CHAPTER 4: FLOW TIME ANALYSIS
4.3 Solutions to the Pro le! Set
Pro le! 4." [a] Draw a process flow diagram.
/repare "ood 6itchen () 2inutes
Take rder 2anager & 2inutes
/repare ,ine 7ommelier A#erage Time+ ..) 8 6 + &.)2inutes
Deli#er rder ,aiter (* 2inutes
$ill 5uest ,aiter * 2inutes
/repare -art ,aiter (. 2inutes
[b]. The theoretical flow time is 36 minutes:
There are three paths through the system: A: Take rder ! "ood ! Deli#er ! $ill % & ' () ' (* ' * + 36 mins $: Take rder ! ,ine ! Deli#er ! $ill % & ' &.) ' (* ' * + **.) mins -: Take rder ! -art ! Deli#er ! $ill % & ' (. ' (* ' * + *) mins /ath A is critical so the T"T is 36 minutes
[c]. The flow time efficiency is 3606. + 6.1
Pro le! 4.#
[a] The flow chart of the process is as shown in "igure T23&.(. *4
A useful tool is a 5antt chart that shows the times during which different resources of interest are occupied for #arious acti#ities. 2eanwhile: <ou spoon the second do9en into another tray. "inally: payment for the order and deli#ery to customer takes place in the 36th minute.hile the second do9en bakes: the first do9en cookies cool and >2 packs them into a bag: which takes a total of @ minutes.min
% % %
Fi$ure TM%4. Flo& 'h(rt o) the *risten Coo+ies Pro'ess )lo& "low unit + ( order of ( do9en the theoretical flow time is *6 minutes. At the *) th minute the second do9en finishes baking at which time the >2 unloads the tray. + 36 minutes. 7o the second do9en starts baking at the (?th minute.ample: while the o#en is baking the first do9en: <ou can spoon the dough for the second do9en into another tray. The dough for the * do9en cookies is mi.*6 -hapter &
Wash & Mix o! "min # $%&do' Accept Payment Roommate $ min # order
Spoon o! (min # do')
Load & Set Timer
Bake O+en . Therefore: the theoretical flow time of the second do9en + theoretical flow time of the first do9en ' acti#ity time at the bottleneck + *6 ' (. A 5antt chart for the three resources e. . + &6 minutes. At the () th minute: the >2 unloads the first tray from the o#en and loads the second tray into the o#en and sets the timer. minutes after the first do9en. Therefore the theoretical flow time for an order of * do9en cookies is 36 minutes. The second do9en will go into the o#en (. min#do')
Roommate* O+en $ min # do')
Pack Roommate ( min #do'
. [b] "low unit + ( order of * do9en. To determine the theoretical flow time for this flow unit: we first obser#e that certain acti#ities can be performed in parallel.". #en is the bottleneck resource with (.ecuting an order of * do9en cookies is shown in "igure T23&. minutes of acti#ity per do9en cookies. This is determined by adding the acti#ity times from start to finish for ( do9en cookies.ed by <ou in 6 minutes and subse=uently you spoon dough for ( do9en in * minutes. 7imilarly: theoretical flow time of 3 do9en + theoretical flow time of the first do9en ' * C acti#ity time at the bottleneck + *6 ' *C(. An alternate way to compute the theoretical flow time is using the concept of bottleneck resources Adiscussed in -hapter 4B. After cooling for 4 minutes: the >2 packs the second do9en in * minutes by the 34th minute. The o#en starts baking the first do9en at the ? th minute and completes baking at the ()th minute. Therefore in the )th minute: the >2 is ready to load the o#en and set timer: which takes ( minute. Therefore: the flow time of such an order is not simply the sum of the acti#ity times.*. "or e. bser#e that the first do9en goes into the o#en at the end of ) minutes.
.ith two o#ens: the baking of the two do9en can be o#erlapped.
*. At this time: the >2 is ready to load the second o#en. $y this time: the second do9en has cooled and ready to be packed which takes another * minutes.? of the /roblem set: we compute the work content of #arious acti#ities as shown in Table T23&.th minute. The two trays cool simultaneously by minute *4. *. . The timer is set only onceD the baking starts at the ((th minute and finishes at minute *. (.3
[a] "rom Table &.
3. .(ntt Ch(rt )or *risten-s Coo+ie. The first do9en is out of the o#en at the ()th minute after which it cools for 4 minutes and then the >2 packs them in * minutes finishing at *4th minute. or/er si0e 1 # /o0en.#: . minutes.th minute.ample &. The >2 sets the timer in ( minute and the baking process for the second do9en starts at the (6 th minute and ends at the **nd minute.3: the two paths are: Path 1 (roof): 7tart → (→ 3 → 4 → @ → ) → Fnd
. 7o <ou can spoon the second do9en into another tray by the (. 3. At the end of **nd minute: the >2 unloads the second do9en: lets it cool for 4 minutes and packs them taking * more minutes.*. minutes. . The order is ready by *? th minute at which time it is deli#ered and payment is accepted: gi#ing a total theoretical flow time of 3. /acking takes a total of & minutes and payment and deli#ery of order another ( minute completing the process in 3.
Fi$ure TM%4. /ayment and deli#ery takes another ( minute finishing the order in *) minutes. 2eanwhile: there is Eust enough time for the first do9en to cool and be packed. The second o#en will finish baking the second do9en by the *. As in F. The first do9en starts baking in the con#ection o#en at the ? th minute and finishes baking at the (4th minute. 2eanwhile the second do9en is ready to go into the o#en.-hapter &
) (.ith one big o#en: both trays get loaded into the o#en at the end of the(. th minute.ith one faster con#ection o#en: we can repeat the procedure as for a single o#en Ausing the 5antt chartB.
Pro le! 4.
* of the chapter gi#es the work content of the standard garage..40&).*. [b] . [b] Table &.e model is (*@ minutes.4 minutes.e is ((.. minutes and that of path * is (*@ minutes. Thus the theoretical flow time of path ( is (.e decrease the theoretical flow time only by decreasing the length of the critical path.e product mi.*) -hapter & Path 2 (base): 7tart → (→ * → & → 6 → @ → ) → Fnd The theoretical flow time of each path is determined by adding the work contents of the acti#ities along that path.e ha#e & paths: the critical path is the longest path + 3@ minutes Agoing through seat assemblyB.ture of @41 standard and *41 Delu.4 and ((. + *. Therefore: the theoretical flow time + 3@ minutes.4
[a] A process flow chart identifying resources: acti#ity times and any potential storage buffers is gi#en in "igure T23&. Thus we need to decrease the theoretical flow times of seat assembly and0or final assembly: try to change the design and process so that we can perform subtasks in parallel. Taking a weighted combination of the work contents of the standard garage and the delu. [c] ... /ath * is then the critical path and the theoretical flow time for the Delu.
. as shown in Table T23&..31
Pro le! 4.e garage: we compute the work content of a @41 7tandard and *41 Delu.4 minutes respecti#ely. Therefore the theoretical flow time for a mi. The length of paths ( and * are computed to be e=ual to ?*. [c] The flow time efficiency is ((.3.
*4 3.@4 *& (.isits 2elu3e St(n/(r/ #9: 2elu3e (. 33.4 3.
* seat assemblers
Fi$ure TM%4. min
(.. (.4 &4 3.(r($e Wor+ Content 4!inutes5 A'ti6it7 Nu! er 89: St(n/(r/ Ti!e o) (n/ 4Minutes5 .-hapter &
( 7eparate * /unch the base 3 /unch the roof & "orm the base 4 "orm the roof 6 7ub3assemble @ Assemble ) Gnspect
2elu3e . (.* 36 36 36
T( le TM%4.#
aut. (.#: Wor+ Content 'o!<ut(tion )or Pro le! 4. 3.. ass. ** *& 4 (.*4 (* ( (* (. final assemblers
seat ass.* () (3 (&.* (* (* (* (4 (. molding machine ( molding operator
eng. (. (.* 6 6 6 (.lbs press ( press operator
(.:. ( (..3: Flo& Ch(rt )or Pro le! Set 4. welding
continuous welding machine ( welder ( engine assembler
A process map
"( /rocess And 7eparate (.1 of passangersB: the theoretical flow time is A(. min
Hoan fficer (4 min
[a].1 C4 ' *. -hapter &
4. The theoretical flow time of the process is (@ seconds: "or passenger without additional check A). The critical path is the one of "( Aprocess and separate: Acti#ity A: Acti#ity $: Hoan fficerB. + 64 seconds The theoretical flow time for an a#erage passenger is ).+ (. min
The theoretical flow time is 4.&?1
4. + 4 seconds
"or passengers with additional check the theoretical flow time is 4 '6. minutes.3.0@C&).
[c] The flow time efficiency is 4.0 336.1 C 64 + (@ seconds
.40()BC6. + 4. min "*
Acti#ity A (4 min
Acti#ity $ (.
minutes.44 ' *.& + 3. This come out to (*.-hapter &
The flow time efficiency is (@0 (34 + (*.
>'? The )lo& ti!e e))i'ien'7 is 3.3:
The a#erage flow time of the process can be estimated by taking a#erage of the total time spent is system. These amount to (.@9A"#B 1 3.44minutes and *.& minutes respecti#ely.?4 minutes.@ [a] The theoretical flow time can be obtained by a#eraging the acti#itity time of the two acti#ities: Itime with EudgeJ and Ipay fineJ. Thus the theoretical flow time is (.