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Rhodes Scholarship: A British Intrigue?

Rhodes Scholarship: A British Intrigue?

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Published by William Litynski
A summary of Cecil Rhodes and photographs of American Rhodes Scholars and their role in modern world history
A summary of Cecil Rhodes and photographs of American Rhodes Scholars and their role in modern world history

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Rhodes Scholarship: A British Intrigue?

By William P. Litynski

God Save the Queen? Cecil Rhodes and Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes House at Oxford University

Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902
Prime Minister of the Cape of Good Hope Colony (189 !189"#

$!o and "or the esta#lish$ent% pro$otion and develop$ent o" a Secret Societ&% the true ai$ and o#'ect (hereo" shall #e "or the e)tension o" *ritish rule throu+hout the (orld% the perfe&tin' of a system of emi'ration from the United (in'dom% and of &olonisation )y *ritish su)+e&ts of all lands ,here the means of livelihood are attaina)le )y ener'y% la)our and enterprise% and espe&ially the o&&upation )y *ritish settlers of the entire Continent of -fri&a% the Holy .and% the /alley of the 0uphrates% the 1slands of Cyprus and Candia% the ,hole of 2outh -meri&a% the 1slands of the Pa&ifi& not heretofore possessed )y Great *ritain% the ,hole of the Malay -r&hipela'o% the sea)oard of China and 3apan% the ulti$ate recover& o" the ,nited States o" -$erica as an inte+ral part o" the *ritish .$pire% the inau'uration of a system of Colonial representation in the 1mperial Parliament ,hi&h may tend to ,eld to'ether the dis+ointed mem)ers of the 0mpire and% finally% the foundation of so 'reat a Po,er as to render ,ars impossi)le and promote the )est interests of humanity45
6 Ce&il Rhodes% 2eptem)er 19% 1877% in the first &lause of his 1877 ,ill

Front cover photo: Bill Clinton (right), President of the nited !tates, greets .!. "rmy #eneral Wesley $. Clark at a ceremony in the %ast &oom of the White 'o(se on "(g(st ), *+++. Bill Clinton and #en. Wesley $. Clark are &hodes !cholars.

Oxford University in Oxford% 0n'land

Commen&ement at Oxford University

8rustees and Prin&ipal Offi&ers of the Rhodes 8rust
2our&e9 The History of the Rhodes Trust: 1902-1999% 0dited )y -nthony (enny (Oxford University Press# 8rustees of the Rhodes 8rust (as of 1999# 8he 0arl of Rose)ery (18:7!19;9# 0arl Grey (18<1!1917# -lfred *eit (18<=!19 "# 2ir .e,is Mi&hell (18:;!19;8# *ou&hier >ran&is Ha,?sley (d4 191<# /is&ount Milner (18<:!19;<# 2ir .eander 2tarr 3ameson (18<=!1917# 2ir Otto *eit (18"<!19= # .ord .ovat (1871!19==# Rudyard (iplin' (18"<!19="# 8he Rt4 Hon4 .4 24 -mery (187=!19<<# 0arl *ald,in of *e,dley (18"7!19:7# 2ir 0d,ard Pea&o&? (1871!19";# Geoffrey @a,son (187:!19::# 2ir @ou'las Ho'' (/is&ount Hailsham# (187;!19< # 8he Rt4 Hon4 H4 -4 .4 >isher (18"<!19: # 2ir Re'inald 2othern Holland (187"!19:8# 8he /ery Reverend 3ohn .o,e (1899!19" # Capt G4 84 Hut&hinson (188 !19:8# .ord Hailey (187;!19"9# 8he Rt4 Hon4 Mal&olm Ma&@onald (19 1!1981# Charles H4 G4 Millis (189:!198:# 2ir (enneth Aheare (19 7!1979# 2ir Geor'e -)ell (19 :!1989# .t4 Gen4 2ir -r&hi)ald Bye (189<!19"7# 2ir Oliver >ran?s (.ord >ran?s# (19 <!199;# /is&ount Har&ourt (19 8!1979# /is&ount -mory (1899!1981# 3ohn G4 Phillimore (19 8! # 2ir 0d,ard *oyle (.ord *oyle of Hands,orth# (19;=!1981# Professor @on (4 Pri&e (191 !199<# 2ir Ailliam Paton (1917!199=# 2ir 3ohn *arin' (.ord -sh)urton (19;8! # .ord *la?e (191"! # Marmadu?e Hussey (19;=! # A4 Grei' *arr (1917! # 2ir Ro)ert -rmstron' (.ord -rmstron' of 1lminster# (19;7! # 2ir 3ohn Ha))a?u? (191<! # Mrs4 Mary Moore (19= ! # 2ir 3ohn 2ains)ury (.ord 2ains)ury of Preston Candover# (19;7! # 2ir Ri&hard 2outh,ood (19=1! # @un&an 2te,art (19= !9"# @r4 34 M4 Ro)ens (19;8! # 8he Rt4 Hon4 Ailliam Aalde'rave (.ord Aalde'rave# (19:"! # @r4 Colin .u&as (19: ! # Professor Ro)ert OCBeill (19="! # Mrs R4 .4 @ee&h (19:=! # 2ir 3ohn (err (19:;! # Rosalind Hedley Miller (19""! # 19 ;!1917 (&hair 19 ;!1917# 19 ;!1917 19 ;!19 " 19 ;!1917 19 ;!191< 19 ;!19;< (&hair 1917!19;<# 19 ;!1917 1917!19= (&hair 19;<!19= # 1917!19== (&hair 19= !19==# 1917!19;< 1919!19<< (&hair 19==!19<<# 19;<!19:7 19;<!19"; (&hair 19<<!19";# 19;<!19:: 19;<!19;9 19;<!19: 19=;!19:8 19: !19" 19: !19:8 19:1!19": 19:8!19<7 19:8!19"1 19:8!1977 (&hair 19";!19"9# 19:9!197: (&hair 19"9!197:# 19<7!19"7 19<7!197= 19<7!1979 (&hair 197:!1979# 19"1!19"9 19"1!197: 19"<!19"9 19"8!1978 19"8!87 (&hair 1979!198;# 197 !1999 (&hair 1987!1999# 1971!1987 (&hair 198=!1987# 197;!199; 197<!1987 197<!1997 1977!198< 198:!199" 198:!1998 198"! (&hair from 1999# 198"!199" 1987!199< 199;! 199<! 199<! 199"! 1997! 1999!

2e&retaries of the 8rust Or'aniDin' 2e&retary of the 2&holarships 2ir Geor'e Par?in (18:"!19;;# 19 ;!19; .ondon 2e&retaries @ou'las *rodie and Charles *oyd Charles *oyd (18"9!1919# Mrs4 @orothea Mavor (.ady *utter,orth# 8homas .4 Gilmour (18<9!19="# General 2e&retaries 2ir 0d,ard Gri'' (.ord -ltrin&ham# (1879!19<<# Geoffrey @a,son Philip (err (MarEuess of .othian# (188;!19: # .ord 0lton (189;!197=# Oxford 2e&retaries (Aardens of Rhodes House# 2ir >ran&is Aylie (18"<!19<;# 2ir Carleton -llen (1887!19""# 2ir 0d'ar Ailliams (191;!98# 2e&retaries to the 8rust and Aardens of Rhodes House 2ir 0d'ar Ailliams (191;!98# @r4 Ro)in >let&her (19;;! # 2ir -nthony (enny (19=1! # Prin&ipal Overseas 2e&retaries -meri&an 2e&retaries >ran? -ydelotte (188 !19<"# Courtney 2mith (191"!19"9# Ailliam 34 *ar)er (19;<! # @avid -lexander (19=;! # 0lliot Gerson (19<;! # Canadian 2e&retaries 34 M4 Ma&donnell (188:!197=# Roland Mi&hener (19 !1991# 34 .4 2te,art (1911!1971# -rthur 2&a&e (19=8! # 2outh -fri&an 2e&retaries P4 84 .e,is (188:!197"# -4 H4 Gie (189<!198;# Rex Aelsh (19;1!1991# 3usti&e .4 A4 H4 -&?ermann (19=:! # -ustralian 2e&retaries (2ir# 3ohn *ehan (1881!19<7# (2ir# Geor'e Paton (19 ;!199<# 3ohn Poynter (19;9! # Grahame Hut&hinson (19:8! # 1918!19<; 19<=!19"9 197 !198 1981!1998 1998! 19;1!19=" 19="!19": 19"<!1971 197=! 19;1!19:" 19:"!19"7 19"7!1988 1988! 19;;!19<= 19<=!197= 197=!1997 1997! 19 ;!19 < 19 <!19 8 19 8!191" 191"!1919 1919!19;1% 19;=!19;< 19;1!19;= 19;<!19=9 19=9!19<9 19 =!19=1 19=1!19<; 19<;!19<9 19<9!198 198 !1989 1989!1999

8rustees of the Rhodes 8rust

-r&hi)ald Primrose (8he 0arl of Rose)ery# Prime Minister of the United (in'dom (Mar&h <% 189:! 3une ;;% 189<#

0arl Grey Governor General of Canada (19 :!1911#

-lfred Milner Governor of Cape Colony and Hi'h Commissioner for 2outhern -fri&a (1897!19 1#

.eander 2tarr 3ameson Prime Minister of the Cape Colony (19 :!19 8#F -dministrator of 2outhern Rhodesia (189:!189"#

-lfred *eit >ounder of the *ritish 2outh -fri&a Company and dire&tor of @e *eers diamond &ompany

Her)ert -l)ert .aurens 0arl *ald,in of >isher .ord 3ohn (err *e,dley President of the *oard of *ritish -m)assador to (2tanley *ald,in# 0du&ation (191"!19;;#F the United 2tates Prime Minister of the Mem)er of Parliament (199<!1997# United (in'dom (19;=!19;:% 19;:!19;9% 19=<!19=7# Bote9 8he >irst 2ino!3apanese Aar lasted from -u'ust 1% 189: until -pril 17% 189<4 Bote9 8he 2e&ond *oer Aar in 2outh -fri&a lasted from O&to)er 11% 1899 until May =1% 19 ;F Ce&il Rhodes died in 2outh -fri&a on Mar&h ;"% 19 ;4 .eopold 24 -mery 2e&retary of 2tate for 1ndia and *urma (19: !19:<#F 2e&retary of 2tate for the Colonies (19;:!19;9#

Rudyard (iplin' -uthor of The White Man's Burden (1899#

Ori'inal 8rustees of the Rhodes 8rust -ppointed )y ,ill dated 1st 3uly 1899 8he Rt4 Hon4 8he 0arl of Rose)ery% (4G4% (484 Resi'ned 7 May 1917 8he Rt4 Hon4 8he 0arl Grey% G4C4*4 @ied ;9 -u'4 1917 -lfred *eit @ied 1" 3uly 19 " (A4 84 2tead% Revoed )y Codi&il dated 3anuary 19 1# 8he Hon4 2ir .e,is Mi&hell% C4/4O4 Resi'ned = 2ept4 1917 *our&hier Ha,?sley @ied ;; @e&4 191< -ppointed )y &odi&il dated 11th O&to)er 19 1 8he Rt4 Hon4 /is&ount Milner% G4C4*4 @ied 1= May 19;<

-ppointed )y &odi&il dated dated 1;th Mar&h 19 ; 2ir .eander 2tarr 3ameson% *art4 @ied ;" Bov4 1917

0x&erpts G Huotes on Rhodes 2&holarship
$!o and "or the esta#lish$ent% pro$otion and develop$ent o" a Secret Societ&% the true ai$ and o#'ect (hereo" shall #e "or the e)tension o" *ritish rule throu+hout the (orld% the perfe&tin' of a system of emi'ration from the United (in'dom% and of &olonisation )y *ritish su)+e&ts of all lands ,here the means of livelihood are attaina)le )y ener'y% la)our and enterprise% and espe&ially the o&&upation )y *ritish settlers of the entire Continent of -fri&a% the Holy .and% the /alley of the 0uphrates% the 1slands of Cyprus and Candia% the ,hole of 2outh -meri&a% the 1slands of the Pa&ifi& not heretofore possessed )y Great *ritain% the ,hole of the Malay -r&hipela'o% the sea)oard of China and 3apan% the ulti$ate recover& o" the ,nited States o" -$erica as an inte+ral part o" the *ritish .$pire % the inau'uration of a system of Colonial representation in the 1mperial Parliament ,hi&h may tend to ,eld to'ether the dis+ointed mem)ers of the 0mpire and% finally% the foundation of so 'reat a Po,er as to render ,ars impossi)le and promote the )est interests of humanity45 6 Ce&il Rhodes% on 2eptem)er 19% 18774 Ce&il Rhodes ,rote this statement in the first &lause of his 1877 ,ill4 $/n his dia$ond $ines 0Cecil1 Rhodes callousl& reduced the (a+es and increased the hours o" his #lac2 (or2ers3 4e se+re+ated the$ "ro$ (hite (or2ers and $ade the$ carr& passes3 1n 1887 Rhodes supported a ne, la, that denied the vote to all persons ,ith &ommunal titles to land% ,hi&h in effe&t eliminated all -fri&ans4 -s prime minister he approved la,s that distri)uted tiny% nontransfera)le tra&ts of land to -fri&ans4 0a&h farm ,as lar'e enou'h to support only one family4 8he result ,as that the eldest sons inherited the property% ,hereas their youn'er si)lin's ,ere for&ed to see? employment at ,hite! o,ned mines and plantations4 Repeatedly in his spee&hes Rhodes said that ,hites $are to )e lords over themI 8he native is to )e treated as a &hild45 He supported a la, that permitted employers to flo' their non!,hite la)orers4 -s a youn' man he JCe&il RhodesK ,rote )a&? to his mother a)out ho, deli'htful it ,as to possess $land of your o,n% horses of your o,n% and shootin' ,hen you li?e and a lot of )la&? ni''ers to do ,hat you li?e ,ith45 6 Rhodes Scholars, !ford, and The "reation of an #$erican %lite )y 8homas 34 2&haeper and (athleen 2&haeper% p4 11 $8hese purposes &entered on his desire to federate the 0n'lish!spea?in' peoples and to )rin' all the ha)ita)le portions of the ,orld under their &ontrol4 >or this purpose Rhodes left part of his 'reat fortune to found the Rhodes 2&holarships at Oxford in order to spread the 0n'lish rulin' &lass tradition throu'hout the 0n'lish!spea?in' ,orld as Rus?in had ,anted45 6 @r4 Carroll Hui'ley% Tra&edy and Ho'e% p4 1= !1=1 $1t ,as all part of the tradition% as ,ere the Rhodes s&holarships themselves4 Ce&il Rhodes% ,ho endo,ed the s&holarships% ,as a &ele)rated imperialist% personally &onvin&ed that -n'lo!2axons ,ere destined to rule the ,orld4 $1 &ontend that ,e are the first ra&e in the ,orld%5 Rhodes on&e ,rote4 5!he $ore o" the (orld (e inha#it% the #etter it is "or the hu$an race36 Bot all of us a&&epted RhodesCs vie,% yet under the surfa&e most Oxonians ,ould have admitted that the -n'lo!2axons had a spe&ial talent for leadership4 !he Rhodes scholarships (ere $eant in part to prepare *ritain7s colonies to accept -n+lo-Sa)on rule3 5 6 #s ( Sa) (t )y former U424 2e&retary of 2tate @ean Rus?% p4 "<!"" $I1 &ame home a'ain for the Rhodes s&holarship intervie, 6 1Cd )een interested sin&e hi'h s&hool4 0very year thirty!t,o -meri&an Rhodes s&holars are &hosen for t,o years of study at Oxford% paid for )y the trust esta)lished in 19 = )y Ce&il RhodesCs ,ill4 Rhodes% ,ho made a fortune in 2outh -fri&aCs diamond mines% provided for s&holarships for youn' men from all the present and former *ritish &olonies ,ho had demonstrated outstandin' intelle&tual% athleti&% and leadership Eualities45 6 My *ife )y former U424 President *ill Clinton% p4 11: $Ahen .ee Ailliams as?ed Clinton ,hat he ,anted to do for the &ampai'n that summer% he said he ,anted to )e as &lose to the &andidate as possi)le4 He ,as made >ul)ri'htCs driver 6 not the easiest assi'nment4 >ul)ri'ht ,as an odd mixture9 shy and aloof% s&holarly and formal in appearan&e% yet +o&?li?e and profane in private4 Ahen )ein' driven around -r?ansas% he preferred to tal? rather than listen4 8he time that Clinton and >ul)ri'ht spent on the road ,as )rief and &alamitous4 One afternoon shortly after the &andidate and his youn' dis&iple drove off to'ether% J3amesK M&@ou'al and Ailliams ,ere sittin' in the offi&e )a&? in .ittle Ro&? and too? a phone &all form the road4 1t ,as >ul)ri'ht &allin' from south,est -r?ansas% utterly perplexed% sayin' that the floor)oard of their li'ht )lue >ord 8orino ,as an?le deep in ,ater4 -fter as?in' a fe, Euestions% M&@ou'al determined that Clinton had &aused the &risis )y runnin' the air &onditioner &onstantly ,ith the vents &losed4 5!(o +odda$n Rhodes Scholars in one car out there and the& can7t "i+ure out (h& the&7re $a2in+ rain86 M&@ou'al said to Ailliams4 8hat ,as only the )e'innin'4 -nother day Clinton drove one hundred miles in the ,ron' dire&tion )efore >ul)ri'ht realiDed the mista?e and ordered him to turn around4 -nother day he left the &ar for valet par?in' at the -rlin'ton Hotel in Hot 2prin's% )ut too? the ?eys ,ith him% &reatin' a traffi& +am in the 'ara'e for a half!hour until he ,as found inside em)roiled in a de)ate over the /ietnam Aar ,ith a lo&al veteran45 6 +irst (n His "lass: # Bio&ra'hy of Bill "linton )y @avid Maraniss% p4 11:!11<

Rhodes 2&holars G Glo)aliDation
$1n short% the 9house o" (orld order7 ,ill have to )e )uilt from the )ottom up rather than from the top do,n4 1t ,ill loo? li?e a 'reat L)oomin'% )uDDin' &onfusion%C to use Ailliam 3amesC famous des&ription of reality% )ut an end run around national soverei'nty% erodin' it pie&e )y pie&e% ,ill a&&omplish mu&h more than the old fashioned frontal assault45 6 Ri&hard B4 Gardner% -pril 197: issue of +orei&n #ffairs% $8he Hard Road to Aorld Order5% p4 <<8

$1n the next &entury% nations as ,e ?no, it ,ill )e o)soleteF all states ,ill re&o'niDe a sin'le% 'lo)al authority4 4 4 perhaps national soverei+nt& (asn7t such a +reat idea a"ter all45 6 2tro)e 8al)ott% 8ime ma'aDine 0ditor!at!.ar'e% 3uly ; % 199; edition of Ti$e ma'aDine% $8he *irth of the Glo)al Bation5% p4 7

$Moreover% states $ust #e prepared to cede so$e soverei+nt& to (orld #odies i" the international s&ste$ is to "unction4 4 4 2ome 'overnments are prepared to 'ive up elements of soverei'nty 4 4 4 -ll of this su''ests that soverei'nty must )e redefined if states are to &ope ,ith 'lo)aliDation4 4 4 Glo)aliDation thus implies that soverei'nty is not only )e&omin' ,ea?er in reality% )ut that it needs to )e&ome ,ea?er4 States (ould #e (ise to (ea2en soverei+nt& in order to protect the$selves% #ecause the& cannot insulate the$selves "ro$ (hat +oes on else(here3 2overei'nty is no lon'er a san&tuary4 4 4!he +oal should #e to rede"ine soverei+nt& "or the era o" +lo#ali:ation4 4 45 6 Ri&hard B4 Haass% President of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations% in pa'e 9 of the >e)ruary ;1% ; " edition of the Tai'ei Ti$es $8he transition to a li)eral vision of a ne( (orld order is o&&urrin'% )ut not smoothly4 .i)erals must realiDe that the evolution )eyond Aestphalia is a matter of de&ades and &enturies% ,hile realists must re&o'niDe that the traditional definitions of po,er and order in purely military terms miss the &han'es that are o&&urrin' in a ,orld of transnational &ommuni&ations and instant informationI1n short the ne( (orld order has )e'un4 1t is messy% evolvin' and not sus&epti)le to simple formulation or manipulation45 6 3oseph 24 Bye 3r4% 2prin' 199; issue of +orei&n #ffairs ma'aDine% $Ahat Be, Aorld OrderM5% p4 9=!9" $8he most o)vious spe&ifi& impa&t of the ne( (orld order is that% ex&ept for 2oviet nu&lear ,eaponry% the preeminent threat to U424 national se&urity no, lies in the e&onomi& sphere4 8he United 2tates has turned from )ein' a ma+or &reditor nation to the ,orldCs 'reatest de)tor% and there are &ountless industries ,here U424 &ompanies are no lon'er &ompetivitive4 Ae must% then% redefine $national se&urity5 )y assi'nin' e&onomi& stren'th 'reater prominen&e4 8hat means ,e ,ill need )etter e&onomi& intelli'en&eI1n addition to a shift to,ard e&onomi& intelli'en&e% the ne( (orld order &alls for more emphasis on politi&al intelli'en&e in 8hird Aorld &ountries444there are 'ro,in' 'lo)al pro)lems su&h as terrorism% e&olo'i&al a)use and dru' traffi&?in' that ,ill reEuire the United 2tates to &olle&t a diversity of informationI8he need for military intelli'en&e in the ne( (orld order ,ill diminish )ut not disappearI1n sum% the ne( (orld order ,ill yield te&hni&al systems that ,ill serve as a s,ord% the )road &uttin' ed'e of intelli'en&e &olle&tion% and human spyin' operations that ,ill serve as the rapier% to )e applied +udi&iously to very spe&ifi& reEuirementsI1n short the intelli'en&e reEuirements of the ne( (orld order ma?e it in&reasin'ly important that a sin'le authority )alan&e the e&onomi&% politi&al and military intelli'en&e reEuirements of the nation45 6 2tansfield 8urner% former @ire&tor of Central 1ntelli'en&e -'en&y% >all 1991 issue of +orei&n #ffairs ma'aDine% $1ntelli'en&e for a Be, Aorld Order5% p4 1<1!1" $Ahat does New World Order meanM 1 thin? those of you ,ho read the 'overnment releases% mu&h li?e 1% &onsider that it has not )een very &learly defined4 1t spea?s of pea&e and freedom% ,hi&h pro)a)ly it should% )ut is not very spe&ifi&4 2in&e the name itself isnCt su)stantive% ,e have yet to define ,hat the ;e( <orld =rder is4 -ll ,e ?no, is that it seems li?e a )old% innovative approa&h to our ma+or ,orld pro)lems45 6 (nternational "o$$unity: # ,oal +or # -e) World rder )y Geor'e C4 M&Ghee% p4 1 ; (ex&erpts from a spee&h Geor'e C4 M&Ghee delivered on 3une ;1% 1991# $-fter 1989% President *ush said% and itCs a phrase 1 often use myself% that ,e needed a ne( (orld orderI5 6 *ill Clinton% former President of the U424% at the (ennedy Center in Aashin'ton% @4C4 in 2eptem)er ; "

Prominent 1nternational Rhodes 2&holars

,om -intoff Prime -inister of -alta (.)//0.)/1, .)2.0.)13)

&o4ert 5.L. 'a6ke Prime -inister of "(stralia (.)170.)).)

Fridolin von !enger Lie(tenant #eneral in the 8a9i #erman "rmy: Commander of the .3th Pan9er Corps d(ring World War ;;

5ohn <(rner Prime -inister of Canada (.)13): Leader of the =pposition (.)130.))+)

8orman W. -anley Chief -inister of 5amaica (.)//0.)>*)

&o4ert $eith &ae Premier of =ntario (.))+0.))/)

,aniel ?,anny@ Williams Premier of 8e6fo(ndland and La4rador (*++70 *+.+)

L. Aves Fortier Canadian "m4assador to the nited 8ations (.)110.)).)

"llan %. #otlie4 Canadian "m4assador to the nited !tates (.)1.0.)1))

,aniel &oland -ichener #overnor0#eneral of Canada (.)>20.)23)

,aryl &o4ert Williams "ttorney0#eneral of "(stralia (.))>0*++7)

-ichael #. LB%strange "(stralian 'igh Commissioner to the nited $ingdom (*+++0*++/)

!ir Celman Co6en #overnor0#eneral of "(stralia (.)220.)1*)

#eoff #allop Premier of Western "(stralia (*++.0*++>)

<ony "44ott Prime -inister of "(stralia (!ept. .1, *+.70present)

!ir 'o6ard Walter Florey a6arded 8o4el Pri9e for PhysiologyD-edicine in .)3/: "(stralian

!ir 5ohn C. %ccles a6arded 8o4el Pri9e for PhysiologyD-edicine in .)>7: "(stralian

!ir &ichard %dmonds L(yt #overnor0#eneral of British #(iana Epresent0 day #(yanaF (.)>30 .)>>): !o(th "frican &hodes !cholar

&od %ddington C%= of British "ir6ays (*+++0*++/): ,irector of 8e6s Corporation Ei.e. FoG 8e6sF: "(stralian

5(lian =gilvie <hompson Chairman of ,e Beers Ediamond companyF (.)1/0.))2): !o(th "frican &hodes !cholar

0xtra9 Prominent -meri&an Marshall 2&holars

#raham <. "llison 5r. ,ean of $ennedy !chool of #overnment at 'arvard niversity (.)220.)1))

<homas L. Friedman Foreign "ffairs Col(mnist of The New York Times (.))/0present)

!tephen #. Breyer 5(stice of the .!. !(preme Co(rt (.))30present)

"nthony C.%. H(ainton .!. "m4assador to Per( (.)1)0.))*): .!. "m4assador to $(6ait (.)130.)12)

5ohn -. !pratt 5r. .!. Congressman (,0!o(th Carolina, .)170*+..)

$(rt Camp4ell "ssistant .!. !ecretary of !tate for %ast "sian and Pacific "ffairs (*++)0*+.7)

Lael Brainard nder .!. !ecretary of the <reas(ry for ;nternational "ffairs (*+.+0*+.7)

Peter &. =rs9ag ,irector of the =ffice of -anagement and B(dget (*++)0*+.+)

William 5. B(rns ,ep(ty .!. !ecretary of !tate (*+..0present): .!. "m4assador to &(ssia (*++/0*++1)

'arold 'ongI( $oh ,ean of Aale La6 !chool (*++30*++))

Prince Charles of Wales (left) and .!. !(preme Co(rt 5(stice !tephen Breyer (right) depart the .!. !(preme Co(rt in Washington, ,.C., .!.". on -ay 7, *+... ( P; PhotoD&oger L. Wollen4erg)

8he Aill of Ce&il Rhodes
1 8H0 R1GH8 HOBOUR-*.0 C0C1. 3OHB RHO@02 of Cape 8o,n in the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope here)y revo?e all testamentary dispositions heretofore Nmade )y me and de&lare this to )e my last Aill ,hi&h 1 ma?e this 1st day of 3uly 18994 14 1 am a natural!)orn *ritish su)+e&t and 1 no, de&lare that 1 have adopted and a&Euired and here)y adopt and a&Euire and intend to retain Rhodesia as my domi&ile4 ;4 1 appoint the Ri'ht Honoura)le -r&hi)ald Philip 0arl of Rose)ery (4 G4 (4 84 the Ri'ht Honoura)le -l)ert Henry Geor'e 0arl Grey -lfred *eit of ;" Par? .ane .ondon Ailliam 8homas 2tead of Mo,)ray House Borfol? 2treet 2trand in the County of .ondon .e,is .oyd Mi&hell of Cape 8o,n in the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope *an?er and *our&hier >ran&is Ha,?sley of Min&in' .ane in the City of .ondon to )e the 0xe&utors and 8rustees of my Aill and they and the survivors of them or other the 8rustees for the time )ein' of my Aill are hereinafter &alled Omy 8rustees4O =4 1 admire the 'randeur and loneliness of the Matoppos in Rhodesia and therefore 1 desire to )e )uried in the Matoppos on the hill ,hi&h 1 used to visit and ,hi&h 1 &alled the L/ie, of the AorldC in a sEuare to )e &ut in the ro&? on the top of the hill &overed ,ith a plain )rass plate ,ith these ,ords thereonPLHere lie the remains of Ce&il 3ohn RhodesC and a&&ordin'ly 1 dire&t my 0xe&utors at the expense of my estate to ta?e all steps and do all thin's ne&essary or proper to 'ive effe&t to this my desire and after,ards to ?eep my 'rave in order at the expense of the Matoppos and *ula,ayo >und hereinafter mentioned4 :4 1 'ive the sum of Q"% to (ahn of Paris and 1 dire&t this le'a&y to )e paid free of all duty ,hatsoever4

<4 1 'ive an annuity of Q1 to ea&h of my servants Borris and the one &alled 8ony durin' his life free of all duty ,hatsoever and in addition to any ,a'es due at my death4 "4 1 dire&t my 8rustees on the hill aforesaid to ere&t or &omplete the monument to the men ,ho fell in the first Mata)ele Aar at 2han'ani in Rhodesia the )as!reliefs for ,hi&h are )ein' made )y Mr4 3ohn 8,eed and 1 desire the said hill to )e preserved as a )urial!pla&e )ut no person is to )e )uried there unless the Government for the time )ein' of Rhodesia until the various states of 2outh -fri&a or any of them shall have )een federated and after su&h federation the >ederal Government )y a vote of t,o!thirds of its 'overnin' )ody says that he or she has deserved ,ell of his or her &ountry4 74 1 'ive free of all duty ,hatsoever my landed property near *ula,ayo in Mata)eleland Rhodesia and my landed property at or near 1nyan'a near 2alis)ury in Mashonaland Rhodesia to my 8rustees herein)efore named Upon trust that my 8rustees shall in su&h manner as in their un&ontrolled dis&retion they shall thin? fit &ultivate the same respe&tively for the instru&tion of the people of Rhodesia4 84 1 'ive free of all duty ,hatsoever to my 8rustees herein)efore named su&h a sum of money as they shall &arefully as&ertain and in their un&ontrolled dis&retion &onsider ample and suffi&ient )y its investments to yield in&ome amountin' to the sum of Q:% sterlin' per annum and not less and 1 dire&t my 8rustees to invest the same sum and the said sum and the investments for the time )ein' representin' it 1 hereinafter refer to as Othe Matoppos and *ula,ayo >undO -nd 1 dire&t that my 8rustees shall for ever apply in su&h manner as in their un&ontrolled dis&retion they shall thin? fit the in&ome of the Matoppos and *ula,ayo >und in preservin' prote&tin' maintainin' adornin' and )eautifyin' the said )urial!pla&e and hill and their surroundin's and shall for ever apply in su&h manner as in their un&ontrolled dis&retion they shall thin? fit the )alan&e of the in&ome of the Matoppos and *ula,ayo >und and any rents and profits of my said landed properties near *ula,ayo in the &ultivation as aforesaid of su&h property -nd in parti&ular 1 dire&t my 8rustees that a portion of my 2auerdale property a part of my said landed property near *ula,ayo )e planted ,ith every possi)le tree and )e made and preserved and maintained as a Par? for the people of *ula,ayo and that they &omplete the dam at my Aesra&re property if it is not &ompleted at my death and ma?e a short rail,ay line from *ula,ayo to Aesra&re so that the people of *ula,ayo may en+oy the 'lory of the Matoppos from 2aturday to Monday4 94 1 'ive free of all duty ,hatsoever to my 8rustees herein)efore named su&h a sum of money as they shall &arefully as&ertain and in their un&ontrolled dis&retion &onsider ample and suffi&ient )y its investments to yield in&ome amountin' to the sum of Q;% sterlin' per annum and not less and 1 dire&t my 8rustees to invest the same sum and the said sum and the investments for the time )ein' representin' it 1 hereinafter refer to as Lthe 1nyan'a >undC -nd dire&t that my 8rustees shall for ever apply in su&h manner as in their a)solute dis&retion they shall thin? fit the in&ome of the 1nyan'a >und and any rents and profits of my said landed property at or near 1nyan'a in the &ultivation of su&h property and in parti&ular 1 dire&t that ,ith re'ard to su&h property irri'ation should )e the first o)+e&t of my 8rustees4

1 4 >or the 'uidan&e of my 8rustees 1 ,ish to re&ord that in the &ultivation of my said landed properties 1 in&lude su&h thin's as experimental farmin' forestry mar?et and other 'ardenin' and fruit farmin' irri'ation and the tea&hin' of any of those thin's and esta)lishin' and maintainin' an -'ri&ultural Colle'e4 114 1 'ive all the interest to ,hi&h 1 may at my death )e entitled in any freehold &opyhold or leasehold hereditaments in @alston or else,here in the County of .ondon to my 1iOustees herein)efore named Upon trust that my 8rustees shall lease or let and 'enerally mana'e )ut not sell the same and pay all reEuisite out'oin's usually paid )y me in respe&t thereof and maintain the same in proper repair and insured a'ainst fire -nd upon trust that my 8rustees shall so lon' as anyone or more of my o,n )rothers and sisters (,hi&h does not in&lude my sister of the half )lood# shall )e livin' pay the net in&ome derived from the said hereditaments to su&h of my o,n )rothers and sisters aforesaid as shall for the time )ein' )e livin' and ,hile more than one to )e divided )et,een them in eEual shares -nd shall after the death of the survivor of them su&h )rothers and sisters hold my interest in the said estate and the rents and profits thereof Upon the trusts hereinafter &ontained &on&ernin' the same and inasmu&h as those trusts are edu&ational trusts for the )enefit of the 0mpire 1 hope the means ,ill )e found for ena)lin' my 8rustees to retain my interest in the said estate unsold and ,ith that o)+e&t 1 authoriDe and reEuire them to endeavour to o)tain at the expense of my estate a private or other -&t of Parliament or other suffi&ient authority ena)lin' and reEuirin' them to retain the same unsold4 1;4 1 'ive the sum of Q1 % free of all duty ,hatsoever to my old Colle'e Oriel Colle'e in the University of Oxford and 1 dire&t that the re&eipt of the *ursar or other proper offi&er of the Colle'e shall )e a &omplete dis&har'e for that le'a&y and inasmu&h as 1 'ather that the ere&tion of an extension to Hi'h 2treet of the Colle'e )uildin's ,ould &ost a)out Q;;%<R and that the loss to the Colle'e revenue &aused )y pullin' do,n of houses to ma?e room for the said ne, Colle'e )uildin's ,ould )e a)out Q;< per annum 1 dire&t that the sum of Q: % part of the said sum of Q1 % shall )e applied in the first pla&e in the ere&tion of the said ne, Colle'e )uildin's and that the remainder of su&h sum of Q: % shall )e held as a fund )y the in&ome ,hereof the aforesaid loss to the Colle'e revenue shall so far as possi)le )e made 'ood -nd inasmu&h as J 'ather that there is a defi&ien&y in the Colle'e revenue of some Q1%<R per annum ,here)y the >ello,ships are impoverished and the status of the Colle'e is lo,ered 1 dire&t that the sum of Q:R% further part of the said sum of Q1 % shall )e held as a fund )y the in&ome ,hereof the in&ome of su&h of the resident >ello,s of the Colle'e as ,or? for the honour and di'nity of the Colle'e shall )e in&reased -nd 1 further dire&t that the sum of Q1 % further part of the said sum of Q1 % shall )e held as a fund )y the in&ome ,hereof the di'nity and &omfort of the Hi'h 8a)le may )e maintained )y ,hi&h means the di'nity and &omfort of the resident >ello,s may )e in&reased -nd 1 further dire&t that the sum of Q1 % the remainder of the said sum of Q1 % shall )e held as a repair fund the in&ome ,hereof shall )e expended in maintainin' and repairin' the Colle'e )uildin's -nd finally as the Colle'e authorities live se&luded from the ,orld and so are li?e &hildren as to &ommer&ial matters 1 ,ould advise them to &onsult my 8rustees as to the investment of these various funds for they ,ould re&eive 'reat help and assistan&e from the advi&e of my 8rustees in su&h matters and 1 dire&t that any investment made pursuant to su&h advi&e shall ,hatsoever it may )e )e an authoriDed investment for the money applied in ma?in' it4 1=4 1 'ive my property follo,in' that is to say my residen&e ?no,n as O@e Groote 2&huurO situate near Mo,)ray in the Cape @ivision in the said Colony to'ether ,ith all furniture plate and other arti&les &ontained therein at the time of my death and all other land )elon'in' to me situated under 8a)le Mountain in&ludin' my property ?no,n as OMostertsO to my 8rustees here! in)efore named upon and su)+e&t to the &onditions follo,in' that is to say! (i4# 8he said property (ex&eptin' any furniture or li?e arti&les ,hi&h have )e&ome useless# shall not nor shall any portion thereof at any time )e sold let or other,ise alienated4 (ii4# Bo )uildin's for su)ur)an residen&es shall at any time )e ere&ted on the said property and any )uildin's ,hi&h may )e ere&ted thereon shall )e used ex&lusively for pu)li& purposes and shall )e in a style of ar&hite&ture similar to or in harmony ,ith my said residen&e4 (iii4# 8he said residen&e and its 'ardens and 'rounds shall )e retained for a residen&e for the Prime Minister for the time )ein' of the said >ederal Government of the 2tates of 2outh -fri&a to ,hi&h 1 have referred in &lause " hereof my intention )ein' to provide a suita)le offi&ial residen&e for the >irst Minister in that Government )efittin' the di'nity of his position and until there shall )e su&h a >ederal Government may )e used as a par? for the people4 (iv4# 8he 'rave of the late 3an Hendri? Hofmeyr upon the said property shall )e prote&ted and a&&ess )e permitted thereto at all reasona)le times )y any mem)er of the Hofmeyr family for the purpose of inspe&tion or maintenan&e4

1:4 1 'ive to my 8rustees herein)efore named su&h a sum of money as they shall &arefully as&ertain and in their un&ontrolled dis&retion &onsider to )e ample and suffi&ient to yield in&ome amountin' to the sum of one thousand pounds sterlin' per annum and not less upon trust that su&h in&ome shall )e applied and expended for the purposes follo,in' (that is to say#! (i4# On and for ?eepin' and maintainin' for the use of the Prime Minister for the time )ein' of the said >ederal Government of at least t,o &arria'e horses one or more &arria'es and suffi&ient sta)le servants4 (ii4# On and for ?eepin' and maintainin' in 'ood order the Ro,er and ?it&hen 'ardens appertainin' to the said residen&e4 (iii4# On and for the payment of the ,a'es or earnin's in&ludin' )oard and lod'in' of t,o &ompetent men servants to )e housed ?ept and employed in domesti& servi&e in the said residen&e4 (iv4# On and for the improvement repair rene,al and insuran&e of the said residen&e furniture plate and other arti&les4 1<4 1 dire&t that su)+e&t to the &onditions and trusts herein)efore &ontained the said >ederal Government shall from the time it shall )e &onstituted have the mana'ement administration and &ontrol of the said devise and le'a&y and that my 8rustees shall as soon as may )e thereafter vest and pay the devise and le'a&y 'iven )y the t,o last pre&edin' &lauses hereof in and to su&h Government if a &orporate )ody &apa)le of a&&eptin' and holdin' the same or if not then in some suita)le &orporate )ody so &apa)le named )y su&h Government and that in the meantime my 8rustees shall in their un&ontrolled dis&retion mana'e administer and &ontrol the said devise and le'a&y4 1"4 Ahereas 1 &onsider that the edu&ation of youn' Colonists at one of the Universities in the United (in'dom is of 'reat advanta'e to them for 'ivin' )readth to their vie,s for their instru&tion in life and manners and for instillin' into their minds the advanta'e to the Colonies as ,ell as to the United (in'dom of the retention of the unity of the 0mpire -nd ,hereas in the &ase of youn' Colonists studyin' at a University in the United (in'dom 1 atta&h very 'reat importan&e to the University havin' a residential system su&h as is in for&e at the Universities of Oxford and Cam)rid'e for ,ithout it those students are at the most &riti&al period of their lives left ,ithout any supervision -nd ,hereas there are at the present time < or more students from 2outh -fri&a studyin' at the University of 0din)ur'h many of ,hom are attra&ted there )y its ex&ellent medi&al s&hool and 1 should li?e to esta)lish some of the 2&holarships hereinafter mentioned in that University )ut o,in' to its not havin' su&h a residential system as aforesaid 1 feel o)li'ed to refrain from doin' so -nd ,hereas my o,n University the University of Oxford has su&h a system and 1 su''est that it should try and extend its s&ope so as if possi)le to ma?e its medi&al s&hool at least as 'ood as that at the University of 0din)ur'h -nd ,hereas 1 also desire to en&oura'e and foster an appre&iation of the advanta'es ,hi&h 1 impli&itly )elieve ,ill result from the union of the 0n'lish!spea?in' peoples throu'hout the ,orld and to en&oura'e in the students from the United 2tates of Borth -meri&a ,ho ,ill )enefit from the -meri&an 2&holarships to )e esta)lished for the reason a)ove 'iven at the University of Oxford under this my Aill an atta&hment to the &ountry from ,hi&h they have sprun' )ut ,ithout 1 hope ,ithdra,in' them or their sympathies from the land of their adoption or )irth Bo, therefore 1 dire&t my 8rustees as soon as may )e after my death and either simultaneously or 'radually as they shall find &onvenient and if 'radually then in su&h order as they shall thin? fit to esta)lish for male students the 2&holarships hereinafter dire&ted to )e esta)lished ea&h of ,hi&h shall )e of the yearly value of Q= and )e tena)le at any Colle'e in the University of Oxford for three &onse&utive a&ademi&al years4 174 1 dire&t my 8rustees to esta)lish &ertain 2&holarships and these 2&holarships 1 sometimes hereinafter refer to as Lthe Colonial 2&holarships4C 184 8he appropriation of the Colonial 2&holarships and the num)ers to )e annually filled up shall )e in a&&ordan&e ,ith the follo,in' ta)le9! 8otal Bo4 appropriated4 9 = = = = = = = = = = 8o )e tena)le )y 2tudents of or from Bo4 of 2&holarships to )e filled up in ea&h year4 Rhodesia = and no more4 8he 2outh -fri&an Colle'e 2&hool in the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1 and no more4 8he 2tellen)os&h Colle'e 2&hool in the same Colony 1 and no more4 8he @io&esan Colle'e 2&hool of Ronde)os&h in the same Colony 1 and no more4 2t4 -ndre,s Colle'e 2&hool Grahamsto,n in the same Colony 1 and no more4 8he Colony of Batal 1 and no more4 8he Colony of Be, 2outh Aales 1 and no more4 8he Colony of /i&toria 1 and no more4 8he Colony of 2outh -ustralia 1 and no more4 8he Colony of Hueensland 1 and no more4 8he Colony of Aestern -ustralia 1 and no more4

= = = = = = =

8he Colony of 8asmania 8he Colony of Be, Sealand 8he Provin&e of Ontario in the @ominion of Canada 8he Provin&e of Hue)e& in the @ominion of Canada 8he Colony or 1sland of Be,foundland and its @ependen&ies 8he Colony or 1slands of the *ermudas 8he Colony or 1sland of 3amai&a

1 and no more4 1 and no more4 1 and no more4 1 and no more4 1 and no more4 1 and no more4 1 and no more4

194 1 >urther dire&t my 8rustees to esta)lish additional 2&holarships suffi&ient in num)er >or the appropriation in the next >ollo,in' &lause hereof dire&ted and those 2&holarships 1 sometimes hereinafter refer to as Othe -meri&an 2&holarships4O ; 4 1 appropriate t,o of the -meri&an 2&holarships to ea&h of the present 2tates and 8erritories of the United 2tates of Borth -meri&a Provided that if any of the said 8erritories shall in my lifetime )e admitted as a 2tate the 2&holarships appropriated to su&h 8erritory shall )e appropriated to su&h 2tate and that my 8rustees may in their un&ontrolled dis&retion ,ithhold for su&h time as they shall thin? fit the appropriation of 2&holarships to any 8erritory4 ;14 1 dire&t that of the t,o 2&holarships appropriated to a 2tate or 8erritory not more than one shall )e filled up in any year so that at no time shall more than t,o 2&holarships )e held for the same 2tate or 8erritory4 ;;4 8he 2&holarships shall )e paid only out of in&ome and in the event at any time of in&ome )ein' insuffi&ient for payment in full of all the 2&holarships for the time )ein' paya)le 1 dire&t that (,ithout pre+udi&e to the vested interests of holders for the time )ein' of 2&holarships# the follo,in' order of priority shall re'ulate the payment of the 2&holarships4 (ii# 2e&ondly the 2&holarships of students from the said 2outh -fri&an 2tellen)os&h Ronde)os&h and 2t4 -ndre,s 2&hools shall )e paid4 (iii# 8hirdly the remainder of the Colonial 2&holarships shall )e paid and if there shall not )e suffi&ient in&ome for the purpose su&h 2&holarships shall a)ate proportionatelyF and (iv# >ourthly the -meri&an 2&holarships shall )e paid and if there shall not )e suffi&ient in&ome for the purpose su&h 2&holarships shall a)ate proportionately4 ;=4 My desire )ein' that the students ,ho shall )e ele&ted to the 2&holarships shall not )e merely )oo?,orms 1 dire&t that in the ele&tion of a student to a 2&holarship re'ard shall )e had to (i# his literary and s&holasti& attainments (ii# his fondness of and su&&ess in manly outdoor sports su&h as &ri&?et foot)all and the li?e (iii# his Eualities of manhood truth &oura'e devotion to duty sympathy for and prote&tion of the ,ea? ?indliness unselfishness and fello,ship and (iv# his exhi)ition durin' s&hool days of moral for&e of &hara&ter and of instin&ts to lead and to ra?e an interest in his s&hoolmates for those latter attri)utes ,ill )e li?ely in afterlife to 'uide him to esteem the performan&e of pu)li& duties as his hi'hest aim -s mere su''estions for the 'uidan&e of those ,ho ,ill have the &hoi&e of students for the 2&holarships 1 re&ord that! (i# My ideal Eualified student ,ould &om)ine these four Eualifi&ations in the proportions of :Tl ths for the first ;T1 ths for the se&ond ;T1 ths for the third and ;T1 ths for the fourth Eualifi&ation so that a&&ordin' to my ideas if the maximum num)er of mar?s for any 2&holarship ,ere 1 they ,ould )e apportioned as >ollo,s9 ! : to the first Eualifi&ation and ; to ea&h of the se&ond third and fourth Eualifi&ations4 (ii# 8he mar?s for first Eualifi&ation ,ould )e a,arded )y examination for the se&ond and third Eualifi&ations )y )allot )y the fello,!students of the &andidates and for the >ourth Eualifi&ation )y the head master of the &andidateOs s&hoolF and (iii# 8he results of the a,ards ,ould )e sent simultaneously to my 8rustees or some one appointed to re&eive the same4 1 say simultaneously so that no a,ardin' parry should ?no, the result of the a,ard of any other a,ardin' party4 ;:4 Bo student shall )e Eualified or disEualified for ele&tion to a 2&holarship on a&&ount of his ra&e or reli'ious opinions4 ;<4 8he ele&tion to 2&holarships shall )e )y the 8rustees after &onsultation ,ith the minister havin' the &ontrol of edu&ation in su&h &olony provin&e state or territory ex&ept in the &ases of the four s&hools herein)efore mentioned4 ;"4 - Eualified student ,ho has )een ele&ted as aforesaid shall ,ithin six &alendar months after his ele&tion or as soon thereafter as he &an )e admitted into residen&e or ,ithin su&h extended time as my 8rustees shall allo, &ommen&e residen&e as an under'raduate at some &olle'e in the University of Oxford4

;74 8he s&holarships shall )e paya)le to him from the time ,hen he shall &ommen&e su&h residen&e4 ;84 1 desire that the 2&holars holdin' the s&holarships shall )e distri)uted amon'st the Colle'es of the University of Oxford and not resort in undue num)ers to one or more Colle'es only4 ;94 Bot,ithstandin' anythin' herein)efore &ontained my 8rustees may in their un&ontrolled dis&retion suspend for su&h time as they shall thin? fit or remove Oany 2&holar from his s&holarship4 = 4 My 8rustees may from time to time ma?e vary and repeal re'ulations either 'eneral or affe&tin' spe&ified 2&holarships only ,ith re'ard to all or any of the follo,in' matters that is to say9! (i# 8he ele&tion ,hether after examination or other,ise of Eualified 2tudents to the 2&holarships or any of them and the method ,hether )y examination or other,ise in ,hi&h their Eualifi&ations are to )e as&ertained4 (ii# 8he tenure of the 2&holarships )y s&holars4 (iii# 8he suspension and removal of s&holars from their 2&holarships4 (iv# 8he method and times of payment of the 2&holarships4 (v# 8he method of 'ivin' effe&t to my ,ish expressed in &lause ;8 hereof and (vi# -ny and every other matter ,ith re'ard to the 2&holarships or any of them ,ith re'ard to ,hi&h they shall &onsider re'ulations ne&essary or desira)le4 =14 My 8rustees may from time to time authoriDe re'ulations ,ith re'ard to the ele&tion ,hether after examination or other,ise of Eualified students for 2&holarships and to the method ,hether )y examination or other,ise in ,hi&h their Eualifi&ations are to )e as&ertained to )e made! (ii# *y the Minister aforesaid of a Colony Provin&e 2tate or 8erritory in respe&t of the 2&holarships tena)le )y students from su&h Colony Provin&e 2tate or 8erritory4 =;4 Re'ulations made under the last pre&edin' &lause hereof if and ,hen approved of and not )efore )y my 8rustees shall )e eEuivalent in all respe&ts to re'ulations made )y my 8rustees4 ==4 Bo re'ulations made under &lause = or made and approved of under &lauses =1 and 3; hereof shall )e in&onsistent ,ith any of the provisions herein &ontained4 =:4 1n order that the s&holars past and present may have opportunities of meetin' and dis&ussin' their experien&es and prospe&ts 1 desire that my 8rustees shall annually 'ive a dinner to the past and present s&holars a)le and ,illin' to attend at ,hi&h 1 hope my 8rustees or some of them ,ill )e a)le to )e present and to ,hi&h they ,ill 1 hope from time to rime invite as 'uests persons ,ho have sho,n sympathy ,ith the vie,s expressed )y me in this my Aill4 =<4 My 8rustees herein)efore named shall free of all duty ,hatsoever at su&h time as they shall thin? fit set apart out of my estate su&h a 2&holarship fund (either )y appropriation of existin' investments or )y ma?in' other investments or partly in one ,ay and partly in the other# as they shall &onsider suffi&ient )y its in&ome to pay the 2&holarships and in addition a yearly sum of Q1% 4 ="4 My 8rustees shall invest the 2&holarship fund and the other funds herein)efore esta)lished or any part thereof respe&tively in su&h investments in any part of the ,orld 412 they shall in their un&ontrolled dis&retion thin? fit and that ,ithout re'ard to any rules of eEuity 'overnin' investments )y trustees and ,ithout any responsi)ility or lia)ility should they &om mitt any )rea&h of any su&h rule ,ith po,er to vary and su&h investments for others of a li?e nature4 =74 1nvestments to )earer held as an investment may )e deposited )y my 8rustees for safe &ustody in their names ,ith any )an?er or )an?in' &ompany or ,ith any &ompany ,hose )usiness it is to ta?e &har'e of investments of that nature and my 8rustees shall not )e responsi)le for any loss in&urred in &onseEuen&e of su&h deposit4

=84 My 8rustees shall after the death of the survivor of my said )rothers and sisters hold my said interest in the said @alston estate as an a&&retion to the &apital of the 2&holarship fund and the net rents and profits thereof as an a&&retion to the in&ome of the 2&holarship fund and shall )y means of the in&rease of in&ome of the 2&holarship fund so arisin' esta)lish su&h num)er of further 2&holarships of the yearly value of Q= ea&h as su&h in&rease shall )e suffi&ient to esta)lish4 2u&h further 2&holarships shall )e for students of su&h *ritish Colony or Colonies or @ependen&y or @ependen&ies ,hether herein)efore mentioned or nor as my 8rustees shall in their un&ontrolled dis&retion thin? fit -nd 1 dire&t that every su&h further 2&holarship shall &orrespond in all respe&ts ,ith the 2&holarships herein)efore dire&ted to )e esta)lished and that the pre&edin' provisions of this my Aill ,hi&h apply to the 2&holarships herein)efore dire&ted to )e esta)lished or any of them shall ,here appli&a)le apply to su&h further 2&holarships4 =94 Until the 2&holarship fund shall have )een ser apart as aforesaid 1 &har'e the same and the 2&holarships upon the residue of my real and personal estate4 : 4 1 'ive the residue of my real and personal estate unto su&h of them the said 0arl of Rose)ery 0arl Grey -lfred *eit Ailliam 8homas 2tead .e,is .oyd Mi&hell and *our&hier >ran&is Ha,?sley as shall )e livin' at my death a)solutely and if more than one as +oint tenants% :14 My 8rustees in the administration of the trust )usiness may instead of a&tin' personally employ and pay a 2e&retary or -'ent to transa&t all )usiness and do all a&ts reEuired to )e done in the trust in&ludin' the re&eipt and payment of money4 :;% My intention is that there shall )e al,ays at least three 8rustees of my Aill so far as it relates to the 2&holarship 8rusts and therefore 1 dire&t that ,henever there shall )e less than three 8rustees a ne, 8rustee or ne, 8rustees shall )e forth,ith appointed% 2i'ned )y the said 8estator 8he Ri'ht Honoura)le Ce&il 3ohn Rhodes as and for his last Aill and 8estament in the presen&e of us )oth present at the same time ,ho at his reEuest in his presen&e and in the presen&e of ea&h other have hereunto su)s&ri)ed our names as ,itnesses CH-R.02 84 M08C-.>0% P4 3OUR@-B% -R8HUR 2-AU0R% C4 3% RHO@024

3anT199 Really 3anuary 19 14 On a&&ount of the extraordinary e&&entri&ity of Mr4 2tead thou'h havin' al,ays a 'reat respe&t for him )ut feelin' the o)+e&ts of my Aill ,ould )e em)arrassed )y his vie,s 1 here)y revo?e his appointment as one of my exe&utors% C4 3% RHO@024 Aitnesses .0A12 .4 M1CH0..% H4 GO@@0B% 8his is a further Codi&il to my Aill 1 note the German 0mperor has made instru&tion in 0n'lish &ompulsory in German s&hools 1 leave five yearly s&holarships at Oxford of Q;# per ann% to students of German )irth the s&holars to )e nominated )y the German 0mperor for the time )ein' 0a&h s&holarship to &ontinue for three years so that ea&h year after the first three there ,ill )e fifteen s&holars 8he o)+e&t is that an understandin' )et,een the three 'reat po,ers ,ill render ,ar impossi)le and edu&ational relations ma?e the stron'est tie% C4 3% RHO@024 Aitnesses G% /4 A0**4 A4G4/4 C-R80R% JBote9 -meri&a has already )een provided for4 C434R4K

0B@OR20@ OB *-C( O> -*O/04 - yearly amount should )e put in *ritish Consols to provide for the )eEuests in my Aill ,hen the diamond mines ,or? out9 the a)ove is an instru&tion to the 8rustees of my Aill4 C434R4 3anT19 14 -s a further Codi&il to my Aill 1 leave 34 Grimmer ten thousand pounds and the use of my 1nyan'a farms for his life 8his )eEuest ta?es the pla&e of the previous ,ritten paper 'iven to hint4 Aitness A4 G4 /4 C-R80R4 H4 GO@@0B4 8his is a Codi&il to the last Aill and 8estament of me 8H0 R1GH8 HOBOUR-*.0 C0C1. 3OHB RHO@02 of Cape 8o,n in the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope ,hi&h Aill is dated the >irst day of 3uly One thousand ei'ht hundred and ninety!nine 1 appoint the Ri'ht Honoura)le -lfred .ord Milner to )e an 0xe&utor and 8rustee of my said Aill +ointly ,ith those named in my said Aill as my 0xe&utors and 8rustees and in all respe&ts as thou'h he had )een ori'inally appointed one of my 0xe&utors and 8rustees )y my said Aill -nd 1 asso&iate him ,ith my residuary le'atees and devisees named in &lause : of my said Aill desirin' and de&larin' that they and he are my residuary le'atees and devisees in +oint tenan&y 1 revo?e &lauses ;=4 ;: and ;< in my said Aill and in lieu thereof su)stitute the three follo,in' &lauses ,hi&h 1 dire&t shall he read as thou'h ori'inally &lauses ;=4 ;: and ;< of my said Aill9! ;=4 My desire )ein' that the students ,ho shall )e ele&ted to the 2&holarships shall not )e merely )oo?,orms 1 dire&t that in the ele&tion of a student to a 2&holarship re'ard shall he had to (i# his literary and s&holasti& attainments (ii# his fondness of and su&&ess in manly outdoor sports su&h as &ri&?et foot)all and the li?e (iii# his Eualities of manhood truth &oura'e devotion to duty sympathy for the prote&tion of the ,ea? ?indliness unselfishness and fello,ship and (iv# his exhi)ition durin' s&hool days of moral for&e of &hara&ter and of instin&ts to lead and to ta?e an interest in his s&hoolmates for those latter attri)utes ,ill he li?ely in afterlife to 'uide him to esteem the performan&e of pu)li& duties as his hi'hest aim4 -s mere su''estions for the 'uidan&e of those ,ho ,ill have the &hoi&e of students for the 2&holarships 1 re&ord that (i# my ideal Eualified student ,ould &om)ine these four Eualifi&ations in the proportions of =T1 ths for the first ;T1 ths for the se&ond =T1 ths for the third and ;T1 ths for the fourth Eualifi&ation so that a&&ordin' 1 my ideas if the maximum num)er of mar?s for any 2&holarship ,ere ; they ,ould )e apportioned as follo,s ! " to ea&h of the first and third Eualifi&ations and : to ea&h of the se&ond and fourth Eualifi&ations (ii# the mar?s for the several Eualifi&ations ,ould )e a,arded independently as follo,s (that is to say# the mar?s for the first Eualifi&ation )y examination for the se&ond and third Eualifi&ations respe&tively )y )allot )y the fello,!students of the &andidates and for the fourth Eualifi&ation )y the head master of the &andidateCs s&hool and (iii# the results of the a,ards (that is to say the mar?s o)tained )y ea&h &andidate for ea&h Eualifi&ation# ,ould )e sent as soon as possi)le for &onsideration to the 8rustees or to some person or persons appointed to re&eive the same and the person or persons so appointed ,ould as&ertain )y avera'in' the mar?s in )lo&?s of ; mar?s ea&h of all &andidates the )est ideal Eualified students4 2>3 ;o student shall #e ?uali"ied or dis?uali"ied "or election to a Scholarship on account o" his race or reli+ious opinions3 ;<4 0x&ept in the &ases of the four s&hools herein)efore mentioned the ele&tion to 2&holarships shall )e )y the 8rustees after su&h (if any# &onsultation as they shall thin? fit ,ith the Minister havin' the &ontrol of edu&ation in su&h Colony Provin&e 2tate or 8erritory4 1n ,itness ,hereof 1 have hereunto set my hand this 0leventh day of O&to)er One thousand nine hundred and one4 2i'ned )y the said Ce&il 3ohn Rhodes as and for a Codi&il to his last Aill and 8estament in the presen&e of us all present at the 2ame time ,ho in his presen&e at his reEuest and in the presen&e of ea&h other have hereunto su)s&ri)ed our names as ,itnesses4 G0ORG0 >RO28% >R-B( *ROAB% 2ervants to Mr4 *0l8% ;"% Par? .ane% .ondon4 2our&e9 The History of the Rhodes Trust: 1902-1999% 0dited )y -nthony (enny (Oxford University Press#

-meri&an Rhodes 2&holars at Oxford University

28-B2>10.@ 8URB0R% ,ho served as a C1- @ire&tor under President 3immy Carter% stands )eside his parents durin' his 'raduation from Oxford in 19:94 (2our&e9 Rhodes Scholars, !ford, and The "reation of an #$erican %lite )y 8homas 34 2&haeper and (athleen 2&haeper#

Rhodes 2&holars Class of 19"8 sit in front of a &amera4 *1.. C.1B8OB is standin' on the se&ond ro,% fifth person from left4 RO*0R8 R01CH appears in the front ro, on the far left4 28RO*0 8-.*O88 appears in the front ro,% fifth person from ri'ht4 8OM A1..1-M2OB is standin' on the fourth ro,% se&ond person from ri'ht4 R1C( 280-RB2 is standin' on the )a&? ro,% se&ond person from ri'ht4 -.-B *0R21B is standin' on the fourth ro,% sixth person from ri'ht4 @OUG.-2 0-(0.0U is standin' on the third ro,% third person from left4 3-M02 CR-A>OR@ is standin' on the far left in the )a&? ro,4

Former President 'arry !. <r(man visits =Gford in 5(ne .)/>. <o <r(manJs right is F&"8$ !;%K%&<! (&! .)//), and to <r(manJs left is P" L !"&B"8%! (&! .)/3).

BA&=8 W';<% sho6s Betty 8olan a sheet of paper at =Gford.

2U2-B *1..1BG8OB sha?es hands ,ith Hueen 0liDa)eth 11 ,hile her mother Mar+orie *illin'ton sha?es hands ,ith Prin&e Philip durin' a Rhodes 2&holar reunion at Oxford in 198=4 2usan *illin'tonCs father 3-M02 *1..1BG8OB is seen on the far ri'ht% standin' )ehind his dau'hter4 3ames *illin'ton and his dau'hter 2usan *illin'ton are Rhodes 2&holars4

8he Oxford )as?et)all team in 19<: in&luded five -meri&an Rhodes 2&holars9 0R.1BG 2(ORP0B (V1#% -.-B 1..1G (V;#% R1CH-R@ .UG-R (V"#% P-U. 2-R*-B02 (V7#% and -.*0R8 U88OB (V1 #4

Rhodes 2&holars visit the Per&h% an inn near Oxford% in 19784 >rom left to ri'ht9 M1CH-0. 2H0- and his ,ife .a @onna% R1C( 280-RB2 and his ,ife Patri&ia% *1.. C.1B8OB and his ,ife Hillary Clinton% and 3-M02 CR-A>OR@4

A-.8 A4 RO28OA (left#% PH1.1P M4 (-120R (middle#% and GOR@OB -4 CR-1G appear at Oxford4 -ll three men re&eived a Rhodes 2&holarship in 19="4

*1.. *R-@.0U attends &lasses at Oxford4

>rom left to ri'ht9 -ssistant Professor of >ren&h RO*0R8 /-.0B81B0 M0RR1.. (R2 191=# appears ,ith 3OHB M&@OBOUGH (R2 19;8#% 0UG0B0 GOO@A1..10 (R2 19;8#% and *1.. B-2H (R2 19;8#4

%Gtra Foreign &hodes !cholars: "fta4 !eth, "m4assador of ;ndia to 5apan (*+++0*++7)

Rhodes 2&holars Class of 19 : and 19 <

.ist of Oxford Colle'es
*alliol *rasenose Christ Chur&h Corpus Christi 0xeter Hertford 3esus (e)le .in&oln Ma'dalen Merton Be, Colle'e Oriel Pem)ro?e HueenCs 2t4 CatherineCs 2t4 0dmund Hall 2t4 PeterCs Hall 2t4 3ohnCs 8rinity University Aadham Aor&ester

28RO*0 8-.*O88% *1.. C.1B8OB% and >R-B( -..0R stand to'ether4 >R-B( -..0R &ommitted sui&ide in 19714

2enator Hillary Clinton (left# and politi&al &ommentator Mi&helle Mal?in (ri'ht# are married to Rhodes 2&holars4 2enator Hillary ClintonCs hus)and is *1.. C.1B8OB (R2 19"8#% and Mi&helle Mal?inCs hus)and is 30220 M-.(1B (R2 1991#4

Rhodes 2&holars for the Class of 19"7 appear at Oxford durin' their : th anniversary reunion in ; 74 >ront ro,% left to ri'ht9 @avid R4 *o&?% Ro)ert C4 Randolph% Mr4 Pas&oe% Mi&hael -4 >redri&?son% Ronald 2tanley (atD% *arry 14 >orman% 2tephen @4 2&haffran% 3ohn Ro,ell -lexander4 2e&ond ro,9 President of Aest /ir'inia University @avid C4 Hardesty 3r4% 2tephen -4 Oxman% Ri&hard 34 Pedersen% retired U424 Bavy -dmiral Charles 24 -))ot% U424 Con'ressman 8homas H4 -llen% 3ohn M4 1saa&son4 *a&? ro,9 Ri&hard .4 2&haper% (ent Pri&e% Ailliam C4 Clendaniel% 2amuel *4 2to&?in'% and 3ohn P4 Harrod4 (Photo9 -sso&iation of -meri&an Rhodes 2&holars#

>rom left to ri'ht% 3a&? Soeller (Be, Uor? G University C7;#% @arryl *an?s (1o,a and 3esus C7;#% 2tan 2anders (California and Ma'dalen C"=#% 3esse 2pi?es (Be, Hampshire G University C7;# and Herve Gourai'e (Be, Uor? G Merton C7;# appear at a lun&heon &ommemoratin' -meri&an Rhodes 2&holar -lain .o&?e on 2eptem)er ;:% ; 74 (Photo9 -sso&iation of -meri&an Rhodes 2&holars#

RHO@02 2CHO.-R2 PHO8O -.*UM ()efore 197"#

@ean Rus? (left#% the U424 2e&retary of 2tate% meets ,ith U424 2enator 34 Ailliam >ul)ri'ht at the Capitol in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on Bovem)er 7% 19"74 @ean Rus? and 34 Ailliam >ul)ri'ht ,ere Rhodes 2&holars at Oxford University in Great *ritain4 (UP1 Photo#

.!. "rmy Chief of !taff #en. William C. Westmoreland (4ackgro(nd) 6atches President Lyndon B. 5ohnson talk to !ecretary of !tate ,%"8 & !$ and nder !ecretary of !tate 8;C'=L"! $"<C%8B"C' d(ring a meeting at the White 'o(se on =cto4er 7., .)>1. (Photo: Aoichi &. =kamoto, Lyndon B. 5ohnson Presidential Li4rary)

Bote9 C-P2 W Rhodes 2&holars

President .yndon *4 3ohnson (fore'round# meets ,ith (left to ri'ht# Under 2e&retary of 2tate B1CHO.-2 (-8S0B*-CH% Bational 2e&urity -dvisor A-.8 RO28OA% 2e&retary of @efense!desi'nate Clar? Clifford% and 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( at the Ahite House on >e)ruary <% 19"84 (Photo9 >ran? Aolfe% .yndon *4 3ohnson Presidential .i)rary#

2e&retary of @efense Clar? Clifford (ri'ht# sleeps ,hile Bational 2e&urity -dvisor A-.8 RO28OA (left# and 2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 (&enter# are daydreamin' in the Ahite House Ca)inet Room on Bovem)er ;"% 19"84 (Photo9 Mi?e Geissin'er% .yndon *4 3ohnson Presidential .i)rary#

2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( 'ives aid and &omfort to 2oviet >orei'n Minister -ndrei Gromy?o at the Glass)oro 2ummit Conferen&e on 3uly ;<% 19"74 (Photo9 Uoi&hi R4 O?amoto% .yndon *4 3ohnson Presidential .i)rary#

President .yndon *4 3ohnson ,at&hes Bational 2e&urity -dvisor A-.8 RO28OA sha?e hands ,ith 2oviet Premier -le?sei (osy'in at the Glass)oro 2ummit Conferen&e in Be, 3ersey on 3une ;<% 19"74 (Photo9 >ran? Aolfe% .yndon *4 3ohnson .i)rary#

2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 and 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( meet ,ith 2oviet Commissar Bi?ita (hrush&hev in Mos&o,4 (2our&e9 The "risis .ears: /ennedy and /hrushche0, 1910-1912 )y Mi&hael R4 *es&hloss#

2e&retary of @efense Ro)ert M&Bamara (left# and 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( (&enter# advise President 3ohn >4 (ennedy4

2enator 3ohn >4 (ennedy (left# and /i&e President Ri&hard M4 Bixon (ri'ht# meet ,ith moderator HOA-R@ (4 2M18H after a televised presidential de)ate in Chi&a'o in 2eptem)er 19" 4 (Photo9 >ran&is MillerT8ime .ife#

United 2tates 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( (left# and U424 2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 (&enter# meet ,ith 3apanese -m)assador (oi&hiro -sa?ai4

Bational 2e&urity -dvisor A-.8 RO28OA (left# ,at&hes >ord >oundation President M&Geor'e *undy (ri'ht#% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% 'ive some advi&e to 2oviet -m)assador to the U424 -natoly @o)rynin on 3une ;=% 19"74 *oth *undy and Rosto, served as Bational 2e&urity -dvisor under President .yndon *4 3ohnson4 @o)rynin ,as a UB Under!2e&retary for 2e&urity and Politi&al -ffairs from 19<8 to 19<9 and an am)assador to the U424 from 19"; to 198"4 (Photo9 Uoi&hi R4 O?amoto% .yndon *4 3ohnson Presidential .i)rary#

3ournalist HOA-R@ (4 2M18H listens to -rnold 34 8oyn)ee in 19":4 -rnold 34 8oyn)ee ,as a mem)er of the Royal 1nstitute of 1nternational -ffairs in Great *ritain and his nephe, (also -rnold 8oyn)ee# ,as one of Oxford professor 3ohn Rus?inCs dis&iples4

3ournalist HOA-R@ (4 2M18H (left# meets ,ith *ritish Prime Minister Clement -ttlee in 19< 4

HOA-R@ (4 2M18H addresses mem)ers of Con'ress in 197"4 2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 is sittin' )ehind 2mith4

3ournalist HOA-R@ (4 2M18H intervie,s *ritish Prime Minister -nthony 0den (left# in 19<"4

3ournalist HOA-R@ (4 2M18H (left# sha?es hands ,ith 0'yptCs -rmy Gen4 Gamal -)del Basser% the future President of 0'ypt% in 19< 4

HOA-R@ (4 2M18H intervie,s Be, Uor? Governor Belson Ro&?efeller in &4 197 4

HOA-R@ (4 2M18H intervie,s former President .yndon *4 3ohnson in 197;4

HOA-R@ (4 2M18H (left# intervie,s President Ri&hard Bixon in 19"94

8ime ma'aDine founder Henry .u&e (left#% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% stands )eside 8ime 0ditor!in!Chief H0@.0U @OBO/-B4

*ro,n *rothers Harriman partners Ro)ert .ovett (left#% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% and RO*0R8 /4 ROO2- dis&uss )an?in' matters at RoosaCs *ro,n *rothers Harriman offi&e on May :% 19"74

Con'ressman C-R. -.*0R8 'reets U424 President Ri&hard Bixon4

2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 (left# appears ,ith Geor'e H4A4 *ush and Communist ChinaCs ruler @en' Xiaopin'4

House Ma+ority .eader C-R. -.*0R8 (se&ond from ri'ht# appears ,ith (from left to ri'ht# President 3ohn >4 (ennedy% U424 2enator Hu)ert Humphrey% U424 2enator Hale *o''s% and /i&e President .yndon *4 3ohnson4

G0ORG0 C4 M&GH00 (ri'ht# meets ,ith Prime Minister of 1ran Mohammed Mossade'h in 19<14

President .yndon *4 3ohnson &on'ratulates U424 -ttorney General B1CHO.-2 (-8S0B*-CH on O&to)er =% 19""4 (Photo9 >ran? Aolfe% .yndon *4 3ohnson Presidential .i)rary#

Professor A1..1-M U4 0..1O88 appears ,ith President Ri&hard Bixon (left#4

8he U424 2upreme Court 3usti&es appear durin' U424 Con'ressman -dam Clayton Po,ellCs &ase4 2eated from left9 3usti&e 8om C4 Clar?% 3usti&e Hu'o .4 *la&?% Chief 3usti&e 0arl Aarren% 3usti&e Ailliam O4 @ou'las% and 3usti&e 3OHB M4 H-R.-B4 2tandin' are 3usti&es *UROB R4 AH180% Ailliam 34 *rennan% 3r4% Potter 2te,art% and -)e >ortas4 (Aide Aorld Photos% 1n&4#

Clock6ise, left to right: "m4assador0at0Large "verell 'arriman, President Lyndon B. 5ohnson, Ford Fo(ndation President -c#eorge B(ndy, .!. "m4assador to the !oviet nion Lle6ellyn %. <hompson, !ecretary of !tate ,%"8 & !$, !ecretary of ,efense &o4ert -c8amara, and 8ational !ec(rity "dvisor W"L< &=!<=W meet privately at the #lass4oro !(mmit Conference in #lass4oro, 8e6 5ersey on 5(ne */, .)>2. (Photo: Aoichi &. =kamoto, Lyndon B. 5ohnson Presidential Li4rary)

2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( (left# re&eives a daily )riefin' from 8HOM-2 .4 HUGH02% the @ire&tor of the *ureau of 1ntelli'en&e and Resear&h% in Aashin'ton% @4C4 in 19"84 (Photo9 >ran&is MillerT8ime .ife#

United 2tates 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( (left# listens to U424 2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH84 (Photo9 #s ( Sa) (t )y @ean Rus?#

U424 2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 (left# &hats ,ith 2e&retary of @efense 8homas 24 Gates 3r4 (R# in Con'ress in Aashin'ton% @4C4 in 3une 19" 4 (Photo9 Han? Aal?erT8ime .ife#

2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 &hats ,ith 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( prior to Rus?Cs testimony )efore the 2enateOs >orei'n Relations Committee% &haired )y >ul)ri'ht% &on&ernin' -meri&aCs involvement in 2outh /ietnam on >e)ruary 18% 19""4 (Photo )y Gene >orteTPi&torial ParadeTGetty 1ma'es#

.eft to Ri'ht9 2e&retary of 2tate @0-B RU2( appears ,ith *ureau of 1ntelli'en&e and Resear&h (1BR# @ire&tor 8HOM-2 .4 HUGH02 (&enter#% and @eputy @ire&tor -llan 0vans4 (Photo9 http9TT,,,4',u4eduTYnsar&hivTB2-0**TB2-0**1;1Thu'hes4htm#

/i&e President Belson Ro&?efeller and 2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 ,at&h President Gerald >ord deliver the 2tate of the Union on 3anuary 1<% 197<4 (Photo9 Gerald R4 >ord .i)rary#

RHO@02 2CHO.-R2 PHO8O -.*UM (after 197"#

President of the United 2tates *1.. C.1B8OB (left# meets ,ith Hueen 0liDa)eth 11 of Great *ritain4

2pea?er of the U424 House of Representatives C-R. -.*0R8 re&eives a 'ift from Hueen 0liDa)eth 11 of Great *ritain in 197"4

Aater'ate meets Ahite,ater9 >ormer President Ri&hard Bixon tal?s to President *1.. C.1B8OB at the Ahite House in 199=4

>ormer President Ronald Rea'an offers a +ar of +elly )eans to President!ele&t *1.. C.1B8OB at Rea'anCs Century City offi&e in .os -n'eles in 199;4 (Paul Ri&hardsT->PTGetty 1ma'es#

3ohn @eut&h% Ro)ert Gates% Ailliam Ae)ster% 28-B2>10.@ 8URB0R% R4 3-M02 AOO.20U% 3ames 2&hlesin'er% and Geor'e 8enet (standin' at far ri'ht# are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 Porter Goss and Geor'e H4A4 *ush are former mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 2tansfield 8urner and R4 3ames Aoolsey are Rhodes 2&holars4 Geor'e H4A4 *ush is a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% a se&ret so&iety at Uale University4 Geor'e H4A4 *ush% R4 3ames Aoolsey% and Ailliam Ae)ster are mem)ers of the *ohemian Grove4 3ohn @eut&h% Ailliam Ae)ster% and Geor'e 8enet are mem)ers of the 8rilateral Commission4

Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ H--22 (left# and Coun&il on >orei'n Relations Honorary Chairman @avid Ro&?efeller smile for the &amera4 (Photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations#

*O* 0-R. (ri'ht# stands )eside C1- a'ent Oliver Borth4 (2our&e9 3nder +ire: #n #$erican Story )y Oliver .4 Borth ,ith Ailliam Bova?#

Oliver Borth (left# appears ,ith 3effrey Mayer% former U424 Representative to the United Bations 3eane (ir?patri&? and former C1- @ire&tor R4 3-M02 AOO.20U4

President 3immy Carter meets ,ith other 8rilateral Commission mem)ers in the Ca)inet Room on Bovem)er 9% 19794 Counter&lo&?,ise from left to ri'ht9 .loyd Cutler% H0@.0U @OBO/-B% Aalter Mondale% S)i'nie, *rDeDins?i% 3immy Carter% Cyrus /an&e% Harold *ro,n% Aarren Christopher% Hamilton 3ordan% and 3ody Po,ell4

3immy Carter meets ,ith his advisers on Bovem)er ; % 19794 >rom left to ri'ht9 Harold *ro,n% Cyrus /an&e% 3immy Carter% S)i'nie, *rDeDins?i% Aalter Mondale% and C1- @ire&tor 28-B2>10.@ 8URB0R4

>ormer 2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 appears ,ith Geor'e *ush% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4

>ormer 2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 sits next to former President Gerald >ord4

Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ B4 H--22 smiles as former President of 2outh -fri&a Belson Mandela delivers a spee&h at the Harold Pratt House4 (Photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations -nnual Report#

President *1.. C.1B8OB stands )eside 2outh -fri&an President Belson Mandela4 Mandela ,as the head of -fri&an Bational Con'ress (-BC#% a 2outh -fri&an Marxist or'aniDation4

-dmiral @0BB12 *.-1R% the Commander of U424 Pa&ifi& Command% sha?es hands ,ith Red ChinaCs Minister of @efense General Chi Haotian% the $*ut&her of *ei+in'45

A1..1-M -4 $*1..5 H-.80R sha?es hands ,ith -r?ansas Governor *1.. C.1B8OB on 2eptem)er ;;% 198=4 *ill Halter is &urrently the .ieutenant Governor of -r?ansas4

Coun&il on >orei'n Relations mem)ers Mar? @anner% 28RO*0 8-.*O88% and Peter 8arnoff demonstrate their s?ills as one of the $3apanese Mon?eys54

@efense 2e&retary Ailliam 24 Cohen hears no evil% President *1.. C.1B8OB spea?s no evil% 2e&retary of 2tate Madeleine -l)ri'ht sees no evil% and Bational 2e&urity -dvisor 2andy *er'er feels no evil4 Mean,hile% the )anana is on the ta)le4

Rhodes 2&holar 3O20PH 24 BU0 3R4 'reets his fello, Rhodes 2&holar President *1.. C.1B8OB4

President Geor'e A4 *ush sha?es hands ,ith 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R at the Ahite House on Mar&h 1% ;

<4

2enator 3oe *iden (left# and 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R (ri'ht# 'reet -ra) terrorist -)u MaDen (Mahmoud -))as#4

President *1.. C.1B8OB 'reets -ra) terrorist Uasser -rafat4

2enator 3ohn (erry (left#% former Con'ressman 3OHB *R-@0M-2 (&enter#% and former 2pea?er of the House Be,t Gin'ri&h sit to'ether on Capitol Hill on -pril 1 % ; 74 -ll three men in this photo are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 3ohn (erry is a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4 (Photo )y Chip 2omodevillaTGetty 1ma'es#

>ederal Reserve Chairman -lan Greenspan (ri'ht# spea? ,ith 2enator P-U. 2-R*-B02 )efore the start of a 2enate *an?in'% Housin' and Ur)an -ffairs Committee hearin' on Capitol Hill on >e)ruary 1"% ; <4 (Photo )y Mar? AilsonTGetty 1ma'es#

Moshe @ayan% 0phraim 0vron% and 8HOM-2 .4 HUGH02% the President of Carne'ie 0ndo,ment for 1nternational Pea&e% ,al? up the stairs at the Harold Pratt House4 (Photo9 C>R -nnual Report#

Ri&hard Grasso ,at&hes 3OHB *R-@0M-2 (left# tal? to 2tephen 2&h,arDman (ri'ht#% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4

@-/1@ *OR0B% President of the University of O?lahoma% spea?s to C*2 Be,s an&hor (atie Couri& at the University of O?lahoma on May 1;% ; "4

G0ORG0 280PH-BOPOU.O2 stands )ehind President *1.. C.1B8OB on the front &over of a 8ime ma'aDine4

President!ele&t *ara&? O)ama is intervie,ed )y G0ORG0 280PH-BOPOU.O2 (left# durin' the tapin' of $8his Aee? ,ith Geor'e 2tephanopoulos5 at the Be,seum in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on 3anuary 1 % ; 94 (.auren /i&toria *ur?eT-*C Be,sT-P#

President *ill Clinton (left# appears ,ith U424 2e&retary of .a)or Ro)ert Rei&h4 (Photo9 3oe MarEuetteT-sso&iated Press#

President *ill Clinton (&enter# and U424 -rmy Gen4 Aesley Clar? (left#% the 2upreme -llied Commander of 0urope% meet ,ith B-8O 2e&retary General 3avier 2olana (ri'ht# at the B-8O headEuarters in *russels% *el'ium on May <% 19994 (Photo9 B-8O#

>ormer Con'ressman .ee H4 Hamilton (&enter# appears ,ith four Rhodes 2&holars4 >rom left to ri'ht9 PRO220R G1>>OR@% 2enator P-U. 2-R*-B02% .ee H4 Hamilton% 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R% and .i)rarian of Con'ress 3-M02 *1..1BG8OB4 PRO220R G1>>OR@ is a mem)er of 2&roll G (ey% a se&ret so&iety at Uale University4

>ormer President of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations Ainston .ord (a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones#% former -m)assador to Red China 34 2tapleton Roy% 1rina >as?ianos% and 3O20PH 24 BU0 3R4 meet privately at the Harold Pratt House4

.eft photo9 >ormer C1- @ire&tor R4 3-M02 AOO.20U% U424 2e&retary of Commer&e Carlos GutierreD% and -spen 1nstitute president A-.80R 12--C2OB appear at the ; 8 -spen 1deas >estival in -spen% Colorado in 3uly ; 84 (Photo9 http9TT,,,4ne,yor?so&ialdiary4&omTnodeT;";:8#

>ormer 2pea?er of the House C-R. -.*0R8 (left# appears ,ith former President 3immy Carter4

Retired -dmiral CH-R.02 280/0 -**O8 (&enter#% -&tin' Homeland 2e&urity -dvisor% meets ,ith Ho,ard 2&hmidt (left#% formerly the PresidentCs Cy)erspa&e 2e&urity -dvisor% and /an&e @4 Coffman% the Chairman and C0O of .o&?heed Martin durin' a meetin' in Aashin'ton @4C on -pril = % ; =4

U424 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R (left# appears ,ith U424 2upreme Court 3usti&e @-/1@ 2OU80R4 (Photo9 Rhodes House#

2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R (left# (R!1ndiana# stands )eside former Con'ressman and Be, Uor? University President 3OHB *R-@0M-2 (@!1ndiana# in an undated photo4

.eft photo9 -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( is seen havin' a &onversation ,ith Uu'oslaviaCs di&tator 2lo)odan Milosevi& in 19974 Ri'ht photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ B4 H--22 appears ,ith United Bations 2e&retary!General (ofi -nnan (left# at the Harold Pratt House4

.eft photo9 >ormer @ire&tor of Central 1ntelli'en&e -'en&y R4 3-M02 AOO.20U listens to 1raEi politi&ian -hmad Chala)i4 Ri'ht photo9 @efense 2e&retary @onald Rumsfeld shares a lau'h ,ith R4 3-M02 AOO.20U at the :1st Conferen&e on 2e&urity Poli&y in Muni&h% Germany on >e)ruary 1;% ; <4

A-.80R 12--C2OB (left# appears ,ith former 2e&retary of 2tate Henry (issin'er% former 2e&retary of 2tate Madeleine -l)ri'ht% and Coun&il on >orei'n Relations Chairman Peter G4 Peterson (ri'ht#4

3-M02 .eMOUB0% the United Bations 2pe&ial -dviser on Colom)ia% &on'ratulates Colom)ian >-RC terrorist RaZl Reyes in the +un'les of Colom)ia4

President *1.. C.1B8OB 'ives a Presidential Medal of >reedom to former 2enator 34 A1..1-M >U.*R1GH8 on May <% 199=4 Harriet Mayor >ul)ri'ht o)serves the &eremony4

>R-B(.1B @4 R-1B02% 0rs?ine *o,les% /ernon 3ordan% *1.. C.1B8OB% and Max Chapman ta?e a )rea? durin' a round of 'olf4

2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R stands )eside a&tress -n'elina 3olie4 3olie ,as in Aashin'ton to raise a,areness a)out refu'ees throu'h her ,or? as a United Bations Hi'h Commissioner for Refu'ees (UBHCR# Good,ill -m)assador4 3olie +oined the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations in ; 74

2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R introdu&es musi&ian and ro&? 2tar *ono at a re&eption in the 2enate >orei'n Relations Committee Hearin' Room4

.eft9 @emo&rati& presidential &andidate A02.0U (4 C.-R( 'reets Holly,ood dire&tor Mi&hael Moore (left#4 Ri'ht9 -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( (ri'ht#% the 2upreme -llied Commander of 0urope!B-8O% appears ,ith *ritish Prime Minister 8ony *lair4

.eft9 Russian President /ladimir Putin (left# tal?s to A-.80R *4 2.OCOM*0 (&enter# and President *1.. C.1B8OB in CatherineCs Hall in the (remlin4 *oth 2lo&om)e and Clinton are Rhodes 2&holars and mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 Ri'ht9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ B4 H--22 (&enter#% tal?s to >ormer Chairman of the 3oint Chiefs of 2taff Gen4 Ri&hard Myers (left# and 3ohn Hop?ins University Professor 0liot -4 Cohen at the Harold Pratt House4

.eft photo9 Geor'e 2oros (left# &hats ,ith .i)rarian of Con'ress 3-M02 *1..1BG8OB4 (Photo9 Paul Ho'roianT.i)rary of Con'ress# Ri'ht photo9 U424 -m)assador to Poland /i&tor -she (left#% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% stands )eside former *ri'adier General P080R M4 @-A(1B2 at the U424 0m)assy in Poland4

B*C Be,s an&hor *rian Ailliams% former -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R(% and 2enator Chu&? Ha'el (ri'ht# appear at a &onferen&e on Mar&h ;:% ; "4 -ll three men are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4

Mem)ers of Con'ress meet to'ether at a meetin' in -pril ; <4 >rom left to ri'ht9 Rep4 *O**U 31B@-.% Rep4 Rodney -lexander% 2en4 @-/1@ /1880R% and Rep4 0d,ard Ahitfield4

2enator Olympia 2no,e delivers a spee&h at a press &onferen&e ,ith Representative 8OM -..0B (left#% Representative Mi?e Mi&haud% and Maine Governor 3ohn *alda&&i (ri'ht# on 3uly "% ; <4

2enator 3ohn M&Cain meets ,ith 2enator RU22 >01BGO.@ (left# and former 2enator *1.. *R-@.0U (ri'ht#4

>ormer President *1.. C.1B8OB appears ,ith former 2enators P-U. 2-R*-B02 (left# and *1.. *R-@.0U (ri'ht#4

.eft9 M&Geor'e *undy and @0-B RU2( appear to'ether at the Harold Pratt House4 Ri'ht9 >ormer -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( is seen &ele)ratin' 2enator 3ohn (erry durin' the ;

: presidential ele&tion4

CondoleeDDa Ri&e% &urrently the 2e&retary of 2tate% stands )eside 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R4

2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R re&eives an a,ard from former 2e&retary of 2tate Madeline -l)ri'ht4

.eft photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ B4 H--22 introdu&es President Geor'e A4 *ush (left# at the Harold Pratt House on @e&em)er 7% ; <4 *ush delivered a spee&h that ni'ht4

Con'ressman H0-8H0R A1.2OB ,el&omes President Geor'e A4 *ush% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% to -l)uEuerEue% Be, Mexi&o for a fundraiser in 3une ; "4

2upreme Court 3usti&es pose ,ith Ronald Rea'an in the Ahite House *lue Room on 2eptem)er ;<% 198:4 >rom left to ri'ht9 2andra @ay OCConnor% 3ohn Paul 2tevens% Harry *la&?mun% 8hur'ood Marshall% Ailliam RehnEuist% Ailliam *rennan% Ronald Rea'an% Chief 3usti&e Aarren *ur'er% *UROB AH180% .e,is >4 Po,ell% 3r4% and former 3usti&e Potter 2te,art4 Potter 2te,art ,as a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4 (Photo9 Ronald Rea'an .i)rary#

Retired -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( (far left% smilin'# and former C1- @ire&tor 28-B2>10.@ 8URB0R (standin' at the podium# endorse 2enator 3ohn (erry durin' the presidential ele&tion in ; :4 2enator 3ohn (erry is a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4 Aesley (4 Clar?% 2tansfield 8urner% and 2enator 3ohn (erry are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4

Geor'e 2oros (left# sits next to retired -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( at a press &onferen&e in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on 2eptem)er ;8% ; :4 (Photo )y Mi?e 8heilerTGetty 1ma'es#

Coun&il on >orei'n Relations President R1CH-R@ B4 H--22 sits next to @avid Ro&?efeller4 8his photo appears in the ; edition of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations annual report4

"

R4 3-M02 AOO.20U% former @efense 2e&retary Harold *ro,n% .arry (4 2mith% Coun&il on >orei'n Relations Chairman Peter G4 Peterson% former Bavy 2e&retary Paul BitDe% Ailliam P4 *undy (a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones#% and -lton >rye appear at a Coun&il on >orei'n Relations party on Mar&h 1;% 199 4 (Photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations -nnual Report#

M1CH-0. 24 80180.*-UM (left# and M&Geor'e *undy attend a meetin' at the Harold Pratt House4 Mi&hael 24 8eitel)aum is a Rhodes 2&holar% and M&Geor'e *undy ,as a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4 (Photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations -nnual Report#

.eft to ri'ht9 280PH0B 28-M-2% Be, Uor? University President 3OHB *R-@0M-2% and Massa&husetts Governor Mi&hael @u?a?is attend a )rea?fast )uffet at the Harold Pratt House on @e&em)er ;;% 19874 (Photo9 Coun&il on >orei'n Relations -nnual Report#

.eft to ri'ht9 >ormer President of University of Minnesota (enneth H4 (eller% 8homas 04 .ove+oy% and former Governor of Ohio R1CH-R@ >4 C0.0280 dis&uss forei'n poli&y at the Harold Pratt House on Mar&h ;% 199=4

.eft to ri'ht9 Retired U424 -rmy *ri'adier General P080R M4 @-A(1B2% Ri&hard R4 Ravit&h% -nn R4 Mar?usen% and @avid Gold dis&uss the $transnationaliDation5 of -meri&aCs defense industry at the Harold Pratt House on O&to)er ;% 19984

.eft to ri'ht9 3une /4 Cross% Ri&hard Mallery% and -.*0R8 04 U88OB dis&uss issues involvin' trade and defense at the Harold Pratt House on 3une <% 19984

>ormer President Geor'e H4A4 *ush% the Chairman of the Bational Constitution Center% presents 3O20PH M4 8OR20..-% President and C0O of the Bational Constitution Center ,ith his AA11 servi&e revolver for display in the museum4 Geor'e H4A4 *ush is a mem)er of 2?ull G *onesF 3oseph M4 8orsella is a Rhodes 2&holar4 (Photo9 Bational Constitution Center#

Hueen 2ofia of 2pain sha?es hands ,ith 3OHB *R-@0M-2 (ri'ht#% former President of Be, Uor? University% on O&to)er =1% ; % after re&eivin' an honorary de'ree at Be, Uor? University in Be, Uor? City4 Harvey 2tedman (&enter#% the Provost of BUU% is seen applaudin'4 1n an address after,ard% the Hueen praised the s&hoolOs 2panish!lan'ua'e studies department4 3ohn *rademas is a mem)er of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations and a Rhodes 2&holar4 Hueen 2ofia of 2pain has attended several *ilder)er' Meetin's4 (Photo )y Chris HondrosTBe,sma?ers#

GOR@OB CRO/18S (left#% pu)lisher of the Aall 2treet 3ournal% and Paul 2tei'er% the mana'in' editor of Aall 2treet 3ournal% dis&uss the redesi'ned paper in the Be, Uor? ne,sroom in this 3anuary ;% ; 7 file photo4 GOR@OB CRO/18S is a Rhodes 2&holar4 (-P Photo )y Mar? .ennihan#

U424 President Geor'e A4 *ush (&enter# listens to former C1- @ire&tor R4 3-M02 AOO.20U (left# as *ush loo?s at -1;= 2ystems Hy)rid &ar o,ned )y Aoolsey at the 1nternational Rene,a)le 0ner'y Conferen&e in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on Mar&h <% ; 84 8he &onferen&e ,as hosted )y the U424 Government and ,as sponsored )y industry leaders in&ludin' General Motors% *ritish Petroleum and General 0le&tri&4 (Getty 1ma'es#

Con'ressman *O**U 31B@-. meets President Geor'e A4 *ush% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% at the Ahite House4

Ahite House adviser (arl Rove ,al?s ,ith his personal la,yer RO*0R8 @4 .U2(1B (ri'ht# in May ;

"4

Mexi&oCs President >elipe Calderon (&enter# sha?es hands ,ith Governor of .ouisiana *O**U 31B@-. (left# at .ouis -rmstron' 1nternational -irport in Be, Orleans on -pril ;1% ; 84 President >elipe Calderon% alon' ,ith President Geor'e A4 *ush and CanadaCs Prime Minister 2tephen Harper ,ere in Be, Orleans -pril ;1!;;% ; 8 to attend the ; 8 Borth -meri&an .eadersC 2ummit4 (Photo9 U424 @epartment of 2tate#

Left to right: .!. !enator 'illary &odham Clinton, !ir %velyn de &othschild, former President Bill Clinton, and Lady Lynn Forester de &othschild attend Lady Lynn Forester de &othschildJs party at the =rangery $ensington Palace in London, #reat Britain on 5(ly 7, *++7 to cele4rate the p(4lication of .!. !enator 'illary &odham ClintonJs a(to4iography Living History. (Photo: http:DD666.life.comDimageD1.1>>3./)

2e&retary of 2tate CondoleeDDa Ri&e (ri'ht# spea?s next to the Chairman of the U424!Palestinian Partnership A-.80R 12--C2OB (left# a)out the Palestinian 1nvestment Conferen&e ,hile in the 8reaty Room of the 2tate @epartment in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on -pril ;9% ; 84 (Reuters#

President Geor'e A4 *ush spea?s durin' a meetin' of the U424!Palestinian Pu)li&!Private Partnership at the Ahite House on @e&em)er =% ; 74 >lan?in' *ush are A-.80R 12--C2OB (left# and 8ahani -)u @aEEa (ri'ht#4 (Reuters#

3oe 0r,in (left#% former Governor of Mississippi Ray Ma)us (&enter#% and former Con'ressman *R-@ C-R2OB pose for a portrait on @e&em)er 17% ; 74 (Photo9 >li&?r#

>ormer President *1.. C.1B8OB (left# appears ,ith former >ederal Reserve Chairman Paul /ol&?er at a 3apan 2o&iety Centennial Gala @inner on May 9% ; 74

8he -spen 1nstitute President and C0O Aalter 1saa&son (left# listens as Repu)li&an Party presidential &andidate 2en4 3ohn M&Cain tal?s to the audien&e in 8he -spen 1nstitute Conversation in -spen% Colorado on -u'ust 1:% ; 84 Aalter 1saa&son and 3ohn M&Cain are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 Aalter 1saa&son is a Rhodes 2&holar4 (Photo )y .ei'h /o'el# http9TTminnesota4pu)li&radio4or'TdisplayT,e)T; 8T 8T1<Tmidday1T

Repu)li&an Party presidential &andidate 2en4 3ohn M&Cain (left# sha?es hands ,ith RO*0R8 3-M02 AOO.20U% former @ire&tor of Central 1ntelli'en&e -'en&y% at a &ampai'n event at >resno 2tate in >resno% California on 3une ;=% ; 84 R4 3-M02 AOO.20U and 3ohn M&Cain are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 R4 3-M02 AOO.20U is a Rhodes 2&holar4

Repu)li&an Party presidential &andidate 2enator 3ohn M&Cain (left# spea?s at 2t4 @avidOs Catholi& Chur&h after ta?in' a tour in the .o,er Binth Aard in Be, Orleans ,ith .ouisiana Governor *O**U 31B@-. (ri'ht# on -pril ;:% ; 84 *O**U 31B@-. is a Rhodes 2&holar4 (Getty 1ma'es#

President!ele&t *ara&? O)ama (left# 'reets Governor of .ouisiana *O**U 31B@-. (ri'ht# as Governor of 8ennessee Phil *redesen (&enter# loo?s on at the meetin' of the Bational GovernorOs -sso&iation at Con'ress Hall in Philadelphia on @e&em)er ;% ; 84 *o))y 3indal is a Rhodes 2&holar4 (-sso&iated PressTPa)lo MartineD Monsivais#

@emo&rati& Party presidential &andidate 2enator *ara&? O)ama (@!1llinois# meets ,ith his forei'n poli&y panel of former U424 'overnment offi&ials at a hotel in Aashin'ton @4C4 on 3une 18% ; 84 >rom left to ri'ht are former Clinton administration advisor Gre' Crai'% former Clinton deputy national se&urity advisor 3ames 2tein)er'% former national se&urity advisor -nthony .a?e% former U424 2enator @-/1@ *OR0B (@!O?la4#% former U424 Rep4 .ee Hamilton (@!1ndiana#% 2enator O)ama% former 2e&retary of 2tate Madeleine -l)ri'ht% former 2e&retary of @efense Ailliam 34 Perry% O)amaCs senior forei'n poli&y adviser 2U2-B 04 R1C0% former U424 Rep4 8im Roemer (@!1ndiana# and former 2e&retary of the Bavy R1CH-R@ @-BS1G4 (Reuters#

@emo&rati& Party presidential &andidate 2en4 *ara&? O)ama (&enter# is flan?ed )y Rhodes 2&holars 6 former 2e&retary of the Bavy R1CH-R@ @-BS1G (left# and retired -rmy General A02.0U (4 C.-R( (ri'ht# ! durin' a military and forei'n affairs round ta)le dis&ussion in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on 3une 18% ; 84 (-P Photo )y -lex *randon#

President!ele&t *ara&? O)ama (left# ,el&omes 2U2-B 04 R1C0 to the le&tern durin' a press &onferen&e in Chi&a'o on @e&em)er 1% ; 84 2usan 04 Ri&e ,as nominated )y O)ama as the desi'nated U424 Representative to the United Bations4 2tandin' in the )a&?'round are Hillary Clinton% the desi'nated 2e&retary of 2tate% and former B-8O &ommander General 3ames 3ones% the desi'nated national se&urity advisor4 (->PTGetty 1ma'es#

President *ara&? O)ama names former U424 2enator Chu&? Ha'el (R# and former U424 2enator @-/1@ *OR0B (;.# &o! &hairmen of the PresidentOs 1ntelli'en&e -dvisory *oard in the Ca)inet Room of the Ahite House in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on O&to)er ;8% ; 94 Chu&? Ha'el and @avid *oren are mem)ers of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations4 (Getty 1ma'es#

.!. President Barack =4ama (L) shakes hands 6ith ,irector of 8ational ;ntelligence ,ennis Blair follo6ing =4amaJs speech at the 8ational Co(nterterrorism Center in -cLean, Kirginia on =cto4er >, *++). ,ennis Blair is a &hodes !cholar and a former mem4er of the <rilateral Commission. (&e(ters)

,emocratic Party presidential nominee .!. !enator Barack =4ama listens as he is endorsed 4y former President Bill Clinton (left) at a campaign rally in $issimmee, Florida on =cto4er *), *++1. Bill Clinton is a &hodes !cholar. (&e(ters)

President Barack =4ama meets 6ith former President Bill Clinton and !(san &ice, .!. &epresentative to the nited 8ations, prior to the dedication of the &onald '. Bro6n .!. -ission to the nited 8ations B(ilding in 8e6 Aork City on -arch *), *+... Bill Clinton and !(san &ice are &hodes !cholars and mem4ers of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations. (=fficial White 'o(se Photo 4y Pete !o(9a)

President Barack =4ama meets 6ith advisors 4efore a 4ilateral meeting 6ith Prime -inister ,avid Cameron of the nited $ingdom, at the Waldorf "storia 'otel in 8e6 Aork City on !eptem4er *., *+... From left are: Ben &hodes, ,ep(ty 8ational !ec(rity "dvisor for !trategic Comm(nications: 8ational !ec(rity "dvisor <om ,onilon: !ecretary of !tate 'illary &odham Clinton: Li9 !her6ood0&andall, !pecial "ssistant to the President and 8!C !enior ,irector for %(ropean "ffairs: !(san &ice, .!. "m4assador to the nited 8ations: Phil #ordon, "ssistant !ecretary of !tate for %(ropean and %(rasian "ffairs: and -ichael Froman, ,ep(ty 8ational !ec(rity "dvisor of %conomic "ffairs. Li9 !her6oo0&andall and !(san &ice are &hodes !cholars. (=fficial White 'o(se Photo 4y Pete !o(9a)

U424 President *ara&? O)ama (.# introdu&es (athleen 2e)elius (C# as his nominee for 2e&retary of Health and Human 2ervi&es and B-BCU!-BB @eP-R.0 as his @ire&tor of the Ahite House Offi&e for Health Reform in the 0ast Room of the Ahite House in Aashin'ton% @4C4 on Mar&h ;% ; 94 (Reuters#

U424 /i&e President 3oe *iden (&enter# delivers a spee&h )efore &eremonially s,earin' in .eon Panetta (ri'ht# to )e @ire&tor of the Central 1ntelli'en&e -'en&y at C1- HeadEuarters in .an'ley% /ir'inia on >e)ruary 19% ; 94 2tandin' on the left is U424 @ire&tor of Bational 1ntellin'en&e @0BB12 *.-1R4 (Reuters#

Be, U424 Representative to the United Bations 2U2-B 04 R1C0 presents her &redentials to United Bations 2e&retary General *an (i!Moon at U4B4 headEuarters in Be, Uor? City on 3anuary ;"% ; 94 2usan 04 Ri&e is a mem)er of the Coun&il on >orei'n Relations% a mem)er of the 8rilateral Commission% and a Rhodes 2&holar4 (Reuters#

United 2tates Representative to the United Bations 2U2-B 04 R1C0 spea?s at the United Bations &onferen&e on the Aorld >inan&ial and 0&onomi& Crisis at the United Bations in Be, Uor? City on 3une ;:% ; 94 (Getty 1ma'es#

RO*0R8 RO8*0RG (left#% -2H8OB *4 C-R80R (&enter#% and U424 2enator R1CH-R@ .UG-R appear at a party4

A-.80R 12--C2OB (left# and former President Geor'e *ush% a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones% 'ive a round of applause after former President *1.. C.1B8OB spo?e at a &ommen&ement at 8ulane University in Be, Orleans on May 1=% ; "4 8he first president of 8ulane University% Ailliam Preston 3ohnston% ,as a mem)er of 2?ull G *ones4

3-M02 H4 *1..1BG8OB% the .i)rarian of Con'ress% tours the renovated )uildin' in the .i)rary of Con'ress ,ith President *1.. C.1B8OB4 3ames H4 *illin'ton and *ill Clinton are Rhodes 2&holars4 (Photo9 http9TT,,,4lo&4'ovTlo&Tl&i)T 71 TdetailT)illin'ton<4html#

@an Rather% host of $@an Rather Reports5 on H@Bet and former C*2 Be,s an&hor% intervie,ed .i)rarian of Con'ress 3-M02 H4 *1..1BG8OB a)out the history and dire&tion of the .i)rary on 3anuary 9% ; 7 on the meDDanine of the Great Hall in the 8homas 3efferson *uildin' in Aashin'ton% @4C4 (Photo9 http9TT,,,4lo&4'ovTlo&Tl&i)T 7 1;Trather4html#

Be, Uor? 8imes &olumnist B1CHO.-2 @4 (R128O> (.# appears ,ith Hueen Rania -l!-)dullah of 3ordan at the Clinton Glo)al 1nitiative (CG1# in Be, Uor? City on 2eptem)er ;:% ; 94 (Getty 1ma'es#

>ormer President *1.. C.1B8OB appears ,ith Hueen Rania -l!-)dullah of 3ordan at the Clinton Glo)al 1nitiative (CG1# in Be, Uor? City on 2eptem)er ;:% ; 94 8he >ifth -nnual Meetin' of the Clinton Glo)al 1nitiative (CG1# loo?s to 'ather prominent individuals in politi&s% )usiness% s&ien&e% a&ademi&s and reli'ion to dis&uss 'lo)al issues su&h as &limate &han'e and pea&e in the Middle 0ast4 8he event% founded )y former President *ill Clinton after he left offi&e% is held the same ,ee? as the General -ssem)ly at the United Bations as most ,orld leaders are in Be, Uor?4 Getty 1ma'es#

1sraelCs President 2himon Peres% ri'ht% 'reets U424 Representative to the United Bations 2U2-B 04 R1C0% left% durin' a meetin' at the 1sraeli presidential &onferen&e in 3erusalem% 1srael on O&to)er ; % ; 94 Ri&e visited 1srael to attend the three!day &onferen&e hosted )y Peres4 (-P PhotoT2e)astian 2&heiner#

Prime Minister of 1srael *en+amin Betanyahu (left# 'reets U424 Representative to the United Bations 2U2-B 04 R1C0 in 3erusalem% 1srael on O&to)er ;1% ; 94

Ahite House adviser M1CH-0. M&>-U. (left# spea?s ,ith President *ara&? O)ama in the Oval Offi&e as the President spea?s on the phone ,ith RussiaCs President @mitry Medvedev on >e)ruary ;:% ; 1 4 (Ahite House photo )y Pete 2ouDa#

M1CH-0. M&>-U. (left#% the in&omin' U424 -m)assador to Russia% presents his diplomati& &redentials to President of Russia @mitry Medvedev in Mos&o,% Russia on >e)ruary ;;% ; 1;4 (Photo9 (remlin#

"shton B. Carter (center), the c(rrent ,ep(ty !ecretary of ,efense, and William 5. Perry (right), former .!. !ecretary of ,efense, are seen la(ghing together at a Center for a 8e6 "merican !ec(rity (C8"!) conference (/th anniversary conference) on 5an(ary 7., *+.*. Both men are mem4ers of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations. (Photo: http:DD666.flickr.comDphotosD*7)33**7L8+3D>17..)717.DinDphotostream)

Left to right: Former !ecretary of the 8avy &ichard ,an9ig, ,ep(ty !ecretary of ,efense "shton B. Carter, former .!. "rmy Lie(tenant Colonel 5ohn 8agl, and Center for a 8e6 "merican !ec(rity C%= 8ate Fick smile for the camera at a Center for a 8e6 "merican !ec(rity (C8"!) conference (/th anniversary conference) on 5an(ary 7., *+.*. ,an9ig, Carter, and 8agl are &hodes !cholars. (Photo: http:DD666.flickr.comDphotosD*7)33**7L8+3D>1+11+7)*/DinDphotostream)

#oogle %Gec(tive Chairman %ric !chmidt (left) and Walter ;saacson attend #oogle M 'olly6ood &eporter 'ost an %vening Cele4rating <he White 'o(se CorrespondentsB Weekend in Washington, ,.C. on "pril *2, *+.*. !chmidt and ;saacson are mem4ers of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations. (#etty ;mages)

&ichard 'aass (left), President of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations, and Walter ;saacson (right), President and C%= of the "spen ;nstit(te, take part in N" Conversation 6ith Walter ;saacson and &ichard 'aass: "mericaJs &ole in the WorldN event at the -ilken ;nstit(te #lo4al Conference in Beverly 'ills, California, .!.". on "pril 7+, *+.*. &ichard 'aass and Walter ;saacson are &hodes !cholars and mem4ers of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations. (&e(ters)

,ep(ty !ecretary of ,efense "shton B. Carter (left), a mem4er of the Co(ncil on Foreign &elations and a &hodes !cholar, meets 6ith Prime -inister of ;raO 8o(ri al0-aliki, right, d(ring a visit to Baghdad, ;raO, on =cto4er .1, *+.*. (Photo: .!. ,epartment of ,efense)

President Barack =4ama is greeted 4y Los "ngeles -ayor0elect %ric #arcetti (left), a &hodes !cholar, after arriving a4oard -arine =ne 6ith o(tgoing Los "ngeles -ayor "ntonio Killaraigosa (eGiting the helicopter) on Friday, 5(ne 2, *+.7 in !anta -onica, California. President =4ama is attending a f(ndraising event in !anta -onica. ("P PhotoD%van K(cci)

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