided. Erect the frame of the second phase after erecting post insulators on the frame of the first phase.0 2.2 2. erect the frame of each phase of the Capacitor Bank on the post insulators. erect the frame of the third phase after erecting post insulators on the frame of the second phase.4 3.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . THE CAPACITOR SHOULD BE KEPT SHORTED AND EARTHED TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DUE TO ACCUMULATED CHARGE. 1. if the members are received in loose condition. Interconnect the capacitor units and phases as per manufacturer’s general arrangement drawing. In case individual structures are provided for each phase. In case only one structure is provided for all the three phases. Similarly. measure the capacitance of all the units and make phase wise combinations so that the capacitances of all the phases are balanced. ERECTION OF ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT: Clean the insulators of the Series Reactors and Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers.3 3.

3 Measure the IR values between primary terminal to earth and primary terminal to secondary terminals of Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers with 5 kV Megger. Chapter – 7 for erection of isolators and Chapter – 8 for erection of CTs.0 6.3 5. Check healthiness and rating of fuses of units of the Capacitor bank.1 7. Connect the cables as per schematic diagram of the Control & Relay Panel. Check the earthing of the structures and the equipment. Measurement of IR values to earth of Capacitor Banks & Series Reactors with 5 kV Megger.5 6. Check that there is no shorting and earthing of the Capacitor Units / Banks.4 6. Measurement of IR values between primary terminal to earth and primary terminal to secondary terminals of Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers with 5 kV Megger.4 4. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check for proper connections of Capacitor Bank units as per manufacturer’s drawings.6 6. Carry out pre – commissioning checks on circuit breaker.1 6.0 5.7 6. Check setting of timer (5 minutes) for closing interlock for Circuit Breaker (Timer should permit closing of CB only after passage of 5 minutes after tripping of CB). Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box and Control & Relay Panel.100 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. viz. Erect the circuit breaker with supporting structure. Erect the associated equipments.1 5. current transformers and isolators as per instructions in Chapter – 6 for erection of CB. 4.5 5. Chapter – 7 for erection of isolators and Chapter – 8 for erection of CTs. current transformers and isolators as per instructions in Chapter – 6 for erection of CB.0 7. Cabling & Wiring: Carry out laying of cables between the following: i) ii) Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers and the Marshalling Kiosk / Junction Box.2 6.8 7. Check oil level in the Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers and Series Reactors (if oil filled).4 6. 5. Series Reactors and Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers.3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Dress and fix the cables in cable trays / trenches / supports / brackets.2 7. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: (By Protection Wing / Capacitor Division) Measurement of capacitance of the three phases of the Capacitor Banks for verifying balancing..2 Fix the cables in cable glands and then fix the cable glands on cable gland plates in the respective equipment.

current transformers and isolators as per instructions in Chapter – 6 for erection of CB. Verification of ratio between primary & secondary windings of the Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers.4 Checking of polarity between primary & secondary windings of the Residual Voltage Transformers / Neutral Current Transformers.5 7.6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .Capacitor Banks 101 7. Chapter – 7 for erection of isolators and Chapter – 8 for erection of CTs. 7. Carry out pre – commissioning tests on circuit breaker.

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CHAPTER - 15

EARTHING
1.0 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Earthing of the Sub Station shall be done as per the earth mat design provided by the Design Wing and in accordance with the latest editions of Indian Electricity Rules, relevant Indian Standards & Codes of Practice and Regulations except where specifically increased / enhanced in the design. a) b) c) 1.2 1.3 IS – 3043: Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthing. Indian Electricity Rules, 1956 with latest amendments. National Electricity Safety Code, IEEE – 80.

A typical earth mat design of a Sub Station is enclosed as Annexure – A. The details of the earthing material generally used in a sub station are given below: S. No. Description & Size of Material 132 kV Sub 220 kV Sub 400 kV Sub Stations Stations Stations 25 mm dia. 28 mm dia. 40 mm dia. M.S. Rod M.S. Rod M.S. Rod 50 × 10 mm 50 × 12 mm 100 × 12 mm M.S. Flat M.S. Flat M.S. Flat / 75 × 12 mm G.I. Flat 50 × 6 mm 50 × 6 mm 50 × 6 mm M.S Flat M.S Flat M.S Flat

Purpose

1. Main Earthing Conductor for Earth Mat. 2. Earthing Conductor for Risers (for equipments & structures).

3.

Earthing of LT panels, DC panel, C & R Panels, marshalling boxes, Compressors, MOM boxes, junction boxes, lighting panels, etc. 4. Earth Electrodes

5. Earthing conductor along racks of cable trenches 1.4

25 mm dia. M.S. Rod, 3250 mm long N. A.

28 mm dia. M.S. Rod, 3250 mm long N. A.

40 mm dia. M.S. Rod, 3250 mm long 50 × 12 mm M.S. Flat

All equipments and structures are required to be earthed by two separate and distinct connections with earth as per Rule 61 of the Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. The neutrals of all voltage levels of transformers / reactors shall be earthed through independent earthing. All these earthing points should be interconnected with the sub station earth mat. Each earthing lead from the neutral of the power transformer / reactor shall be directly connected to two earth electrodes separately which, in turn, shall be connected to the earth mesh. The transformer / reactor tanks as well as associated accessories like separate cooler banks shall also be connected to the earth mat at two points. Capacitor Voltage Transformers & Lightning Arresters shall be earthed through two independent risers directly connected to earth electrodes which should in turn be connected to the sub station earth mat. The distance between the electrodes should not be less than 4.0 metres.

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All other equipments such as Circuit Breakers, CTs, Isolators, Post Insulators, etc. shall also be earthed at two points. Bus Bar structures and equipment structures shall be earthed at two points. Marshalling boxes, cubicles, C & R Panels and all other metallic enclosures, which are normally not carrying any current, shall also be earthed. All the earthing connections to the earth mat shall be by 2 nos. direct earthing risers free from kinks and of the shortest length. The two earthing connections / risers should be connected to the different sides of the earth mat enclosing the structure / equipment to be earthed. For equipment earthing (including isolators), the earthing risers should be connected to the earthing terminal / pad of equipment and brought down along the leg / main member of structure and connected to the earth mat. The structure shall not be used as a part of the earthing. Burial of Earthing Conductor: The alignment of the earth mat conductor can be changed by forming U – loops in case it fouls with equipment / structure foundations. The average spacing for East - West rows and for North - South rows of the earth mat shall, however, be kept as near as possible to the spacing indicated in the earth mat design. Earthing conductors in the switchyard area shall be buried at least 600 mm below finished ground level unless stated otherwise. Earthing conductor around any building shall be buried in earth at a minimum distance of 1500 mm from the outer boundary of the building. In case high temperature is encountered at any location, the earthing conductor shall be laid at a minimum distance of 1500 mm away from such location. Earthing conductors, if embedded in the concrete, shall have approximately 50 mm concrete cover. Earthing conductors laid in cable trenches, ladder columns, beams, walls, etc. shall be supported by suitable welding / cleating at intervals of 750 mm. Wherever earthing conductors pass through walls, floors, etc., galvanized iron sleeves shall be provided for the passage of the conductor and both ends of the sleeve shall be sealed to prevent the passage of water through the sleeves. The earthing conductors shall be clamped with the equipment support structures at 1000 mm interval. Transformer / Railway tracks within the switchyard area shall be earthed at a spacing of 30 meters and also at both ends. Flexible earthing connectors shall be provided for the moving parts of equipments such as earthing switches and operating handles of isolators, etc. All lighting panels, lighting fixtures, junction boxes, receptacles, conduits, etc. shall be earthed.

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Earthing risers shall be run from the peaks of structures to the main earth mesh. The earthing bonds of the earth wire tension hardware shall be connected at the top of this earthing riser with bolts and nuts. Bending of earthing rod and flat shall preferably be done by gas heating. Fencing should be separately earthed. Independent earthing conductor for earthing of fencing, buried at a depth of 600 mm, shall be provided 2 metres outside the switchyard fence. All the gates and every alternate post of the fence shall be connected to this earthing conductor at the corners and at every 20 metres. EARTH ELECTRODES: The length of earth electrodes shall not be less than 3250 mm and shall be of one piece. Except where rock is encountered, rods shall be driven to a depth of at least 3000 mm. Where rock is encountered at a depth of less than 3600 mm, the electrodes can be buried inclined to the vertical at an angle not more than 30° from the vertical. In all other cases, drilling shall be done for providing the pit for the electrode. To reduce the depth of burial of an electrode in case of rocky soil without increasing the resistance, a number of rods can be connected together in parallel. The resistance in this case is practically proportional to the reciprocal of the number of electrodes used so long as each is situated outside the resistance area of the other. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode. JOINTS: Minimum joints shall be made in the earth mat conductor as well as in preparing the risers. All joints in the steel earthing system, except those where earth mat may have to be separated from equipment, etc. for testing, shall be made by electric arc welding. Welded surfaces should be painted with bitumen compound and afterwards coated with bitumen tape to protect them from rusting and corrosion. Joints in the earthing conductor between the switchgear units and such other points which may be required to be subsequently opened for testing should be bolted type. The bolted connections, after being checked and tested, shall be painted with anticorrosive paint / compound. These joints should be accessible and frequently supervised. Earthing connections with equipment earthing pads shall be bolted type. Contact surfaces shall be free from scale, paint, enamel, grease, rust or dirt. Steel to copper connections shall be first bolted, then brazed and shall be coated with bitumen tape to moisture ingression. All welded joints shall be allowed to cool down gradually to atmospheric temperature. Artificial cooling should not be used. The entire surface of the earth mat is to be covered with 100 mm layer gravel extended one meter beyond the periphery of earth mat. The layer of the gravel may be protected by providing suitable brick / stone lining, wherever required.

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then 4 nos.4 2. To reduce the depth of excavation and burial of an electrode in case of rocky soil without increasing the resistance. electrodes.3 2. Earth Electrode in Hard Soil: Excavate a pit approximately1 M. A sketch showing this type of arrangement is given below. Augur a hole in the ground to a depth of 3 metres.0 PLACING OF EARTH ELECTRODES: (See Annexure – B: (I) EARTH ELECTRODE) Cut M.6 metre depth.25 meters (or more if full length of rod is more) and.3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . if the depth of excavation is reduced to 1350 mm (600 mm below ground level + 750 mm electrode depth). Backfill the excavation and compact the soil after completion of the work. carry out drilling of the rocky soil for providing the pit for the electrode.3. up to 0. In all other cases.2 2. Earth Electrode in Rocky Soil: Where rock is encountered at a depth of less than 3600 mm below the foundation level. x 1 M up to 0. shall be welded together. Rod of the applicable diameter to approximate lengths of 3.3 2. The distance between any two electrodes in the example above shall not be less than 2000 mm. 2.25 metres for each length.55 meter below the foundation top level.1 2. excavate a trench which is inclined to the vertical at an angle not more than 30° from the vertical.1 2. The resistance in this case is practically proportional to the reciprocal of the number of electrodes used.6 metre depth.2. The distance between two electrodes in such a case shall preferably be not less than twice the length of the electrode.1 2.4 2.4. Hence. Place the electrode in the augured hole such that the top of the electrode is 0. S.00 metres plus 0.2 2. a number of rods are connected together in parallel. x 1 M.2.4.1 2.3.55 metre below the foundation top level.3.2 2.106 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 2.25 metres of the electrode above the ground for connecting it to the earth mat rods. each of length 1000 mm (3000 ÷ 4 = 750 mm + 250 mm). the total length of such electrodes should be equal to 3. if required.3.2 2.4. prepare one end as spike for placing / driving into the ground. This will leave 0. For example. Earth Electrode in Loose / Sandy Soil: Excavate a pit approximately1 M. Place the earth electrode in the excavated pit and drive it in the ground with a sledgehammer such that the top of the electrode is 0.

S.S. apply bituminous compound to the hot joints. underground service ducts. First weld these together at the crossing point. Angles from M. Straight Joints of M.7. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B. S. Cross Joints of M. Flat of size to be used for earthing risers and of length equal to 10 times the diameter of the M. Where different ground levels are provided in the switchyard.2 3. 2.. Backfill the excavation and compact the soil after completion of the work.3 3.9 3. ROD AT EARTH ELECTRODE AND AT MESH CROSSINGS.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .4 3. Flat of size to be used for earthing risers and of length equal to 10 times the diameter of the M. ROD AT EARTH ELECTRODE AND AT MESH CROSSINGS. Clamp / hold these two lengths of M. S.80 meter below the foundation top level. S. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B.g. to reduce the resistance to earth. S.S. ROD TO M. S.5 For connecting the electrode to the earth mat. S. place two pieces of M.6. Fabricate four cleats in the shape of M. increase the depth of excavation so that it can be laid 300 mm below the road or at a greater depth to suit the site conditions. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B. After welding. Rods crossing each other. Wherever the earth mat is to cross cable trenches. S. ROD TO M. S.S. S. and cover the joints with bitumen impregnated tape. e. Flat of size to be used for earthing risers and length 4 times the diameter of the rods on both sides of this joint.S. and weld these pieces on the rods.3 3. (III): JOINT OF M. or a combination of bentonite and black cotton soil in the ratio of 1:6. apply bituminous compound to the hot joints. S. the backfilling can also be done with Bentonite. ROD TO M. clamp / hold the M. S.0 3.7 2. Thereafter. Lay the M.5 3..2 3. S. Rod of 25 mm diameter. Rod. Rod. increase the depth of excavation so that it can be laid at a minimum depth of 300 mm below them. In case of rocky soil.6. First weld these together at the crossing point.6 2.Earthing 107 2. Weld these at all the corners of the joint. Fabricate four cleats in the shape of M. S. Angles from M.S.1 3.1 3.6. (II): JOINT OF M. transformer tracks.6 3.7. Wherever the earth mat is to cross a road. Weld these at all the corners of the joint. Rods in the Earth Mat: Place the rods so that they overlap each other by 4 times their diameter.1 3. Rods together and weld them on both sides. After welding. Rods in the Earth Mat: Clamp / hold together the two M. and cover the joints with bitumen impregnated tape.8 2. Rod in the excavated trenches.S. uniformly increase the depth of excavation in the higher level from a distance of 5 metres from the lower level so as to attain the required depth of excavation in the lower level. ROD IN EARTH MAT. LAYING OF EARTH MAT: Excavate trenches along the specified alignments to a depth of 0. 100 mm in case of M. Rods of the electrode and the earth mat together. (II): JOINT OF M. pipes.7 3. etc.

Weld these at the joint.4 4. Angles from M.6 4. Cut M. Flat risers.S. Flat riser to the rod of the earth mat after fitting / welding it to the equipment / structure / structure peak. to form a smooth and regular shape to match with the shape / form of the equipment / structures / foundation. 3. S. ROD AT EARTH ELECTRODE. and cover the joints with bitumen impregnated tape. S. Place the M.S. Lay the prepared M. S. Rod. S. After placing the M. (IV): JOINT OF M. S. Weld these to both the rod and the flat.8. For bolted type fitting. Angle 50 x 50 x 6 mm of length equal to the width of the M.5 4.S. apply bituminous compound to the hot joints. PREPARATION AND FITTING OF RISERS: Excavate trench from the equipment / structure foundation to the nearest rod of the earth mat. clamp / hold them together to provide good surface contact. FLAT. Joint of M. S. Weld the two sides of the joint as well as the part between the flats on the top surface. The depth shall be 0. Flat below the rod.3 After welding. and cover the joints with bitumen impregnated tape.2 4. S.8 3. (V): JOINT OF M. First weld these together at the crossing point. Flat. ROD TO M. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B. Flat. flat riser from the equipment / structure / peak of the structure to the rod of the earth mesh in the excavated trench and then connect it to the equipment or structures or structure peak. S.8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . S.9 4. apply bituminous compound to the hot joints. FLAT TO M. After welding. Flat 50 × 6 mm into a stirrup (as shown in the drawing) and place on the joint of the rod and flat. drill necessary holes in the riser and fix it with bolts & nuts. Backfill the excavation and compact the soil after completion of the work.3 4. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B. FLAT TO M. Alternatively. The shape of the risers should be same / similar for the same type of equipment / structure. Rod and the earth electrode. S. After welding. Clamp the earthing risers with the equipment support structures at 1000 mm intervals. S. S. Then form a piece of M.S. A typical joint is shown in Annexure – B.2 3.80 meter below the foundation top level. Flat and place these on both sides of the joint of the rod and flat.1 4. the two lengths of the M. flats one above the other as above. Backfill the excavation and compact the soil after completion of the work. (VI) JOINT OF M.8. Fabricate two cleats in the shape of M. apply bituminous compound to the hot joints and cover the joints with bitumen impregnated tape. weld a length equal to at least twice the width of the M.7 4. S. cut two pieces of M. Flat should overlap each other by twice the width of the M.S. In case joints are required to increase the length of the M. and weld on both sides of the rod. Flat of size to be used for earthing risers and of length equal to 10 times the diameter of the M. S. S. The fitting to the equipment / structure may be bolted type (earthing terminal / pad of the equipment) or welded type (structure). Weld the M. clamp / hold them together. Rod and Earth Electrode: Clamp / hold together the M. Flat of the required length and form / bend it. S.108 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 3. For welded type fitting.7.1 3.0 4. by heating if required. ROD OF EARTH MAT.S.8.S.3 3.

Earthing 109 4.10 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 4.9 Apply red oxide paint and then green enamel paint on the portion of the risers above ground level. A drawing showing the typical arrangement for earthing of equipment and its structure is given at Annexure – C.

110 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – A Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Earthing 111 ANNEXURE – B Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

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116 Construction Manual for Sub Stations ANNEXURE – C Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

b) Marshalling Kiosk to Equipment.3 2.0 1.4 2. small lengths can be unwound from the drum. d) Equipment to Equipment in switchyard. PAYING OUT OF CABLES: Handle the cable with care to prevent forming of kinks and damage to the insulation of the cable.CHAPTER – 16 CABLE LAYING AND WIRING 1. place the cable drum on a turn table or jack up the drum on a suitable size of steel shaft. When the cable is to be taken from drums. leaving minimum scrap lengths.No.3 1. 1.5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . The required lengths of cables are laid between the following equipments: a) C&R Panels in Control Room to Marshalling Kiosk. Rolling of drums shall be avoided as far as possible. e) C&R Panel to C&R Panel / other panels in Control room. 2. etc.2 1. the drums may be rolled in the same direction as it was rolled during winding. Pulling out of cables from stationary drums shall not be permitted. The cable shall be laid in a manner so that there are no scratches or damages caused to the cable due to rubbing on the sides of the drum.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Prior to laying of cables.6 Cut lengths of cable which are available as surplus / left over material from other works should preferably be used first.1 2. Small cut lengths of cable left after laying long lengths can be used for bus wiring and looping.5 Where ‘D’ is overall diameter of the cable. 2. Type of cable Power cable Control cable Minimum bending radius 12 D 10 D 1.4 1. The cables are cut after taking into account the length required for connecting to the farthest terminals of the terminal block in the & Relay Panel / MK / equipment at both the ends. the number of cables of each size and their lengths shall be assessed. c) Marshalling Kiosk to Marshalling Kiosk. Cable drums shall be unloaded. For longer lengths. 1. Cables shall not be bent below the minimum permissible limits given below: S. The drums may be rolled for short distances provided they are rolled slowly and in the direction marked on the drum. handled and stored properly. In the absence of any indication.0 2.2 2. The cable laying schedule should then be prepared so that maximum length of the cable in a drum can be utilized.

2 4. C. the depth shall be increased such that the bottom of the trench is 40cm below them.2 The cables are securely fixed on the racks in the cable trenches.3 4. Cable tags shall also be provided inside the switchgear. 3.3 3. Rectangular shaped cable tag / marking strip of 1. The width may be increased in case a number of cables are to be laid.2 4.. supply.3.5 4.2 3. Power and control cables shall be laid in separate tiers. Cover the cable with bricks and backfill the trench with the excavated sand. Particular care shall be taken when cables are laid in vertical & inclined cable trenches / galleries / vaults or supports.118 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 3. etc.1 3. control and relay panels. 3.1 4. The order of placing cables (other than those directly buried) in cable trenches shall be as follows: a) b) c) Bottom tiers: Middle tiers: Upper most tiers: Power Cables / Cables having A. Secure the cables on the supports above ground level.3. The numbering of cables on the tags shall be done as per cable schedule. on both sides of a wall / floor crossing & on each duct / conduit entry for identification of the cable.6. supply. identification of initial point and terminating end of equipment / Panel. Cover the bottom of the trench with a layer of sand 25 cm thick.0 3.0 mm thick aluminum with the description punched on it shall be securely attached to the cable by not less that two turns of 20 SWG GI wire.6. wherever required for cable identification. Compact the sand by ramming. Marking and Tagging: Provide cable tag / marking strip on all cables at both ends (just before entry into the equipment enclosure). and a cable number are punched on the cable tag / marking strip.3 4. They shall also be located on both sides of road and drain crossings.0 4.1 LAYING OF CABLES IN TRENCHES: The cables are placed in the racks in cable trenches.1 4. Marking and Tagging: Directly buried underground cables shall be clearly identified with cable marker made of iron plate.3. The markers shall project 150 mm above ground and shall be placed at intervals of 30 meters and at every change in direction. Generally Cable size. Location of underground cable joints shall also be indicated with cable marker with an additional inscription "Cable joints". Lay the cable in the excavated trench. Cables having D. Cables from CT / CVT / PT. At crossings of cable trenches / roads / transformer tracks / pipes / earth mat conductor.C.3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . LAYING OF UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES: Excavate trench of 30 cm width and 75 cm depth along the proposed route / alignment.6 4.6.4 4.. etc.

2. Bend the armouring to fit the gland.5 6. strip off the outer and inner insulation sheaths of the cable. Cut off the armouring for the stripped off length keeping a small length for fitting in the cable gland. etc. as required) of appropriate size on the wire.1 5. shall be neatly bunched. WIRE TERMINATION: Identify each cores of the cable either by its physical location / marking / numbering or by testing continuity from both ends.Control Cable Laying and Wiring 119 5. Fix the cable gland on the cable end and then fix the cable gland on the gland plate of the equipment / panel. therefore. This should be done after proper dressing of the wire in the wiring trough. the complete cable number may also be included in the tag / ferrule on each core.0 5. Fit the gland nut and tighten. Mark all the spare cores of the cables with tags / ferrules indicating the cable number. strip off the outer and inner insulation sheaths of the cable. Fit the cable gland on the gland plate of the equipment/ panel. Connect the wire to its terminal on the terminal block and tighten to ensure secure and reliable connection. Strip off the insulation of the cable for sufficient length so that any wire of the cable can be terminated at the farthest terminal in the terminal blocks. wire identification may be difficult. equipments. 5.2 6.3 6.7 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Crimp the termination end / thimble / lug (pin or ring type. In panels in which a large number of cables are terminated. Mark each core of the cable at both ends with a tag / ferrule as per cable schedule / schematic drawing. For unarmoured cable. For armoured cables. etc. for fixing the cables.1 CABLE TERMINATION: Drill the required holes in the gland plates of the panels / equipment. Cut each wire at the length required for terminating it on the terminal block. Strip off the insulation of each core of the cable which is to be connected. Fit the gland nut in the cable.6 6.0 6.3 6. All the wires in the Control & Relay panels. clamped and tied with nylon strap or PVC perforated strap to keep them in position.2. Seal all unused openings for cables in the cable gland plate to prevent entry of vermin and dust.2 5.2 5.1 6.4 6.

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The charging current should be limited to a maximum of 20 % of the 10 hour capacity of the Battery Set. The float voltage (2.0 1. or the capacity of the battery charger. Ambient Temperature in ºC 32 37 42 47 52 1.2 1.4 1. After a discharge. STORAGE: The VRLA batteries are supplied in the factory charged condition and can be stored up to a maximum of 6 months at an ambient temperature not exceeding 27ºC without requiring a freshening charge. The table below shows the charging interval at the various elevated temperature before which a freshening charge is to be given.5 1. The recommended maximum boost charging voltage is 2.5 1.0 2. whichever is earlier. If the ambient temperature during storage is above 27ºC.23 V / 2. Clean the batteries as and when dust accumulates. If VRLA batteries are stored for a longer duration at an ambient temperature not exceeding 27ºC.0 4.30 volts per cell. the batteries should be recharged immediately.1 1.2.17 BATTERY SETS (VALVE REGULATED LEAD ACID / VRLA) 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Battery charging and discharging and all activities related to the erection and installation of the Battery Set should be carried out strictly as per the recommendations / directions / procedure given in the Erection & Installation Manual of the Battery Manufacturer.3 The VRLA batteries should be charged with constant potential chargers. the batteries must be given a freshening charge (as per para 3.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .2 1. Re .6. fire. Keep the batteries away from heat sources. sparks. The terminal bolt connections should be tightened to a torque as mentioned in the manufacturer’s erection manual.25 V) of VRLA Battery Set should be set as per the manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum service life. etc.2.25 1. then a freshening charge (as per para 3.3 Charging Interval (in months) 6.0) at shorter intervals.5 3. DO’S & DON’TS: DO’S: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Store the batteries in covered area. 1. Read “Installation and Operating Instruction Manual” prior to installation of the VRLA batteries. The electrical contacting surfaces should be free from dust.1 volts per cell. etc.CHAPTER .0) should be given once in 6 months or when the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) drops to 2.6 1.torque the connections once every six months.2.

). etc. and install the mounting frame / stand in the battery room.3 2.1 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .5 2. on the cells. Also connect the positive terminal of the 48th cell (for 110 V Battery Set) / 96th cell (for 220 V Battery Set) to the battery tap terminal of the battery charger. Do not over tighten the terminal bolts. Do not mix ordinary conventional lead acid batteries with maintenance free VRLA batteries. Do not attempt to add water or acid in the batteries.0 2. Connect the positive terminal of the 54th cell (for 110 V Battery Set) / 108th cell (for 220 V Battery Set) and the negative terminal of the 1st cell of the Battery Set to the positive and negative terminals of the battery charger respectively. Clean terminal surfaces of the cells with clean dry cotton cloth.1 2. using the inter cell connectors after applying a thin layer of petroleum jelly on the bolts (only those supplied with the Battery Set should be used). Do not mix the batteries of different capacities or makes.122 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 1. Do not allow any metal objects to rest on the battery or fall across the battery terminals.30 volts / cell. front cover. as supplied. The current should not be allowed to exceed 20 % of the 10 hour capacity of the Battery Set or the capacity of the battery charger.4 2. FRESHENING CHARGE: Give a freshening charge to the Battery Set by gradually increasing the voltage. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. rain.6. 2.7 A minimum free space of one meter should be provided on all sides of the Battery Set for ease in assembly and carrying out periodic checks. No such battery tap is provided in 48 V Battery Set. top cover and instruction labels. ERECTION: Assemble.7 3.1 2. Lay the cables for connecting the Battery Set to the battery charger.0 3. Make inter cell connections. Tighten the terminals and inter cell connectors to a torque as mentioned in the manufacturer’s erection manual. Do not use abrasive brush or steel brush to clean the electrical contacting surfaces.2 DON’TS: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Do not store the batteries in places which are exposed to direct sunlight. dust storm. 1. Do not tamper with safety valves. Fit battery identification label (serial no. as per manufacturer’s general arrangement drawings.2 2.6 2. Do not attempt to dismantle the battery. Do not install the Battery Set in air tight enclosure. if required. Erect the modules containing the cells on the mounting frame / stand as per the Manufacturer's manual and erection drawings. Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires. The voltage should not be allowed to exceed 2.

4. whichever is earlier.75 Volts 4.6 below. with reference to the ambient temperature.30 24 hrs.98 Volts 1.e.75 × n (where n is the number of cells in the Battery Set). The temperature of the battery terminal shall be measured as it will be almost the same as the electrolyte. C. Either of the two options given in the table below can be adopted. Time Above 32 °C 2.30 12 hrs. This shall be taken as the period of discharge. the matter should be referred to the manufacturer. c) Note the time in hours elapsing between the beginning and end of the discharge.23 30 hrs.2 4.0 4.5 If 100% or more capacity is achieved at any time during the above discharge test.1 DISCHARGE / CAPACITY TEST: The Battery Set shall be discharged after keeping it open circuit for not less than 2 hours and not more 24 hours from the completion of full charge. and thereafter every 15 minutes up to the end voltage. ‘C27’ is the Capacity of the Battery Set at 27 Deg..3 During the above discharge test. d) The average temperature of the electrolyte during discharge shall be the average of the temperature readings noted at hourly intervals during discharge. are given below.75 volts or the total battery close circuit voltage reaches 1. 4. Finally charge the Battery Set as per para 5. i. and ‘Ct’ is the measured Capacity of the Battery Set at ‘t’ Deg. equalize the voltage of all the cells as given at para 4. 15 – 32 °C 2.6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .28 12 hrs. a) After six minutes from the start of discharge: b) After six hours of discharge: c) At ten hours of discharge: 1. Discharge the Battery Set at its 10 hour rate. This capacity is corrected to 27 Deg. If this is not achieved.92 Volts 1.0 and put it in operation in the floating mode as per para 7.0. 4. 2. Time Cell Voltage 2. Below 15 °C 2. 100 where ‘t’ is the average ambient temperature of the battery room. Option Temperature Cell Voltage 1. 4. 2.25 30 hrs.Battery Sets (Valve Regulated Lead Acid / VRLA) 123 3.2 The duration of the freshening charge and the voltage at which the Battery Set is to be charged. a) Maintain the discharge current within ± 1 percent of the specified rate of discharge.25 60 hrs. b) Record the voltmeter and ammeter readings every 5 minutes for the first 15 minutes.43 × ( 27 – t ) . The minimum acceptable capacity of the Battery Set (corrected to 27°C) which is to be achieved during the above discharge test is 85 % of the rated capacity. 2. the cell voltages shall not be les than the following values. C. C by the formula: C27 = Ct + Ct × 0. at a current equal to 10 % of its rated ampere hour capacity till the voltage of any one cell reaches 1.4 The capacity of the Battery Set is obtained by multiplying the discharge current in amperes by the time in hours as observed above.

then charge the Battery set as per para 5.30 volts / cell.2 8. finally charge the Battery Set and put it in operation in the floating mode. Calculate the capacity as given at para 4.2 6. Continue discharging the Battery Set at its 10 hour rate.7 If 85% or more capacity is achieved during the above discharge test. Measure the voltages of all the cells of the Battery Set and record for future reference.0 6.0 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . CHARGING / RECHARGING: Immediately after the discharging is completed.1 7.75 V.75 V until the voltage of all the cells reaches 1.8 Charge and discharge the Battery Set until 100 % capacity is achieved.9 5. switch off the boost charger. If the Battery set has achieved 100% capacity. then equalize the voltage of all the cells as given below.1 and 4. If 100 % capacity of the Battery Set is not achieved even after these five discharges.0 5.124 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. Switch on the float charger after setting its output voltage as per manufacturer’s recommendations.3 and take necessary action as required. Continue the charging till the charging current reduces to a negligible value.1 6. The current should not be allowed to exceed 20% of the 10 hour capacity of the Battery Set or the capacity of the battery charger. a) b) c) Bypass the cell that has first reached 1. the Battery Set should be charged by gradually increasing the voltage. DISCHARGING: Discharging of the Battery Set is to be done as per procedure given at paras 4.1.2.2 7.2. the Battery Set should not be accepted and the matter should be referred to the manufacturer. note the time in hours elapsing from the beginning to the end of the discharge. The voltage should not be allowed to exceed 2.1 5. Keep bypassing the cells that reach 1. After the Battery Set has been fully charged as per para 5.75V. 4. 4. If this discharge is a capacity test. If 100% capacity is achieved within another four discharges.

S. 9. First connect the cables to the positive and the negative terminals of the DC Panel. 3.5 2.2 2. Measure insulation resistance of panel wiring with 500 V Megger before connecting any cable. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. 7. Lay the cable from the LT Panel to the DC Panel for AC supply. 4. The DC supply to the panels / schemes is connected as per the DC supply scheme.4 2. Lay the cables from the DC Panel to the respective C & R Panels / equipment. 2.3 2. Connect the cable at both the ends.6 2.8 2. Then connect the cables to the positive and the negative terminals of the battery charger. 1.0 2. Connect one end of the individual cables to the terminals in the terminal blocks corresponding to the designated MCB’s in DC Panel. 10. 11. Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires.3 2. Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires. 33 kV side LT & RTCC Panels PLCC / SLDC Emergency Light Bus Bar & LBB Protection Spare 132 kV GSS 132 kV C & R Panels 33 kV C & R Panels Annunciation.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The DC supply to the various circuits / panels at 220 kV and 132 kV sub stations are connected from independent MCB’s. 132 kV side Annunciation. 33 kV side LT & RTCC Panels PLCC / SLDC Emergency Light Spare At 400 kV sub stations.18 DC PANELS 1.0 1. 6. 132 kV side Annunciation. two independent Battery Sets and DC Panels are provided. The typical distribution of the MCB’s is as below. 5.7 2. Place the DC Panel at its designated location in the control room as per layout. ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Check the DC Panel for any mechanical damage before installation. 1. Fix / bolt the DC Panel on the trench provided in the floor of the control room or on the base frame if provided.9 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .CHAPTER . Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. Lay the cables from the DC Panel to the battery charger. 1. 220 kV side Annunciation.2 220 kV GSS 220 kV C & R Panels 132 kV C & R Panels 33 kV C & R Panels Annunciation.No. 8. Connect the other end of the cables in the respective C & R panels.1 2.

2 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check tightening of all terminal connections.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Trace the fault and rectify the earth fault.4 3. etc. Check the voltages on the voltmeter at the different selector switch positions of “+ve to Earth” and “–ve to Earth”.6 3. Set it at the minimum setting. Check the operation of the emergency lighting system.0 4. i. Check functioning of space heater and internal illumination circuits.8. Check the annunciations such as “DC supply fail”.2 4. The voltages at “+ve to Earth” and “–ve to Earth” positions of selector switch should be equal. it indicates an earth fault in the negative circuit. Switch off the AC supply to the DC Panel. If the “–ve to Earth” voltage is less than the “+ve to Earth” voltage. If the “+ve to Earth” voltage is less than the “–ve to Earth” voltage. Check earthing of the DC Panel to the earth mat. it indicates an earth fault in the DC system connected at this stage.7 and para 3.9 4. as provided in the DC Panel.. Identify the polarity (+ve or –ve) which is earthed as given at para 3. it indicates an earth fault in the DC system connected at this stage.126 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 3. Check the voltage on the voltmeter at the selector switch position “+ ve to – ve”. by following the steps given at para 3. 3. Check that AC supply is available at the designated outgoing terminals for the emergency lighting circuit. “DC earth fault”. Carry out checking of DC earth fault. per cell voltage multiplied by the tapped cell (48th cell of 110 V DC system or 96th cell of 220 V DC system). POST – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Switch on the individual MCB’s and check the voltage and polarity of DC supply at the corresponding outgoing terminals. If the relay operates.0 3. it indicates an earth fault in the positive circuit. Check the working of the DC earth fault relay. Check the availability of battery tap voltage.1 4. Switch ON the boost circuit and switch OFF the float circuit in the battery charger.8 after switching on each MCB. and rectification if required. Switch on the AC supply to the DC Panel. If these are not equal. Keep the voltmeter selector switch in the position “+ve to –ve”.1 3.3 3.e.8 3. Check the voltage and polarity of the DC supply at the terminals of the incoming cable from battery charger. The voltage on the voltmeter should correspond to the tapping voltage.7 3. The voltmeter should show full DC voltage. Check that DC supply is available at these outgoing terminals.3 4.5 3.

“Fuse Failure”.3 1. “DC earth fault”. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check tightening of all terminal connections. The output voltage should increase to the set value. etc. Keep the Auto – Manual switch in Auto position.4 2.CHAPTER . it should be ensured that the rating of the relevant section is not exceeded. Put the switch in Auto position.4 4.9 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Lower the voltage manually to check operation of the control circuit. Calibrate the DC voltmeter. The cables to the Battery Set and the DC Panel should not be connected.2 1.2 4. Switch off the Float Charger.0 1.8 4. as provided. Repeat the above test by increasing the voltage.3 4. Raise the voltage manually to the required output value and check the voltage and polarity on the load and battery terminals.5 4.3 3. Place the temperature sensor in the battery room and connect it to the Battery Charger. Switch on the AC supply and check the voltages on the terminals of the incoming cable. Fix / bolt the Battery Charger on the trench provided in the floor of the control room. Keep the Auto – Manual switch in Manual position. During battery boost charging and in float operation. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Connect only the AC supply cable from the LT Panel.0 3. Keep the Boost Charger voltage selecting taps (Coarse and Fine) / voltage setting at the minimum position. Set the output voltage to the required value. ALWAYS KEEP THE FLOAT CHARGER ON EVEN WHEN BOOST CHARGING THE BATTERY SET IN SERVICE.7 4. Switch on the Float Charger.2 2.6 4.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Maintain a minimum spacing of 15 cm between the Battery Charger and other panels on both the sides for proper ventilation.19 BATTERY CHARGERS 1.0 4. Adjust the voltage setting if required. Check the annunciations such as “AC supply fail”.2 4. Place the Battery Charger at its designated location in the control room as per layout.1 3. The output voltage should decrease to the set value. ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Check the Battery Charger for any mechanical damage before installation. Put the switch in the Manual position and lower the voltage. Switch on the Boost Charger.1 4.0 2.1 2. 1. Check earthing of the Battery Charger to the earth mat.

Adjust the setting of the output current limiting circuit so that the output current does not exceed the rating of the Float Charger. switch off the Float Charger (with the Boost Charger off) and check that the full Battery voltage is available on the DC Panel and feeding to the load.5 5.10 Check the voltage and polarity on the battery terminals. If this does not happen. Raise the voltage manually. The float output ammeter will show load current when the float output voltage exceeds the Battery voltage. Return the voltage selecting taps (Coarse and Fine) / voltage setting to the minimum position. Keep the Float Charger Auto – Manual switch in Manual position. Check that the charge / discharge ammeter also shows current in the charge direction. Check that the rated voltage is available on the load terminals.128 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 4. Switch on the Boost Charger. Put the Keyed Push Button (Boost as Float) in the ON position. Reduce the voltage.12 4. When the load current exceeds the setting of the current limiting circuit. Set the voltage to the rated value.1 5. The charge / discharge ammeter on the Battery Charger should show the current on the discharge side.2 5.11 4.13 5. Raise the voltage to the maximum output value and check the voltage on the battery terminals. Check that the charge / discharge ammeter shows current in the charge direction. Connect the cables to the Battery Set and the DC Panel. The output ammeter will show load current when the output voltage exceeds the Battery voltage. Switch off the Boost Charger. Raise the voltage.0 5. put the Auto – Manual switch in Manual position and decrease the output voltage. Put the Float Charger Auto – Manual switch in Auto Position. POST – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: The voltmeter should show the Battery voltage in the Battery position. The float output current will start increasing. the float output voltage and current should automatically decrease. 4.3 5. Switch off the Float Charger.6 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Switch on the Float Charger. It should also show the Tap voltage in Battery Tap position.4 5. The float output ammeter will show load current when the output voltage exceeds the Battery voltage. Keep the Boost Charger voltage selecting taps (Coarse and Fine) / voltage setting at the minimum position. After connecting load to the Battery set. Switch off the Boost Charger.

2 2. Level the panels and check their verticality.0 2.1 2.2 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . S. LBB Protection schemes. protection schemes.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Check and ensure that the Control & Relay Panels being installed are meeting the requirements of DC control voltage (110V or 220V) and CT secondary rating (1A or 5A). these shall be bolted together. etc.4 2. integrating meters.1 4. for their 1.1 3. by the Protection wing. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check the tightness of all terminal connections. etc. There shall be no gap between panels which are placed adjacent to each other. ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Place the panels at their designated locations on the trenches in the Control Room as per layout. ICT’s. for conformity of their characteristics to the specifications and to the technical information / details / particulars intimated by the manufacturer. connect the control panel to the relay panel across the corridor using the fittings provided with the panels. Check the availability of DC supply and AC supply in the Control & Relay Panels. as well as special schemes / equipment for 400 kV GSS should be tested / got tested as per their schematic diagrams.3 2. Event Loggers.2 1.5 2.20 CONTROL & RELAY PANELS 1.CHAPTER . Check that there is no physical damage to the relays and other equipment installed in the C&R Panel. by the Protection wing. Check the polarity of DC supply in the Control & Relay Panel.2 3. indicating meters.6 3.4 4. indicating meters. Bus Bar Protection schemes.0 1.0 4. Fix or bolt the panels (as per requirement of installation of the panels) on the channel / M.0 3. In the case of Duplex type of panels. Also fit the covers for the corridor portion. integrating meters. in the Control Room. protection schemes. Disturbance Recorders. transducers. of individual relays.3 2. Also connect the similar wiring between control panel to control panel and / or relay panel to relay panel where a Board formation is made or where panels are connected to an existing Board / panel as per their relevant schematic drawings.3 3. Arrange for testing and verification. Check earthing of the panels & its connection to the earth mat. etc. Connect the Bus wiring / interconnecting wiring between the control & relay panels of the Duplex type. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Arrange for testing. ICT’s. Where a number of panels are to be placed adjacent to each other to form a Board or where a panel is to be placed adjacent to an existing Panel / Board. as provided. of individual relays. transducers. Angle fitted on the top of the walls of the trench or on the base frame.

Alarms provided in circuit breakers 6. etc.4 Test the protection scheme logics for alarm and trip as per approved schematic drawings. etc. of stability of protection schemes such as differential protection scheme for transformers. etc. Operation of 1.8.1 4.5 Operation of relevant auxiliary relays Operation of relevant auxiliary relays* Alarm Operation Tripping of annunciation of Master HV & LV Trip Relay CB’s Alarm Operation Tripping of annunciation of Master relevant CB Trip Relay Operation of relevant auxiliary relays* Operation of relevant auxiliary relays* Alarm annunciation Alarm Trip circuit CB annunciation faulty operation indication blocked *if provided Note: The operation of the Master Trip Relay should be verified for actuation of all trip protections as above. etc. etc. Test the annunciation scheme by actuating individual alarms from the initiating equipment such as relays. 4. provided in C&R Panels for transformers 4. over current. provided in C&R Panels for feeders & other circuits 5. provided on transformers 3. etc. 4.8 4. Trip protections such as Buchholz.6 Arrange for testing.130 Construction Manual for Sub Stations performance at the applied voltage / current / operating supply and at the settings selected for their service conditions.3 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . circuit breakers.3 4.8. over current. protection schemes. earth fault. Give the carrier send signal from the Relay Panel and verify that the carrier signal is received back in the Relay Panel. Put the PLCC equipment on local loop test.8. by the Protection wing. Test the tripping & inter-tripping of associated circuit breakers on the operation of relays / protection schemes.7 4. Alarm protections such as high oil & winding temperature. Lockouts provided in circuit breakers Check Points Alarm Operation Tripping of annunciation of Master HV & LV Trip Relay CB’s Alarm annunciation 4. The actual tripping of the circuit breakers should be checked only two or three times with the operation of the Master Trip Relay. and their closing interlocks. OSR. earth fault. Trip protections such as differential. Trip protections such as distance. The protection scheme logics and annunciation schemes are generally checked as below. transformer. Put the PLCC equipment in the normal mode at both the ends. provided on transformers 2. and making necessary changes in the settings if and as required.2 4. Testing of Carrier Trip Commands: These tests should be carried out for all the codes. 4. low oil level. as provided in the scheme logic. etc. No.

Test the tripping of associated circuit breakers once or twice on the receipt of direct trip signals.3 5. Test the internal illumination system including operation of the door switches.2 5.9 4. Verify that the carrier signal is received in the corresponding Relay Panel at this end. as applicable.4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Verify indication lamps / semaphores for circuit breaker / isolator status by operating the relevant equipment. 4.10 4. and check their readings in the relays. etc. Verify the interlocks for operation of isolators. Measure the voltage & current in the relevant circuits. and distance protection schemes.Control and Relay Panels 131 4. etc. protection schemes. Ask the Engineer at the other end to send the carrier send signal from the Relay Panel at his end. etc.8.0 5. of stability of transformer differential protection on load. of directional feature of over current. earth fault. Carrier Received. by the Protection wing. meters. Test the annunciations by actuating individual alarms such as Carrier Fail.8.8.7 4.5 4.8. Verify the operation of equipments from the control switches / push buttons provided for them.1 5.12 4.6 4. POST – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check phase sequence of the VT supply in the Control & Relay panels. by the Protection wing. Arrange for checking. from the PLCC equipment. Test the functioning of space heaters and sockets. Arrange for checking and verification.4 Give the carrier send signal from the Relay Panel and verify that the carrier signal is received in the corresponding Relay Panel at the other end.11 4.13 5.

132 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

The AC supply to the panels / equipments / kiosks is connected as per the AC supply scheme. ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Check the LT Panel for any mechanical damage before installation. Place the LT Panel at its designated location in the control room as per layout. 14. The typical distribution of the SFU’s is as below. Then connect the cables to the LT terminals of the station transformer.2 At 400 kV sub stations.5 2. 9.6 2.21 LT PANELS 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The AC supply to the various circuits / panels at 220 kV and 132 kV sub stations are connected from independent switch fuse unit (SFU’s). two independent Station Transformers and LT Panels are provided.7 2.1 2. Fix / bolt the LT Panel on the trench provided in the floor of the control room. 11. 2. 5. Lay the power cable from the station transformer to the LT Panel. etc.0 2. First connect the cable to the LT Panel.2 2. Lay the cables from the LT Panel to the respective bay marshalling kiosks / C & R panels / transformer. 13. 10. 220 kV GSS Colony Lighting 220 kV CB 132 kV CB 33 kV CB 220 / 132 kV Transformer Battery Charger 220 V Battery Charger 48 V Yard Lighting Control Room Lighting Tube Well Spare Spare C & R Panel DC & RTCC Panels 132 kV GSS Colony Lighting 132 kV CB 33 kV / 11 kV CB Spare Yard Lighting Control Room Lighting 132 / 33 / 11 kV Transformer Tube Well Battery Charger 110 V Battery Charger 48 V Spare Spare C & R Panel DC & RTCC Panels (The supply to Colony Lighting and Tube Well shall be through separate energy meters) 1. 3. 1. S.3 2. 6.CHAPTER . 4.8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 7. 2. 12. Strip off the insulation of the power cable ends and of the wires. 8. Measure insulation resistance of panel wiring and the LT Bus Bar (phase to phase and phase to earth) with 500 V Megger before connecting any cable.0 1.4 2.No. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. Crimp on aluminium terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends. Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires.

1 PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Measure IR values with 5 kV Megger between incoming and outgoing terminal of the LT Circuit Breaker when the CB is OFF. Take all the precautions mentioned in the manufacturer’s manual.5 4. Crimp on terminal lugs / thimbles of suitable size at both the ends.7 3.3 3. LT Circuit Breaker: ENSURE THAT THE CLOSING SPRING IS FULLY DISCHARGED. then discharge the spring as per instructions given in the manufacturer’s manual.9 3. Check operation of anti – pumping / anti – hunting relay by giving continuous closing and tripping signals simultaneously.2 3. Check lamp indications of the LT CB for CB OPEN.3.3.3.3.1 3. Check earthing of the LT Panel to the earth mat.0 3. Manually charge the closing spring and check electrical limit switch.8 3. Check tripping of LT CB from Protection Trip. Adjust the setting of the limit switch if required.2 3. Check operation of the outgoing Switch Fuse Units and its locking mechanism.1 3.5 3.10 3.6 3.3.134 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 2. Carry out slow mechanical operation (closing and tripping) of Circuit Breaker as per procedure prescribed by the manufacturer. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Check tightening of all terminal connections. AUTO TRIP and SPRING CHARGED conditions.3.3. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Check the annunciations for protection trip.0 4. Check operation of the LT Circuit Breaker electrically. Strip off the insulation of the cable ends and of the wires. Charge the spring electrically and verify the operation of the limit switch.3. Connect the cable at both the ends.4 3.10 3. CLOSED. mechanical latches and stopper(s) as provided.3.11 3. Connect the other end of the cables in the respective equipment.3 3.9 Connect one end of the individual cables to the terminals in the terminal blocks corresponding to the designated switch fuse unit in the LT Panel. The breaker should close and then trip and should not close again. Close and trip the LT CB manually.3. etc. If it is not fully discharged. 2. Lay the cable from the DC Panel to the LT Panel for DC supply. Lubricate all the moving parts and the pins in the operating mechanism.3.4 3. Check rating of fuses in switch fuse units (SFU’s). as provided.

4 5. Check functioning of space heater and internal illumination circuits.2 5.LT Panels 135 4. etc. Close the doors / openings provided in the LT Panel. Energy Meter. POST – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Energize the station transformer and check the voltage and phase sequence of the AC supply at the terminals of the incoming cable from the station transformer.1 5. Check the voltage on the voltmeter at the different positions “R – Y”. The voltmeter should show voltage corresponding to the voltage of incoming supply.3 5. 5.2 Arrange for checking of operation of Over Current and Earth fault relays & their settings. “Y – B” and “B – R”. by the Protection Wing.0 5.5 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . testing of LT Current Transformer. Switch on the individual switch fuse units and check the voltage of AC supply at the corresponding outgoing terminals.

136 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

Check the Carrier sets for any mechanical damage during transportation. Level the Carrier Sets and fix them on the structure / frame.4 2. Fit the co – axial cable on the Carrier Set and LMDU.5 2. Erect the Carrier sets at their locations on the fabricated structures / frames.2 2.9 2. DO NOT insert or eject the modules from their location in the shelf when the power supply is ON. Prepare the ends of the co – axial cable and fix the connectors at the ends.4 DO NOT alter user settings unless it is absolutely necessary. DO’S AND DON’TS: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) 1. DO ground the terminal chassis properly. Maintain a minimum spacing of 30 mm between two carrier sets on both the sides for proper ventilation. Do not disturb the factory settings of the equipment. in their designated locations in the Carrier Terminal as per erection manual.5 2. Insert the modules. The structure/ frame should have a height of at least 150 mm from floor level to facilitate cable entry in to the panel. Then grout the structure / frame.22 PLCC CARRIER SETS 1.3 2. The work should be done under the supervision of the Work – In – charge / Manufacturer’s Engineer and as per instructions given by him / them. Place the structure / frame near the cable trenches in the PLCC room in such a manner that sufficient space is available for accessing the Carrier sets from the rear for maintenance as well as from the front for setting up test instruments. DO ensure that all connections are firmly tight. ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Fabricate the structure / frame as per the fixing dimensions of the Carrier sets. Lay the co – axial cable from LMDU to the Carrier Set.0 2.1 2.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: Wear grounding straps when handling the modules since they contain CMOS (compound metal oxide semi – conductor) devices which can be damaged by electrostatic discharge.6 2. Earth the Carrier Set and the structure / frame.CHAPTER . 1.3 The erection and installation work should be carried out as per instructions/ procedure given in the Manufacturer’s Installation and Commissioning Manual.10 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . DO keep the equipments in dust free environment. Clean the interior of the rack of the Carrier sets with vacuum cleaner. DO keep hand set and measuring leads inside the PLCC terminal.2 1.7 2. 1.8 2. if received separately.0 1. DO take all the antistatic precautions.

measurement and adjustment of frequency and levels at both ends (transmitted / received) as per commissioning manual of the manufacturer. Pilot levels at HF co-axial.4 3. Check the functioning of power sockets. Loop back status (local loop and remote loop). AGC level.6 3. All the alarms in all the units. Measure output voltage at the test points. Visually check the cards for any dry solder in the circuit.0 Ohm for safety. 3.4 4. 2W & 4W AF levels. Ensure that the earthing of the HF terminal of the CVT and the LMU / LMDU have been opened.1 PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Measure the resistance of the earthing connections of the Carrier Sets to the earth mat. Any other setting / test as prescribed by the manufacturer.2 4.8 3.2 3. Check that all strappings and settings of the DIP switches in the modules and on the rear side of the PCB’s are in accordance with the programming table.3 4. The earthing connection should have resistance of less than 1.3 3. Check that all the modules are fitted in their correct locations. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Connect 48V from DC power source to Carrier set and check the polarity of DC voltage at the terminals.9 3. Switch on the MCB. IF and RF levels.0 4. Carry out setting. Ensure that the exhaust fan is working.7 3. Switch on the Power Supply Unit.5 Verify the following. Check the internal illumination system. etc. a) b) c) d) e) Signaling operation by extending ground. Check that all the inter – connectors are fitted and properly inserted. Tx & Rx frequencies.5 3. Output of power amplifier at 125 / 75 Ohm termination.1 4. Any other setting / test as prescribed by the manufacturer.10 4. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Test tone of 800 Hz / 1000 Hz at the test point.0 3. Communication with the remote end operator over service telephone. Check the tightness of all terminal connections.138 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 3.

or inter – phase R & R and B & B) to determine the optimum coupling mode.PLCC Carrier Sets 139 4.7 If the end to end return loss for the adopted coupling mode is not satisfactory. or inter – phase Y & Y. 4. i) ii) Open behind the wave trap.6 Carry out the following tests on the complete system. End to end return loss of the adopted coupling mode (phase to phase R & B. a) b) c) Composite loss and return loss on coupling devices using dummy load. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Composite loss (attenuation) for HF cable coupling device. refer Chapter 12 on Wave Traps). The Wave Traps and the connections to the CVTs should be got changed as per the optimum coupling mode. Grounded behind the wave trap. the same shall be measured for other coupling modes (phase to phase R & Y and Y & B.

140 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

PRE . Verify the transmission and receipt of Tx and Rx commands on all the codes of the Protection Coupler by initiating trip commands from the Relay Panels at both ends. Check Tx and Rx Trip commands for their proper operation.CHAPTER . Put the equipment on local loop test. Test Annunciations by actuating individual alarms such as Carrier Fail. Check that all the inter – connectors are fitted and properly inserted.0 3. Make connections from the respective Relay Panels to the MDF (main distribution frame) of the equipment as per scheme.2 3. Check that all the modules are fitted in their correct locations.COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Visual check for any dry solder in the circuit boards.0 1.2 1. Clean the Protection Coupler with vacuum cleaner.4 3. Test the equipment on local loop test.3 2.1 1. Check tightness of all terminal connections.1 2. Configure the equipment as per programming table.5 ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Check the Carrier Protection Coupler for any mechanical damage before installation.7 3.8 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . Give the trip command from Relay Panels and verify that the trip command is received back in the Relay Panels. Carrier Received.4 3.23 CARRIER PROTECTION COUPLERS 1.3 3. This should be done for all the codes. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Check the DC voltage and its polarity in the Protection Coupler.6 3.0 2. Fit the Protection Coupler in the PLCC terminal if received separately. 3.3 2. etc. Put the equipment in the normal mode at both ends. from the Protection Coupler.1 3.2 2.

142 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

5 2.0 3. Clean the interior of the PLCC Exchange panel with vacuum cleaner. Wire the trunk lines (Tie lines) from the PLCC carrier set to MDF of the exchange. Switch on the power supply unit.6 2. Switch on the power supply unit module.2 1. The structure should be grouted in such a manner that enough space is available for access to the Exchange from the front for setting up test instrument and from the rear for maintenance.3 3.24 PLCC EXCHANGE 1. Again check the various voltages at test points. Place the Exchange on the structure / frame and fix it after levelling.8 3.CHAPTER .4 Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .1 3.4 2.5 1.1 2.3 1. Earth the Exchange and the structure / frame.0 1. Grout the structure / frame in the PLCC Room near the cable trenches.2 2. PRE – COMMISSIONING TESTS: Connect the local telephone lines to MDF of the Exchange. Dial up the local as well as the remote end subscribers and verify the satisfactory operation of the Exchange.4 1.0 2. Measure various output voltage at the specified test points. Plug in the power supply module in its respective slot. Verify the alarms provided in the Exchange. PRE – COMMISSIONING CHECKS: Connect 48 V DC Supply to the exchange and ensure correct polarity. Check the PLCC Exchange panel for any mechanical damage before installation. Configure the exchange / local numbers / Tie line numbers as per the procedure given in the instruction manual of the manufacturer. The structure / frame should have a height of at least 75 cm above floor level.7 2.2 3.6 2. 1. Switch off the power supply unit and plug in all the cards in to their respective slots.3 2. The system should work normally.1 ERECTION AND INSTALLATION: Fabricate the structure / frame as per the dimensions of the PLCC Exchange.

144 Construction Manual for Sub Stations Last Updated : 31-1-2008 .

CHAPTER – 25

COMMISSIONING OF SUB STATION
1.0 1.1 TESTING BY THE PROTECTION WING: All major equipment such as Transformer, Current Transformers, Capacitor Voltage Transformers. All Control & Relay Panels including the protection schemes and relays installed on them. All protection schemes such as Local Breaker Back Up (LBB) Protection and Bus Bar Protection Schemes as provided. Any other protection associated schemes such as carrier aided schemes, etc. as provided. APPROVAL OF THE CHIEF ELECTRICAL INSPECTOR: Before energizing the Sub Station, the approval of the Chief Electrical Inspector of the State Government is required as per Rule 63 of the Indian Electricity Rules, 1956. The application is made in the prescribed questionnaire and submitted along with required drawings and information. The inspection fee, as prescribed from time to time, is to be deposited. A sample format of the proforma for the above application / questionnaire for a 132 kV Sub Station is enclosed in Annexure – A. FINAL CHECKING: Measure the insulation resistance values of each phase to earth of each voltage level after closing all Isolators and Circuit Breakers of that voltage level. The Transformer is not included in this measurement. In case of electromagnetic type of Potential Transformer, open the earthing link / connection of the primary winding. Keep the line Isolators of all the feeders open. The values shall depend on the size of the Sub Station, voltage level and the weather conditions. Open all the Isolators and Circuit Breakers after above checking. CHARGING THE SUB STATION: This is to be done after the approval of the Chief Electrical Inspector has been obtained. The concerning Executive Engineer shall be present at the time of charging the Sub Station who shall ensure that all testing and checking has been done and approval of the relevant authorities has been obtained. Initially, close only those Isolators which are required for charging the main bus. Keep the incoming line Isolator and its earth switch open. Contact the Sub Station at the other end of the incoming line. Give the clearance for charging the line. After the line is charged, close the line Isolator and the line Circuit Breaker. Check the phase to phase and phase to neutral voltages on the Bus voltmeter on the Control Panel.

1.2 1.3

1.4 2.0 2.1

2.2

2.3 2.4

3.0 3.1

3.2 4.0 4.1 4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5 4.6

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Construction Manual for Sub Stations

4.7 4.8

Close the Isolators required for charging the Transformer. Follow the precautions and directions given in para 18.0 of Chapter – 5 for charging the transformer. Before taking load on the Transformer, obtain clearance from the concerning Engineer of the Discom.

4.9

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Commissioning of Sub Station

147

ANNEXURE – A QUESTIONNAIRE UNDER RULE – 63 OF INDIAN ELECTRICITY RULES, 1956 1. Name of Sub Station 2. Operating Voltage of the GSS 3. Type & Height of the structures used 132 kV GSS, _________________ 132 / 33 kV Lattice type steel fabricated structures for bus height of : 132 kV side : 7.5 Mtrs. 33 kV side : 5.5 Mtrs. String of 11 kV B & S type disc insulators, 45 KN and 120 KN E & M Strength for suspension and tension respectively. a) Bus Bar of ACSR Conductor: Name Aluminium Steel Zebra 54/3.18mm 7/3.18mm Panther 21/3.00mm 7/3.00mm b) Earth wire: 7 / 3.15 mm GSS wire 132 / 33 kV, 20 / 25 MVA a) Isolators: 132 kV, 800 Amp. 33 kV, 630 Amp. b) Circuit Breakers: 132 kV SF6 CB, 31.5 kA 33 kV VCB / SF6 CB, 25 kA Station type, Metal oxide, 10 kA ______ ohm – metres.

4. Type of Insulators used

5. Type & Size of Bus Bar conductor and earth wire used.

6. Type and capacity of the transformer 7. Type and capacity of gang operated switches, Fuse, Oil circuit breaker, etc.

8. Type of Lightening Arrestors used. 9. Average value of earth resistance in the region. 10. Details of minimum clearance above ground level.

132 kV side – 4.6 M. 33 kV side – 3.7 M. 11 kV side – 3.7 M. ____ Nos. of earth electrodes of 25 mm dia. M. S. Round. In addition, earth mesh of 25 mm dia. M. S. Round and risers of 50 ×10 mm MS Flat are provided. All equipment are as per relevant ISS / IEC standards & inspected by RVPNL engineers (Type and routine tests) before dispatch from manufacturer’s works.

11. Number of earth electrodes provided for the earthing of sub station.

12. Test certificates of manufacturer for transformer, conductors, Insulators, circuit breakers, etc.

Last Updated : 31-1-2008

Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd. Actual date of completion of work Electrical layout of sub stations showing EHT / HT installation is enclosed. Drawing of HT / EHT installations showing the method of construction and layout.: 1) Electrical layout of GSS 2) Test report of Transformer 3) Original challan for payment of inspection fee Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 14. Encl. _____________________. etc. _______________.148 Construction Manual for Sub Stations 13. EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( ).

Erection & Installation Manual for Battery Set: M/s Amararaja. 7. 12. IS 3043 : Indian Standard Code of Practice for Earthing. Installation and Maintenance of Transformers: Installation. 9. 299). Erection & Installation Manual for Battery Set: M/s HBL Nife. IS 731 : 1971 – Specification for porcelain insulators for overhead power lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1000 V. 8. 4. 5. Erection & Installation Manual for Transformers: M/s TELK. 13. IS: 10028 (Part II) : 1981 – Indian Standard Code of Practice for Selection. 11. Draft Manual: Volume II: Sub Stations (1968) of the erstwhile RSEB. Erection & Installation Manual for Transformers: M/s BHEL. 10. Last Updated : 31-1-2008 . 3. 2. 1956. Central Board of Irrigation & Power: Manual on Transformers (Publication no.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 295). 6. Central Board of Irrigation & Power: Manual on Sub Station Layout (Publication No. Indian Electricity Rules. IS 1866 : 2000 – Code of Practice for Electrical Maintenance and Supervision of Mineral Insulating Oil in Equipment. IS 15549 : 2005 – Specification for Stationary Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries.

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