French

Language Course
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Contents

004 - Lessons
• • • •

005 - Introductory lessons 039 - Level one lessons 08 - Level t!o lessons "9 - Level three lessons

• • •

#0 - $r%mm%r "09 - &ppendices "44 - &bout this 'ikibooks
• •

"45 - &uthors "4( - $)* Free +ocument%tion License

Third Edition
Published: May 05, 2006

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French Introductory Lessons Bonjour! - Introductory French

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Welcome to the course dedicated to teaching you the best and most beautiful language in the world*!

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Introductory Level Contents
020 Le6on 0 0 L7introduction -istory o8 the French L%n.u%.e 3xtent o8 the French L%n.u%.e 007 Lesson 0 0 Introduction 020" Le6on 0" 0 &pprendre le 8r%n6%is 9e%sons :o Le%rn French, ;ook 5r.%ni/%tion 009 Lesson 0" 0 Learning French &dvice on 4tudyin. French 0203 Le6on 03 0 L7%lph%bet Letters ,unctu%tion 0 Lesson 03 0 !he "l#habet 0204 Le6on 04 0 Les %ccents &cute &ccent, $r%ve &ccent :onic &ccent, 4tress 0 $ Lesson 04 0 "ccents 0205 Le6on 05 0 Les s%lut%tions $reetin.s $ood-byes, )%mes 0 7 Lesson 05 0 %reetings 020( Le6on 0( 0 Le discours 8ormel <ous vs2 tu, =ourtesy :itles, &skin. For 5ne7s )%me 0 9 Lesson 0( 0 For&al '#eech 020# Le6on 0# 0 >% v%? &skin. -o! 5ne Is +oin. 0( Lesson 0# 0 )o* are you+ 0208 Le6on 08 0 Les num@ros =%rdin%l )umbers 5rdin%l )umbers 0(, Lesson 08 0 -u&bers 0209 Le6on 09 0 Les d%tes )umbers 0 -3 , 4e%sons +%ys o8 the !eek, Aonths o8 the Be%r 0(7 Lesson 09 0 .ates 02 0 Le6on 0 0 L7heure )umbers 30-(0, :imes o8 +%y &skin. 8or the time 0(9 Lesson 0 0 !elling !i&e

#iguilles d$#rves% France

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 020 C Introduction
Introduction
See also' French language French is % 9om%nce l%n.u%.e, descended 8rom L%tin %nd closely rel%ted to ,ortu.uese, 4p%nish, It%li%n, %nd 9om%ni%n2 It is the n%tive ton.ue o8 over 8# million people %nd h%s %n %ddition%l (8 million non-n%tive spe%kers2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

)istory
Further information' (istory of the French language In mediev%l times %nd until the 9th century, it !%s o8ten the l%n.u%.e used in diplom%cy, culture, %dministr%tion, roy%l courts %cross 3urope %nd %lso in tr%de, thus %ppropri%tely becomin. the lingua franca o8 its time2 French-spe%kin. people h%ve m%de incursions upon the ;ritish Isles m%ny times in the p%st, most notice%bly in the )orm%n Inv%sion o8 0((2 For this re%son, %lthou.h 3n.lish is % $erm%nic l%n.u%.e, %t le%st % third o8 the 3n.lish lexicon is derived 8rom French2

/0tent o1 the Language

French is spo en all around the world" )ain article' La Francophonie )ain article' French colonial empires In modern terms, it is still si.ni8ic%ntly used %s % diplom%tic l%n.u%.e, bein. %n o88ici%l l%n.u%.e o8 the *nited )%tions, the 5lympic $%mes, %nd the 3urope%n *nion2 It is the o88ici%l l%n.u%.e o8 "9 countries %nd is spoken in Fr%nce, ;el.ium, 4!it/erl%nd, Luxembur., :unisi%, Aorocco, 4ene.%l, -%iti, the Ivory =o%st, A%d%.%sc%r, the =on.o, &l.eri%, )i.er, A%li, ;urkin% F%so, :o.o, $%bon, the 4eychelles, ;urundi, =h%d, 9!%nd%, +Eibouti, =%meroon, A%uritius, %nd =%n%d% Fmostly in the province o8 Gu@bec, !here it is the prim%ry l%n.u%.e, but it is %lso used in other p%rts o8 the country not%bly )e! ;runs!ick, !hich is the only bilin.u%l province2 &ll consumer product p%ck%.es in =%n%d% %re reDuired by l%! to h%ve both 3n.lish %nd French l%belsH2 &llons-yI ;onne ch%nceI congratulations on completing

Lesson 020 C Introduction
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 020" C Le%rnin. French
2easons !o Learn French
&s mentioned e%rlier, French is si.ni8ic%ntly used %s % diplom%tic l%n.u%.e2 Bou %re bound to 8ind spe%kers %lmost every!here in the !orld2 In %ddition to societ%l re%sons, there exist do/ens o8 8%mous French novels %nd non8iction !orks in % v%riety o8 subEects2 ;ec%use much c%n be lost in tr%nsl%tion, the best !%y to .o %bout re%din. these !orks is in the n%tive l%n.u%.e2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

"dvice on 'tudying French
)ain article' (ow to learn a language French tends to h%ve % b%d reput%tion %mon.st 3n.lish spe%kers %s h%rd to le%rn2 'hile it is true th%t it poses cert%in di88iculties to n%tive 3n.lish-spe%kers, it m%y be noted th%t 3n.lish is %lso considered to be 7di88icult7, %nd yet !e le%rnt it !ithout the bene8it o8 %lre%dy kno!in. % l%n.u%.e2 In 8%ct, the French l%n.u%.e c%n be le%rned in only ten months2 Le%rnin. %ny ne! l%n.u%.e reDuires some commitment, .ener%lly lon.-term2 9emember th%t, like %ny skill, it reDuires % cert%in %mount o8 e88ort2 &nd i8 you do not pr%ctice your French re.ul%rly, it is hi.hly likely th%t you !ill be.in to 8or.et it2 :ry to m%ke it % p%rt o8 your scheduleJ even i8 it7s not d%ily, %t le%st m%ke it re.ul%r2 9emember th%t you %re le%rnin. % ne! skill2 :ry to m%ster the simple stu88 be8ore movin. on to the more complex2 'e %ll h%ve to %dd %nd subtr%ct be8ore !e c%n do c%lculus2 French is % complete l%n.u%.e2 'hile this course c%n te%ch you to re%d %nd !rite in French, this is only h%l8 o8 the skills th%t m%ke up 8luency2 & !ritten document c%nnot te%ch much %bout listenin. to %nd spe%kin. French2 Bou must tr%in %ll o8 these skills, %nd they !ill rein8orce one %nother2 For listenin. %nd spe%kin., 8indin. % n%tive spe%ker to help you once you h%ve some skill !ill help you !ith these skills2 :he very best !%y to le%rn French is to .et %mnesi% in Fr%nce or %nother French-spe%kin. country2 :his %llo!s you to st%rt !ith % cle%n sl%te, %s b%bies do2 -o!ever, most o8 us %re un!illin. to t%ke th%t step2 :he next best thin. is immersion2 I8 you %re serious %bout le%rnin. French, % period o8 immersion F!here you .o to live in % Fr%ncophone cultureH is % .ood ide% once you %re moder%tely studied2 Aost countries %re in the rel%tive vicinity o8 % French-spe%kin. country2 I8 you c%n7t tr%vel to % French-spe%kin. country, then try listenin. to French-l%n.u%.e pro.r%ms on the r%dio, :<, or the Internet2 9ent or buy French-l%n.u%.e movies2 ,%y %ttention to pronunci%tion2 $r%b % French spe%ker you meet %nd t%lk to him or her in French2 Listen, spe%k, %nd pr%ctice2 9e%d French ne!sp%pers %nd m%.%/ines2 &.%in, %n excellent source is $oo.le7s ne!s p%.e, !hich links to French-l%n.u%.e ne!s stories, !hich !ill enrich your voc%bul%ry2

Book 3rgani4ation
:his book is divided into one set o8 prelimin%ry lessons, the p%.e o8 !hich you %re re%din. no!, %nd 8our incre%sin.ly complex lesson levels2 :he introductory lessons !ill te%ch you pronunci%tion %nd phr%ses2 In the 8irst level, you !ill le%rn b%sic .r%mm%r, includin. pronouns, the present indic%tive, most common present tense, %nd sever%l irre.ul%rly-conEu.%ted verbs2 In the second level, the p%ss@ compos@, the most common p%st tense, is .iven, %lon. !ith m%ny other irre.ul%r verbs2 In the third level, you !ill le%rn sever%l more tenses %nd complex .r%mm%r rules2 :he 8ourth level Fstill in developmentH, !ill be conducted in French %nd !ill 8ocus on French liter%ture %nd prose !ritin.2 For more on course structure, %nd in8orm%tion on ho! you c%n help improve this book, see the lessons pl%nnin. p%.e2 congratulations on completing

Lesson 020" C Le%rnin. French
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 0203 C &lph%bet
Introduction
French %ra&&ar 5 "l#habet 5 audio 6in1o 5 0 kb 5 hel#7 !he French "l#habet 5 L8al#habet 1ran9ais Characters &% ;b =c +d 3e F8 $. -h :ronunciation %h b%y s%y d%y euh e88 Eh%y %sh Characters KE Lk Ll Am )n 5o ,p GD :ronunciation /hee k%h el emm enn oh p%y ku Characters 4s :t *u <v '! Mx By N/ :ronunciation ess t%y oo v%y dubl-v%y eeks ee-.rehk /edh live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

Ii ee 9r %ir

In %ddition, French uses sever%l %ccents !hich %re !orth underst%ndin.2 :hese %re0 O, P, Q, F.r%ve %ccentsH %nd @ F%cute %ccentH !hich only %pplies to e2 & circum8lex %pplies to %ll vo!els %s !ell0 R, S, T, U, V2 &nd %lso % tr@m% FFrench 8or di%er%sisH 8or vo!els0 W, X, Y, Z, [, \ %nd combined letters0 ] %nd ^2

Letters and /0a&#les
French %ra&&ar 5 "l#habet 5 audio 6in1o 5 0 kb 5 hel#7 !he French "l#habet 5 L8al#habet 1ran9ais na&e in French letter #ronunciation 6in I:" transcri#tion7 "a like a in father 1%1 Bb like b in baby_ 1be1 be8ore e %nd i0 like c in center Cc 1se1 be8ore a% o% or u0 like c in cat .d like d in dog 1de1 /e %pprox2 like u in !urp__ 1`1 F1 like 1 in fog 1ɛ81 be8ore e %nd i0 like s in measure %g 1ʒe1 be8ore a% o% or u0 like g in get aspirated h0 see note belo!_ )h 1%ʃ1 non*aspirated h0 not pronounced___ Ii like ea in team 1i1 ;j like s in measure 1ʒi1 <k like k in kite 1k%1 Ll like l in lemon 1ɛl1 =& like & in minute 1ɛm1 -n like n in note 1ɛn1 closed0 %pprox2 like u in nut 3o 1o1 open0 like o in nose :# like # in pen_ 1pe1 1ky1 see $u$ >? like k in kite for details 8orce %ir throu.h the b%ck o8 your thro%t 2r 1ɛʀ1 Eust %s i8 you !ere .%r.lin. like s in sister %t be.inin. 's o8 !ord or !ith t!o s8s 1ɛs1 or like 4 in amazing i8 only one s !t like t in top 1te1 4%y the 3n.lish letter e, @u 1y1 but m%ke your lips s%y +oo+" Av like v in violin 1ve1 +ependin. on the deriv%tion o8 the W* !ord, 1dubl`ve1 like v %s in violin% or w in *%ter either 1ks1 in socks, B0 1iks1 or 1./1 in exit Cy like ea in lea 1i.r`k1

D4

like 4 in ze!ra

1/ɛd1

Final consonants and the liaison
In French, cert%in conson%nts %re silent !hen they %re the 8in%l letter o8 % !ord2 :he letters p F%s in 7coup7H, s F%s in 7h@ros7H, t F%s in 7ch%t7H, d F%s in 7m%rch%ndH, %nd x F%s in 7p%resseux7H, %re never pronounced %t the end o8 % !ord2

b and p
*nlike 3n.lish, !hen you pronounce the letters 7b7 %nd 7p7 in French, little to no %ir should be expended 8rom your mouth2 In terms o8 phonetics, the di88erence in the French 7b7 %nd 7p7 %nd their 3n.lish counterp%rts is one o8 %spir%tion Fthis is not rel%ted to the simil%rly n%med concept o8 7h7 %spir@ belo!, but is % sli.ht extr% pu88 o8 %ir %ccomp%nies the stopH2 Fortun%tely, in 3n.lish both %spir%ted %nd un%spir%ted v%ri%nts F%llophonesH %ctu%lly exist, but only in speci8ic environments2 I8 you7re % n%tive spe%ker, s%y the !ord 7pit7 %nd then the !ord 7spit7 out loud2 +id you notice the extr% pu88 o8 %ir in the 8irst !ord th%t doesn7t come !ith the second? :he 7p7 in 7pit7 is %spir%ted apbcJ the 7p7 in 7spit7 is not Flike the 7p7 in any position in FrenchH2

/0ercise
2 $et % loose piece o8 printer p%per or notebook p%per2 "2 -old the piece o8 p%per %bout one inch For % couple o8 centimetersH in 8ront o8 your 8%ce2 32 4%y the !ords !a!y, %nd puppy like you norm%lly !ould in 3n.lish2 )otice ho! the p%per moved !hen you s%id the 7b7 %nd the 7p7 respectively2 42 )o!, !ithout m%kin. the piece o8 p%per move, s%y the !ords !elle Fthe 8eminine 8orm o8 be%uti8ul in French, pronounced like the 3n.lish 7bell27H, %nd papa, Fthe French eDuiv%lent o8 d+%ddH2
• •

I8 the p%per moved, your pronunci%tion is sli.htly o882 =oncentr%te, %nd try it %.%in2 I8 the p%per didn7t move, con.r%tul%tionsI Bou pronounced the !ords correctlyI

"s#irated vsE non-as#irated h
In French, the letter h c%n be %spir%ted, ,h aspir-., or not %spir%ted, ,h non aspir-., dependin. on !hich l%n.u%.e the !ord !%s borro!ed 8rom2 'h%t do these terms me%n?

Ex.: the !ord hFros, ,hero. h%s %n %spir%ted h, bec%use !hen the de8inite %rticle le is pl%ced be8ore it, the result is le h-ros, %nd both !ords must be pronounced sep%r%tely2 -o!ever, the 8eminine 8orm o8 h-ros, hFroGne is % non-%spir%ted h2 :here8ore, !hen you put the de8inite %rtcle in 8ront o8 it, it becomes l$h-ro/ne, %nd is pronounced %s one !ord2

:he only !%y to tell i8 the h %t the be.innin. o8 % !ord is %spir%ted is to look it up in the diction%ry2 4ome diction%ries !ill pl%ce %n %sterisk F_H in 8ront o8 the entry !ord in the French-3n.lish ( section i8 the h is %spir%ted2 5ther diction%ries !ill include it in the pronunci%tion .uide %8ter the key !ord by pl%cin. % F7H be8ore the pronunci%tion2 In short, the !ords must be memori/ed2

-ere is % t%ble o8 some b%sic h !ords th%t %re %spir%ted %nd not %spir%ted0 as#irated hFros, hero ,le h-ros. haGr, to h%te ,0e hais or 0$ha/s""". huit, ei.ht ,le huit novem!re. non-as#irated hFroGne, heroine ,l$h-ro/ne. habiter, to live ,0$ha!ite""". har&onie, h%rmony ,l$harmonie.

/0ercise
2 $r%b %n 3n.lish-French-3n.lish diction%ry, %nd 8ind %t le%st ten %spir%ted h !ords, %nd ten non%spir%ted h !ords "2 A%ke % column o8 the t!o c%te.ories o8 h-!ord2 32 Look %t it every d%y %nd memori/e the columns2

:unctuation
French Aocabulary 5 "l#habet 5 audio 6in1o 5H0I kb 5 hel#7 :unctuation 5 La #onctuation esperluette, et S vir.ule X Y %ccol%des _ tilde J commerci%l T @.%l Z pourcent %rob%se, % ` 8 %postrophe commerci%l, %robe U doll%r E point K %st@risDue point [ plus ! L M .uillemets d7excl%m%tion \ diPse b%rre obliDue V sup@rieur O point N + inverse W in8@rieur O d7interro.%tion O P crochets moins, tiret ] souli.nement Q deux points 6 7 p%renthPses ^ b%rre obliDue R point vir.ule

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0203 C &lph%bet
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 0204 C &ccents
Introduction
:here %re 8ive di88erent kinds o8 %ccent m%rks used in !ritten French2 :hey %re0 accent acute accent ,accent aigu. grave accent ,accent grave. letters used @ only P, O, Q FlFph%nt0 elephant 8iavre0 fever, lb, there oc0 where .dte%u0 ca e% etre0 to !e, fle0 island, chgm%.e0 unemployment, dh0 p%st p%rticiple o8 devoir )oil0 1hristmas, m%Gs0 corn, %i.je0 acute,fem._ 8r%n9%is0 French e0a&#les live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

circu&1le0 R, S, T, ,accent circonflexe. U, V diaeresis ,tr-ma. cedilla ,c-dille. X, Y, [, \__ 6 only

)ote 0 &s o8 the spellin. re8orm o8 990, the di%resis indic%tin. gu is not % di.r%ph on !ords 8inishin. in gu2 is no! pl%ced on the u in st%nd%rd F&L& d%c%d@mie 8r%n6%ised FrenchH 0 %i.[e %nd not %i.uX, ci.[e %nd not ci.uX, %mbi.[e %nd not %mbi.uX F%cuteF8emH, conium, %mbi.uousH2 4ince this re8orm is rel%tively recent %nd not kno!n in vul.%r surroundin., both spellin.s c%n be used interch%n.e%bly Fyou mi.ht even .et % point knocked o88 i8 you !rite d%i.[ed in % text, it h%ppened to meIH )ote 0 :he letter \ is only used in very r%re !ords, most old to!n n%mes 0 L7-%\-Les-9oses F,%ris surburbH2 ,ronounced like Y2

"cute "ccent - "ccent aigu
:he acute accent ,French% accent aigu. is the most common %ccent used in !ritten French2 It is only used !ith the letter e %nd is %l!%ys pronounced 1%y12 5ne use o8 the accent aigu is to 8orm the p%st p%rticiple o8 re.ul%r *er verbs2 in1initive %imer, to love #ast #artici#le %imF, loved

re.%rder, to watch re.%rdF, watched

&nother thin. to note is i8 you %re unsure o8 ho! to tr%nsl%te cert%in !ords into 3n.lish 8rom French, %nd the !ord be.ins !ith -, repl%ce th%t !ith the letter s %nd you !ill occ%sion%lly .et the 3n.lish !ord, or %n %pproxim%tion thereo80

/0EQ
• • •

Ft%ble --e sta!le F8or horsesH Fcole --e scole --e school il Ftudie --e il studie --e he studies

&nd to combine !h%t you %lre%dy kno! %bout the accent aigu, here is one l%st ex%mple0 • Ftr%n.l@ ,from étrangler. --e str%n.l@ --e strangled

-BQ :his !ill not !ork !ith every !ord th%t be.ins !ith -2

%rave "ccent - "ccent grave

b and c

In the c%se o8 the letters 3 %nd 4, the grave accent ,Fr" accent grave.% is used to .r%phic%lly distin.uish one !ord 8rom %nother2 *ithout accent grave a F3rd pers2 sin. o8 avoir, to haveH la Fde8inite %rticle 8or 8eminine nounsH ou FconEunction, orH • a *ith accent grave b Fpreposition, to% at% et %l2H lb FthereH oc FwhereH

*nlike 3 %nd 4, 5 is not used to distin.uish !ords 8rom one %nother2 :he 5 used 8or pronunci%tion2 In c%re8ul speech, %n un%ccented e is pronounced 1euh1, %nd in r%pid speech is sometimes not pronounced %t %ll2 :he 5 is pronounced like the letter e in pet2

'#eechQ !onic "ccent - Lkaccent toni?ue
In 3n.lish, you stress cert%in syll%bles more th%n others2 -o!ever in French, you pronounce e%ch syll%ble evenly2 congratulations on completing

Lesson 0204 C &ccents
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 0205 C $reetin.s
.Q %reetings
French .ialogue 5 %reetings %reetings 5 Les salutations ;ac?ues et =arie ;onsoir, A%rie2 3uh ? :u t7%ppelles comment ? Aoia c, Ee m7%ppelle K%cDues2 &h, oui2 Guoi de neu8, K%cDues ? ,%s .r%nd-chose2 &lorsa"c, %u revoir, O dem%in, A%rie2 f l% proch%ine, K%cDues2 3livier et Luc 4%lut2 ;onEour2 :u t7%ppelles comment ? Luc2 3t toi ?a3c Ke suis 5livier2 &h, oui2 &lors, O bientUt, 5livier2 4%lut, Luc I 6" so% then 32 #nd you 7 Fin8orm%lH live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

;ac?ues =arie ;ac?ues =arie ;ac?ues =arie 3livier Luc 3livier Luc 3livier Luc 3livier 2 me

AQ %reetings
French Aocabulary 5 %reetings 5 audio 6in1o 5(7H kb 5 hel#7 %reetings 5 Les salutations 4%lut -i21;ye2 Fin8orm%lH Fmore 8orm%l th%n s%lutH F%ll ;onEour -ello d%yH ;onsoir $ood evenin. ;onne nuit $ood ni.ht !un nwee 'h%t7s up F%bout youH? Flit2 !h%t7s Guoi de neu8 ? ne!H ,%s .r%nd-chose2 )ot much2 Flit2 no bi.-thin.H

For&al Lesson - %reetings
'hen t%lkin. to one7s peers or to children, Salut8 is used %s % .reetin.2 It7s 3n.lish eDuiv%lents !ould be hi %nd hey2 9on0our, liter%lly me%nin. good day, should be used 8or %nyone else2 9onsoir" is used to s%y :ood evening" 9onne nuit" is used to s%y :ood night" be8ore .oin. to bed2

AQ %ood-bye
French Aocabulary 5 %reetings 5 audio 6in1o 5(0( kb 5 hel#7 %ood-bye 5 "u revoir 4%lut2 -i21;ye2 Fin8orm%lH &u revoir2 $ood-bye2 ohrvwahr Fev not pronouncedH ah duhman FLit0 :o1*ntil f dem%in2 4ee you tomorro!2 :omorro!H &u revoir, O ;ye, see you dem%in2 tomorro!2 f tout O l7heure2 4ee you Fl%ter tod%yHI ah tootah luhr f l% proch%ine2 4ee you Ftomorro!HI ah lah proh shayn f bientUt2 4ee you soon2 ah !yantoe =i%o ;ye2 chow FIt%li%nH

For&al Lesson - %ood-byes
In %ddition to bein. used %s %n in8orm%l .reetin., Salut" %lso me%ns !ye2 &.%in, it should only be used %mon. 8riends2 &nother in8orm%l .reetin. is ciao, %n It%li%n !ord commonly used in Fr%nce2 #u revoir is the only 8orm%l !%y to s%y :ood*!ye" I8 you !ill be meetin. someone %.%in soon, ; !ient<t" or ; tout 3 l$heure" is used2 ; demain" is used i8 you !ill be seein. the person the 8ollo!in. d%y2

AQ -a&es
Tu t$appelles comment 7 is used to in8orm%lly %sk someone 8or his or her n%me2 Bou respond to this !ith =e m$appelle >n%me?2 In the next lesson, you !ill le%rn more 8orm%l !%ys o8 %skin. someone 8or their n%me2 Check 1or understanding
5ne o8 your .ood 8riends is introducin. you to his youn.er cousin !ho is visitin. on % trip 8rom Fr%nce, %nd doesn7t spe%k % !ord o8 3n.lish2 Bou !%nt to introduce yoursel8 to him, tell him your n%me, %nd %sk d'h%t7s up?d

congratulations on completing

Lesson 0205 C $reetin.s
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 020( C Form%l speech
live version discussion .Q " For&al Conversation exercises French .ialogue 5 For&al s#eech 5 audio 6in1o 5H$ kb 5 hel#7 edit lesson " For&al Conversation 5 @ne conversation 1or&elle comment :!o peoplegAonsieur ;ern%rd %nd Aonsieur L%mbertg%re meetin. 8or the 8irst report %n error time0 %sk % Duestion Monsieur Bernard ;onEour2 =omment vous %ppele/-vous ? Monsieur Lambert Ke m7%ppelle Ke%n-,%ul L%mbert2 3t vous ? Monsieur Bernard Aoi, Eea c suis A%rc ;ern%rd2 3nch%nt@2 Monsieur Lambert 3nch%nt@a"c2 2 & F& is not c%pit%li/ed in French Funless, o8 course, be.innin. % sentenceHH "2 @ice to meet you Flit2 enchantedH

%Q ous vsE tu
:his is %n import%nt di88erence bet!een French %nd 3n.lish2 3n.lish doesn7t h%ve % sin.ul%r %nd plur%l, 8orm%l version o8 dyoud F%lthou.h dthoud used to be the in8orm%l F%r.u%bly %rch%icH sin.ul%r version in the d%ys o8 4h%kespe%reH2 In French, it is import%nt to kno! !hen to use dvousd %nd !hen to use dtud2 d<ousd is % plur%l 8orm o8 dyoud2 :his is some!h%t eDuiv%lent to dy7%lld, dyoused, dyou .uysd, d%ll o8 youd, except th%t it is much more 8orm%l th%n %ll but the l%st ex%mple2 d<ousd is %lso used to re8er to sin.le individu%ls to sho! respect, to be polite or to be neutr%l2 It is used in occ%sions !hen t%lkin. to someone !ho is import%nt, someone !ho is older th%n you %re, or someone you %re un8%mili%r !ith2 :his is kno!n %s !0<ouvoiement2 )ote the convers%tion bet!een A2 ;ern%rd %nd A2 L%mbert %bove %s %n ex%mple o8 this use2 =onversely, dtud is the sin.ul%r %nd in8orm%l 8orm o8 dvousd FyouH in French2 It is commonly used !hen re8errin. to % 8riend %nd % 8%mily member, %nd %lso used bet!een children or !hen %ddressin. % child2 I8 it is used !hen spe%kin. to % str%n.er, it si.n%ls disrespect2 :his is kno!n %s !0:utoiement2 &s % rule o8 thumb, use dtud only !hen you !ould c%ll th%t person by his 8irst n%me, other!ise use dvousd2 French people !ill m%ke it kno!n !hen they !ould like you to re8er to them by dtud2

AQ Courtesy
French Aocabulary 5 For&al s#eech 5 audio 6in1o 5,l, kb 5 hel#7 Courtesy 5 La #olitesse 47il te pl%Tt2 FLit0 I8 you ple%se2H ,le%se 47il vous pl%Tt2 F8orm%lH2 :h%nks F% lotH Aerci Fbe%ucoupH2 +e rien2 FLit0 58 nothin.2H FLit0 )ot o8 !h%t2H F)o ,%s de Duoi2 problem2H Bou7re !elcome2 Ke t7en prie2 shtahn pree Fin8orm%lH Ke vous en prie 0Auh vooA ahn pree F8orm%lH

AQ !itles
French Aocabulary 5 For&al s#eech 5 audio 6in1o 5l($ kb 5 hel#7 !itles 5 Les titres French "bbrE :ronunciation /nglishS @sage 'ingular Aonsieur muhsyeu Ar2, 4ir2 A2 :lural Aessieurs2 mehsyeu $entlemen2 'ingular A%d%me mahdamn Ars2, A%7%m2 Ame maydahm :lural Aesd%mes L%dies 'ingular A%demoiselle lle mahdmwahAell Aiss, Boun. l%dy A :lural Aesdemoiselles mehdmwahAell Boun. l%dies

For&al Lesson - !itles
:he titles monsieur, madame, %nd mademoiselle %re %lmost %l!%ys used %lone, !ithout the l%st n%me o8 the person2 'hen be.innin. to spe%k to % pro8essor, employer, or .ener%lly someone older th%n you, it is polite to s%y monsieur, madame, or mademoiselle2

AQ "sking For 3ne8s -a&e
French Aocabulary 5 For&al s#eech 5 audio 6in1o 5,0l kb 5 hel#7 "sking For 3ne8s -a&e 5 .e&ander le no& de ?uel?u8un =omment vous %ppele/-o! do you c%ll yoursel8? vous? F8orm%lH Guel est votre nom? 'h%t is your n%me? 'h%t is your n%me? Fin8orm%lH :u t7%ppelles comment? Flit0 Bou c%ll yoursel8 ho!?H Ke m7%ppelle222 Ay n%me is222 Flit2 I c%ll mysel8222H Ke suis222 I %m222 congratulations on completing

Lesson 020( C Form%l speech
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&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 020# C -o! %re you?
.Q " 'i&#le Conversation
:!o .ood 8riendsgA%rie %nd Ke%ng%re meetin.0
• • • • • • •

)arie0 4%lut Ke%n2 >% v% ? =ean0 >% v% bien, merci2 3t toi, 6% v% ? )arie0 ,%s m%l2 =ean0 Guoi de neu8 ? )arie0 ,%s .r%nd-chose2 )arie0 &u revoir Ke%n2 =ean0 &u revoir, O dem%in2

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

AQ )o* are you+
French Aocabulary 5 )o* are you+ 5 audio 6in1o 5l kb 5 hel#7 )o* are you+ 5 ma va+ =omment %lle/-vous? F8orm%lH, =omment v%s-tu? Fin8orm%lH, -o! %re you? =omment 6% v%?1>% v% ? Fin8orm%lH I7m doin. FveryH !ell >% v% FtrPsH bien Flit2 It7s .oin. FveryH !ellH 5ui, 6% v%2 Bes, it .oes2 :rPs bien, merci2 <ery !ell, th%nks2 ,%s m%l2 )ot ;%d p%s si bien1p%s trPs bien not so !ell FtrPsH m%l FveryH b%d =omme ci, comme 6%2 4o-4o2 +@sol@FeH2 I7m sorry2 3t toi? &nd you? Fin8orm%lH 3t vous? &nd you? F8orm%lH Check 1or understanding
'rite do!n %s m%ny !%ys to respond to Ba va7 %s you c%n think o8 o88 the top o88 your he%d2 :hen .o b%ck to the voc%bul%ry %nd le%rn other !%ys2

/Q E0

- Basic :hrases - .ialogue
French /0ercise 5 )o* are you+ 5 audio 6in1o 5(HH kb 5 hel#7 Basic :hrases 5 /0#ressions de base /0ercise :ut the 1ollo*ing conversation in orderQ First 'econd !hird Ke ne v%is p%s trPs ;onEour, K%cDues &u revoir bien2 >% v% trPs bienI 3t +@sol@2 vous? f dem%in2 &lle/-vous bien? 'olutionQ First 'econd !hird Ke ne v%is p%s trPs ;onEour, K%cDues2 =omment 6% v%? bien2 >% v% trPs bienI 3t 4%lut, AichelI vous? +@sol@2 &lle/-vous bien?

Fourth =omment 6% v%? 4%lut, AichelI

E =ichel (E ;ac?ues

Fourth &u revoir2 f dem%in2

E =ichel (E ;ac?ues

For&al Lesson - "sking )o* 3ne Is .oing
Ba va7 is used to %sk someone ho! they %re doin.2 :he phr%se liter%lly me%ns &t goes7, re8errin. to the body %nd li8e2 & more 8orm%l !%y to s%y this is 1omment alleA*vous72 Bou c%n respond by usin. ça va %s % st%tementJ Ba va" rou.hly me%ns &$m fine" :he %dverb !ien is used to s%y well, %nd is o8ten s%id both %lone %nd %s Ba va !ien" 9ien is preceded by cert%in %dverbs to speci8y the de.ree to !hich you %re !ell2 =ommon phr%ses %re asseA !ien, me%nin. rather well, tr5s !ien, me%nin. very well, %nd vraiment !ien, me%nin. really well2 :he %dverb mal is used to s%y !adly2 Pas is commonly %dded to mal to 8orm Pas mal", me%nin. @ot !ad" 1omme*ci% comme*ça", liter%lly tr%nsl%tin. to Li e this% li e that", is used to s%y So% so" :o be polite, %dd merci, me%nin. than you to responses to Duestions2 Check 1or understanding
,retend to h%ve For %ctu%lly h%veH % verb%l convers%tion !ith v%rious people th%t you kno!, such %s siblin.s, 8riends, children, te%chers, co!orkers, or he%ds o8 st%te2 &ddress them in di88erent !%ys, dependin. on their rel%tion to you2 &sk them ho! they %re doin., %nd 8in%lly s%y .oodbye2

congratulations on completing

Lesson 020# C -o! %re you?
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 0208 C )umbers
AQ Cardinal -u&bers
)ain article' FrenchC#ppendicesCDates% time% and num!ersELes num-ros live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

French Aocabulary 5 -u&bers 5 audio 6in1o 5ll7 kb 5 hel#7 -u&bers 5 Les no&bres un une unit@ F% unityH deux " trois 3 Du%tre 4 cinD 5 six ( sept # huit 8 neu8 9 dix 0 une di/%ine Fone tenH on/e dou/e " une dou/%ine Fone do/enH trei/e 3 Du%tor/e 4 Duin/e 5 sei/e ( dix-sept # dix-huit 8 dix-neu8 9 vin.t "0 vin.t et un " vin.t adeux - neu8c ""-"9 trente 30 trente et un 3 trente adeux - neu8c 3"-39 Du%r%nte 40 cinDu%nte 50 soix%nte (0

soix%nte-dix soix%nte-et-on/e soix%nte-adou/e - dix-neu8c Du%tre-vin.ts Du%tre-vin.t-un Du%tre-vin.t-adeux - neu8c Du%tre-vin.t-dix Du%tre-vin.t-aon/e - dixneu8c cent adeux - neu8c cents deux cent un neu8 cent un mille FunH million FunH milli%rd

#0 # #"-#9 80 8 8"-89 90 9 -99 00 une cent%ine Fone hundredH "00-900 "0 90 2000 un millier Fone thous%ndH 20002000 200020002000

!hings o1 note about nu&bersQ
• • • •

For #0-#9, it builds upon dsoix%nted but p%st th%t it builds upon % combin%tion o8 terms 8or 8099 5nly the 8irst F" ,3 ,4 ,5 ,etcH h%ve det undJ but p%st this it is simply both !ords consecutively Fvin.t-six, trente-trois, etcH For 00- 99, it looks much like this list %lre%dy s%ve th%t dcentd is %dded be8ore the rest o8 the numberJ this continues up to 000 %nd on!%rd2 A%ny spe%kers o8 French outside o8 Fr%nce re8er to the numbers #0 to 99 in the s%me p%ttern %s the other numbers2 For inst%nce, in 4!it/erl%nd %nd ;el.ium, seventy is dsept%nte,d # is dsept%nte et un,d #" dsept%nte deux,d %nd so on2 )inety is dnon%nted2 In 4!it/erl%nd, 3i.hty is dhuit%nted or doct%nted2

AQ =athe&atics /0ercices
• • • • • • • • • •

huit plus cinD @.%l 0 Ftrei/eH cinD et un @.%l 0 FsixH neu8 plus huit @.%l Fdix-septH trente-deux plus Du%r%nte-neu8 @.%l FDu%tre-vin.t-unH soix%nte plus vin.t @.%l FDu%tre-vin.tsH cinDu%nte-trois plus dou/e @.%l Fsoix%nte-cinDH dix-neu8 plus cinDu%nte @.%l Fsoix%nte-neu8H Du%r%nte-sept plus vin.t-sept @.%l Fsoix%nte-Du%tor/eH 4oix%nte-trois plus trente-deux @.%l FDu%tre-vin.t-Duin/eH soix%nte plus trente-deux @.%l FDu%tre-vin.t-dou/eH

.Q In 'chool
:oto est un personn%.e im%.in%ire Dui est c%ncre O l7@cole2 Il y % be%ucoup d7histoires drUles sur :oto, un Eour Ee vous en r%conter%i une I :oto is %n im%.in%ry person th%t is % dunce %t school2 :here %re % lot o8 8unny stories %bout :oto, one d%y I !ill tell you one o8 themI - L$instituteur 0 ;onEour, les en8%nts I &uEourd7hui c7est m%rdi, nous %llons r@viser l% t%ble d7%ddition2 =ombien 8ont huit plus six ? - Toto ' :rei/e, monsieur I - L$instituteur ' )on :oto tu t7es tromp@ I -uit plus six @.%l Du%tor/e2 3t combien 8ont cinD plus neu8 ? - 1l-ment ' Gu%tor/e I - L$instituteur ' :rPs bien =l@ment2 congratulations on finishing

Lesson 0208 C )umbers
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&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 0209 C +%tes
AQ !he days o1 the *eekE
French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 5,(0 kb 5 hel#7 !he .ays o1 the WeekE 5 Les jours de la se&aineE \ French :ronunciation /nglish 3rigin lundi luhndee Aond%y Aoon " m%rdi mahrdee :uesd%y A%rs 3 mercredi maircruhdee 'ednesd%y Aercury 4 Eeudi 0uhdee :hursd%y Kupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Frid%y <enus ( s%medi sahmdee 4%turd%y 4%turn # dim%nche deemahnsh 4und%y 4un )otes0
• • • •

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What day is it today7 is eDuiv%lent to Fuel 0our sommes*nous 72 Fuel 0our sommes*nous 7 c%n be %ns!ered !ith @ous sommes""", 1$est""" or Gn est""" Fl%st t!o %re less 8orm%lH2 @ous sommes""" is not used !ith hier, au0ourdHhui, or demain2 1$-tait Fp%stH or 1$est Fpresent18utureH must be used %ccordin.ly2 :he d%ys o8 the !eek %re not c%pit%li/ed in French2

% b "% "b

French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 5l(0 kb 5 hel#7 "sking For !he .ay 5 .e&ander le jour &uEourd7hui on est Duel :od%y is !h%t d%y? o0Aoordwee on ay ell 0Aoor Eour ? &uEourd7hui on est a0ourc2 :od%y is adayc2 :omorro! is !h%t +em%in c7est Duel Eour ? Duhman on ay ell 0Aoor d%y? +em%in c7est a0ourc2 :omorro! is adayc2

French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 5 H, kb 5 hel#7 2elative .ays 5 Les jours relati1s %v%nt hier the d%y be8ore yesterd%y hier yesterd%y %uEourd7hui tod%y ce soir toni.ht dem%in tomorro! le lendem%in the d%y %8ter tomorro!

AQ !he =onths o1 the Cear
French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 5$H kb 5 hel#7 !he =onths o1 the Cear 5 Les &ois de l8annFe \ French :ronE /nglish 0 E%nvier 0Aahnveeyay K%nu%ry 0" 8@vrier fayvreeyay Febru%ry 03 m%rs mahrse A%rch 04 %vril ahvrill &pril 05 m%i maye A%y 0( Euin 0Awan Kuin 0# Euillet 0Aooeeyay Kuly 08 %oVt ootCoo &u.ust 09 septembre septahm!ruh 4eptember 0 octobre o tuh!ruh 5ctober novembre novahm!ruh )ovember " d@cembre daysahm!ruh +ecember • :he months o8 the ye%r %re not c%pit%li/ed in French2 • For phr%ses rel%tin. to the months o8 the ye%r, see the phr%sebook French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 599 kb 5 hel#7 "sking For !he .ate 5 .e&ander la date Guelle est l% d%te 'h%t is the d%te ell ay lah daht Fd7%uEourd7huiH ? Ftod%yH? =7est le ahc amonthc2 It7s amonthc ahc2 say leuh"""

AQ 'easons
French Aocabulary 5 .ates 5 audio 6in1o 5 ,( kb 5 hel#7 'easons 5 Les 'aisons l% s%ison se%son le printemps 4prin. l7@t@ FmH 4ummer l7%utomne FmH &utumn l7hiver FmH 'inter congratulations on completing

Lesson 0209 C +%tes
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ntroductory Lessons

Lesson 02 0 C :ime
AQ "sking 1or the ti&e
French Aocabulary 5 !i&e 5 audio 6in1o 5H ( kb 5 hel#7 "sking For !he .ayS .ateS !i&e 5 .e&ander le jour^la date^le te&#s "sking 1or the ti&eE 4% Guelle heure est-il ? ell er ayteel 'h%t hour1time is it? 4b Guelle heure il est ? ell er eel ay 5 Il est anombrec heureFsH2 It is anum!erc hours2 eelay >nom!re? er live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

AQ !i&e
In French, iil estj is used to express the timeJ thou.h it !ould liter%lly tr%nsl%te %s ihe isj, it is %ctu%lly, in this c%se, eDuiv%lent to iit isj Fimperson%l dildH2 *nlike in 3n.lish, it is %l!%ys import%nt to use iheuresj FihoursjH !hen re8errin. to the time2 In 3n.lish, it is 5L to s%y, iItks nine,j but this !ouldnkt m%ke sense in French2 French Aocabulary 5 !i&e 5 audio 6in1o 5 ,$ kb 5 hel#7 !i&e 5 Le te&#s Guelle heure est-il ? 'h%t time is it? Il est une heure2 It is one okclock2 Il est trois heures2 It is three okclock2 Il est dix heures2 It is ten okclock2 Il est midi2 It is noon2 Il est minuit2 It is midni.ht2 Il est Du%tre heures cinD2 It is 8ive p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures et Du%rt2 It is % Du%rter p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures moins le It is % Du%rter till 42 Du%rt Il est Du%tre heures Duin/e2 It is 8our 8i8teen2 Il est Du%tre heures et demie2 It is h%l8 p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures trente2 It is 8our thirty2 Il est cinD heures moins vin.t2 It is t!enty to 8ive2 Il est Du%tre heures Du%r%nte2 It is 8our 8orty2

AQ !i&es o1 .ay
French Aocabulary 5 !i&e 5 audio 6in1o 5H I kb 5
hel#7

!i&es o1 .ay 5 L8heure relati1 d%ybre%k le lever du Eour lit0the rise o8 the d%y sunrise le lever du soleil lit0 the rise o8 the sun le soleil lev%nt risin. sun2 le m%tin mornin. 222du m%tin &2A2, lit0 o8 the mornn. hier m%tin yesterd%y mornin. le midi noon, midd%y l7%prPs-midi FmH %8ternoon le soir evenin., in the evenin. 222du soir ,2A2 lit0 o8 the evenin. l% nuit ni.ht congratulations on completing

Lesson 02 0 C :ime
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&ntroductory Lessons

Introductory Level C 9evie!
%Q !he French al#habet
French %ra&&ar 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5 0 kb 5 hel#7 !he French "l#habet 5 L8al#habet 1ran9ais Characters &% ;b =c +d 3e F8 $. -h Ii KE Lk Ll :ronunciation %h b%y s%y d%y euh e88 Eh%y %sh ee /hee k%h el Characters )n 5o ,p GD 9r 4s :t *u <v '! Mx By dublee:ronunciation enn oh p%y ku %ir ess t%y ue v%y eeks v%y .rehk live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

Am em N/ /edh

In %ddition, French uses sever%l %ccents !hich %re !orth underst%ndin.2 :hese %re0 O, P, Q, F.r%ve %ccentsH %nd @ F%cute %ccentH !hich only %pplies to e2 & circum8lex %pplies to %ll vo!els %s !ell0 R, S, T, U, V2 &nd %lso % tr@m% FFrench 8or di%er%sisH 8or vo!els0 W, X, Y, Z, [, \ %nd combined letters0 ] %nd ^

AQ Basic :hrases
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5l$l kb 5 hel#7 Basic :hrases 5 Les e0#ressions de base bonEour, s%lut hello F8orm%lH, hi Fin8orm%lH =omment %lle/-vous? F8orm%lH, =omment v%s-tu? Fin8orm%lH, -o! %re you? =omment 6% v%?1>% v% ? Fin8orm%lH 6% v% FtrPsH bien I7m doin. FveryH !ell Flit2 It7s .oin. FveryH !ellH merci th%nk you et toi ? et vous ? %nd you? Fin8orm%lH %nd you? F8orm%lH p%s m%l not b%d bien !ell p%s si bien1p%s trPs bien not so !ell comme ci, comme 6% so-so +@sol@FeH I7m sorry2 Duoi de neu8 ? !h%t7s up F%bout youH? Flit2 !h%t7s ne!H p%s .r%nd-chose not much Flit2 no bi.-thin.H bye Flit2 !ith reseein., %kin to $erm%n %u8 %u revoir 'iedersehenH O dem%in see you tomorro! Flit2 %t tomorro!H &u revoir, O dem%in2 ;ye, see you tomorro!

AQ -u&bers
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5ll7 kb 5 hel#7 -u&bers 5 Les no&bres un une unit@ F% unityH deux " trois 3 Du%tre 4 cinD 5 six ( sept # huit 8 neu8 9 dix 0 une di/%ine Fone tenH on/e dou/e " une dou/%ine Fone do/enH trei/e 3 Du%tor/e 4 Duin/e 5 sei/e ( dix-sept # dix-huit 8 dix-neu8 9 vin.t "0 vin.t et un " vin.t adeux - neu8c ""-"9 trente 30 trente et un 3 trente adeux - neu8c 3"-39 Du%r%nte 40 cinDu%nte 50 soix%nte (0 soix%nte-dix #0 soix%nte-et-on/e # soix%nte-adou/e - dix-neu8c #"-#9 Du%tre-vin.ts 80 Du%tre-vin.t-un 8 Du%tre-vin.t-adeux - neu8c 8"-89 Du%tre-vin.t-dix 90 Du%tre-vin.t-aon/e - dix9 -99 neu8c

cent adeux - neu8c cents deux cent un neu8 cent un mille FunH million FunH milli%rd

00 une cent%ine Fone hundredH "00-900 "0 90 2000 un millier Fone thous%ndH 20002000 200020002000

!hings o1 note about nu&bersQ
• • •

For #0-#9, it builds upon dsoix%nted but p%st th%t it builds upon % combin%tion o8 terms 8or 8099 5nly the 8irst F" ,3 ,4 ,5 ,etcH h%ve det undJ but p%st this it is simply both !ords consecutivly Fvin.t-six, trente-trois, etcH For 00- 99, it looks much like this list %lre%dy s%ve th%t dcentd is %dded be8ore the rest o8 the numberJ this continues up to 000 %nd on!%rd2

AQ "sking 1or the day^date^ti&e
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5H ( kb 5 hel#7 "sking For !he .ayS .ateS !i&e 5 .e&ander le jourS la dateS le te&#s "sking 1or the dayE &uEourd7hui c7est Duel :od%y is !h%t d%y? o0Aoordwee say ell 0Aoor Eour? &uEourd7hui c7est a0ourc2 :od%y is adayc2 :omorro! is !h%t +em%in c7est Duel Eour Duhman say ell 0Aoor d%y? +em%in c7est a0ourc2 :omorro! is adayc2 "sking 1or the dateE Guelle est l% d%te 'h%t is the d%te ell ay lah daht F%uEourd7huiH? Ftod%yH? =7est le ahc amonthc2 It7s amonthc ahc2 "sking 1or the ti&eE Guelle heure est-il? ell er ayteel 'h%t hour1time is it? Il est Duelle heure? eel ay ell er Il est anombrec heureFsH2 It is anum!erc hours2 eelay >nom!re? er

% b "% "b 3% 3b 4% 4b 5

AQ !i&e
In French, iil estj is used to express the timeJ thou.h it !ould liter%lly tr%nsl%te %s ihe isj, it is %ctu%lly, in this c%se, eDuiv%lent to iit isj Funperson%l dildH2 *nlike in 3n.lish, it is %l!%ys import%nt to use iheuresj FihoursjH !hen re8errin. to the time2 In 3n.lish, it is 5L to s%y, iItks nine,j but this !ouldnkt m%ke sense in French2 French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5 ,$ kb 5 hel#7 !i&e 5 Le te&#s Guelle heure est-il ? 'h%t time is it? Il est une heure2 It is one okclock2 Il est trois heures2 It is three okclock2 Il est dix heures2 It is ten okclock2 Il est midi2 It is noon2 Il est minuit2 It is midni.ht2 Il est Du%tre heures cinD2 It is 8ive p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures et Du%rt2 It is % Du%rter p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures Duin/e2 It is 8our 8i8teen2 Il est Du%tre heures et demie2 It is h%l8 p%st 8our2 Il est Du%tre heures trente2 It is 8our thirty2 Il est cinD heures moins vin.t2 It is t!enty to 8ive2 Il est Du%tre heures Du%r%nte2 It is 8our 8orty2

AQ !he days o1 the *eekE
Les Eours de l% sem%ine al%y E/oor duh l%h suhmenc French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5,(0 kb 5 hel#7 !he .ays o1 the WeekE 5 Les jours de la se&aineE \ French :ronunciation /nglish 3rigin lundi luhndee Aond%y Aoon " m%rdi mahrdee :uesd%y A%rs 3 mercredi maircruhdee 'ednesd%y Aercury 4 Eeudi 0uhdee :hursd%y Kupiter 5 vendredi vahndruhdee Frid%y <enus ( s%medi sahmdee 4%turd%y 4%turn # dim%nche deemahnsh 4und%y 4un • :he d%ys o8 the !eek %re not c%pit%li/ed in French2 • For phr%ses rel%tin. to the d%y o8 the !eek, see the phr%sebook2 )otes0
• • •

What day is it today7 is eDuiv%lent to Fuel 0our sommes*nous 72 Fuel 0our sommes*nous 7 c%n be %ns!ered !ith @ous sommes""", 1$est""" or Gn est""" Fl%st t!o %re less 8orm%lH2 @ous sommes""" is not used !ith hier, au0ourdHhui, or demain2 1$-tait Fp%stH or 1$est Fpresent18utureH must be used %ccordin.ly2

AQ !he =onths o1 the Cear
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5$H kb 5 hel#7 !he =onths o1 the Cear 5 Les &ois de l8annFe \ French :ronE /nglish 0 E%nvier 0Aahnveeyay K%nu%ry 0" 8@vrier fayvreeyay Febru%ry 03 m%rs mahrse A%rch 04 %vril ahvrill &pril 05 m%i maye A%y 0( Euin 0Awan Kuin 0# Euillet 0Aooeeyay Kuly 08 %oVt ootCoo &u.ust 09 septembre septahm!ruh 4eptember 0 octobre o tuh!ruh 5ctober novembre novahm!ruh )ovember " decembre daysahm!ruh +ecember

AQ 2elative .ate and !i&e
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5IIl kb 5 hel#7 2elative .ate and !i&e 5 .ate et heure relatives !i&es o1 .ay d%ybre%k le lever du Eour lit0the rise o8 the d%y sunrise le lever du soleil lit0 the rise o8 the sun le soleil lev%nt risin. sun2 le m%tin mornin. 222du m%tin &2A2, lit0 o8 the mornn. hier m%tin yesterd%y mornin. le midi noon, midd%y l7%prPs-midi FmH %8ternoon le soir evenin., in the evenin. 222du soir ,2A2 lit0 o8 the evenin. l% nuit ni.ht 2elative .ays %v%nt hier the d%y be8ore yesterd%y hier yesterd%y %uEord7hui tod%y ce soir toni.ht dem%in tomorro! lendem%in the d%y %8ter tomorro!

AQ 'easons
French Aocabulary 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5 ,( kb 5 hel#7 'easons 5 Les 'aisons l% s%ison se%son le printemps 4prin. l7@t@ FmH 4ummer l7%utomne FmH &utumn l7hiver FmH 'inter

.Q " Conversation Bet*een Friends
French .ialogue 5 2evie* " Coversation Bet*een Friends 5 @ne conversation entre a&is ;onEour -erv@2 =omment v%s-tu ? !aniel -ello, -erv@2 -o! %re you? >lit' (ow go you7? Ke v%is bien, merci2 3t toi 6% v% ? "ervé I7m .ood, th%nk you2 &nd you, it .oes F8ineH?
" !aniel >% v% bien2 3st-ce Due tu viens O mon %nnivers%ire ? K7or.%nise une petite 8Ste2 It .oes !ell2 Bou7re comin. to my p%rty? I7m or.%ni/in. % little p%rty2 =7est Du%nd ? "ervé 'hen is it? >lit' &t is when7? Le 3 m%rs O "0h2 !aniel A%rch 3rd %t 08000 ,A2 3 "ervé Le 3 m%rs, entendu2 :u 8%is 6% che/ toi ? A%rch 3rd, %.reed2 Bou7re h%vin. it %t your pl%ce? 5ui c7est che/ moi2 K7%i invit@ une vin.t%ine d7%mis2 5n v% d%nser toute l% nuit2 !aniel Bes, it7s %t my pl%ce2 I h%ve invited F% set o8H t!enty 8riends2 'e4 %re .oin. to d%nce %ll ni.ht2 =7est trPs .entil de m7inviter, merci2 & bientUt2 "ervé It7s very nice to invite me, th%nk you2 4o lon.2 & dem%in, bonne Eourn@e2 !aniel *ntil tomorro!, .ood d%y2

9ien is %n %dverb me%nin. well2 Its %dEective eDuiv%lent is !on,ne., !hich me%ns good2 4ince 0e vais, me%nin. & go, uses %n %ction verb, the %dEective !ien is used2 In 3n.lish, I7m .ood, !hich uses the linkin. verb am, is 8ollo!ed by %n %dEective r%ther th%n %n %dverb2 " Ist*ce Jue""" liter%lly me%ns &s is that""" %nd is o8ten used to st%rt Duestions2 :his is used in % simil%r m%nner to do in 3n.lish2 Inste%d o8 Kou want it7, one c%n s%y Do you want it7 Ist*ce Jue""" h%s no re%l me%nin., other th%n si.ni8yin. th%t % Duestion 8ollo!s2 3 cheA""" is % preposition me%nin. at the house of"""2 1heA moi is used to s%y at my place2 1heA >n%me? is used to s%y at >n%me7s? place2 4 on c%n me%n we or one2

.Q !he :rinci#al
French .ialogue 5 2evie* 5 audio 6in1o 5$0$ kb 5 hel#7 !he :rinci#al 5 Le directeur Ffrappe 3 la porte 0 toc toc tocH F noc s on the door0 noc noc noc H 3ntre/ I 3nterI ;onEour, monsieur le directeur2 3st-ce Due vous %lle/ bien ? -ello, Ar2 +irector2 &re you !ell? Ke v%is bien merci2 3t vous, comment %lle/-vous ? I %m !ell, th%nk you2 &nd you, ho! %re you? Ke v%is bien2 Ke veux vous dem%nder s7il est possible d7or.%niser une 8Ste pour mon %nnivers%ire2 Ke l7or.%niser%is le 3 m%rs vers 4 h2 I7m !ell2 I !%nt to %sk you i8 it is possible to or.%ni/e % p%rty 8or my birthd%y2 I !ould or.%ni/e it the third o8 A%rch %round 0"000 ,A2 3t vous voule/ l7or.%niser oQ ? &nd you !%nt to or.%ni/e it !here? +%ns l% .r%nde s%lle de r@union %u deuxiPme @t%.e2 5n en %ur%it besoin EusDu7O ( h, le temps de tout nettoyer2 In the l%r.e con8erence room on the second 8loor2 'e !ould need it until 04000 ,A, the time o8 cle%nin. everythin.2 3ntenduI K7espPre Due Ee ser%is invit@ ? &.reedI I hope th%t I !ould be invited? ;ien sVr I Aerci ;e%ucoup I 58 courseI :h%nks % lotI &u revoir I $ood-byeI &u revoir et encore merci I $ood-bye %nd th%nks %.%in2 congratulations on completing

!aniel Le directeur !aniel Le directeur

!aniel

Le directeur

!aniel

Le directeur !aniel Le directeur !aniel

Introductory Level C 9evie!
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French Level 3ne Lessons "llons! - Basic French
I8 you h%ven7t done so %lre%dy, spend % 8e! minutes to 8irst re%d the course7s introductory lessons2 5nce th%t7s done, you7re re%dy to be.in your very 8irst tr%dition%l French lessonI &8ter you h%ve completed this level, you c%n move on to the next level2 Fin%lly, .o to the lessons pl%nnin. p%.e i8 you !ould like to help improve this course2

@eouvielle and lac d$ aumar

Level 3ne Contents
20 0, 20" 0,7 203 0$ 204 0$, 205 0$7 20( 0H( 20# 0H7 208 07( 209 07, 2 0 07I Le6on 0 0 $r%mm%ire de b%se Lesson 0 0 Basic %ra&&ar Le6on 0" 0 ltre Lesson 0" 0 !o Be Le6on 03 0 L% description Lesson 03 0 .escri#tion Le6on 04 0 L% 8%mille Lesson 04 0 Fa&ily Le6on 05 0 9@cr@%tion Lesson 05 0 2ecreation Le6on 0( 0 L% m%ison Lesson 0( 0 !he )ouse Le6on 0# 0 Le temps Lesson 0# 0 Weather Le6on 08 0 Les voy%.es Lesson 08 0 !ravel Le6on 09 0 L7%rt Lesson 09 0 "rt Le6on 0 0 L% science Lesson 0 0 'cience $0 $ender, &rticles, 4ubEect ,ronouns <0 ,eople $0 =onEu.%tion, ltre <0 $0 =onEu.%tion, ltre, &dEectives <0 =olors, )umbers $0 &voir, le% la, %nd les <0 F%mily $0 -er <erbs, lui %nd leur <0 $%mes, 4ports, ,l%ces, ,l%yin. $0 F%ire, me% te% nous, %nd vous <0 -ousehold, -ouse!ork, Furniture $0 )e.%tion, =ontr%ctions, &ller <0 'e%ther $0 -ir <erbs, ,ossessive &dEectives <0 -otels, +irections $0 -re <erbs, ;e%u, )ouve%u, %nd <ieux <0 Auseums, Ausic, ,l%ys $0 ,rendre <0 3lements, &stronomy

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 20 C ;%sic .r%mm%r
%Q %ender o1 -ouns
In French, %ll nouns h%ve % gra&&atical gender, th%t is, they %re m%sculine or 8eminine 8or the purposes o8 .r%mm%r only2 Aost nouns th%t express entities !ith .ender Fpeople %nd %nim%lsH use both % 8eminine 8orm %nd % m%sculine 8orm, 8or ex%mple, the t!o !ords 8or d%ctord in French %re %cteur F&H %nd %ctrice F1H2 :he nouns th%t express entities !ithout .ender Fe2.2, obEects %nd %bstr%ct conceptsH h%ve only one 8orm2 :his 8orm c%n be m%sculine or 8eminine2 For ex%mple, la voiture Fthe c%rH c%n only be 8eminineJ le stylo Fthe penH c%n only be m%sculine2 :here %re some nouns th%t express entities !ith .ender 8or !hich there is only one 8orm, !hich is used re.%rdless o8 the %ctu%l .ender o8 the entity, 8or ex%mple, the !ord 8or personJ personneJ is %l!%ys 8eminine, even i8 the person is m%le, %nd the !ord 8or te%cherJ professeurJ is %l!%ys m%sculine even i8 the te%cher is 8em%lea c2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

/0a&#les French %ra&&ar 5 Basic gra&&ar 5 audio 6in1o 5 l kb 5 hel#7 %ender o1 -ouns 5 %enre des -o&s Co&&on /ndings @sed =asculine With =asculine -ounsQ le 8rom%.e le chev%la"c the horse -age the cheese le pro8esseura c le chien the do. -r the te%cher le ch%t le livre the book -t the c%t le c%pit%lisme le bruit the noise -is&e c%pit%lism Co&&on /ndings @sed Fe&inine With Fe&inine -ounsQ l% boul%n.erie l% colombe the dove -ie the b%kery l% n%tion l% chemise the shirt -ion the n%tion l% 8r%ternit@ l% m%ison the house -ite^-itF brotherhood l% b%l%nce l% libert@ liberty -nce the sc%les l% 8ille -nne the .irl -&&e lkindienne -lle the Indi%n 2 Professeur c%n be shortened to prof2 'hile the lon. 8orm, professeur, is %l!%ys m%sculine, even !hen re8errin. to 8em%le te%chers, prof c%n be either m%sculine or 8eminine2 Fle pro8 - the Fm%leH te%cherH Fl% pro8 - the F8em%leH te%cherH 7"2 In this book, the de8in%te %rticle !ill come be8ore % noun in voc%bul%ry ch%rts2 I8 the de8in%te %rticle is l due to elision, ,m. !ill 8ollo! % noun to denote % m%sculine .ender %nd ,f. !ill 8ollo! % noun to denote % 8eminine .ender2 *n8ortun%tely, there %re m%ny exceptions in French !hich c%n only be le%rned2 :here %re even !ords th%t %re spelled the s%me, but h%ve % di88erent me%nin. !hen m%sculine or 8eminineJ 8or ex%mple, un livre F&H me%ns % book, but une livre F1H me%ns % poundI 4ome !ords th%t %ppe%r to be m%sculine Flike la photo, !hich is %ctu%lly short 8or la photographieH %re in 8%ct 8eminine, %nd vice vers%2 :hen there %re some th%t Eust don7t m%ke senseJ la foi is 8eminine %nd me%ns % belie8, !here%s le foie me%ns liver2 :o help overcome this hurdle !hich m%ny be.inners 8ind very di88icult, be sure to le%rn the .enders %lon. !ith the !ords2

%Q .e1inite and Inde1inite "rticles
!he .e1inite "rticle
In 3n.lish, the de8inite %rticle is %l!%ys ithej2 *nlike 3n.lish, the de8inite %rticle is used to t%lk %bout somethin. in % .ener%l sense, % .ener%l st%tement or 8eelin. %bout %n ide% or thin.2 In French, the de8inite %rticle is ch%n.ed dependin. on the noun7s0 2 $ender "2 ,lur%lity 32 First letter o8 the !ord :here %re three de8inite %rticles %nd %n %bbrevi%tion2 dLed is used 8or m%sculine nouns, dL%d is used 8or 8eminine nouns, dLesd is used 8or plur%l nouns Fboth m%sculine or 8eminineH, %nd dL7 d is used !hen the noun be.ins !ith % vo!el or silent dhd Fboth m%sculine or 8eminineH2 It is simil%r to en.lish, !here d%d ch%n.es to d%nd be8ore % vo!el2 French %ra&&ar 5 Basic gra&&ar 5 audio 6in1o 57I kb 5 hel#7 !he .e1inite "rticle 5 L8article dF1ini 8eminine l% l% 8ille the d%u.hter sin.ul%r a3c m%sculine le le 8ils the son sin.ul%r, st%rtin. !ith % vo!el lk lken8%nt the child sound les 8illes the d%u.hters plur%l les les 8ils the sons les en8%nts the children

:luralityS :ronunciationS and /0ce#tions
:he plur%l o8 most nouns is 8ormed by %ddin. %n *s2 -o!ever, the *s endin. is not pronounced2 It is the %rticle th%t tells the listener !hether the noun is sin.ul%r or plur%l2 32 Fils0 Aost sin.ul%r nouns do not end in -s2 :he -s is %dded 8or the plur%l 8orm o8 the noun2 Fils is one exception2 'henever the sin.ul%r 8orm o8 % noun ends in *s, there is no ch%n.e in the plur%l 8orm2 le 8ils les 8ils un 8ils des 8ils the son the sons % son FsomeH sons le cours les cours un cours des cours the course the courses % course FsomeH courses 4econdly, the 8in%l conson%nt is %lmost %l!%ys not pronounced unless 8ollo!ed by %n *e For %nother vo!elH2 Fils Fpronounced feeceH is %lso %n exception to this rule2

/lision
:he de8inite %rticles le %nd la %re shortened to lk !hen they come be8ore % noun th%t be.ins !ith % vo!el2 'hen pronounced, the vo!el sound is dropped2
• • •

FleH %mi - l7%mi - lahmee - the Fm%leH 8riend Fl%H %mie - l7%mie - lahmee the F8em%leH 8riend FleH @lPve - l7@lPve - lay lev - the student Fl%H heure - l7heure - leur - the hour1the time

:his process, c%lled ielision,j %lso occurs be8ore % silent h2

!he Inde1inite "rticle
In 3n.lish, the inde8inite %rticles %re d%d %nd d%nd2 d4omed is used %s % plur%l %rticle in 3n.lish2 &.%in, inde8inite %rticles in French t%ke di88erent 8orms dependin. on .ender %nd plur%lity2 :he %rticles d*nd %nd duned liter%lly me%n doned in French2 French %ra&&ar 5 Basic gra&&ar 5 audio 6in1o 5$$ kb 5 hel#7 !he Inde1inite "rticle 5 L8article indF1ini 8eminine une oon une 8ille % d%u.hter sin.ul%r m%sculine un uh un 8ils % son des 8illes some d%u.hters plur%l des day some sons des 8ils ddes 8ilsd does me%n dsome sonsd but is %n homo.r%ph0 it c%n %lso me%n dsome thre%dsd F!hen pronounced like d8illdH

Liaison
9emember th%t the l%st conson%nt o8 % !ord is typic%lly not pronounced unless 8ollo!ed by % vo!el2 'ell !hen % !ord endin. in % conson%nt is 8ollo!ed by % !ord be.innin. !ith % vo!el sound, the conson%nt o8ten becomes pronounced2 :his is % process c%lled liaison2 'hen % vo!el .oes directly %8ter un, the norm%lly unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced2
• •

FunH %mi - unn%mi FuhnahmeeH - % Fm%leH 8riend FunH @lPve - unn@lPve Fuhnay levH - % student un .%r6on Fuh gairsohH

=omp%re the pronunci%tion to !ords !ithout li%iison0

Lne is un%88ected by li%ison2 Li%ison %lso occurs !ith des2
• •

FdesH %mi - des/%mi FdayAahmeeH - FsomeH Fm%leH 8riends FdesH %mie - des/%mie FdayAahmeeH - FsomeH F8em%leH 8riends

In this book, you !ill see li%ison denoted !ith n or / bet!een t!o !ords2

n'o&en
)ote th%t des, like les is used in French be8ore plur%l nouns !hen no %rticle is used in 3n.lish2 Let7s im%.ine you %re lookin. %t photo.r%phs in %n %lbum2 In 3n.lish, !e !ould s%y dI %m lookin. %t photo.r%phs2d In French, you c%nnot s%y, dKe re.%rde photo.r%phies,d you must tell !hich photo.r%phs you %re lookin. %t usin. %n %rticle2 I8 you !ere lookin. %t % set o8 specific pictures, you !ould s%y dKe re.%rde les photo.r%phies2d FdI %m lookin. %t the photo.r%phs2dH I8 you !ere Eust 8lippin. throu.h the %lbum, lookin. %t nothin. in p%rticul%r, you !ould s%y, dKe re.%rde des photo.r%phies2d FdI %m lookin. %t some photo.r%phs2dH

AQ :eo#le
French Aocabulary 5 Basic gra&&ar :eo#le 5 Les #ersonnes l% personne person pehr son %ender and "ge l7homme FmH m%n ohm l% 8emme !om%n fehm le .%r6on boy gehrsoh l% 8ille .irl fee l% 8illette little .irl fee let Friends l7%mi FmH ahmee m%le 8riend le cop%in co pahn l7%mie F8H ahmee 8em%le 8riend l% copine co peen

AQ /0#ressions
>ukest-ce ?ue ckest+
:o s%y What is it7 or What is that7 in French, FuHest*ce Jue cHest7 Fpronounced ehss euh sayH is used2

Gukest-ce Due ckest? - 'h%t is it?

Liter%lly, FuHest*ce Jue cHest7 tr%nsl%tes to What is it that it is7 Bou !ill be usin. Fu$est*ce Jue"""7 o8ten to s%y What"""7 %t the be.innin. o8 sentences2 :o respond to this Duestion, you s%y 1Hest un,e. >nom?", me%nin. &t is a >noun?"
• •

=7est un livre2 - It7s % book2 =7est un chien2 - It7s % do.2 =7est une chemise2 - It7s % shirt2

9emember th%t the inde8in%te %rticle Fun or uneH must %.ree !ith the noun it modi8ies2

Il y aEEE
&l y a Fpronounced eel ee ahH is used to s%y there is For there$sH %nd there are2

Il y % une pomme2 - :here is %n %pple2

:he phr%se is used 8or both sin.ul%r %nd plur%l nouns2 *nlike in 3n.lish Fis me %reH, il y a does not ch%n.e 8orm2

Il y % des pommes2 - :here %re FsomeH %pples2

:he *s %t the end o8 the most plur%l o8 most nouns tells you th%t the phr%se is there are inste%d o8 there is2 In spoken French, !hen both the sin.ul%r %nd plur%l 8orms %lmost %l!%ys sound the s%me, the %rticle F%nd perh%ps other %dEectives modi8yin. the nounH is used to distin.uish bet!een sin.ul%r %nd plur%l versions2 Bou !ill soon le%rn th%t a is the present third person sin.ul%r 8orm o8 avoir, the verb me%in. to have, %nd th%t y is % pronoun me%nin. there2 :he phr%se il y a, then, liter%lly tr%nsl%tes to he has there2 Bou !ill see this phr%se used in %ll French tenses2 It is import%nt to remember th%t verb st%ys %s % 8orm o8 !e %nd not have2 Like in 3n.lish, il y a""" is not o8ten used to point out %n obEect in 8ront o8 you2 :o s%y th%t, voici %nd voil3 %re used2

Aoici et Aoilb
Voici""" tr%nsl%tes to here is""" %nd here are2 4imil%rly, voil3 me%ns there is %nd there are2 :hey %re used to point out obEects in 8ront o8 you or in excl%m%tory sentences2 congratulations on completing

Lesson 20 C ;%sic .r%mm%r
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Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 20" C :o ;e
.Q Where are you 1ro&+
French .ialogue 5 !o be 5 audio 6in1o 5((H kb 5 hel#7 Where are you 1ro&+ 5 !u es dkoc+ >uentin ;onEour, L@on2 +is donc, :u es dkoQ? LFon Ke suis de ,%ris, Guentin2 >uentin &lors, tu es 8r%n6%is? LFon 5ui, ex%ctement2 >uentin 3t A%rie, elle est dkoQ? 3lle est de A%rseille2 3lle est 8r%n6%ise, LFon %ussi2 >uentin Aerci, L@on2 &u revoir2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

%Q 'ubject #ronouns
French h%s six di88erent types o8 pronouns0 the st, "nd, %nd 3rd person sin.ul%r %nd the st, "nd, %nd 3rd person plur%l2 French %ra&&ar 5 !o be 5 audio 6in1o 5H kb 5 hel#7 'ubject :ronouns 5 Les #rono&s sou&is sin.ul%r je I st person plur%l nous !e sin.ul%r tu you "nd person plur%l vous you sin.ul%r ilS elleS on he, she, one 3rd person they Fm%sculineH plur%l ilsS elles they F8eminineH

'hen re8errin. to more th%n one person in the "nd person, ivousj must be used2 'hen re8errin. to % sin.le person, ivousj or ituj m%y be used dependin. on the situ%tionJ see notes in the introductory lessons2 :he pronoun it does not exist in French2 &l repl%ces %ll m%sculine nouns, even those th%t %re not hum%n2 :he s%me is true !ith elle %nd 8eminine nouns2 In %ddition to the nu%nces bet!een vous %nd tu, %s discussed e%rlier, French pronouns c%rry me%nin.s th%t do not exist in 3n.lish pronouns2 :he French third person dond h%s sever%l me%nin.s, but most closely m%tches the no! %rch%ic 3n.lish doned2 'hile in 3n.lish, d5ne must be very c%re8ul in French .r%mm%rd sounds old-8%shioned, the French eDuiv%lent d5n doit 8%ire trPs %ttention O l% .r%mm%ire 8r%n6%ised is Duite %ccept%ble2 &lso, !hile the third person plur%l dtheyd h%s no .ender in 3n.lish, the French eDuiv%lents dilsd %nd dellesd do2 -o!ever, !hen pronounced, they norm%lly sound the s%me %s dild %nd delled, so distin.uishin. the di88erence reDuires underst%ndin. o8 the v%rious conEu.%tions o8 the verbs 8ollo!in. the pronoun2 &lso, i8 % .roup o8 people consists o8 both m%les %nd 8em%les, the m%le 8orm is used, even i8 there is only one m%le in % .roup o8 thous%nds o8 8em%les2 In everyd%y l%n.u%.e, ionj is used, inste%d o8 inousj, to express i!ejJ the verb is %l!%ys used in the 3rd person sin.ul%r2 For ex%mple, to s%y d'e F%reH meetin. %t # o7clockd, you could s%y either iGn se rencontre au cin-ma 3 sept heures"M FcolloDui%lH or i@ous nous rencontrons au cin-ma 3 sept heures"M F8orm%lH2 For more, see the 'ikipedi% entry2

%Q Introduction to Aerbs
& verb is % !ord th%t describes %n %ction or ment%l or physic%l st%te2

!enses and =oods
French verbs c%n be 8ormed in 8our moods, e%ch o8 !hich express % uniDue 8eelin.2 3%ch mood h%s % v%ryin. number o8 tenses, !hich indic%te the time !hen %n %ction t%kes pl%ce2 In the next section, !e !ill look %t the conEu.%tions in the present tense o8 the indic%tive mood, more commonly c%lled the #resent indicative2 :here is one conEu.%tion 8or e%ch o8 the six subEect pronouns2

In1initives
In this book, the in8initive 8orm o8 the verb !ill be used to identi8y it2 In 3n.lish, the in8initive 8orm is to NNN2 In French, the in8initive is one !ord2 For ex%mple, parler tr%nsl%tes to to spea , finir tr%nsl%tes to to finish, %nd aller tr%nsl%tes to to go2

Conjugation
French verbs conjugate, !hich me%ns they t%ke di88erent sh%pes dependin. on the subEect2 3n.lish verbs only h%ve one conEu.%tionJ th%t is the third person sin.ul%r FI see, you see, he1she sees, !e see, they seeH2 :he only exception is the verb dto bed FI %mJ Fthou %rtHJ you %reJ he1she isJ !e %reJ they %reJH2 Aost French verbs !ill conEu.%te into m%ny di88erent 8orms2 Aost verbs %re re.ul%r, !hich me%ns th%t they conEu.%te in the s%me !%y2 :he most common verbs, ho!ever, %re irre.ul%r2

%Q otre - !o Be
Otre tr%nsl%tes %s to !e in 3n.lish2 It is %n irre.ul%r verb, %nd is not conEu.%ted like %ny other verb2

For&ation
French Aerb 5 !o be 5 audio 6in1o 5 0l kb 5 hel#7 etre 5 to be 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson je suis 0euh swee I %m nous so&&es noo sum !e %re second #erson tu es too ay you %re vous etes vooAett you %re il est eel ay he is they %re ils sont eelsohn Fm%sc2 or mi/edH third #erson elle est ell ay she is on est ohn ay one is elles sont ellsohn they %re F8em2H

/0a&#les
French %ra&&ar 5 !o be 5 audio 6in1o 5I7 kb 5 hel#7 !o Be /0a&#les 5 /0e&#les d8otre Ke suis %voc%t2 I %m F%H l%!yer2 0Aeuh swee ah voh cah Bou %re %t the :u es O l% b%nDue2 too ay ah lah !ahn b%nk2 Il est be%u2 -e is h%ndsome2 eel ay !oh :ry to le%rn %ll these conEu.%tions2 :hey !ill become very use8ul in 8ormin. tenses2

Idio&s
• • •

>% y estI - I7ve done itI FinishedI K7y suisI - I .et itI <ous y Stes? - &re you re%dy?

/0#ressing "gree&ent
Tu es dHaccord ou pas7, Tu es dHaccord7 Flit0 Kou are of agreement7H, or simply D$accord7 is used in8orm%lly to %sk !hether someone %.rees !ith you2 :o respond poitevely, you s%y Gui% 0e suis d$accord" or simply D$accord2 In 3n.lish, one !ould s%y G ay" !hen D$accord" is used in French2

%Q Cities and -ationalities
:o s%y !h%t city you %re 8rom, you use the preposition de2

Il est de ,%ris2

'hen st%tin. your n%tion%lity or Eob, it is not necess%ry to include the %rticle2 :his is %n exception to the norm%l rule2

=e suis #ustralien,ne." - & am #ustralian"

:here is both % m%sculine %nd 8eminine 8orm o8 s%yin. your n%tion%lity - 8or m%les %nd 8em%les respectively2
• •

&l est #ustralien" - (e is #ustralian" Ille est #ustralienne" - She is #ustralian" Check 1or understanding
,le%se use the the n%tion%lities list to 8ind out !h%t your n%tion%lity is in French2 :hen s%y !h%t city you %re 8rom %nd !h%t n%tion%lity you %re2 :hen s%y !h%t n%tion%lity some o8 your 8riends %re, %nd !h%t city they %re 8rom2 For ex%mple, )arie est italienne" Ille est de Pome"

In the next lesson, you !ill le%rn ho! to s%y the n%tion%lity o8 more th%n one person2

congratulations on completing

Lesson 20" C :o ;e
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 203 C +escription
%Q "djectives - Les adjecti1s
)ain article' FrenchC:rammarC#d0ectives Kust like %rticles, French %dEectives %lso h%ve to m%tch the nouns th%t they modi8y in .ender %nd plur%lity2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

2egular For&ation
Aost %dEective ch%n.es occur in the 8ollo!in. m%nner0

Feminine0 %dd %n -e to the m%sculine 8orm • un .%r6on int@ress%nt --e une 8ille int@ress%nte • un %mi %mus%nt --e une %mie %mus%nte • un c%mion lent --e une voiture lente ,lur%l0 %dd %n -s to the sin.ul%r 8orm • un .%r6on int@ress%nt --e des .%r6ons int@ress%nts • une 8ille int@ress%nte --e des 8illes int@ress%ntes

:ronunciation
$ener%lly, the 8in%l conson%nt is pronounced only !hen it comes be8ore %n -e2 Aost %dEectives, such %s those %bove, %re %88ected by this rule2
• •

A%sculine ,ronuci%tion0 int-ressan, amusan, len Feminine ,ronunci%tion0 int-ressant, amusant, lent

'ith plur%l %dEectives, the -s endin. is not pronounced, so the %dEective !ill sound ex%ctly the s%me %s the sin.ul%r 8orm2

/0ce#tions and Irregularities
&dEectives th%t end in e in the m%sculine 8orm do not ch%n.e in .ender2 'hen %n %dEective, such %s .ros, ends in *s, it does not ch%n.e in the m%sculine plur%l 8orm2 4ometimes the 8in%l conson%nt is doubled in the 8eminine 8orm2 4ee French1$r%mm%r1&dEectives 8or more2

AQ .escribing :eo#le
French %ra&&ar 5 .escri#tion 5 audio 6in1o 5 HlH kb 5 hel#7 .escribing :eo#le 5 .Fcrire des #ersonnes =asculine 'ingular Fe&inine 'ingular =asculine :lural Fe&inine :lural si4e and *eight Il est petit2 3lle est petite2 Ils sont petits2 3lles sont petites2 Il est moyen2 3lle est moyenne2 Ils sont moyens2 3lles sont moyennes2 Il est .r%nd2 3lle est .r%nde2 Ils sont .r%nds2 3lles sont .r%ndes2 Il est .ros2 3lle est .rosse2 Ils sont .ros2 3lles sont .rosses2 hair color Il est blond2 3lle est blonde2 Ils sont blonds2 3lles sont blondes2 Il est brun2 3lle est brune2 Ils sont bruns2 3lles sont brunes2 attitude and #ersonality Ils sont Il est intelli.ent2 3lle est intelli.ente2 3lles sont intelli.entes2 intelli.ents82 Il est int@ress%nt2 3lle est int@ress%nte2 Ils sont int@ress%nts2 3lles sont int@ress%ntes2 Il est %mus%nt2 3lle est %mus%nte2 Ils sont %mus%nts2 3lles sont %mus%ntes2

AQ Co&&on "djectives
French Aocabulary 5 .escri#tion Co&&on "djectives 5 Les adjecti1s co&&uns "ttitude and :ersonality 'i4e and Weight symp%FthiDueHFsH nice .rosFseHFsesH 8%t %mus%ntFeHFsH 8unny petitFeHFsH sm%ll intelli.entFeHFsH intelli.ent moyenFneHFsH %ver%.e int@ress%ntFeHFsH interestin. .r%ndFeHFsH bi. p%tientFeHFsH p%tient soci%bleFsH soci%ble "ctions timideFsH timid bonFneFsH .ood m%uv%isFeHFs dyn%miDueFsH out.oin. b%d H .entilFleHFsH nice, .entle .i11iculty strictFeHFsH strict 8%cileFsH e%sy 8ortFeHFsH stron. di88icileFsH di88icult

AQ Colors
French Aocabulary 5 .escri#tion 5 audio 6in1o 5 H0 kb 5 hel#7 Colors 5 Les couleurs =asculine Fe&inine /nglish bl%nc bl%nche !hite .ris .rise .r%y noir noire bl%ck rou.e rou.e red or%n.e or%n.e or%n.e E%une E%une yello! vert verte .reen bleu bleue blue violet violette violet m%rron m%rron bro!n Feverythin. but h%irH brun brune bro!n Fh%ir - d%rk h%iredH rose rose pink s%8r%n s%8r%nne s%88ron

%Q "dverbs /0#ressing .egree
• • •

%sse/ - r%ther, enou.h • Il est %sse/ intelli.ent2 - -e is r%ther intelli.ent2 trPs - very a c • Il est trPs intelli.ent2 - -e is very intelli.ent2 / vr%iment - truly, re%lly • Il est vr%iment intelli.ent2 - -e is re%lly intelli.ent2

n 58ten !hen % vo!el sound comes %8ter % conson%nt, the usu%lly unpronounced s %nd A ch%n.e to % sh%rp / sound %nd link to the next syll%ble2 :his process is c%lled li%ison2 In this book, !ill !ill sho! th%t the sound is connected usun. /2 Tr5sAin is pronounced trayAahn2 congratulations on finishing

Lesson 203 C +escription
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 204 C F%mily
%Q !he verb avoir
d&voird c%n be tr%nsl%ted %s dto h%ved2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative 5 audio 6 00 kb 5 hel#7 avoir 5 to have 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson j8ai A0ay I h%ve nous4avons nooAahvohn !e h%ve second #erson tu as too ah you h%ve il a eel ah he h%s third #erson elle a ell ah she h%s onna ohnah one h%s vous4ave4 vooAahvay you h%ve ils4ont eelAohnt they h%ve Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they h%ve F8em2H

elles4ont ellAohnt

/0a&#les
K7%i deux stylos2 :u %s trois 8rPres2 Il % une id@e2 I h%ve t!o pens2 Bou h%ve three brothers2 -e h%s %n ide%2

/0#ressing "ge
#voir is used to express %.e2
• •

:u %s Duel R.e? - -o! old %re you? alit0 Bou h%ve !h%t %.e?c K7%i trente %ns2 - I7m thirty Fye%rs oldH2 alit0 I h%ve thirty ye%rsc

!here is^are - Il y a
:he expression il y a me%ns there is or there are2
• •

Il y % un livre2 - :here is % book2 Il y % des livres2 - :here %re books2

AQ !he Fa&ily
French Aocabulary 5 Fa&ily 5 audio 6in1o 5 (,$ kb 5 hel#7 !he Fa&ily 5 La Fa&ille I&&ediate Fa&ily /0tended Fa&ily m% 8%mille m% 8%mille my 8%mily my extended 8%mily @loi.n@e les p%rents p%rents les .r%nd-p%rents .r%ndp%rents l% mPre mother le .r%nd-pPre .r%nd8%ther le pPre 8%ther l% .r%nd-mPre .r%ndmother l% 8emme !i8e les petits-en8%nts .r%ndchildren le m%ri husb%nd le petit-8ils .r%ndson l% soeur sister l% petite-8ille .r%ndd%u.hter le 8rPre brother l7oncle, tonton uncle child Fm or l7en8%nt l% t%nte, tati %unt 8H les en8%nts children le neveu nephe! l% 8ille d%u.hter l% niPce niece le 8ils son le1l% cousinFeH cousin Fm or 8H 'te# Fa&ily l% belle-mPre stepmother l% demi-soeur h%l8 sister le be%u-pPre step8%ther le demi-8rPre h%l8 brother :o spe%k %bout more complex 8%mily rel%tions, such %s dmy .r%ndmother7s cousind, you must use the de mon1m%1mes 8orm - dle cousin de m% .r%ndmPred2

%Q .irect 3bject :ronouns le# laS and les
le% la, %nd les %re c%lled direct obEect pronouns, bec%use they %re pronouns th%t %re, you .uessed it, used %s direct obEects2 & direct obEect is % noun th%t is %cted upon by % verb2

Il Eette la !oule2 - -e thro!s the !all2

In the %bove sentence la !oule is the direct obEect2 Bou h%ve le%rned e%rlier th%t n%mes %nd re.ul%r nouns c%n be repl%ced by the subEect pronouns F0e% tu222H2 4imil%ry, direct obEects, such %s dl% bouled, c%n be repl%ced by pronouns2
• • • •

le - repl%ces % m%sculine sin.ul%r direct obEect la - repl%ces % 8eminine sin.ul%r direct obEect l$ - repl%ces le %nd la i8 they come be8ore % vo!el les - repl%ces plur%l direct obEects, both m%sculine %nd 8eminine Il la Eette2 - -e thro!s it2 Il les Eette2 - -e thro!s them2 congratulations on completing

:he direct obEect pronouns come be8ore the verb they %re linked to2
• •

Le% la, %nd les c%n repl%ce either people or in%nim%te obEects2

Lesson 204 C F%mily
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Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 205 C 9ecre%tion
%Q 2egular -er Aerbs
For&ation
Aost French verbs 8%ll into the c%te.ory o8 -er verbs2 :o conEu.%te, drop the -er to 8ind the dstemd or drootd2 &dd endin.s to the root b%sed on the subEect %nd tense2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

jouer - to pl%y French %ra&&ar 5 2ecreation 5 audio 6in1o 5 I, kb 5 hel#7 -er Aerb For&ation 5 For&ation de verbes en -er #ronoun ending verb Ee -e Eoue tu -es Eoues il1elle -e Eoue nous -ons Eouons vous -e/ Eoue4 ils1elles -ent Eouent

/lision and Liaison
In %ll conEu.%tions, 0e ch%n.es to 0 7 !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el2 3x%mple0 =$attends2 &lso, %s % rule o8 thumb0 h is considered % vo!elJ %s in =$ha!ite"""2 I8 % phr%se is ne.%tive, ne ch%n.es to n$2 In %ll plur%l 8orms, the s %t the end o8 e%ch subEect pronoun, norm%lly unpronounced, becomes % A sound %nd the n o8 on becomes pronounced !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el2

Co&&on -er Aerbs
French %ra&&ar 5 2ecreation For&ation o1 Co&&on -er Aerbs 5 For&ation des verbes co&&uns en -er In1initive 'te& :resent Indicative Conjuagtion First :erson 'econd :erson !hrid :erson #arler #arl Ke p%rle :u p%rles Il p%rle 'ingular to spe%k )ous p%rlons <ous p%rle/ Ils p%rlent :lural habiter habit K7h%bite :u h%bite Il h%bite 'ingular to live )ous h%bitons <ous h%bite/ Ils h%bitent :lural Fcouter Fcout K7@coute :u @coutes Il @coute 'ingular to listen )ous @coutons <ous @coute/ Ils @coutent :lural

'8a&user
)ain article' FrenchC:rammarCVer!sCPronominal :he verb s$amuser me%ns to have fun in 3n.lish2 It is % type o8 pronomin%l verb F% verb th%t includes % pronoun %s p%rt o8 itH c%lled % re8lexive verb, !hich me%ns th%t the %ction o8 the verb is reflected b%ck onto the subEect2 Liter%lly tr%nsl%ted, the verb me%ns & amuse myself" For&ation

Conjugated Aerb [ In1initive
Like in 3n.lish, some verbs c%n be 8ollo!ed by in8initives2 :he most common -er verbs used in this m%nner %re aimer %nd d-tester2
• •

K7%ime p%rler2 - I like to spe%k2 )ous d@testons tr%v%iller2 - 'e h%te !orkin.2 Ke n7%ime p%s p%rler2 - I don7t like to spe%k2

'hen ne.%tin. % sentence, remember th%t the ne.%tive .oes %round the conEu.%ted verb2

.Q 2ecreation
-ere is % short di%lo. %bout people pl%nnin.1doin. leisure %ctivities2 ;esides the ne! voc%bul%ry you should %lso h%ve % look %t ho! the verbs %re conEu.%ted dependin. on the subEect o8 the sentence2
• • • • • •

=ean*Paul ' Gu7est-ce Due vous 8%ites ? )arc et Paul ' )ous Eouons %u tennis2 )arie ' Ke 8inis mes devoirs2 )ichel ' K7%ttends mon %mi2 Pierre ' Ke v%is %u p%rc2 1hristophe ' Ke viens du st%de2

AQ 2ecreation
Gu7est-ce Due vous 8%Ttes? 'h%t %re you doin.? Eouer to pl%y 8inira c to 8inish %ttendrea c to !%it F8orH %imer to like d@tester to h%te ri.oler to Eoke %rounda"c Fmon1m%H %miFeH FmyH 8riend n Finir and attendre %re not re.ul%r -er verbs2 Bou !ill le%rn their conEu%.tion in % l%ter lesson2 n Tu rigoles8 me%ns KouHre 0o ing8 or Kou donHt mean it8

AQ :laces
l% bibliothPDue libr%ry le p%rc l% piscine l% pl%.e le rest%ur%nt le st%de le th@Rtre p%rk s!immin. pool be%ch rest%ur%nt st%dium the%ter

s%lle de concert concert h%ll

=%ution0 % li!rairie is % bookshop2

%Q Indirect 3bject :ronouns lui and leur
Indirect obEects %re preposition%l phr%ses !ith the obEect o8 the preoposition &n indirect obEect is % noun th%t receives the %ction o8 % verb2
• • •

Il Eette l% boule O K%cDues2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to K%ck2 Il Eette l% boule O A%rie2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to A%ry2 Il Eette l% boule O K%cDues et A%rie2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to K%ck %nd A%ry2

Lui %nd leur %re indirect obEect pronouns2 :hey repl%ce nouns re8errin. to people %nd me%n to himCher %nd to them respectively2
• •

lui - repl%ces % sin.ul%r m%sculine or 8eminine indirect obEect re8errin. to % hum%n leur - repl%ces % plur%l m%sculine or 8eminine indirect obEect re8errin. to % hum%n Il lui Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to him2 Il lui Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to her2 Il leur Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to them2

&n ex%mple 8ollo!s0
• • •

'hether lui me%ns to him or to her is .iven by context2 In 3n.lish, d-e thro!s him the b%lld is %lso s%id, %nd me%ns the s%me thin.2 'hen used !ith the direct obEect pronouns le% la, %nd les, lui %nd leur come %8ter those pronouns2

Il l% lui Eette2 - -e thro!s it to him2

)ote th%t !hile le% la, %nd les %re used to repl%ce people or in%nim%te obEects, lui %nd leur %re not used to repl%ce inn%nim%te obEects %nd thin.s2 &lso note th%t unlike le %nd la, !hich %re shortened to l$ !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el, lui is never shortened

AQ ;ouer
:he verb 0ouer is % re.ul%r -er verb me%nin. to play2 It c%n be used to re8er to both sports %nd instruments2 'hen re8errin. to sports, use 0ouer 3, but !hen re8errin. to instruments, use 0ouer de""" &s %l!%ys, 0ouer must be conEu.%ted r%ther th%n le8t in the in8initive2 French Aocabulary 5 2ecreation :lay 5 ;ouer jouer bEEE jouer deEEE b%seb%ll de l% cl%rinette cl%rinet b%sketb%ll du pi%no pi%no soccerJ 8ootb%ll de l% .uit%re .uit%r &meric%n 8ootb%ll du violon violin

%u b%seb%ll %u b%sket %u 8ootb%ll %u 8ootb%ll %m@ric%in %u .ol8 %u tennis %u volley %ux c%rtes %ux d%mes %ux @checs

.ol8 de l% b%tterie drums tennis Fsin.ul%r in FrenchH volleyb%ll c%rds checkers1 dr%u.hts chess congratulations on completing

Lesson 205 C 9ecre%tion
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 20( C :he house
AQ !he )ouse
live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion French Aocabulary 5 !he house !he )ouse 5 La &aison %eneral "ctions l% ruea c street %rriver FO l% m%isonH to %rrive FhomeH l% FbelleH vue Fbe%uti8ulH si.ht, vie! rentrer FO l% m%isonH to .o b%ck home Duitter Fl% FtoutH prPs FdeH FveryH close FtoH to le%ve FhomeH m%isonHa"c Fp%sH FtoutH loin FdeH FnotH FveryH 8%r F8romH to le%ve F% roomH Duitter Fune s%lleH %t the house o8 donner sur l% rue to overlook the street che/ apersonc apersonc donner sur l% cour to overlook the courty%rd %t apersonc7s house )ouses h%biter to live Fsome!hereH l% m%ison house, home h%biter en ville to live do!nto!n l% m%isonnette sm%ll house h%biter en b%nlieue to live in the suburb le p%villon individu%l house lkimmeuble F%pp%rtmentH buildin. Floors l7%pp%rtement FmH 8l%t1%p%rtment l7@t%.e FmH level le studio studio le re/-de-ch%uss@e lobby, .round 8loor -2L2A2 le premier @t%.e second 8loor F-%bit%tions O lo! income housin. le deuxiPme @t%.e third 8loor Loyer Aod@r@H le troisiPme @t%.e 8ourth 8loor Cities and -eigborhoods le Du%rtier nei.borhood le centre ville do!nto!n l7%rrondissement FmH district l% ville city l% b%nlieue the suburb le vill%.e to!n 2oo&s :arts o1 a 2oo& l% piPce room le pl%8ond ceilin. l% ch%mbre l% s%lle de s@Eour 8%mily room le sol .round l% c%ve b%sement l% 8enStre !indo! le .renier %ttic le toit roo8 l% cuisine kitchen /ntering and /0iting

le mur !%ll l7esc%lier FmH st%irs monter O pied to !%lk up st%irs l7%scenseur FmH elev%tor monter en %scenseur to .o up by elev%tor prendre l7%scenseur to t%ke the elev%tor monter O pied to .o up by 8oot l% porte door l7entr@e F8H entryF!%yH Furniture le ride%u curt%in l% ch%ise ch%ir l% t%ble t%ble l7%rmoire F8H cupbo%rd le lit bed le t%pis c%rpet le 8%uteuil %rmch%ir n :o express to live on NNNN street, you s%y ha!iter rue NNNN
• •

l% s%lle O m%n.er dinin. room l% s%lle de b%ins b%throom l% ch%mbre O coucher bedroom le .%r%.e $%r%.e les toilettes !%ter-closet, restroom F8H Fno sin.ul%rH Fonly toliet, no b%thH le bure%u o88ice 3utside a )ouse l% voiture c%r l% terr%se p%tio le b%lcon b%lcony le E%rdin .%rden l% 8leur 8lo!er l7%rbre FmH tree l% cour courty%rd le Fl%H voisinFeH nei.bor

K7h%bite 9ue Lecourbe2 - I live on Lecourbe 4treet2 Il h%bite 9ue de 9ennes2 - -e lives on 9ennes 4treet2

n Fuitter must be 8ollo!ed by % direct obEect, usu%lly % room or buildin.22 Partir is used in other phr%ses2 Bou !ill le%rn ho! to conEu.%te these verbs in % 8uture lesson2

%Q Faire
:he verb faire is tr%nsl%ted to to do or to ma e2 It is irre.ul%rly conEu.%ted Fit does not count %s % re.ul%r -re verbH2

For&ation

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative 5 audio 6,l( kb 5 hel#7 1aire 5 to doS to &ake 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson je 1ais 0Aeuh fay I do nous 1aisons noo feAohn !e do second #erson tu 1ais too fay il 1ait eel fay third #erson elle 1ait ell fay on 1ait oh fay you do vous 1aites voo feht he does ils 1ont eel fohnt she does one does elles 1ont ell fohnt you do they do Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they do F8em2H

@ses For $aire
• • • •

sports !e%ther t%sks le 8%ire c%us%ti8 • 8%ire FconEu.%tedH o in8initive - to h%ve somethin. done 8or onesel8 • Ke 8%is r@p%rer le 8ourne%u2 - I m%ke1h%ve the stove rep%ired2

2elated Words
• • •

d@8%ire - to demolish m%l8%ire - to do b%dly re8%ire - to rem%ke

/0#ressions *ith Faire
• • • • •

8%ire %ttention - to p%y %ttention 8%ire conn%iss%nce - to .et %cDu%inted 8%ire l% mor%le - to scold 8%ire l% Dueue - to !%it in line s7en 8%ire - to !orry

AQ )ouse*ork
French Aocabulary 5 !he house 5 audio 6in1o 5$(, kb 5 hel#7 )ouse*ork 5 Le &Fnage 8%ire l% cuisine to do the cookin. 8%ire l% lessive1le lin.e to do the l%undry 8%ire le E%rdin to do the .%rdenin. 8%ire le lit to m%ke the bed 8%ire le m@n%.e to do the house!ork 8%ire l% v%iselle to do the dishes 8%ire les c%rre%ux to do the !indo!s 8%ire les courses to do the shoppin.1err%nds 8%ire le rep%ss%.e to do the ironin.

%Q me# te# nousS and vous

+irect %nd Indirect 5bEect ,ronouns

=eanings
• • • •

me - me,, to me te - you, to you Fsin.ul%r, in8orm%lH nous - us, to us vous - you, to you Fplur%l, 8orm%lH

:lace in sentences

:hese pronouns %re pl%ced be8ore the verb th%t they modi8y • Ke te vois2 - I see you2 • Ke veux te voir2 - I !%nt to see you2 I8 % per8ect tense is used, these pronouns .o be8ore the %uxill%ry verb2 • Ke t7%i vu2 - I s%! you2

.irect 3bject 2e#lace&ent
• • • •

Il me voit2 - -e sees me2 Il te voit2 - -e sees you2 Il nous voit2 - -e sees us2 Il vous voit2 - -e sees you2

Indirect 3bject 2e#lace&ent
• • • •

Il m7%ppelle2 - -e c%lls to me2 Il te le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to you2 Il nous le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to us2 Il vous le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to you2

/0ercises
:ry to describe your house or bedrooom usin. the voc%bul%ry2 +on7t 8or.et prepositions2 Bou m%y %lso !ish to t%lk %bout !h%t house!ork you do2

Che4 &oi
K7h%bite une vill% O Aorn%nt, O cot@ dea3c Lyon en Fr%nce2 A% m%ison % " ch%mbres 0 l% premiPre pour moi et m% 8emme %vec un .r%nd lit2 L% deuxiPme est plus petite 0 c7est l% ch%mbre de mon 8ils2 )ous %vons %ussi un bure%u %vec 3 ordin%teursa4c 0 un p%r personne I L% s%lle de s@Eour est trPs .r%nde et O cot@, il y % un petit s%lon2 )ous %imons re.%rdera5c l% t@l@vision %llon.@s d%ns le 8%uteuil2 L% cuisine est toute petite et nous ya(c m%n.eonsa#c le soir2 Il y % une petite t%ble et 4 ch%ises2 L% m%ison est de plein pied et ne comporte p%s d7@t%.e2 Le E%rdin est %sse/ .r%nd et nous y 8%isons pousser des 8leurs2 p O cot@ de - %t the side o8, next to p y FeeH - there p l7ordin%teur FmH p %imer re.%rder - to like to !%tch computer p m%n.er - to e%t congratulations on completing

Lesson 20( C :he house
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 20# C 'e%ther
%Q 'tandard -egation
In order to s%y th%t one did not do somethin., the ne """ pas construction must be used2 :he ne is pl%ced be8ore the verb, !hile the pas is pl%ced %8ter2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation and 2ules
• •

• •

4imple ne.%tion is done by !r%ppin. ne"""pas %round the verb2 • Ke ne vole p%s2 - I do not ste%l2 In % per8ect tense, ne"""pas !r%ps %round the %uxill%ry verb, not the p%rticiple2 • Ke n7%i p%s vol@2 - I h%ve not stolen2 'hen %n in8initive %nd conEu.%ted verb %re to.ether, ne"""pas usu%lly !r%ps %round the conEu.%ted verb2 • Ke ne veux p%s voler2 - I do not !%nt to ste%l2 ne pas c%n %lso .o directly in 8ront o8 the in8initive 8or % di88erent me%nin.2 • Ke veux ne p%s voler2 - I !%nt to not ste%l2 ne .oes be8ore %ny pronoun rel%tin. to the verb it %88ects2 • Ke ne le vole p%s2 - I did not ste%l it2

/0a&#les
French %ra&&ar 5 Weather 5 audio 6in1o 5(H( kb 5 hel#7 -egation For&ation /0a&#les 5 /0e&#les de 1or&ation de nFgation Il est %voc%t2 -e is a%c l%!yer2 Il n7est p%s %voc%t2 -e is not a%c l%!yer2 )ous 8%isons nos devoirs2 'e %re doin. our home!ork2 )ous ne 8%isons p%s nos devoirs2 'e %re not doin. our home!ork2 Ke Eoue du pi%no2 I pl%y the pi%no2 Ke ne Eoue p%s du pi%no2 I do not pl%y the pi%no2 <ous vende/ votre voiture2 Bou sell your c%r2 <ous ne vende/ p%s votre voiture2 Bou do not sell your c%r2

-egation o1 Inde1inate "rticles
:he inde8inite %rticles un, une, %nd des ch%n.e to de For dHH !hen ne.%tin. % sentence2
• • • •

K7%i un livre2 - I h%ve % book2 Ke n7%i p%s de livre2 - I don7t h%ve %ny book2 K7%i des livres2 - I h%ve some books2 Ke n7%i p%s de livres2 - I don7t h%ve %ny books2

/0a&#les
Il est bel.e22 Il n7est p%s bel.e2 )ous lisons un livre2 )ous ne lisons p%s de livre2 Ke m%n.e une cerise2 Ke ne m%n.e p%s de cerise2 -e is ;el.i%n2 -e is not ;el.i%n2 'e re%d % book2 'e do not re%d % book2 I e%t % cherry2 I do not e%t % cherry2

AQ Weather - Le te&#sO P
French Aocabulary 5 Weather Weather 5 Le te&#s %eneral Cloudy Weather cloud le nu%.e It7s cloudy2 le soleil sun Il y % des nu%.es2 lit0 :here %re some 2 clouds2 le ciel sky nu%.euxF-euseH cloudy couvertFeHFsH overc%st, lit0 covered War& Weather l7@cl%ircie F8H cle%rin., bre%k Fin cloudsH Il 8%it be%u It7s nice2 Cold and Windy Weather Il 8%it ch%ud2 It7s !%rm2 Il 8%it 8roid2 It7s cold2 Le ciel est d@.%.@2 :he skiy is cle%r2 le vent !ind lit0 :he sky is 8reed2 Il 8%it du vent2 It7s !indy2 Le ciel se d@.%.e2 :he skiy is cle%rin. up2 Le vent sou88le2 :he !ind blo!s2 Le soleil brille2 :he sun is shinin.2 l% r%8%le .ust o8 !ind 2ainy Weather 'no*y Weather l% brume 8o., h%/e, mist l7hiver FmH !inter l% nei.e sno! le brouill%rd 8o. Il nei.e2 It7s sno!in.2 l% .rSle h%il Il tombe de l% l% bruine dri//le It7s h%ilin.2 .rSle2 lit0 It 8%lls o8 the h%il2 2 une .outte de pluie % drop o8 r%in /0tre&e *eather un or%.e % storm l% pluie r%in or%.euxF-euseH stormy L% pluie tombe2 :he r%in 8%lls2 Il y % un or%.eI :here7s % stormI Il pleut2 It7s r%inin.2 l7@cl%ir FmH 8l%sh Fo8 li.htenin.H il % plu2 It r%ined2 l7@cl%ir%.e FmH li.htenin. Il v% pleuvoir2 It7s .oin. to r%in2 r%iny pluvieuxF-euseH It7s r%inin.2 Le temps est pluvieux2 l% tempSte storm, tempest lit0 :he !e%ther is 2 r%iny2 de .ros nu%.es noirs2 l%r.e bl%ck clouds %.it@FeHFsH stormy, %.it%ted l7%verse F8H do!npour le tonnerre thunder n Le temps me%ns both the weather %nd the time2

%Q "ller
:he verb aller is tr%nsl%ted to to go2 It is irre.ul%rly conEu.%ted Fit does not count %s % re.ul%r -er verbH2

For&ation
In the present indic%tive, %ller is conEu.%ted %s 8ollo!s0 French Aerb 5 Weather 5 audio 6in1o 5l(7 kb 5 hel#7 aller 5 to go 'ingular :lural nous4allons nouAah lohn !e .o 1irst #erson je vais 0euh vay I .o second #erson tu vas too vah you .o vous4alle4 vouAah lay you .o they .o Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they .o F8em2H il va eel vah he .oes ils vont eel vohn third #erson elle va ell vah she .oes on va ohn vah one .oes elles vont ell vohn

@sage
:here is no present pro.ressive tense in French, so aller in the present indic%tive is used to express both & go %nd & am going2 #ller must be used !ith % pl%ce %nd c%nnot st%nd %lone2 :he preposition 3, me%in. in% at, or to, is used, 8ollo!ed by the pl%ce2

:u v%s % l7@cole? - Bou7re .oin. to school2 =e vais au stade2 - I7m .oin. to the st%.e2

9emember th%t 3 le contr%cts to au %nd 3 les contr%cts to aux2

Inste%d o8 % preposition %nd pl%ce, you c%n use the pronoun y, me%nin. there2 K comes be8ore the verb2 9emember th%t aller must be used !ith % pl%ce Fthere or % n%meH !hen indic%tin. th%t you %re .oin. some!here, even i8 % pl%ce !ouldn7t norm%lly be .iven in 3n.lish2
• • •

K7y v%is2 - I7m .oin. there2 :u y v%s2 - Bou7re .oin. there2 )ous y %llons2 - 'e7re .oin. there2

Futur :roche
:he strucure aller o in8initive is used to s%y th%t somethin. is .oin. to h%ppen in the ne%r 8uture2
• •

Il v% pleuvoir dem%in2 - It7s .oin. to r%in tomorro!2 Il v% 8%ire 8roid2 - It7s .oin. to be cold2 Il ne v% p%s pleuvoir dem%in2 - It7s not .oin. to r%in tomorro!2

9emember th%t the ne.%tive .oes %round the conEu.%ted verb2

Idio&s
• • • •

&llons-y - ahlonAee - Let7s .oI Fimp@r%ti8H >% v%? - -o! %re you? Flit0 It .oes?H 5n y v%I - Let7s .et .oin.I 5n y v%? - 4hould !e .o?

Liaison
*su%lly, !henever % vo!el sound comes %8ter """ons or """eA, the usu%lly unpronounced s %nd A ch%n.e to % sh%rp A sound %nd link to the next syll%ble2 F:his process is c%lled li%ison2H -o!ever, since %llons %nd %lle/ be.ins !ith vo!els, nous %llons is pronounced nyooAahloh %nd vous %lle/ is pronounced vooAahlay2 In order to h%ve % ple%sin. %nd cle%n sound, t!o li%isons should not .o connsecultively2 :here is there8ore no li%ison in allons 3 !hen it comes ri.ht %8ter nous %nd alleA 3 !hen it comes %8ter vous2
• •

In the phr%se Vous alleA 3 l$-cole7, vous alleA 3 is pronounced vouAahlay ah2 In the phr%se vous et )arie alleA 3 l$-cole7+% %lle/ O is pronounced %hl%y/%h" congratulations on completing

Lesson 20# C 'e%ther
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 208 C :r%vel
live version discussion %Q 2egular -ir Aerbs exercises :he second c%te.ory o8 re.ul%r French verbs is -ir verbs2 :o conEu.%te, drop the -ir edit lesson to 8ind the dstemd or drootd2 &dd endin.s to the root b%sed on the subEect %nd tense2 comment report %n error 1inir - to 8inish %sk % Duestion French %ra&&ar 5 !ravel -ir Aerb For&ation 5 For&ation des verbes en -ir #ronoun ending verb Ee -is 8inis tu -is 8inis il1elle -it 8init nous -issons 8inissons vous -isse/ 8inisse4 ils1elles -issent 8inissent

%Q :ossessive "djectives
For&ation
French %ra&&ar 5 !ravel :ossessive "djectives 5 Les adjecti1s #ossessi1s First :erson 'econd :erson !hird :erson 'ingular mon, m%, mes my ton, t%, tes your son, s%, ses his, her leur, leur, :lural notre, notre, nos our votre, votre, vos your their leurs

@sage
&s you c%n prob%bly tell 8rom their n%me, possessive %dEective %re used to express possession o8 %n obEect2

=7est mon livre2 - It7s my book2

In 3n.lish the possessive %dEective %.rees !ith the subEect Fhis sister, her !rotherH2 ;ut in French, possessive %dEectives %ct like %ll other %dEectives0 they must %.ree !ith the noun they modi8y2 French %ra&&ar 5 !ravel :ossesive "djective @sage 5 @tilisation des adjecti1s #ossesive =asculine -oun Fe&inine -oun le livre la voiture le livre de A%rc son livre l% voiture de A%rc s% voiture the book o8 A%rc his book the c%r o8 A%rc his c%r les livres de A%rc ses livres les voitures de A%rc ses voitures the books o8 A%rc his books the c%rs o8 A%rc his c%rs le livre de A%rie son livre l% voiture de A%rie s% voiture the book o8 A%rie her book the c%r o8 A%rie her c%r les livres de A%rie ses livres les voitures de A%rie ses voitures the books o8 A%rie her books the c%rs o8 A%rie her c%rs 'hether the third person sin.ul%r possessive %dEectives son, sa %nd ses %re his or her is indic%ted by context2

3lle lit son livre2 - 4he re%ds her book2

Liaison and "djective Changes
Li%ison occurs !hen mon, ton, %nd son %re 8ollo!ed by % vo!el2
• • •

Il est monn%mi2 - -e is my 8riend2 Il est tonn%mi2 - -e is your 8riend2 Il est sonn%mi2 - -e is his1her 8riend2 Ils sont mes/ - :hey %re my 8riends2 Ils sont nos/ - :hey %re our 8riends2 3lle est monn%mie2 - 4he is my 8riend2 congratulations on completing

Li%ison %lso occurs !ith %ll plur%l 8orms, since they %ll end in s2
• •

)on% ton, %nd son %re used be8ore % 8eminine sin.ul%r noun2 3lision Fto m7, t7, or s7H does not occur2

Lesson 208 C :r%vel
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 209 C &rt
live version discussion %Q 2egular -re Aerbs exercises :he third c%te.ory o8 re.ul%r verbs is m%de up o8 *re$ verbs2 :o conEu.%te, drop the edit lesson -re to 8ind the dstemd or drootd2 &dd endin.s to the root b%sed on the subEect %nd comment tense, %s demonstr%ted belo! 8or the present tense2 report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation
attendre p to !%it French %ra&&ar 5 "rt -re Aerb For&ation 5 For&ation des verbes en -re #ronoun ending verb Ee ,0$. -s %ttends tu -s %ttends il1elle %ttend nous -ons %ttendons vous -e/ %ttende4 ils1elles -ent %ttendent

Aendre
:he verb vendre is % re.ul%r -re verb0 French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative vendre 5 to sell 'ingular :lural je vends 0Aeuh vahn I sell nous vendons noo vahn dohn !e sell too vahn eel vahn ell vahn oh vahn you sell vous vende4 voo vahn day$ he sells ils vendent eel vahnde she sells one sells elles vendent ell vahnde you sell they sell Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they sell F8em2H

1irst #erson

second #erson tu vends il vend third #erson elle vend on vend

Co&&on -re Aerbs
=omp%red to -er verbs, -re verbs %re not very common2 Bou !ill ho!ever see the 8ollo!in. verbs 8%irly o8ten2

AQ %oing to a =useu&
l% portr%itiste portr%itist

AQ =usic
French Aocabulary 5 "rt 5 audio 6in1o 5(I7 kb 5 hel#7 =usic 5 La &usi?ue @couter l% musiDue to listen to music des p%roles lurics Fle p%role m !ordH Co&#osing le musicien musici%n le compositeur composer lk%uteur Fdes p%rolesH FlyricsH !riter Instru&ents l7instrument FmH instruement l% cl%rinette cl%rient le violon violin l% h%rpe h%rp l% .uit%re .uit%r le pi%no pi%no

AQ French =useu&sS !heatersS and 3#era )ouses

:he Louvre

:he Louvre ,yr%mid

%Q BeauS -ouveauS and Aieu0
For&ation
French %ra&&ar 5 "rt !he "djectives Beauti1ulS -e*S and 3ld 5 BeauS -ouveauS and Aieu0 =ascE Consonant =ascE Ao*el Fe&E 'ingE 6all7 'ingular un be%u .%r6on un bel individu une belle 8illette Beau de be%ux/individus de belles 8illettes :lural de be%ux .%r6ons 'ingular un nouve%u c%mion -ouveau de nouve%ux :lural c%mions 'ingular un vieux c%mion Aieu0 :lural de vieux c%mions un nouvel ordre une nouvelle id@e de nouve%ux/ordres de nouvelles id@es un vieil ordre de vieux/ordres une vieille id@e de vieilles id@es

'entences :lace&ent
&s you h%ve %lre%dy le%rned, most %dEectives come %8ter the noun they modi8y in French2
• •

un homme intelli.ent - %n intelli.ent m%n des hommes intelli.ents - intelli.ent men une Eolie voiture - % pretty c%r de Eolies voitures - pretty c%rs

-o!ever, some common French %dEectives, includin. be%u, nouve%u, %nd vieux come be8ore the noun2

Des is repl%ced !ith de !hen %n %dEective comes be8ore the noun2

)ote th%t in in8orm%l speech, des in very o8ten used in pl%ce o8 de2

AQ :lays
French Aocabulary 5 "rt :lays 5 Les #iaces "t the !heater :lay %enres le th@Rtre the%ter le b%llet b%llet Fthe%tric%lH pl%y l% piPce Fde th@RtreH lit0 Fthe%tric%lH l% com@die comedy piece l7%cte F8H %ct l% com@die l% scPne scene music%l comedy music%le l7entr%cte FmH intermission ch%nter to sin. le Fl%H ch%nteur le dr%me dr%m% sin.er F-euseH d%nser to d%nce l% tr%.@die tr%.edy le Fl%H d%nseur F-euseH d%ncer

AQ French "rtists and /ntertainers
• • • • • • • • • •

=h%rles &/n%vour $ilbert ;ec%ud K%cDues ;rel 9obert =h%rlebois Koe +%ssin 9%ymond +evos =eline +ion $%rou Kuliette $reco 3dith ,i%8 congratulations on completing

Lesson 209 C &rt
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Gne Lessons

Lesson 2 0 C 4cience
%Q :rendre
,rendre is not % re.ul%r -re verb, %nd is conEu%.ted di88erntly2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation

1irst #erson second #erson

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative #rendre 5 to take 'ingular :lural noo prenn je 0Aeuh nous I t%ke #rends prahn #rennons ohn tu too prahn #rends eel il #rend prahnn elle ell #rend prahnn on oh #rend prahnn you t%ke he t%kes she t%kes one t%kes vous #rene4 voo prennay

!e t%ke you t%ke they t%ke Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they t%ke F8em2H

third #erson

ils #rennent eel prehn elles #rennent

ell prehn

2elated Words
• • • •

prendre - to t%ke %pprendre - to le%rn comprendre - to comprehend1underst%nd m@prendre - to mist%ke

Idio&s and 2elated /0#ressions
• • • • • • • • • •

prendre - to t%ke, to h%ve somethin. to e%t prendre conscience FdeH - to become %!%re Fo8H prendre l% correspond%nce - to ch%n.e tr%ins prendre une d@cision - to m%ke % decision prendre des kilos - to .%in !ei.ht prendre p%rt FOH - to t%ke p%rt FinH prendre l% p%role - to st%rt t%lkin. prendre le p%s sur - to surp%ss prendre le petit d@Eeuner - to e%t bre%k8%st prendre rende/-vous - to m%ke %n %ppointment

AQ !he 'ciences - Les 'ciences
French Aocabulary 5 'cience !he 'ciences and 'cientists 5 Les sciences et les savants %eneral Biology - La biologie le s%v%nt une personne Dui exp@rimente l% bioFlo.ieH lk@tude des or.%nismes viv%nts scientist % person !ho experiments biolo.y the study o8 livin. or.%nisms observer to observe l% bot%niDue lk@tude des pl%ntes %n%lyser to %n%lyse bot%ny the study o8 pl%nts lk%n%tomie F8H lk@tude du corps hum%in :hysics - La #hysi?ue %n%tomy the study o8 the hum%n body lk@tude de l% m%tiPre et de l% physiDue l% /oolo.ie lk@tude des %nim%ux lk@ner.ie physics /oolo.y the study o8 %nim%ls the study o8 m%tter %nd ener.y le physicien physicist le biolo.iste biolo.ist Che&istry - La chi&ie l% cellule % cell des microbes .erms l% chimie lk@tude des @l@ments des b%ct@ries b%ceri% chemistry the study o8 elements des virus viri le chimiste chemist le microscope microscope

AQ "strono&y
French Aocabulary 5 'cience "strono&y !he :lanets Aercure Aercury <enus Aercury L% Fpl%neteH terre 3%rth A%rs A%rs Kupiter Kupiter 4%turne 4%turn *r%nus *r%nus )eptune )eptune ,luton ,luto 3ther 3bejcts Le soleil sun L% lune moon

congratulations on completing

Lesson 2 0 C 4cience
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

French Level !*o Lessons !oujours Lb+ - 'lightly =ore "dvanced French
)o! th%t you kno! ho! to compose French sentences in the present indic%tive, you c%n continue on to 'ikibook7s second French course2 Inside, you !ill le%rn the p%ss@ compos@, the most common French p%st tense, %nd revie! the .r%mm%r you h%ve %lre%dy le%rned2 :he .r%mm%r no! becomes % lot more %dv%nced, %nd e%ch lesson no! .ives much more in8orm%tion2 &8ter you h%ve completed this level, you c%n move on to the next level2 &lso remember to .o to the lessons pl%nnin. p%.e i8 you !ould like to help improve this course2

la 1atedral de @otre Dame en ParQs

Level !*o Contents
"20 Le6on 0 0 L7@cole 0Il Lesson 0 0 'chool "20" Le6on 0" 0 L% culture 0I9 Lesson 0" 0 Culture "203 Le6on 03 0 F%ire des courses 09( Lesson 03 0 'ho##ing "204 Le6on 04 0 4ortir 09I Lesson 04 0 %oing 3ut "205 Le6on 05 0 Le tr%nsport 0l Lesson 05 0 !rans#ortation "20( Le6on 0( 0 Le Duotidien 0I Lesson 0( 0 /veryday Li1e "20# Le6on 0# 0 L% vie rur%le Lesson 0# 0 2ural Li1e "208 Le6on 08 0 L% nourriture , Lesson 08 0 Food and .rink "209 Le6on 09 0 +Tner (0 Lesson 09 0 .ining "2 0 Le6on 0 0 L% communic%tion (, Lesson 0 0 Co&&unication $0 ,%ss@ =ompos@ o8 9e.ul%r <erbs, Lire, qcire <0 4chool, 4chool 4ubEects $0 9e.ul%r <erbs 9evie!, =roire r <oir <0 Li8e, 9eli.ions, -olid%ys, =elebr%tions F;irthd%ys, =hristm%s, ;%stille +%yH $0 exer <erbs F&cheterH, -yer <erbs F,%yerH, 5bEect ,ronoun 9evie!, Irre.ul%r ,%st ,%rticiples Fso 8%rH <0 4hoppin., =lothin., 4hoes $0 4ortir r ,%rtir, -enir <erbs F<enirH, -@xer <erbs <0 Leisure &ctivities, +irections, -o! to $et to ,l%ces, ,l%ces to .o, Aovies $0 -uire <erbs F=onduireH, -rir <erbs F5uvrirH, B, ,%ss@ =ompos@ !ith ltre <0 Loc%l :r%vellin., Aethods o8 tr%nsport%tion $0 +evoir, F%lloir, 9e8lexive <erbs <0 3mployment, '%kin. up, ,rep%rin. 8or !ork, +rivin. to 'ork, 4leep $0 4uivre, <ivre, )%Ttre, ,%ss@ =ompos@ !ith 9e8lexive <erbs <0 ,ets, F%rm &nim%ls $0 A%n.er, ;oire, ,%rtitive &rticle, 3n, Aettre <0 Ae%t, +%iry ,roducts, +rinks, +esserts $0 -cer <erbs, 4ervir, <ouloir r ,ouvoir <0 Ae%ls, 4ilver!%re, +inin. %t % 9est%ur%nt $0 +ire, -%Ttre <erbs, =onn%Ttre r 4%voir, 3nvoyer, 9ecevoir <0 A%il, =%llin. 5thers, =omputers

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "20 C 4chool
live version discussion %Q Introduction to :er1ect !enses exercises :he next section is option%l2 Bou !ill eventu%lly le%rn everythin. th%t is covered in edit lesson it, but i8 you !ould like % previe!, re%d it, %nd i8 not, continue on to the school comment section2 report %n error %sk % Duestion )ain article' FrenchC:rammarCTensesC1omposed
• •

:he per8ect tenses %re %lso c%lled the compound or composed tenses2 :he per8ect tenses %re %ll composed o8 % conEu.%ted %uxill%ry verb %nd % 8ixed p%st p%rticiple2

"u0illary Aerb For&ation
• •

:he %uxill%ry verb is %l!%ys either %voir or Stre2 :he tense o8 the verb depends upon the tense th%t %voir or Stre is conEu.%ted in2 • 'hen the %uxill%ry verb is conEu.%ted in the p%ss@ compos@, 8or ex%mple, the %uxill%ry verb is conEu.%ted in the present indic%tive2 • K7%i 8ini2 - I h%ve 8inished2

:ast :artici#le For&ation
• • • •

-er verbs - repl%ce -er !ith @ -ir verbs - repl%ce -ir !ith i -re verbs - repl%ce -re !ith u irre.ul%r verbs - must be memori/ed

:ast :artici#le "gree&ent

:he p%st p%sticiple must %.ree !ith the direct obEect o8 % cl%use in .ender %nd plur%lity i8 the direct obEect .oes be8ore the verb2 • the direct obEect is masculine singular - no ch%n.e • K7%i 8ini le Eeu2 - I h%ve 8inished the .%me2 • Ke l7%i 8ini2 - I h%ve 8inished it2 • the direct obEect is feminine singular - %dd %n e to the p%st p%rticiple • K7%i 8ini l% tRche2 - I h%ve 8inished the t%sk2 • Ke l7%i 8inie2 - I h%ve 8inished it2 • the direct obEect is masculine plural - %dd %n s to the p%st p%rticiple2 • K7%i 8ini les Eeux2 - I h%ve 8inished the .%mes2 • Ke les %i 8inis2 - I h%ve 8inished them2 • the direct obEect is feminine plural - %dd %n es to the p%st p%rticiple2 • K7%i 8ini les tRches2 - I h%ve 8inished the t%sks2 • Ke l7%i 8inies2 - I h%ve 8inished them2

"voir ou otre+
• • •

In most circumst%nces, the %uxill%ry verb is %voir2 -o!ever, under cert%in situ%tions, the %uxill%ry verb is Stre2 :his occurs !hen0 • :he verb is one o8 ( speci%l verbs th%t t%ke Stre2 • )ote th%t !hen % direct obEect is used !ith these verbs, the %uxill%ry verb becomes %voir2 • :he verb is re8lexive2 • :h%t is, the subEect o8 the verb is %lso its obEect2

List o1 !enses
:here %re seven per8ect tenses in French2 :hese %re0 2 "2 32 42 52 (2 #2 Le p%ss@ compos@ F:he ,resent ,er8ectH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,luper8ect o8 the Indic%tiveH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it du subEoncti8 F:he ,luper8ect 4ubEunctiveH Le p%ss@ %nt@rieur F:he ,%st &nteriorH Le 8utur %nt@rieur F:he Future &nteriorH Le conditionnel p%ss@ F:he ,%st =ondition%lH Le p%ss@ du subEoncti8 F:he ,%st 4ubEunctiveH

+on7t !orry i8 you don7t completely underst%nd the per8ect tenses2 3%ch tense %nd lists o8 irre.ul%r verb conEu%.tions !ill be .iven l%ter in this course2 In the next lesson, the p%ss@ compos@ is introduced2

AQ 'chool
French Aocabulary 5 'chool 'chool 5 L8Fcole %eneral Classes ^ %radesO P te%cher "th $r%de =l%sse :ermin%le schol%rship th $r%de Pre Fl% premiPre cl%sseH

le pro8esseura"c l% bourse le diplUme diplom% 0th $r%de "Pme Fl% deuxiPme cl%sseH Fpro8essionnelH le b%cFc%l%ur@%tH hi.h school exit ex%m 9th $r%de 3Pme Fl% troisiPme cl%sseH l% bibliothPDue libr%ry 8th $r%de 4Pme Fl% Du%triPme cl%sseH les notes .r%des F%s on % testH #th $r%de 5Pme Fl% cinDuiPme cl%sseH les cours cl%sses or courses (th $r%de (Pme Fl% sixiPme cl%sseH l% cl%sse .r%de Fe2.2 (th $r%deH 5th $r%de =A" F=A m cours moyenH en cours de a222c in a222c cl%ss 4th $r%de =A :endant les cours - .uring Classes 3rd $r%de =3" F=3mcours @l@ment%ireH le t%ble%u ch%lkbo%rd "nd $r%de =3 l% cr%ie ch%lk st $r%de =, F=, m cours pr@p%r%toireH le pupitre desk Aerbs p%sser l7ex%men FmH test to t%ke % test un ex%men les devoirs home!ork @tudier to study l% cl%sse cl%ss @crirea3c to !rite l% c%ntine c%8eteri% lever Fl% m%inHa4c to r%ise Fyour h%ndH d@Eeuner to Fe%tH lunch l% r@cr@F%tionH recess poser to %sk F% DuestionH l% cour courty%rd Fune DuestionH 'chools and 'tudents p%rler to spe%k l7@cole F8H school @couter to listen FtoHa5c l7@tudi%nt student FmH entendre to he%r Fo8Ha5c l7@tudi%nte student F8H le collP.e Er2 hi.h school re.%rder to !%tch Fcl%sses 3-termin%leH F.r%des (-9H Er2 hi.h school le coll@.ien d@Eeuner to Fh%veH lunch student le lyc@e hi.h school Fcl%sses (-4H F.r%des 0- "H le lyc@en hi.h school student .escribing !eachers and 'tudents intelli.entFeH intelli.ent l7universit@ F8H university l% 8%cFult@H nulFleH not .ood, not bri.ht hi.her educ%tion l7ensei.nement sup@rieur strictFeH strict .r%du%te school

.es 1ournitures scolaires - 'chool 'u#llies l% cr%ie ch%lk cray le p%pier p%per l% 8euille de p%hpeey%y le t%ble%u the bo%rd tah!loh sheet o8 p%per p%pier le styloFpen steeloh ,!ee. le bloc-notes Fsm%llH notep%d !loc nut billeH le cl%sseur three-rin. binder le cr%yon pencil rayoh le s%c O dos b%ckp%ck sac ah doe l% c%lcul%trice c%lcul%tor l% .omme er%ser gum le livre book leevr le bouDuin le rP.le ruler rehgluh le c%hier notebook ie ay le 8eutre m%rker feuhtr n :he !ord professeur is considered m%sculine %t %ll times, even i8 the te%cher is 8em%le2 :he only c%se !hen dpro8esseurd c%n be preceded by 8eminine determin%nt is either !hen contr%ctin. it in colloDui%l l%n.u%.e dl% pro8d, or !hen %ddin. % 8e! !ords be8ore 0 dm%d%me1m%demoiselle l%1le pro8esseurd2 n :he !%y th%t .r%des %re numbered in Fr%nce is opposite the !%y they %re in the *42 'here%s &meric%n .r%de numbers .o up %s you %ppro%ch your senior ye%r, they descend in Fr%nce2 n qcrire is %n irre.ul%r verb2 Bou !ill le%rn to conEu.%te it in the next section2 n In French, you do not do!nd body p%rts2 'hile in 3n.lish, you !ould s%y my hand or your hand, the de8in%te %rticle is %l!%ys used in French2
• • •

la main - my hand la 0am!e - my leg le !ras - my arm

n :o %nd of %re built into the verbs -couter %nd entendre respectively2 It is not necess%ry to %dd % preposition to the verb2 5ther verbs, such %s r-pondre R3., me%nin. to respond ,to., %re %lmost %l!%ys 8ollo!ed by % preposition2

%Q qcire J Lire
French Aerb 5 'chool Fcrire 5 to *rite #ast #artici#leQ Fcrit 1irst #erson j8 Fcris second #erson tu Fcris il Fcrit third #erson elle Fcrit on Fcrit 'ingular 0ay cree too aycree eel aycree ell aycree ohn aycree I !rite you !rite he !rites she !rites one !rites :lural nous Fcrivons newAay creevohn !e !rite vous Fcrive4 vooAay creevay you !rite they !rite ils Fcrivent eel aycreeve Fm%sc2 or mi/edH elles Fcrivent ell aycreeve they !rite F8em2H

1irst #erson je lis second #erson tu lis il lit third #erson elle lit on lit

French Aerb 5 'chool lire 5 to read #ast #artici#leQ lu 'ingular 0euh lee I re%d nous lisons too lee you re%d vous lise4 eel dee he re%ds ils lisent ell lee she re%ds ohn dee one re%ds elles lisent

:lural noo leeAohn !e re%d voo leeAay you re%d they re%d eel leeA Fm%sc2 or mi/edH ell leeA they re%d F8em2H

AQ 'chool 'ubjects
French Aocabulary 5 'chool 'chool 'ubjects 5 Les &atiares d8enseigne&ent les &athF&ati?ues les langues languages &athe&atics les &aths l7%n.l%is 3n.lish l7%l.Pbre F8H %l.ebr% le 8r%n6%is French le c%lcul c%lculus l7esp%.nol 4p%nish l% .@om@trie .eometry les sciences social l7%llem%nd $erm%n sociales sciences le russe 9ussi%n l7@conomie economics l7it%lien It%li%n l% .@oF.r%phieH .eo.r%phy l7histoire F8H history les sciences natural d8autres other subjects naturelles sciences &atiares l% biolo.ie biolo.y le dessin dr%!in. l% bio l% chimie chemistry l7in8orm%tiDue F8H computer science l% technolo.ie en.ineerin. l% litt@r%ture liter%ture l% physiDue physics l% musiDue music

%Q :assF Co&#osF *ith 2egular Aerbs
)ain article' FrenchC:rammarCTensesCPresent perfect :he p%ss@ compos@ is % per8ect tense, %nd is there8ore composed o8 %n %uxili%ry verb %nd % p%st p%rticiple2 'ith most verbs, th%t %uxilil%ry verb is %voir2

=eaning
In 3n.lish, verbs comEu.%ted in the p%ss@ compos@ liter%lly me%n haveChas NNNNed2 'hile there is % simple p%st tense in French, it is only used in 8orm%l !ritin., so verbs conEu.%ted in the p%ss@ compos@ c%n %lso be used to me%n the 3n.lish simple tense2

For ex%mple, the p%ss@ compos@ 8orm o8 p%rler Fto spe%kH, aavoirc p%rl@, liter%lly me%n hasChave spo en, but %lso me%ns spo e2

Basic For&ation
:o conEu.%te % verb in the p%ss@ compos@, the helpin. verb, usu%lly %voir, is conEu.%ted in the present indic%tive %nd the p%st p%rticiple is then %dded2 "u0iliary Aerb - "voir =onEu.%te %voir in the present indic%tive2 E7%i I h%ve nous %vons !e h%ve tu %s you h%ve vous %ve/ you h%ve il % he h%s ils ont they h%ve :ast :artici#le
• • •

-er verbs - repl%ce -er !ith @ -ir verbs - repl%ce -ir !ith i -re verbs - repl%ce -re !ith u

For&ation o1 the :ast :artici#le Aerb %rou# In1initive 'te& :ast :artici#le -er verbs Eouer Eou EouF -ir verbs 8inir 8in 8ini -re verbs r@pondre r@pond r@pondu "voir [ :ast :artici#le K7%i Eou@2 I h%ve pl%yed )ous %vons Eou@2 'e h%ve pl%yed2 :u %s Eou@2 Bou h%ve pl%yed2 <ous %ve/ Eou@2 Bou h%ve pl%yed2 Il % Eou@2 -e h%s pl%yed2 Ils ont Eou@2 :hey h%ve pl%yed2 congratulations on completing

Lesson "20 C 4chool
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "20" C =ulture
:his lesson is on the culture o1 France2 :he culture o8 Fr%nce is diverse, re8lectin. live version re.ion%l di88erences %s !ell %s the in8luence o8 recent immi.r%tion2 &lso, try %nd discussion re8lect on ho! your culture is simil%r %nd di88erent to French culture2 exercises edit lesson comment %Q %eneral Aerbs 2evie* report %n error Aost verbs in French %re re.ul%r -er verbs2 5thers %re re.ul%r -ir or -re verbs or %re %sk % Duestion simply irre.ul%r2

For&ation
French %ra&&ar 5 Culture 2egular Aerbs 5 Les verbes rFguliers -er Aerbs -ir Aerbs -re Aerbs p%rl222 8in222 vend222 /nding /0a&#le /nding Aerb /nding /0a&#le -e p%rle -is 8inis -s vends -es p%rle -is 8inis -s vends -e p%rle -it 8init vend -ons p%rlons -issons 8inissons -ons vendons -e/ p%rle/ -isse/ 8inisse/ -e/ vende/ -e p%rlent -issent 8inissent -ent vendent

'te&Q 'ubject ;e !u Il -ous Aous Ils

Irregular Aerbs /nding in -er
%ller

Irregular Aerbs /nding in -ir
%cDu@rir s %voir s s7%sseoir s devoir s dormir s 8%lloir s ouvrir s p%rtir s pleuvoir s pouvoir s recevoir s s%voir s servir s venir s voir s vouloir

Co&&on -re Aerbs
%ttendre - to !%it F8orH s r@pondre - to %ns!er

Irregular Aerbs /nding in -re
boire s conduire s conn%Ttre s croire s dire s @crire s Stre s 8%ire s lire s mettre s prendre s rire s suivre s vivre

%Q Croire J Aoir
=roire is not % re.ul%r -re verb, %nd is conEu.%ted irre.ul%rly2 French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative croire 5 to believe 6#ast #artici#le - cru7 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh crah I believe nous croyons noo croy oh too crah you believe vous croye4 voo croy ay eel crah he believes ils croient eel crah ell crah she believes oh crah one believes elles croient ell crah

1irst #erson je crois second #erson tu crois il croit third #erson elle croit on croit

!e believe you believe they believe Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they believe F8em2H

<oir is not % re.ul%r -ir verb, %nd is conEu.%ted irre.ul%rly2 French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative voir 5 to see 6#ast #artici#le - vu7 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh vwah I see nous voyons noo vwahyoh too vwah you see vous voye4 voo vwah ay eel vwah he sees ils voient eel vwah ell vwah she sees oh vwah one sees elles voient ell vwah

1irst #erson je vois second #erson tu vois il voit third #erson elle voit on voit

!e see you see they see Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they see F8em2H

AQ 2eligion
l% reli.ion =hr@tien L7Isl%m reli.ion =hristi%n Isl%m le musulm%n Auslim

l7%th@e Fm2H %thiest Le ,Pre noXl 4%nt% =l%use le 4 Euillet ;%stille +%y

AQ Birthday
Birthdays l7%nnivers%ire FmH birthd%y :u %s Duel R.e? -o! old %re you? I %m tttt ye%rs old2 K7%i tttt %ns2 alit0 & have NNN years"c le .Rte%u c%ke le c%de%u .i8t l% bou.ie c%ndle l% 8Ste p%rty inviter to invite donner une 8Ste to thro! % p%rty

AQ )olidays
Les Eours 8@ri@s )e! Be%r7s +%y L%bor +%y Aemori%l +%y J &rmistice +%y Independ%nce +%y =hristm%s 3ve =hristm%s J Bule le )ouvel &n L% FSte du :r%v%il l7&rmistice l% FSte )%tion%le le 9eveillon )oel

congratulations on completing

Lesson "20" C =ulture
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "203 C 4hoppin.
AQ 'ho##ing
live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

French Aocabulary 5 'ho##ing 'ho##ing 5 Les achats !o %o 'ho##ing Buying %oods 8%ire des courses leFl%H vendeurFeuseH s%lesperson to .o shoppin. 8%ire du shoppin. leFl%H c%ssierF-iPreH c%shier 8%ire le m%rch@ to .o .rocery shoppin. Fplus1moinsH cherFPreH Fmore1lessH expensive 8%ire du lPcheto .o !indo! l% vitrine displ%y !indo! vitrine shoppin. porter to !e%r, to c%rry en solde on s%le dem%nder to %sk F8orH le prix price dem%nder le prix - to %sk 8or the price p%yer to p%y c%sh re.ister l% c%isse p%yer O l% c%isse to p%y %t the counter checkout counter vendre to sell coVter to cost -o! much is it? %cheter to buy =kest combien? alit0 It7s ho! much?c >% coVte combien? alit0It costs ho! much?c -o! much does anounc cost? =ombien coVte anomc? alit0 -o! much costs anounc?c %eneral %oods 'tores Foods 'tores le m%.%sin shopJ store le superm%rch@ superm%rket le centre m%llJ shoppin. centre le hyperm%rch@ hyperm%rketJ bi. superm%rket commerci%l le .r%nd m%.%sin dep%rtment store l% boucherie butcher shop le r%yon l% boutiDue l% ph%rm%cie le m%rch@ dep%rtment sm%ll store ph%rm%cyJ chemist outdoor m%rket l% boul%n.erie le d@pUt de p%in l% ch%rcuterie l% cr@merie l% pRtisserie l% poissonnerie l7@picerie F8H b%kery " % pl%ce th%t sells bre%d " delic%tessen 3 d%iry store p%stry shopJ pRtisserie se%8ood storeJ 8ishmon.er .rocery 4

2 French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horseme%t2 For these products, .o to % charcuterie2 "2 In Fr%nce, b%keries only sell 8resh bre%dJ e2.2 the bre%d is b%ked on site2 ,l%ces !here they sell bre%d th%t is not 8resh %re c%lled dép%t de pain2 32 7&harcuteries' sell thin.s besides pork products, includin. pRte, s%l%mi, cold me%ts, s%l%ds, Duiches %nd pi//%s2 42 &n %ltern%tive to %n 7épicerie' is %n alimentation générale F% .ener%l 8oodstoreH2

%Q 3bject :ronouns 2evie*
.irect 3bjects
'hile the subEect o8 % sentence initi%tes %n %ction Fthe verbH, the direct obEect is the one th%t is %88ected by the %ction2 & direct obEect pronoun is used to re8er to the direct obEect o8 % previous sentence0 ,ierre vois le ca&brioleur2 ,ierre sees the burglar2 ,ierre le vois2 ,ierre sees hi&2 :he 8ollo!in. t%ble sho!s the v%rious types o8 direct obEect pronouns0 French me, m7 te, t7 le, l7 him, /nglish me you it )otes0
• • • •

l%, l7 nous vous les her, it us you them

me% te% nous, %nd vous %re %lso used %s indirect obEects to me%n to me% to you% to us, %nd to you respectively2 :he pronoun 8orm !ith %n %postrophe is used be8ore % vo!el2 :he direct obEect pronoun 8or nous %nd vous is the s%me %s the subEect2 'hen the direct obEect comes be8ore % verb in % per8ect tense, % tense th%t uses % p%st p%rticiple, the direct obEect must %.ree in .ender %nd plur%lity !ith the p%st p%rticiple2 For ex%mple, in te phr%se =e les ai eus, or & had them, the p%st p%rticiple !ould be spelled eus i8 the direct obEect, les, !%s re8errin. to % m%sculine obEect, %nd eues i8 les is re8errin. to % 8eminine obEect2

Indirect 3bjects
&n indirect obEect is %n obEect th%t !ould be %sked 8or !ith To whom"""7 or From whom"""72 It is c%lled indirect bec%use it occurs usu%lly to.ether !ith % direct obEect !hich is %88ected directly by the %ction0 Il donne du p%in b :he m%n .ives some bre%d to :ierre2 :ierre2 Il lui donne du p%in2 -e .ives bre%d to hi&2 :he 8ollo!in. t%ble sho!s the v%rious types o8 direct obEect pronouns0 lui to him, to /nglish to me to you her )otes0 French me, m7 te, t7 nous vous leur

to us to you to them

• • • •

me% te% nous, %nd vous %re %lso used %s direct obEects to me%n me% you% us, %nd you respectively2 :he pronoun 8orm !ith %n %postrophe is used be8ore % vo!el2 :he direct obEect pronoun 8or nous %nd vous is the s%me %s the subEect2 :he indirect obEect pronouns do not %.ree !ith the p%st p%rticiple like the direct obEect pronouns do2 'hen me% te% nous, %nd vous %re used in % per8ect tense, the !riter must decide !hether they %re used %s direct or indirect obEect pronouns2 :his is done by lookin. %t the verb %nd seein. !h%t type o8 %ction is bein. per8ormed2

:he bre%d is given by the m%n FdirectH2 ,ierre gets the given %pple FindirectH2

%Q -exer Aerbs
-exer %re re.ul%r -er verbs, but %lso %re stem ch%n.in.2 :he stem ch%n.e %pplies to %ll 8orms except nous %nd vous2 :he stem ch%n.e involves %ddin. % .r%ve %ccent F u H over the e in the stem2

For&ation
French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative acheter 5 to buy 6#ast #artici#le - achetF7 'ingular :lural nous4achetons nooAashtoh !e buy j8achate 0Aah shet I buy vous4achete4 vooAahshtay you buy they buy Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they buy F8em2H

1irst #erson

second #erson tu achates too ahshet you buy

il achate eel ahshet he buys ils4achatent eelAahshet elle achate ell ahshet she buys third #erson onnachate ohnahshet one buys elles4achatent ellAahshet

3ther -exer Aerbs
• • • • • • •

peser - to !ei.h mener - to c%rry out emmener - to t%ke %lon. %mener - to brin. surmener - to over!ork lever - to r%ise soulever - to r%ise

AQ Clothing
French Aocabulary 5 'ho##ing Clothing 5 )abille&ent les vete&ents habillFs - dress les vete&ents s#ort - casual les chaussures - shoes clothes clothes l% chemise button do!n shirt l% c%sDuestte c%p les ch%ussures shoes l% p%ire de l% cr%v%te tie le tee-shirt t-shirt p%ir o8 shoes ch%ussures b%sketb%ll le p%nt%lon p%nts le polo polo shirt les b%skets shoes tr%iners le complet suit le pullFoverH % s!e%ter les tennis tennis shoes le costume le m%nte%u co%t le s!e%t-shirt s!e%tshirt les s%nd%les s%nd%ls le blouson le t%illeur !omen7s suit E%cket l% veste l% robe dress le Ee%n Ee%ns le chemisier blouse les ch%ussettes socks l% Eupe skirt

%Q -yer verbs
-yer verbs %re re.ul%r -er verbs2 -o!ever, !hen y is p%rt o8 the l%st syll%ble, it ch%n.es to i in order to keep the ay sound2 In the present indic%tive o8 -yer verbs, this %88ects %ll 8orms except nous %nd vous2

:ayer
:he verb payer tr%nsl%tes to to pay2

For&ation
In the present indic%tive, p%yer F%nd %ll other -yer verbsH is conEu%.ted %s 8ollo!s0

1irst #erson je #aie second #erson tu #aies il #aie elle #aie third #erson on #aie

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative #ayer 5 to #ay 6#ast #artici#le - #ayF7 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh pay I p%y nous #ayons noo pay oh too pay you p%y vous #aye4 voo pay yay eel pay he p%ys ils #aient eel ell pay she p%ys ou #ayent elles #aient oh pay one p%ys ell ou #ayent

!e p%y you p%y they p%y Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they p%y F8em2H

3ther -yer Aerbs
• • • • • •

%ppuyer - to support employer - to employ ess%yer - to try essuyer - to !ipe nettoyer - to cle%n tutoyer - to %ddress %s tu, to c%ll someone in8orm%lly

%Q Irregular :ast :artici#les
A%ny o8 the verbs you h%ve le%rned so 8%r h%ve irre.ul%r p%st p%rticiples2
• • • • •

%voir - eu croire - cru Stre - @t@ 8%ire - 8%it voir - vu

.Q :ractice Conversations
Let7s pr%ctise some o8 these !ords %nd verbs in some everyd%y shoppin. t%lk0 E ( la boulangerie 6"t the bakery7 ;ern%rd Fle boul%n.erH 0 9on0our madame =%mille Fl% clienteH 0 9on0our monsieur ;ern%rd 0 Fu$est*ce Jue vous vouleA 7 =%mille 0 =e voudrais acheter une !aguette% s$il vous plaSt ;ern%rd 0 1$est tout 7 =%mille 0 @on% 0e voudrais deux croissants aussi ;ern%rd 0 Tr5s !ien * ça fait deux euros% s$il vous plaSt =%mille 0 )erci !eaucoup

*se8ul voc%bul%ry here0 dGu7est-ce Due vous voule/ ?d - 'h%t !ould you like? dKe voudr%is222d - I !ould like 2 2 2 d=7est tout ?d - Is th%t %ll? d>% 8%it deux eurosd - :h%t7ll be t!o euros 9emember your verb - acheter Fto buyH2 )ote o8 % 8renchm%n 0 dGu7est-ce Due vous voule/ ?d is % little %brupt2 'e use mostly dGue voule/-vous ?d or dGue d@sire/vous ?d2 4%me 8or d=7est tout ?d, !e use most o8 the time d=e ser% tout ?d F8uture tenseH or d3t %vec ceci ?d F%nd !ith this?H2 (E )u marché 6"t the &arket7 A%rie Fl% m%rch%ndeH 0 9on0our monsieur =l@ment Fle clientH 0 9on0our madame =l@ment 0 Fu$est*ce Jue vous aveA 3 vendre 7 A%rie 0 =$ai un grand choix de fruits et l-gumes =l@ment 0 Tr5s !ien" Ist*ce Jue vous aveA des cerises 7 A%rie 0 Gui""" elles coTtent deux euros le ilo =l@ment 0 9on% 0e voudrais trois ilos% s$il vous plaSt A%rie 0 Tr5s !ien% monsieur" #lors% pour trois ilos il faut pa*er six euros% s$il vous plaSt" *se8ul voc%bul%ry here0 dGu7est-ce Due vous %ve/222 ?d - 'h%t do you h%ve? d*n .r%nd choixd - & l%r.e r%n.e d+es cerisesd - 4ome cherries d3lles coVtent deux euros le kilod - :hey F8eminineH cost t!o euros per kilo dIl 8%utd - 5ne must1Bou need to 9emember your verbs - vendre Fto sellH %nd #ayer Fto p%yH2 congratulations on completing

Lesson "203 C 4hoppin.
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "204 C $oin. out
%Q r and .e
:he preposition 3 c%n indic%te % destin%tion, % loc%tion, % ch%r%cteristic, me%surement, % point in time, purpose, %nd sever%l other thin.s !hich !ill be covered l%ter2 'hen le 8ollo!s 3, the 3 %nd le combine into au2 4imil%rly, 3 %nd les combine into aux2 :he preposition de c%n indic%te %n ori.in, contents, possession, c%use, m%nner, %nd sever%l other thin.s !hich !ill be covered l%ter2 'hen le 8ollo!s de, the de %nd le combine into du2 4imil%rly, de %nd les combine into des2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

AQ Leisure "ctivites
Les loisirs le cin@m% l% musiDue le b%l%deur une sortie un spect%cle le th@Rtre le repos le v%c%ncier l% d%nse %llumer1@teindre l% t@l@vision leFl%H t@l@spect%teurFtriceH le sport cinem% music !%lkm%n .oin. out % sho! the the%ter rest % v%c%tioner d%nce to turn on1turn o88 television television vie!er sport

%Q :artir J 'ortir
French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative #artir 5 to leave 6#ast #artici#le - #arti6e76s77 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh pahr I le%ve nous #artons noo partoh too pahr you le%ve vous #arte4 voo pahrtay eel pahr he le%ves ils #artent eel part ell pahr she le%ves oh pahr one le%ves elles #artent ell part

1irst #erson je #ars second #erson tu #ars il #art third #erson elle #art on #art

!e le%ve you le%ve they le%ve Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they le%ve F8em2H

1irst #erson je sors second #erson tu sors il sort third #erson elle sort on sort

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative sortir 5 to go outS to take out 6#ast #artici#le - sorti6e76s77 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh sore I .o out nous sortons noo sortoh !e .o out too sore you .o out vous sorte4 voo sortay you .o out eel sore he .oes out they .o out ils sortent eel sort Fm%sc2 or mi/edH ell sore she .oes out oh sore one .oes out elles sortent ell sort they .o out F8em2H

4ome other verbs use sortir %nd p%rtir %s stems2
• •

rep%rtir - to set out %.%in r@p%rtir - to distribute

AQ =ovies
French Aocabulary 5 %oing out =ovies 5 Les 1il&s %eneral le 8ilm FdomestiDueH Fen FdomesticH movie Fon <252 F<ersion un%ltered vid@oH videoH ori.in%leH sub-titles le 8ilm F@tr%n.erH Fen +<+H F8orei.nH movie Fon +<+H les sous-titres l7%cteur FmH %ctor l% vid@o video l7%ctrice F8H %ctrice le +<+ +<+ louer to rent !he =ovie !heater Fil& %enres le cin@m% the FmovieH the%ter le dessin %nim@ c%rtoon the%ter sho!in. room l% s%lle du cin@m% le document%ire document%ry lit0 room o8 the the the%ter l% s@%nce sho!in. le 8ilm dk%mour love story le .uichet ticket !indo! le 8ilm dk%ventures %dventure movie se%t1pl%ce to sit l% pl%ce le 8ilm dkhorreur horror 8ilm le 8%uteuil ch%ir coVter to cost le 8ilm policier police 8ilm le 8ilm de scienceEouer to pl%y sci-8i 8ilm 8iction • *n 8%uteuil is the physic%l ch%ir th%t one sits on2 5ne !ould norm%lly use dune pl%ced !henever d% se%td is used in 3n.lish2 • ,rene/ l% pl%ceI - :%ke % se%tI Les 8ilms sont 8%scin%ntsI <ous %lle/ %u cin@m%? ,ourDuoi? <ous %ime/ les 8ilms? 5n p%rle FuHest*ce JuHon 0oue au cin-ma7 pour d@m%nder les 8ilms Dui Eouent2 5n %chPte les pl%ces %u .uichet, oQ l7employ@FeH vous les vend2 5n entre l% s%lle du cin@m% pour re.%rder un 8ilm2 Guel est votre .enre de 8ilm pr@8@r@? <ous loue/ les vid@os? les +<+s?

%Q -enir verbs

-enir verbs %re irre.ul%rly conEu.%ted Fthey does not count %s re.ul%r -ir verbsH2

Aenir
• • • •

:he most common -enir verb is venir2 :he verb venir is tr%nsl%ted to to come2 'hen it me%ns to come from, venir is used !ith the preposition de2 • @ous venons du stade2 Bou c%n %lso use venir !ith % verb to st%te th%t you h%ve recently %ccomplished %n %ction2 __=e viens de finir mes devoirs FI7ve Eust 8inished my home!orkH2

For&ation
In the present indic%tive, venir F%nd %ll other -enir verbsH is conEu%.ted %s 8ollo!s0 French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative venir 5 to co&e 6#ast #artici#le - venu6e76s77 'ingular 0Aeuh vee ehn I come nous venons too vee ehn you come vous vene4 eel vee ehn he comes ils viennent ell vee ehn she comes oh vee ehn one comes elles viennent

1irst #erson je viens second #erson tu viens il vient third #erson elle vient on vient

:lural noo venn oh !e come voo vennay you come they come eel vee ehn Fm%sc2 or mi/edH ell vee ehn they come F8em2H

3ther -enir Aerbs
• •

revenir - to come b%ck, to return devenir - to become %pp%rtenir - to belon. contenir - to cont%in d@tenir - to keep, to det%in retenir - to ret%in se souvenir - to remember soutenir - to support tenir - to hold

• • • • • • •

%Q -Fxer Aerbs
-@xer verbs %re re.ul%r -er verbs, but %re %lso stem ch%n.in.2

For&ation

French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative suggFrer 5 to suggest 6#ast #artici#le - suggFrF7 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh soo nous noo soo 1irst #erson je suggare I su..est A0air suggFrons A0airoh second voo soo tu suggares too soo A0air you su..est vous suggFre4 #erson A0airay il suggare eel soo A0air he su..ests ils suggarent eel soo A0air she elle suggare ell soo A0air third #erson su..ests one on suggare oh soo A0air elles suggarent ell soo A0air su..ests

!e su..est you su..est they su..est Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they su..est F8em2H

3ther -Fxer Aerbs
• • • • • •

%cc@l@rer - to %cceler%te c@l@brer - to celebr%te esp@rer - to hope oblit@rer - to obliter%te pr@8@rer - to pre8er s@cher - to dry congratulations on completing

Lesson "204 C $oin. out
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "205 C :r%nsport%tion
%Q -uire Aerbs
-uire verbs %re conEu.%ted irre.ul%rly2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation
French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative conduire 5 to drive 6#ast #artici#le - conduit7 'ingular :lural 0Aeuh I drive nous noo cohndwee conduisons cohndweeAoh too you vous voo cohndwee drive conduise4 cohndweeAay eel he ils eel cohndweeA cohndwee drives conduisent ell she cohndwee drives oh one elles ell cohndweeA cohndwee drives conduisent

1irst #erson second #erson third #erson

je conduis tu conduis il conduit elle conduit on conduit

!e drive you drive they drive Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they drive F8em2H

3ther -uire Aerbs

produire - to produce

AQ .riving
ouvrir to open 8ermer to close

%Q -rir Aerbs
:hese verbs %re conEu.%ted irre.ul%rly, 8ollo!in. the -er conEu.%tion scheme2 & common -rir verb is ouvrir2

For&ation
• • • • • • •

E7ouvre tu ouvres il ouvre nous ouvrons vous ouvre/ ils ouvrent p%st p%rticiple0 ouvert

3ther 'tandard -rir verbs
In p%st p%rticiple 8orm, -rir is repl%ced !ith -ert 8or these verbs2
• • • •

couvrir - to cover d@couvrir - to discover o88rir - to o88er sou88rir - to su88er

-rir Aerb /0ce#tions
Courir - !o 2un
• • • • • • •

Ee cours tu cours il court nous courons vous coure/ ils courent p%st p%rticiple0 couru

=ourir - !o .ie
• • • • • • •

Ee meurs tu meurs il meurt nous mourons vous moure/ ils meurent p%st p%rticiple0 mortFeHFsH

Aourir is the only -rir verb th%t t%kes Stre %s its helpin. verb in per8ect tenses F%nd there8ore %.rees !ith the subEect %s % p%st p%rticiple in % per8ect tenseH2 "c?uFrir - !o "c?uire
• • • • • • •

E7%cDuiers tu %cDuiers il %cDuiert nous %cDu@rons vous %cDu@re/ ils %cDuiPrent p%st p%rticiple0 %cDuis

%Q :assF Co&#osF *ith otre
Aost verbs 8orm the pass- compos- !ith avoir, ho!ever there %re % sm%ll number o8 verbs th%t %re %l!%ys conEu.%ted !ith Utre2

List o1 Aerbs
French %ra&&ar 5 !rans#ortation :er1ect :ast *ith otre 5 :assF co&#osF avec etre Aerb /0a&#le %ller Ke suis %ll@ %u cin@m%2 I !ent to the cinem%2 venir Ke suis venu en 8r%nce2 I c%me to Fr%nce2 %rriver Le tr%in est %rriv@2 :he tr%in h%s %rrived2 p%rtir 3lle est p%rtie tr%v%iller2 4he le8t to .o to !ork2 rester Ke suis rest@ O l% m%ison2 I st%yed home2 retourner Il est retourn@ %u rest%ur%nt2 -e returned to the rest%ur%nt2 tomber Ke suis tomb@ d%ns l% piscine2 I 8ell into the pool2 n%Ttre Ke suis n@ en octobre2 I !%s born in october2 mourir Il est mort en 9 #2 -e died in 9 #2 It h%ppened in 8ront o8 the p%sser Il est p%ss@ dev%nt l% m%ison2 house2 monter Ke suis mont@ %u sommet2 I climbed to the top2 descendre Il est descendu du tr%in2 -e .ot out o8 the tr%in2 sortir Ke suis sorti %vec mes %mies2 I !ent out !ith my 8riends2 Ke suis entr@ d%ns m% entrer I entered my room2 ch%mbre2 rentre Il est rentr@ tUt de l7@cole2 -e c%me b%ck e%rly 8rom school2

:he verbs th%t t%ke Stre c%n be e%sily remebered by the %cronym A942 9+ <&)+39:9&A,0 A 9 4 9 + mont@ rest@ sorti revenu devenu < & ) + 3 9 : 9 & A , venu %rriv@ n@ descendu entr@ rentr@ tomb@ retourn@ %ll@ mort p%rti

.irect 3bjects
5ne must kno! th%t these verbs t%ke their conEu.%ted %voir !hen they %re immedi%tely 8ollo!ed by % direct obEect

For 3x%mple0 • Ke suis descendu !ith the direct obEect dmes b%..%.esd • becomes0 • K7ai descendu mes b%..%.es2 &nother ex%mple0 • Ke suis mont@ !ith the direct obEect dmes b%..%.esd • becomes0 • K7ai mont@ mes b%..%.es2 Bet %nother ex%mple but !ith ils inste%d o8 Ke0 • Ils sont sortis !ith direct obEect dleur p%ssportd • becomes0 • Ils ont sorti leur p%ssport2

'ubject-:ast :artici#le "gree&ent
:he p%st p%rticiples o8 the %bove verbs must %.ree !ith the the subEect o8 % sentence in .ender %nd plur%lity2 )ote th%t there is no %.reement i8 these verbs %re conEu.%ted !ith %voir2
• • • •

I8 the subEect is m%sculine sin.ul%r, there is no ch%n.e in the p%st p%rticiple2 I8 the subEect is 8eminine sin.ul%r, %n -e is %dded to the p%st p%rticiple2 I8 the subEect is m%sculine plur%l, %n -s is %dded to the p%st p%rticiple2 I8 the subEect is m%sculine sin.ul%r, %n -es is %dded to the p%st p%rticiple2 )ous sommes %ll@Fe7s2 <ous Stes %ll@6e76s72 Ils sont %ll@s2 3lles sont %ll@es2

K suis %ll@6e72 :u es %ll@6e72 Il est %ll@2 3lle est %ll@s2

%Q !he :ronoun +
Indirect 3bject :ronoun - to it# to them
:he French pronoun y is used to repl%ce %n obEect o8 % preposition%l phr%se introduced by O2
• •

Ke r@ponds O les Duestions2 - K7 y r@ponds2 I respond to the Duestions2 - I respond to them2

)ote th%t lui %nd leur, %nd not y, %re used !hen the the obEect re8ers the % person or persons2

2e#lace&ent o1 :laces - there
:he French pronoun y repl%ces % preposition%l phr%se re8errin. to % pl%ce th%t be.ins !ith %ny preoposition except de F8or !hich en is usedH2
• •

Les hommes vont en Fr%nce2 - Les hommes y vont2 :he men .o to Fr%nce - :he men .o there2

)ote th%t en, %nd not y is used !hen the obEect is o8 the preposition de2

Idio&s
• •

>% y estI - It7s +oneI K7y suisI - I .et itI

congratulations on completing

Lesson "205 C :r%nsport%tion
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "20( C 3veryd%y li8e
%Q .or&ir
French Aerb 5 :resent Indicative dor&ir 5 to slee# 6#ast #artici#le - dor&i7 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson je dors 0Aeuh I sleep nous noo door dor&ons doormoh second tu dors too door you vous voo #erson sleep dor&e4 doormay third il dort eel door he sleeps ils dor&ent eel dorm #erson elle ell door she dort sleeps on oh door one elles ell dorm dort sleeps dor&ent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

!e sleep you sleep they sleep Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they sleep F8em2H

AQ Waking u# and %etting Coursel1 2eady
• • • • • • • •

se lever0 to .et up se l%ver0 to !%sh Fonesel8H se r%ser 0 to sh%ve se doucher0 to sho!er se b%i.ner0 to b%the Fonesel8H se brosser les cheveux1les dents0 to brush one7s h%ir1teeth se pei.ner les cheveux0 to comb one7s h%ir s7h%biller0 to dress Fonesel8H

I8 the subEect is per8ormin. the %ction on him or hersel8, the verbs %re re8lexive2 -o!ever, i8 the subEect !ere to %ct on someone else, the verb is no lon.er re8lexiveJ inste%d the re8lexive pronoun becomes % direct obEect2
• •

Ke m7h%bille0 I .et Fmysel8H dressed2 Ke t7h%bille0 I .et you dressed2

In the p%ss@ compos@, the p%rticiple must %.ree in .ender %nd number !ith the subEect2
• • • • • • •

,ierre s7est h%bill@2 &lice s7est h%bill@e2 $eor.es et A%rtin se sont h%bill@s2 Lisette et 9ose se sont h%bill@es2 A%rc et =l%ire se sont h%bill@s2 Ke m7%ppelle Lucie, et Ee me suis lev@e O six heures2 Ke%n et ,%ul, vous vous %ve/ lev@s %sse/ t%rd2

%Q :rono&inal Aerbs
,ronomin%l verbs %re verbs th%t, put simply, include pronouns2 :hese pronouns %re me% te% se% nous, %nd vous %nd %re used %s either direct obEects or indirect obEects, dependin. on the verb th%t they modi8y2 :here %re three types o8 pronomin%l verbs0 re8lexive verbs, reciproc%l verbs, %nd n%tur%lly pronomin%l verbs2

2e1le0ive Aerbs
9e8lexive verbs re8lect the %ction on the subEect2
• • •

Ke me l%ve2 - I !%sh myself2 )ous nous l%vons2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 Ils se l%vent2 - :hey !%sh themselves2 Ke v%is me l%ver2 - I7m .oin. to !%sh mysel82 Ke v%is ne p%s me l%ver2 - I7m .oin. to not !%sh mysel82

9e8lexive verbs c%n %lso be used %s in8initives2
• •

2eci#rocal Aerbs
'ith reciproc%l verbs, people per8orm %ctions to e%ch other2

)ous nous %imons2 - 'e like e%ch other2

-aturally :rono&inal Aerbs
4ome verbs %re pronomin%l !ithout per8ormin. % re8lexive or reciproc%l %ction2 :u te souviens? - Bou remember?

AQ "t Work
tr%v%iller0 to !ork tr%v%iller pour0 to !ork 8or FsomebodyH

%Q .evoir
French Aerb 5 /veryday li1e devoir 5 to have toS to o*e #ast #artici#leQ dh 'ingular :lural 0euh dwah I h%ve to nous devons noo dehvohn too dwah you h%ve to vous deve4 voo dehvay eel dwah he h%s to ils doivent eel dwahve ell dwah she h%s to ohn dwah one h%s to elles doivent ell dwahve

1irst #erson je dois second #erson tu dois il doit third #erson elle doit on doit

!e h%ve to you h%ve to they h%ve to Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they h%ve to F8em2H

%Q Falloir
• • • • • •

8%lloir - to be necess%ry il 8%ut - it is necess%ry il % 8%llu - it !%s necess%ry Fp%ss@ compos@H il 8%ll%it - it !%s necess%ry Fimp%r8%itH il 8%udr% - it !ill be necess%ry il 8%udr%it - it !ould be necess%ry

:he verb falloir di88ers 8rom simil%r verbs such %s avoir !esoin de >faire JuelJue chose? Fto need ato do somethin.cH %nd devoir Fmust, duty, o!eH2 Falloir is %l!%ys used !ith the imperson%l il only in the 3rd person sin.ul%r, !here%s devoir c%n be used !ith %ll subEect pronouns in %ll tenses2 Falloir expresses general necessities, such %s d:o live, one must e%td or d:o spe%k French !ell, one must conEu.%te verbs correctly2d Devoir expresses more person%lly *hat so&eone &ust doJ dI !%nt to p%ss my French test, so I must study verb conEu.%tions2d #voir !esoin de >faire JuelJue chose? expresses needJ dI need to study 8or my test, it7s tomorro!d2 congratulations on completing

Lesson "20( C 3veryd%y li8e
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "20# C 9ur%l li8e
%Q 'uivre
French Aerb 5 2ural li1e suivre 5 to 1ollo* #ast #artici#leQ suivi 'ingular :lural 0euh nous noo 1irst #erson je suis I 8ollo! swee suivons sweevohn second too you voo tu suis vous suive4 #erson swee 8ollo! sweevay il suit eel dee he 8ollo!s ils suivent eel sweeve elle she third ell swee suit 8ollo!s #erson ohn one elles on suit ell sweeve swee 8ollo!s suivent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion !e 8ollo! you 8ollo! they 8ollo! Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they 8ollo! F8em2H

%Q Aivre
French Aerb 5 2ural li1e vivre 5 to live #ast #artici#leQ vFcu Ova*cooP 'ingular :lural 0euh vee I live nous vivons noo veevohn too vee you live vous vive4 voo veevay eel vee he lives ils vivent eel veeve ell vee she lives ohn vee one lives elles vivent ell veeve

1irst #erson je vis second #erson tu vis il vit third #erson elle vit on vit

!e live you live they live Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they live F8em2H

%Q -aftre
French Aerb 5 2ural li1e naftre 5 to be born #ast #artici#leQ nF6e76s7 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson je nais 0euh nay I %m born nous naissons noo nehssohn !e %re born second #erson tu nais too nay you %re born vous naisse4 voo nehssay you %re born il naft eel nay he is born they %re born ils naissent eel nesse Fm%sc2 or mi/edH third #erson elle naft ell nay she is born on naft ohn nay one is born elles naissent ell nesse they %re born F8em2H )%Ttre is the only -%Ttre verb th%t t%kes Stre %s its helpin. verb F%nd there8ore %.rees !ith the subEect %s % p%st p%rticiple in per8ect tensesH2

%Q 2e1le0ive Aerbs *ith :er1ect !enses
'hen pronimin%l verbs %re conEu.%ted in per8ect tenses, Stre is used %s the %uxili%ry verb2

2e1le0ive Aerbs
In per8ect tenses, the p%st p%rticiples %.ree !ith the direct obEect pronoun, but not the indirect obEect pronoun, in .ender %nd plur%lity2 :here8ore it !ould only %.ree !hen the re8lexive pronoun is the direct obEect2 &lso remember th%t the p%st p%rticiple does not %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes %8ter the verb2
• • • •

3lle s7est l%v@e2 - 4he !%s hersel82 )ous nous sommes l%v@FeHs2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 3lle s7est l%v@ les m%ins2 - 4he !%shed her h%nds2 )ous nous sommes l%v@ les m%ins2 - 'e !%shed our h%nds2

2eci#rocal Aerbs

Like re8lexive verbs, the p%st p%rticiple o8 reciproc%l verbs %.rees in number %nd .ender !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 It there8ore %.rees !ith %ll reciproc%l pronouns th%t 8unction %s direct obEects2 )ous nous sommes %im@FeHs2 - 'e liked e%ch other2 )ous nous sommes p%rl@2 - 'e spoke to e%ch other2 3lles se sont t@l@phon@2 - :hey c%lled to one %nother2 <ous vous Stes @crit souvent? - Bou !rite to e%ch other o8ten?

:he reciproc%l pronoun c%n %lso 8unction %s %n indirect obEect !ithout % direct obEect pronoun2
• • •

-aturally :rono&inal Aerbs
• • •

In per8ect tenses, these verbs %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 5ther!ise, the p%st p%rticiple %.rees !ith the subEect2 3lle s7est souvenue2 - 4he remembered2 Le chien se couche2 - :he do. lies do!n2

)ote th%t assis,e.,es., the p%st p%rticiple o8 s$asseoir Fto sitH, does not ch%n.e in the m%sculine plur%l 8orm2 congratulations on completing

Lesson "20# C 9ur%l li8e
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "208 C Food %nd drink
live version discussion %Q -ger Aerbs exercises -.er verbs %re re.ul%r -er verbs th%t %re %lso stem ch%n.in.2 :he most common -.er edit lesson verb is m%n.er2 For manger %nd %ll other re.ul%r -.er verbs, the stem ch%n.e is comment %ddin. %n e %8ter the g2 :his only %pplies in the nous 8orm2 In this c%se, the ch%n.e report %n error is m%de to preserve the so8t g pronunci%tion r%ther th%n the h%rd g th%t !ould be %sk % Duestion present i8 the e !ere not included2

For&ation
French Aerb 5 Food and drink &anger 5 to eat #ast #artici#le - &angF 'ingular :lural 0euh mahnge I e%t nous &angeons noo vmahnge ohn too mahnge you e%t vous &ange4 voo mahngay eel mahnge he e%ts ils &angent eel mahnge ell mahnge she e%ts ohn mahnge one e%ts elles &angent ell mahnge

1irst #erson je &ange second #erson tu &anges il &ange third #erson elle &ange on &ange

!e e%t you e%t they e%t Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they e%t F8em2H

3ther -ger Aerbs
• • • • •

ch%n.er - to ch%n.e exi.er - to reDuire n%.er - to s!im soul%.er - to relieve voy%.er - to tr%vel

AQ Food
French Aocabulary 5 Food and drink Food 5 La nourriture les 1ruits - 1ruits les lFgu&es - vegetables l% b%n%ne b%n%n% l% c%rotte c%rrot l% cerise cherry les @pin%rds Fm plH spin%ch le citron lemon l7oi.non FmH onion l% 8r%ise str%!berry les petits pois Fm plH pe%s l7or%n.e F8H or%n.e l% pomme de terre pot%to l% pomme %pple l% tom%te tom%to le r%isin .r%pe les %sper.es F8 plH %sp%r%.us le p%mplemousse .r%pe8ruit les h%ricots Fm plH be%ns la viande - &eat les 1ruits de &er 6& #l7 - shell1ishS sea1ood L% coDuille 4%int-K%cDues l7%.ne%u FmH l%mb sc%llop F8H l% dinde turkey le cr%be cr%b le E%mbon h%m le porc pork le #oisson - 1ish le poulet chicken les %nchois Fm plH %nchovies le boeu8 bee8 le s%umon s%lmon l% s%ucisse s%us%.e l7%n.uille F8H eel les #roduits laitiers - dairy #roducts 3ther Foods le beurre butter le croiss%nt crescent roll le 8rom%.e cheese les 8rites F8 plH dFrench 8riesd le l%it milk l% crSpe crepe le y%ourt1le yo.hurt yo.urt l% m%yonn%ise m%yonn%ise le dessert - dessert l% mout%rde must%rd le bonbon c%ndy le p%in bre%d le chocol%t chocol%te le beurre butter le .Rte%u c%ke l% t%rtine de p%in beurr@ slice o8 buttered bre%d l% .l%ce ice cre%m le poivre pepper l% mousse mousse le ri/ rice l% t%rte F%ux F%ppleH pie le sel s%lt pommesH Fchocol%teH ice l% .l%ce F%u chocol%tH le sucre su.%r cre%m l% .l%ce FO l% v%nilleH Fv%nill%H ice cre%m l% con8iture E%m

%Q Boire
:he verb !oire is tr%nsl%ted to to drin 2 It is irre.ul%rly conEu.%ted Fit does not count %s % re.ul%r -re verbH %s 8ollo!s0 French Aerb 5 Food and drink boire 5 to drink #ast #artici#le - bu 'ingular :lural 0euh !wah I drink nous buvons noo !oovohn too !wah you drink vous buve4 voo !oovay eel !wah he drinks ils boivent eel !wahve ell !wah she drinks ohn !wah one drinks elles boivent ell !wahve

1irst #erson je bois second #erson tu bois il boit third #erson elle boit on boit

!e drink you drink they drink Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they drink F8em2H

AQ .rinks
les boissons drinks l% biPre beer le c%8@ co88ee le chocol%t ch%ud hot chocol%te le coc% sod% l% limon%de lemon sod% le citron press@ lemon%de l7e%u F8H !%ter le Eus Euice le Eus d7or%n.e or%n.e Euice le Eus de pomme %pple Euice le Eus de r%isin .r%pe Euice le Eus de tom%te tom%to Euice le th@ te% le vin !ine

%Q :artitive "rticle
:he p%rtitive %rticle de indic%tes, %mon. other thin.s, the !ord some2 &s le%rnt e%rlier, de %nd le contr%ct FcombineH into du, %s de %nd les contr%ct into des2 &lso, inste%d o8 du or de la, de l$ is used in 8ront o8 vo!els2 'hen spe%kin. %bout 8ood, the p%rtitive %rticle is used %t some times !hile the de8inite %rticle Fle% la% lesH is used %t other times, %nd the inde8inite %rticle Fun% uneH in yet %nother set o8 situ%tions2 In .ener%l dded re8ers to % part o8 8ood F% piece o8 pieH !here%s the de8inite %rticle FleH re8ers to % 8ood in .ener%l FI like pie Fin .ener%lHH2 :he inde8inite %rticle re8ers to %n entire unit o8 % 8ood FI !ould like % FwholeH pieH2 'hen spe%kin. %bout pre8erences, use the de8inite %rticle0 K7%ime la .l%ce2 I like ice cre%m2

)ous pr@8@rons le ste%k2 'e pre8er ste%k2 <ous %ime/ les 8rites Bou like French 8ries2 'hen spe%kin. %bout e%tin. or drinkin. %n item, there %re speci8ic situ%tions 8or the use o8 e%ch %rticle2 .e1E artE K7%i m%n.@ la t%rte2 IndE artE :artE artE s#eci1ic^*hole ite&s I %te the F!holeH pie2 kno*n ?uantity unkno*n ?uantity

K7%i m%n.@ une t%rte2 I %te % pie2 K7%i m%n.@ de la t%rte2 I %te some pie2 In the ne.%tive construction, cert%in rules %pply2 &s one h%s le%rnt in % previous lesson, un or une ch%n.es to de Fme%nin., in this context, %nyH in % ne.%tive construction2 4imil%rly, du, de la, or des ch%n.e to de in ne.%tive constructions2 )ous %vons m%n.@ une t%rte2 )ous %vons m%n.@ de la t%rte2 )ous n7%vons p%s m%n.@ de t%rte2 'e %te % pie2 'e %te some pie2

)ous n7%vons p%s m%n.@ de t%rte2 'e did not e%t % pie1 'e did not e%t %ny pie2 'e did not e%t some pie1 'e did not e%t %ny pie2 )ote 0 )o! you should underst%nd better ho! th%t dGuoi de neu8?dF!h%t7s ne!?H encountered in the very 8irst lesson !%s constructed222 dGuoi de plus be%u?Id F!h%t is there prettier?H

%Q /n
)ote ho! !e s%y =e veux du pain to s%y 7I !%nt some bre%d7 ? ;ut !h%t h%ppens !hen !e !%nt to s%y 7I !%nt some7 !ithout speci8yin. !h%t !e !%nt? In these c%ses, !e use the pronoun 7en72 &s !ell, 7en7 c%n me%n 7o8 it7 !hen 7it7 is not speci8ied2 For inst%nce, inste%d o8 s%yin. =$ai !esoin de l$argent, i8 the ide% o8 money h%s %lre%dy been r%ised, !e c%n Eust s%y 7K7en %i besoin72 :his is bec%use !h%t en does is repl%ce du, de la or des !hen there is nothin. %8ter it2 Like !ith 7me7, 7te7 %nd other pronouns, en Fme%nin. 7some7H comes be8ore the verb2 :u Eoue du pi%no? )on, Ee n7en Eoue p%s <ous prene/ du poisson? 5ui, E7en prends2 <ous %ve/ comm%nd@ de l7e%u? 5ui, nous en %vons comm%nd@2 For more det%iled in8orm%tion, see French ,ronouns +o you pl%y pi%no? )o, I don7t pl%y it2 &re you h%vin. 8ish? Bes, I7m h%vin. some2 +id you order some !%ter? Bes, !e ordered some2

%Q =ettre
For&ation
French Aerb 5 Food and drink &ettre 5 to #ut #ast #artici#le - &is 'ingular :lural 0euh may I put nous &ettons noo mettohn too may you put vous &ette4 voo mettay eel may he puts ils &ettent eel met ell may she puts ohn may one puts elles &ettent ell met

1irst #erson je &ets second #erson tu &ets il &et third #erson elle &et on &et

!e put you put they put Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they put F8em2H

2elated Words
• • • • • • •

mettre - to put on, to turn on, to pl%ce permettre - to %llo! remettre - to put b%ck remettre en pl%ce - to set b%ck into pl%ce soumettre - to submit se remettre - to recover 8rom %n illness se remettre en route - to .et b%ck on the ro%d

Idio&s and 2elated /0#ressions
• • • • • • • • •

mettre %u Eour - to brin. to li.ht mettre de l7%r.ent de cot@ - to put money %side mettre 8in O - to put %n end to mettre l% m%in O l% pRte - to pitch in mettre le cont%ct - to st%rt the c%r mettre le couvert - to set the t%ble se mettre O t%ble - to sit do!n to e%t se mettre d7%ccord - to %.ree se mettre en 8orme - to .et in sh%pe congratulations on completing

Lesson "208 C Food %nd drink
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "209 C +inin.
AQ %eneral .ining
French Aocabulary 5 .ining .ining 5 .iner :laces "ctions and Feelings kitchen %voir 8%im to be hun.ry dinin. room %voir soi8 to be thirsty live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

l% cuisine l% s%lle O m%n.er le rest%ur%nt

rest%ur%nt =eals le rep%s the me%l le petit-d@Eeuner bre%k8%st le d@Eeuner lunch le dTner dinner le .oVter sn%ck Food 'tores l% boucherie butcher shop l% boul%n.erie
"

m%n.er to e%t boire to drink prendre to t%ke vouloir to !%nt mettre le couvert to set the t%ble pr@p%rer un rep%s to prep%re % me%l >uantity .r%m

le .r%mme

le kiloF.r%mmeH kilo.r%n b%kery % pl%ce th%t sells bre%d le d@pUt de p%in " le litre liter l% ch%rcuterie l7@picerie F8H delic%tessen 3 l% bouteille l% boTte l% livre le p%Duet le pot .rocery 4 l% cr@merie d%iry store l% poissonnerie se%8ood store le m%rch@ outdoor m%rket l% pRtisserie p%stry shop bottle 5 c%n p%ck ( p%cket pot

=%n%di%n %nd ;el.i%n French h%s %n o88-by-one beh%viour !ith me%ls 0 bre%k8%st is c%lled d-0euner, lunch is c%lled dSner %nd dinner is souper2 2 French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horseme%t2 For these products, .o to % charcuterie2 "2 In Fr%nce, b%keries only sell 8resh bre%d2 ,l%ces !here they sell bre%d th%t is not 8resh %re c%lled dép%t de pain2 32 7&harcuteries' sell thin.s besides pork products, includin. pRte, s%l%mi, cold me%ts, s%l%ds, Duiches %nd pi//%s2 42 &n %ltern%tive to %n 7épicerie' is %n alimentation générale F% .ener%l 8oodstoreH2 52 -eille is pronounced ay (2 +o not con8use !ith le livre F!oo H2

%Q Aouloir J :ouvoir
:he verb vouloir is tr%nsl%ted to to want2 It is irre.ul%rly conEu.%ted Fit does not count %s % re.ul%r -ir verbH %s 8ollo!s0 French Aerb 5 .ining vouloir 5 to *ant #ast #artici#le - voulu 'ingular 0euh veuh I !%nt nous voulons too veuh you !%nt vous voule4 eel veuh he !%nts ils veulent ell veuh she !%nts ohn veuh one !%nts elles veulent

1irst #erson je veu0 second #erson tu veu0 il veut third #erson elle veut on veut

:lural noo voolohn !e !%nt voo voolay you !%nt they !%nt eel veuhl Fm%sc2 or mi/edH ell veuhl they !%nt F8em2H

,ouvoir is conEu.%ted in % simil%r m%nner0 French Aerb 5 .ining #ouvoir 5 to be able to #ast #artici#le - #u 1irst #erson je #eu0 second #erson tu #eu0 'ingular 0euh nous I c%n1%m %ble to peuh #ouvons you c%n1%re %ble too peuh vous #ouve4 to eel peuh he c%n1is %ble to ils #euvent she c%n1is %ble ell peuh to one c%n1is %ble ohn peuh elles #euvent to :lural noo poovohn !e c%n1%re %ble to

voo poovay you c%n1%re %ble to eel peuhve ell peuhve they c%n1%re %ble to Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they c%n1%re %ble to F8em2H

il #eut elle third #erson #eut on #eut

AQ .ining at a 2estaurant
%rriver l% t%ble occup@e l% t%ble libre trouver comm%nder d@Eeuner dTner d@sirer le serveur l% serveuse l% c%rte l7%ddition le pourboire l%isser Ee voudr%is22 to %rrive %n occupied t%ble % 8ree t%ble to 8ind to order to e%t lunch to dine to e%t dinner to desire !%iter !%itresse menu check tip to le%ve I !ould like222

%Q 'ervir
French Aerb 5 .ining servir 5 to serve #ast #artici#leQ servi 'ingular 0euh sair I serve nous servons too sair you serve vous serve4 eel sair he serves ils servent ell sair she serves ohn sair one serves elles servent

1irst #erson je sers second #erson tu sers il sert third #erson elle sert on sert

:lural noo sairvohn !e serve voo sairvay you serve they serve eel sairve Fm%sc2 or mi/edH ell sairve they serve F8em2H

%Q -cer Aerbs
-cer verbs %re r%.ul%r -er verbs, but %re %lso stem ch%n.in.2 :he most common -cer verb is commencer2

For&ation
French Aerb 5 .ining co&&encer 5 to begin #ast #artici#le - co&&encF 'ingular :lural 0euh coe nous noo coe 1irst #erson je co&&ence I be.in mahnce co&&en9ons mahnsohn second tu too coe you voo coe vous co&&ence4 #erson co&&ences mahnce be.in mahnsay eel coe il co&&ence he be.ins mahnce ils co&&encent eel coe mahnce third elle ell coe she #erson co&&ence mahnce be.ins ohn coe one elles on co&&ence ell coe mahnce mahnce be.ins co&&encent

!e be.in you be.in they be.in Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they be.in F8em2H

3ther -cer Aerbs

e88%cer - to er%se

AQ 'ilver*areS /tcE
le couvert le bol le coute%u l% cuillPre l% serviette l% n%ppe l% t%sse le verre cover bo!l kni8e spoon n%pkin t%blecloth cup .l%ss congratulations on completing l7%ssiette F8H pl%te l% soucoupe s%ucer

l% 8ourchette 8ork

Lesson "209 C +inin.
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Two Lessons

Lesson "2 0 C =ommunic%tion
%Q -aftre Aerbs
For&ation
French Aerb 5 Co&&unication connaftre 5 to kno* 6#ersonally7 #ast #artici#leQ connu 'ingular :lural je 0euh nous noo I kno! connais cohnay connaissons cohnehssohn tu too you vous voo connais cohnay kno! connaisse4 cohnehssay eel he il connaft cohnay kno!s ils eel cohnesse connaissent elle ell she connaft cohnay kno!s on ohn one elles ell cohnesse connaft cohnay kno!s connaissent live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

1irst #erson second #erson

!e kno! you kno! they kno! Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they kno! F8em2H

third #erson

3ther -aftre verbs
• • • •

%pp%r%Ttre - to %ppe%r conn%Ttre - to kno! disp%r%Ttre - to dis%ppe%r n%Ttre - to be born

)%Ttre h%s %n irre.ul%r p%st p%rticiple Fn@H %nd t%kes Stre %s its helpin. verb in per8ect tenses2

%Q Connaftre J 'avoir
=onn%Ttre is used to s%y th%t you kno! someone person%lly2 4%voir is used to s%y th%t you kno! someone by reput%tion or th%t you kno! % 8%ct or piece o8 in8orm%tion2 French Aerb 5 Co&&unication savoir 5 to kno* 6as a 1act7 #ast #artici#leQ su 'ingular :lural 0euh say I kno! nous savons noo sahvohn too say you kno! vous save4 voo sahvay eel say he kno!s ils savent eel sahve ell say she kno!s ohn say one kno!s elles savent ell sahve

1irst #erson je sais second #erson tu sais il sait third #erson elle sait on sait

!e kno! you kno! they kno! Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they kno! F8em2H

AQ Calling 3thers
:@l@phoner FOH is used to s%y th%t you %re c%llin. FtoH someone2 In French, you c%ll to someone, so the verb is used !ith indirect, %nd not direct, obEects2

=e t-l-phone , =acJues" - &$m calling =acJues"

%Q "##eler
#ppeler is used to s%y !h%t your n%me is2 =e m$appelle""" liter%lly me%ns & call myself"", but in 3n.lish you !ould s%y )y name is""2 #ppeler is % re.ul%r -er verb, but, %s you m%y h%ve noticed, is %lso stem ch%n.in.2 In the present indic%tive, it is conEu%.ted %s 8ollo!s0 French Aerb 5 Co&&unication a##eler 5 to call #ast #artici#leQ a##elF 'ingular :lural 1irst #erson j8 a##elle 0ahhpell I c%ll nous a##elons newAahh pell ohn second #erson tu a##elles too ahhpell you c%ll vous a##ele4 vooAahh pellay il a##elle eel ahhpell he c%lls ils a##ellent eel ahhpell third #erson elle a##elle ell ahhpell she c%lls on a##elle ohn ahhpell one c%lls elles a##ellent ell ahhpell

!e c%ll you c%ll they c%ll Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they c%ll F8em2H

%Q .ire
French Aerb 5 Co&&unication dire 5 to say #ast #artici#leQ dit 'ingular :lural 0euh dee I s%y nous disons noo deeAohn too dee you s%y vous dites voo deet eel dee he s%ys ils disent eel deeA ell dee she s%ys ohn dee one s%ys elles disent ell deeA

1irst #erson je dis second #erson tu dis il dit third #erson elle dit on dit

!e s%y you s%y they s%y Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they s%y F8em2H

AQ =ail
• • • • • •

le poste le courier le lettre le boTte des lettres envoyer recevoir

%Q /nvoyer J 2ecevoir
French Aerb 5 Co&&unication envoyer 5 to send #ast #artici#leQ envoyF 'ingular :lural nous j8 envoie 0ahnvwah I send newAahnvwahyohn !e send envoyons tu envoies too ahnvwah you send vous envoyons vooAahnvwahyay you send il envoie eel aycree third #erson elle envoie ell aycree on envoie ohn ahnvwah he sends she sends one sends ils envoient eelAahnvwah elles envoient ellAahnvwah they send Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they send F8em2H

1irst #erson second #erson

French Aerb 5 Co&&unication recevoir 5 to receive #ast #artici#leQ re9u 'ingular :lural 0euh nous newAay 1irst #erson je re9ois I receive rehswah recevons rehsevohn second tu re9ois too rehswah you receive vous receve4 voo resehvay #erson il re9oit eel rehswah he receives ils re9oivent eel rehswahve elle she ell rehswah third #erson re9oit receives one elles on re9oit ohn rehswah ell rehswahve receives re9oivent

!e receive you receive they receive Fm%sc2 or mi/edH they receive F8em2H

AQ Co&#uters J the Internet
French Aocabulary 5 Co&&unication !echnology 5 La technologie l% technolo.ie technolo.y Co&#uter )ard*are Co&#uter 'o1t*are le h%rd!%re h%rd!%re le so8t!%re so8t!%re l7ordin%teur FmH computer lkin8orm%tion in8orm%tion l7@cr%n FmH monitor le lo.iciel so8t!%re Fpro.r%mH le pro.r%mme pro.r%m le cl%vier keybo%rd pro.r%mm%tion pro.r%mmin. F%dEH le document document l% souris mouse le 8ichier 8ile l7imprim%nte F8H printer le =+-95A =+-95A !he Internet l% disDuette 8loppy disk %ller sur Internet to .o on the Internet Co&#uter @se le modem modem utiliser to use l% connexion connection connecter to connect t%per Fun texteH to type F% textH Stre connect@ to be connected s%uve.%rder Fun to s%ve F% 8ileH le site site 8ichierH to run, c%rry ex@cuter l7e-m%il FmH e-m%il out n%vi.uer Fsur stocker Fdes donn@esH to store Fd%t%H to n%vi.%te Fthe InternetH InternetH cliDuer to click t@l@ch%r.er to do!nlo%d %llumer to turn on tr%nsmettre to tr%nsmit to turn o88 @teindre Fto extin.uishH French 8%ct0 the n%me o8 the comp%ny Lo.itech comes 8rom the French term logiciel technolgie2 congratulations on completing

Lesson "2 0 C =ommunic%tion
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

French Level !hree Lessons For&idable! - Inter&ediate French
&8ter h%vin. completed the second level o8 the 'ikibooks French l%n.u%.e course, you c%n .r%du%te to the third level2 :his is % much more ri.orous present%tion o8 the French l%n.u%.e2 4ever%l verb tenses !ill be introduced in this level, %nd there !ill no! be more voc%bul%ry sections in e%ch lesson2 ;ut !e didn7t decide to stop thereI :his level !ill include lon.er lectures %bout % lesson7s subEect %nd !ill introduce you to re%l French liter%ry !orks %nd ne!s %rticles, such %s Ke%n de L% Font%ine7s F%bles2 &8ter you h%ve completed this level, you c%n move on to the next level2 &lso remember th%t i8 you !ould like to help develop this course, .o to the lessons pl%nnin. p%.e2

Drapeau de la France

Level !hree Contents
320 l 320" , 3203 ,l 3204 ,9 3205 $l 320( $7 320# H0 3208 H( 3209 H$ 32 0 HH Le6on 0 0 Les v%c%nces $0 $eo.r%phy ,repositions, ,er8ect :enses Introduction, 4imple Future o8 9e.ul%r <erbs Lesson 0 0 Aacations <0 $ener%l :r%vellin., Intern%tion%l :r%vellin., )%tion%lities Le6on 0" 0 Le tr%v%il $0 Irre.ul%r ,%st ,%rticiples 9evie!, =onEu.%ted <erb o In8initive 9evie! FFutur ,roche, F%ire =%usiti8H <0 =omp%nies, ;lue-coll%r, 'hite-coll%r, 4ervice, $overnment, Lesson 0" 0 Work :he 588ice, 588ice 4upplies Le6on 03 0 L% s%nt@ $0 4imple Future o8 Irre.ul%r <erbs, &dverbs, =omm%nds <0 <isitin. the +octor, 3mer.encies, Aedecine, the +entist, Lesson 03 0 )ealth -e%lthc%re Le6on 04 0 L7%r.ent $0 ,erson%l ,ronouns 9evie!, ,resent =ondition%l, ,ronouns !ith =omm%nds Lesson 04 0 =oney <0 Forms o8 Aoney, ,%yment, -%ndlin. Aoney, $oin. to % ;%nk Le6on 05 0 Keunesse $0 Imp%r8%it, ,ossesive ,ronouns, 4tem =h%n.in. <erbs 9evie! <0 =hildren7s $%mes %nd :oys, French =hildren7s ,oems, 4on.s, Lesson 05 0 Li1e as a Child %nd 4tories Le6on 0( 0 L7%dolescence $0 Imp%r8%it vs2 ,%ss@ =ompos@, ,ronomin%l <erbs 9evie!, ,lus-Gue-,%r8%it Lesson 0( 0 "dolescence <0 ,op =ulture, A%ss Aedi%, ,%rt-:ime Kobs Le6on 0# 0 L7histoire &ntiDue $0 ,%ss@ 4imple o8 9e.ul%r <erbs, Interro.%tive ,ronouns <0 F%rmin. %nd ,e%s%nt Li8e, )oble Li8e, :he Lin., :he Lesson 0# 0 "ncient )istory 9enn%iss%nce, :he 9e8orm%tion Le6on 08 0 9@volutionI $0 ,%ss@ 4imple o8 Irre.ul%r <erbs, 9el%tive ,ronouns FGui, Gue, +ontH <0 3nli.htenment, French 9ev2, +emocr%cy, )%poleonic 3r%, Lesson 08 0 2evolution! ,ost-)%poleon Fr%nce, Industri%l 9ev2 Le6on 09 0 L% Fr%nce moderne $0 ,%st =ondition%l, =omp%r%tive r 4uperl%tive, &skin. Guestions 9evie! Lesson 09 0 =odern France <0 :he "0th =entury, "0th =entury &dv%ncements %nd =h%n.es, Aodern '%r Le6on 0 0 L7%ctu%lit@ $0 Future ,er8ect, +emonstr%tive ,ronouns, 4t%tin. I8222 <0 )e!s, Fr%nce7s 9ole in $lob%l ,olitics, 3urope%n *nion, Lesson 0 0 Current /vents 4oci%l ,roblems, $overnment, ,olitics

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 320 C <%c%tions
AQ %eneral !raveling
&udio0 5.. French n%tive spe%ker %eneral il y % there is, there %re lk%@roport Fm2H %irport lk%utobus Fm2H bus lk%vion Fm2H %ircr%8t, %irpl%ne les b%.%.es b%..%.e le billet ticket F8or tr%in, %irpl%neH le m@tro sub!%y, under.round l% poste post o88ice le t%xi t%xi le ticket ticket F8or bus, m@troH le tr%in tr%in l% v%lise suitc%se l% voiture c%r &udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker Aisiting 3ther Cities % :u es d7oQ? Fin8orm%lH 'here %re you 8rom? +7oQ Stes-vous? b F8orm%lH c Ke suis de222 Fd7H I %m 8rom222 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

AQ %eogra#hy
&udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker %eogra#hy the !orld le monde :olitical %eogra#hy % city une ville % vill%.e un vill%.e % country un p%ys % st%te un @t%t -atural %eogra#hy river le 8leuve mount%in l% mont%.ne l%ke le l%c oce%n l7oc@%n FmH Cardinal .irections north le nord south le sud e%st l7est !est l7ouest

%Q %eogra#hy :re#ositions
Cities
French n%tive spe%ker
• • •

3 is used to s%y in% at, to • Ke v%is b ,%ris2 - I7m .oin. to ,%ris de is used to s%y from2 • Ke reviens de ,%ris2 - I return 1ro& ,%ris2 cities th%t h%ve %rticles %s p%rt o8 their n%mes contr%ct !ith the preposition i8 the city is m%sculine2 • le =%ire - Ke v%is au =%ire2 - Ke reviens du =%ire2 • le -%vre - Ke v%is au -%vre2 - Ke reviens du -%vre2 • l% )ouvelle-5rl@%ns - Ke v%is b la )ouvelle-5rl@%ns2 - Ke reviens de la )ouvelle5rl@%ns2

Fe&inine 2egionsS CountriesS and Continents
• • •

Aost .eo.r%phic%l %re%s %re 8eminine 3very French .eo.r%phic%l %re%, !ith one or t!o exceptions, th%t ends in -e is 8eminine2 3very continent is 8eminine2 en is used to s%y in% at% to 8or %ll 8eminine .eo.r%phic%l %re%s except cities • Ke v%is en Fr%nce2 - I .o to Fr%nce2 de is used to s%y from 8or %ll 8eminine .eo.r%phic%l %re%s except cities • Ke reviens de Fr%nce2 - I return 1ro& Fr%nce2 de is contr%cted to d$ !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el2 • Ke v%is en 3sp%.ne2 - Ke reviens d8 3sp%.ne

• • •

=asculine 2egions

%ll re.ions th%t do not end in % slient e %re m%scuiline dans le is used to s%y in% at% to 8or most m%sculine re.ions, provinces, %nd st%tes • Ke v%is dans le Limousin2 - I7m .oin. to Limousin2 du, % contr%ction o8 de o le, is used to s%y from 8or most re.ions, provinces, %nd st%tes • Ke reviens du Limousin2 - I return 1ro& Limousin2 I8 % re.ion is thou.ht o8 or considered %s its o!n soverei.n st%te, au is used inste%d o8 dans le • Ke v%is au Gu@bec2 - Ke reviens du Gu@bec2 • Ke v%is au :ex%s2 - Ke reviens du :ex%s2

&udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker
• • •

=asculine Countries 'tarting With a Consonant
• •

%ll countries th%t do not end in % silent e %re m%scuiline le =%mbod.e %nd le AexiDue %re m%sculine au is used to s%y in% at% to 8or m%sculine countries be.innin. !ith % conson%nt • Ke v%is au ,ortu.%l2 - I7m .oin. to ,ortu.%l2 • du is used to s%y from 8or m%sculine countries be.innin. !ith % conson%nt • Ke reviens du ,ortu.%l2 - I return 1ro& ,ortu.%l2

:lural Countries
&udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker

aux, % contr%ction o8 3 o les, is used to s%y in% to% as i8 % plur%l %rticle is p%rt o8 the n%me o8 % country • Ke v%is au0 lt%ts-*nis2 - I7m .oin. to the *nited 4t%tes2 Fpronounced aytahAoohneeH des, % contr%ction o8 de o les, is used to s%y from i8 % plur%l %rticle is p%rt o8 the n%me o8 % country • Ke reviens des lt%ts-*nis2 - I return 1ro& the *nited 4t%tes2

=asculine Countries 'tarting With a Ao*el
• •

en is used to s%y in% at% to 8or %ll m%sculine countries be.innin. !ith % vo!el • Ke v%is en Isr%Xl2 - I7m .oin. to Isr%el2 d$ is used to s%y from 8or %ll m%sculine countries be.innin. !ith % vo!el • Ke reviens d8 Isr%Xl2 - I return 1ro& Isr%el2

Check For @nderstanding
• • • •

&re %ll French countries endin. in e 8eminine? 'h%t .eo.r%phic%l %re%s use the preposition dans le? 'h%t prepositions do countries be.innin. !ith vo!els use? 'h%t prepositions does the city o8 Guebec use? 222the province o8 Guebec?

AQ "ir#orts and "ir#lanes
French Aocabulary 5 Aacations 5 audioQ 3ne 5 !*o 6($I [ (0$ kb 5 hel#7 "ir#orts and "ir#lanes 5 Les aFro#orts et les avions !he "ir#ort Baggage %irport Fpronounced l7%@roport FmH les b%.%.es F8 plH b%..%.e ahehrohporH le p%sseport p%ssport les b%.%.es O m%in c%rry-on b%.%.e l% livr%ison des un ch%riot % Fshoppin.1b%..%.eH c%rt b%..%.e cl%im b%.%.es enre.istrer Fses to check in Fone7s les %rriv@es F8 plH %rriv%ls b%.%.esH b%..%.eH les d@p%rts Fm plH dep%rtures %rriver Fen %v%nce1en to %rrive Fe%rly1l%teH ret%rdH !he !er&inal !he "ir#lane l7%@ro.%re termin%l l7%vion FmH pl%ne pl%ne, m%chine, FbodyH l% comp%.nie F%@rienneH %Fn %irlineH comp%ny l7%pp%reil FmH system le billet Fpl%ne1one-!%y1round tripH d@coller to t%ke o88 Fd7%vion1simple1%ller-retourH ticket le d@coll%.e t%ke-o88 l% cl%sse tourisme co%ch le vol 8li.ht F%lso the8tH l% premiPre cl%sse 8irst cl%ss p%sser O l% dou%ne to .o throu.h customs le pilote pilot le contrUleur security o88icer l7hUtesse Fde l7%irH F8H 8li.ht %ttend%nt le contrUle de s@curit@ security check l% porte .%te F%lso doorH le p%ss%.er p%ssen.er %tterrir to l%nd emb%rDuer to bo%rd l7%tterriss%.e FmH l%ndin.

AQ :laces
&udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker French 2egions vle-de-Fr%nce - ,%ris ;%sse-)orm%ndie - =%en ;our.o.ne - +iEon ;ret%.ne - 9ennes Continents l7&8riDue F8H l7&m@riDue du nord F8H l7&m@riDue du sud F8H l7&nt%rctiDue F8H l7&sie F8H l7&ustr%lie F8H l73urope F8H 3ceans l75c@%n %tl%ntiDue FmH l75c@%n .l%ci%l %rctiDue FmH l75c@%n indien FmH l75c@%n p%ci8iDue FmH &udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker &udio 0 French n%tive spe%ker /uro#ean Countries l% Fr%nce Fr%nce _ ,%ris _ ,%ris l% ;el.iDue ;el.ium _ ;ruxelles _ ;ruxelles le ,ortu.%l ,ortu.%l _ Lisbonne _ Lisbon l73sp%.ne 4p%in _ A%drid _ A%drid l7It%lie It%ly _ 9ome _ 9ome l% $r%nde-;ret%.ne $re%t ;rit%in _ Londres _ London l7Irl%nde Irel%nd _ +ublin _ +ublin

le F.r%nd-duch@ duH Luxembour. _ Luxembour. les ,%ys-;%s _ &msterd%m l7&llem%.ne _ ;erlin l7&utriche _ <ienne l% 4uisse _ berne L% princip%ut@ de Aon%co _ Aon%co l% ,olo.ne _ <%rsovie l% 9@publiDue :chPDue _ ,r%.ue l% 4lov%Duie _ ;r%tisl%v% l% -on.rie _ ;ud%pest l% 9oum%nie _ ;uc%rest l% $rPce _ &thPnes L% princip%ut@ d7&ndorre _ &ndorre-l%-<ieille l% Aold%vie _ =hisin%u l% ;i@lorussie _ Ainsk l% Litu%nie _ <ilnius l% Lettonie _ 9i.% l73stonie _ :%llinn l% Finl%nde _ -elsinki l% 4uPde _ 4tockholm l% )orvP.e _ 5slo l% 9ussie

Luxembur. _ Luxembur. )etherl%nds _ &msterd%m $erm%ny _ ;erlin &ustri% _ <ienn% 4!it/erl%nd _ ;ern Aon%co _ Aonc%o ,ol%nd _ '%rs%! =/ech 9epublic _ 4lov%ki% _ -un.%ry _ 9om%ni% _ $reece _ &thens &ndorr% _ Aold%vi% _ ;el%rus _ Lithu%ni% _ L%tvi% _ 3stoni% _ Finl%nd _ -elsinki 4!eden _ 4tockholm )or!%y _ 5slo 9ussi%

_ Aoscou _ Aosco! l7*kr%ine *kr%ine _ Liev _ Liev • )%tions o8 the 'orld • Aore %udio pronunci%tion0 here2

AQ -ationalities
French Aocabulary 5 Aacations 5 audioQ 3ne 5 !*o 5 !hree 6v( l00kb7 6($0 [ (l, [ IH kb 5 hel#7 -ationalities 5 Les nationalitFs =asculine Fe&inine /nglish %llem%nd %llem%nde $erm%n %m@ric%in %m@ric%ine &meric%n %n.l%is %n.l%ise 3n.lish %ustr%lien %ustr%lienne &ustr%li%n bel.e bel.e ;el.i%n birm%n birm%ne ;urmese c%mbod.ien c%mbod.ienne =%mbodi%n c%n%dien c%n%dienne =%n%di%n chinois chinoise =hinese cor@en cor@enne Lore%n esp%.nol esp%.nole 4p%nish 8r%n6%is 8r%n6%ise French indien indienne Indi%n indon@sien indon@sienne Indonesi%n it%lien it%lienne It%li%n E%pon%is E%pon%ise K%p%nese m%l%isien m%l%isienne A%l%ysi%n m%uricien m%uricienne A%uriti%n n@erl%nd%is n@erl%nd%ise +utch philippin philippine Filipino portu.%is portu.%ise ,ortu.uese sin.%pourien sin.%pourienne 4in.%pore%n su@dois su@doise 4!edish suisse suisse 4!iss th%Yl%nd%is th%Yl%nd%ise :h%i v@n@/u@lien v@n@/u@liene <ene/uel%n vietn%mien vietn%mienne <ietn%mese

)%tion%lities %re not c%pit%li/ed %s o8ten in French %s they %re in 3n.lish2 I8 you %re re8errin. to % person, %s in %n &r%b person or % =hinese person, the French eDuiv%lent is un #ra!e or un 1hinois2 -o!ever, i8 you %re re8errin. to the &r%bic l%n.u%.e or =hinese l%n.u%.e, the French !ould not c%pit%li/e0 l$ara!eJ le chinois2 I8 the n%tion%lity is used %s %n %dEective, it is norm%lly le8t unc%pit%li/edJ un livre chinois, un t%pis %r%be2

%Q :er1ect !enses
Bou !ill be le%rnin. sever%l ne! per8ect tenses in this level2 9evie! the .r%mm%r behind them2 :his time, m%ke sure you kno! %ll the rules2
• •

:he per8ect tenses %re %lso c%lled the compound or composed tenses2 :he per8ect tenses %re %ll composed o8 % conEu.%ted %uxill%ry verb %nd % 8ixed p%st p%rticiple2

"u0illary Aerb For&ation
• •

:he %uxill%ry verb is %l!%ys either %voir or Stre2 :he tense o8 the verb depends upon the tense th%t %voir or Stre is conEu.%ted in2 • 'hen the %uxill%ry verb is conEu.%ted in the p%ss@ compos@, 8or ex%mple, the %uxill%ry verb is conEu.%ted in the present indic%tive2 • K7%i 8ini2 - I h%ve 8inished2

:ast :artici#le For&ation
• • • •

-er verbs - repl%ce -er !ith @ -ir verbs - repl%ce -ir !ith i -re verbs - repl%ce -re !ith u irre.ul%r verbs - must be memori/ed

:ast :artici#le "gree&ent
&udio0 French n%tive spe%ker

:he p%st p%sticiple must %.ree !ith the direct obEect o8 % cl%use in .ender %nd plur%lity i8 the direct obEect .oes be8ore the verb2 • the direct obEect is masculine singular - no ch%n.e • K7%i 8ini le Eeu2 - I h%ve 8inished the .%me2 • Ke l7%i 8ini2 - I h%ve 8inished it2 • the direct obEect is feminine singular - %dd %n e to the p%st p%rticiple • K7%i 8ini l% tRche2 - I h%ve 8inished the t%sk2 • Ke l7%i 8inie2 - I h%ve 8inished it2 • the direct obEect is masculine plural - %dd %n s to the p%st p%rticiple2 • K7%i 8ini les Eeux2 - I h%ve 8inished the .%mes2 • Ke les %i 8inis2 - I h%ve 8inished them2 • the direct obEect is feminine plural - %dd %n es to the p%st p%rticiple2 • K7%i 8ini les tRches2 - I h%ve 8inished the t%sks2 • Ke les %i 8inies2 - I h%ve 8inished them2

"voir ou otre+
• • •

In most circumst%nces, the %uxill%ry verb is %voir2 -o!ever, under cert%in situ%tions, the %uxill%ry verb is Stre2 :his occurs !hen0 • :he verb is one o8 ( speci%l verbs th%t t%ke Stre2 • )ote th%t !hen % direct obEect is used !ith these verbs, the %uxill%ry verb becomes %voir2 • :he verb is re8lexive2 • :h%t is, the subEect o8 the verb is %lso its obEect2

List o1 !enses
:here %re seven per8ect tenses in French2 :hese %re0 2 "2 32 42 52 (2 #2 Le pss@ compos@ F:he ,resent ,er8ectH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,luper8ect o8 the Indic%tiveH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it du subEoncti8 F:he ,luper8ect 4ubEunctiveH Le p%ss@ %nt@rieur F:he ,%st &nteriorH Le 8utur %nt@rieur F:he Future &nteriorH Le conditionnel p%ss@ F:he ,%st =ondition%lH Le p%ss@ du subEoncti8 F:he ,%st 4ubEunctiveH

%Q 'i&#le Future o1 2egular Aerbs
:here %re three versions o8 the 8utur tense in French, the futur simple the futur compos-, %nd the futur ant-rieurF8uture per8ectH2 :he futur compos- is 8ormed by insertin. the present 8orm o8 aller be8ore the in8initive, e2.2 elle va r-ussir Fshe !ill p%ss, or she is .oin. to p%ssH is the 8utur compos@ o8 elle r-ussit :o conEu.%te % verb in the 8utur simple, one t%kes the in8initive %nd %ppends the ri.ht 8orm o8 avoir except 8or nous %nd vous !hich t%kes *ons or *eA, %s %ccordin. to the t%ble0 &udio0 French n%tive spe%ker "dd /nding Conjugated Aerb Ke -%i r@ussir%i :u -%s r@ussir%s Il 1 3lle 1 5n -% r@ussir% )ous -ons r@ussirons <ous -e/ r@ussire/ Ils 1 3lles -ont 9@ussiront 'ubject

Les vacances
&udio0 French n%tive spe%ker =et @t@, nous p%rtirons en v%c%nces %u bord de l% mer2 )ous %llons p%sser une sem%ine O )ice sur l% cUte d7&/ur2 )ous p%rtirons en voiture et il y %ur% cert%inement be%ucoup de bouchons sur l7%utoroute2 )ous nous b%i.nerons le m%tin et Ee 8er%i des chRte%ux de s%ble %vec mon 8ils2 & midi nous m%n.erons puis nous 8erons une bonne sieste c%r il 8er% cert%inement trPs ch%ud2 L7%prPs-midi, nous irons visiter des expositions de peintures ou %lors nous irons d%ns des p%rc d7%ttr%ctions2 <ivement les v%c%nces I congratulations on completing

Lesson 320 C <%c%tions
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 320" C 'ork
%Q Irregular :ast :artici#les 2evie*
&udio 0 8rench n%tive spe%ker &udio 0 8rench n%tive spe%ker
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

%voir - eu Fto h%veH boire - bu Fto drinkH conduire - conduit Fto driveH F%nd %ll other -uire verbsH conn%Ttre - connu Fto kno! Fperson%llyHH courir - couru Fto runH croire - cru Fto believeH dire - dit Fto s%yH devoir - dV Fto h%ve to, to o!eH Stre - @t@ Fto beH 8%ire - 8%it Fto do, to m%keH 8%lloir - 8%llu Fto be necess%ryH lire - lu Fto re%dH mettre - mis Fto put FonHH F%nd %ll !ords %ddin. pre8ixes to mettreH ouvrir - ouvert Fto openH F%nd most other -rir verbsH pouvoir - pu Fto be %ble toH pleuvoir - plu Fto r%inH prendre - pris Fto t%keH recevoir - re6u Fto receiveH rire - ri Fto l%u.hH s%voir - su Fto kno! F%s % 8%ctHH sourire - souri Fto smileH suivre - suivi Fto 8ollo!H vivre - v@cu Fto liveH voir - vu Fto seeH vouloir - voulu Fto !%ntH

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

%Q Conjugated Aerb [ In1initive 2evie*
Faire Causiti1
&udio 0 8rench n%tive spe%ker :he 8%ire c%usiti8 is 8ormed by conEu.%tin. faire %nd %ddin. %n in8initive2

Ke le 8%is 8ixer2 - I h%ve it 8ixed2

Futur :roche
:he 8uture proche tense is 8ormed by conEu.%tin. aller in the present indic%tive %nd %ddin. %n in8initive

Ke v%is %ller2 - I7m .oin. to .o2

:ronouns
,ronouns come be8ore the verb they modi8y, !hich is not necess%rily the 8irst verb in % sentence

Ke v%is le voir2 - I7m .oin. to see it2

-egation
3ither the conEu.%ted verb or the in8initive c%n be ne.%ted, e%ch me%nin. sli.htly di88erent thin.s2
• •

Ke n7%ime p%s m%rcher2 - I don7t like to run2 K7%ime ne p%s m%rcher2 - I like to not run2

Le cho&age
&udio 0 8rench n%tive spe%ker &v%nt E7%v%is un tr%v%il 0 Ee tr%v%ill%is d%ns une b%nDue2 A%is l% b%nDue % 8erm@ et Ee me suis retrouv@ %u chom%.e2 Ke n7%i plus de tr%v%il et E7en cherche tous les Eours2 Ke lis les petites %nnonces et E7envoie des lettres de c%ndid%ture2 Ke n7%i p%s souvent une r@ponse2 A%is %uEourd7hui, E7%i obtenu un entretien d7emb%uche2 &vec un peu de ch%nce, E7obtiendr%is le tr%v%il222 congratulations on completing

Lesson 320" C 'ork
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 3203 C -e%lth
live version discussion AQ Illness exercises French Aocabulary 5 )ealth 5 audio 6 $ kb 5 hel#7 edit lesson Illness 5 La &aladie comment !o ache report %n error to h%ve % 222%che, to %voir m%l O222 %voir m%l %u ventre to h%ve % belly%che %sk % Duestion hurt %voir m%l O l% to h%ve % he%d%che %voir m%l p%rtout to %che %ll over tSte %voir m%l R %voir des m%ux de to 8eel sick, to h%ve %n e%r%che l7oreille c^ur n%use%us %voir m%l %ux to h%ve % tooth%che "ctions dents 'ickness and :ain @ternuer to snee/e Stre m%l%de to be sick s7@v%nouir to 8%int %voir l% .rippe to h%ve the 8lu s%i.ner to bleed %voir de l% 8iPvre to h%ve % 8ever tousser to cou.h Stre enrhum@ to h%ve % cold vomir to thro! up

%Q Issuing Co&&ands in French - l8i&#Frati1
• •

:he nous 8orm comm%nds %re used to s%y dLet7s222d2 :he subEect is not used !hen .ivin. % comm%nd2

For&ation
:%ke %!%y the endin. %nd %dd on the 8ollo!in. sho!n in the t%ble2 French %ra&&ar 5 )ealth 5 audio 6in1o 5 0, kb 5 hel#7 !he I&#erative 5 L8i&#Frati1 -er Aerbs -ir Aerbs -re Aerbs 'ubject /nding Aerb /nding Aerb /nding Aerb !u -e ,%rleI -is FinisI -s <endsI -ous -ons ,%rlonsI -issons FinissonsI -ons <endonsI Aous -e/ ,%rle/I -isse/ Finisse/I -e/ <ende/I

%Q "dverbs
French %dverbs, like their 3n.lish counterp%rts, %re used to modi8y French1$r%mm%r1&dEectives, other %dverbs, %nd French1$r%mm%r1<erbs or cl%uses2 :hey do not displ%y %ny in8lectionJ th%t is, their 8orm does not ch%n.e to re8lect their precise role, nor %ny ch%r%cteristics o8 !h%t they modi8y2

For&ation
In French, %s in 3n.lish, most %dverbs %re derived 8rom %dEectives2 In most c%ses, this is done by %ddin. the su88ix *ment Fd-lydH to the %dEective7s 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm2 For ex%mple, the 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm o8 lent Fdslo!dH is lente, so the correspondin. %dverb is lentement Fdslo!lydHJ simil%rly, heureux w heureusement Fdh%ppyd w dh%ppilydH2 &s in 3n.lish, ho!ever, the %dEective stem is sometimes modi8ied to %ccommod%te the su88ix0 &udio 0 )%tive French 4pe%ker

I8 the %dEective ends in %n i, then *ment is %dded to the m%sculine sin.ul%r Fde8%ultH 8orm, r%ther th%n to the 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm0 • vrai w vraiment Fdre%ld w dre%llydH • poli w poliment Fdpolited w dpolitelydH I8 the %dEective ends in *ant or *ent, then the correspondin. %dverb ends in *amment or *emment, respectively0 • constant w constamment Fdconst%ntd w dconst%ntlydH • r-cent w r-cemment Fdrecentd w drecentlydH 4ome %dEectives m%ke other ch%n.es0 • pr-cis w pr-cis-ment Fdprecised w dpreciselydH • gentil w gentiment Fdniced w dnicelydH

4ome %dverbs %re derived 8rom %dEectives in completely irre.ul%r 8%shions, not even usin. the su88ix *ment0
• • • •

!on w !ien Fd.oodd w d!elldH mauvais w mal Fdb%dd w db%dlydH meilleur w mieux Fdbetterd-%dEective w dbetterd-%dverbH pire w pis Fd!orsed-%dEective w d!orsed-%dverbH ainsi Fdthusd or dthuslydH

&nd, %s in 3n.lish, m%ny common %dverbs %re not derived 8rom %dEectives %t %ll0

:lace&ent
:he pl%cement o8 French %dverbs is %lmost the s%me %s the pl%cement o8 3n.lish %dverbs2 &udio 0 )%tive French 4pe%ker &n %dverb th%t modi8ies %n %dEective or %dverb comes be8ore th%t %dEective or %dverb0
• • •

compl-tement vrai Fdco&#letely truedH pas possi!le Fdnot possibledH tellement discr5tement Fdso discreetlydH marcher lentement Fdto !%lk slo*lydH ne pas marcher Fdnot to !%lkdH Lentement il commença 3 marcher or &l commença lentement 3 marcher Fd4lo!ly, he be.%n to !%lkd or d-e be.%n slo!ly to !%lkdH2 .amais 0e n$ai fait cela or =e n$ai /amais fait cela Fd-ever h%ve I done th%td or dI7ve never done th%tdH

&n %dverb th%t modi8ies %n In8initive Fverb%l nounH .ener%lly comes %8ter the in8initive0

;ut ne.%tive %dverbs, such %s pas FdnotdH, plus Fdnot %ny moredH, %nd 0amais come be8ore the in8initive0

&n %dverb th%t modi8ies % m%in verb or cl%use comes either %8ter the verb, or be8ore the cl%use0

)ote th%t, unlike in 3n.lish, this is true even o8 ne.%tive %dverbs0

.Q Aisiting the .octor
&udio 0 )%tive French 4pe%ker Le #atient Q
• • • • • •

Ke suis m%l%de2 FI %m illH2 K7%i m%l O l% tSte2 FI h%ve % he%d%cheH2 K7%i de l% 8iPvre2 FI %m 8evrishH K7%i m%l %u ventre2 Ke vomis2 Ke tousse2 FI cou.hH =omment %lle/-vous ? ,rene/ de l7%spirine2 Ke v%is vous prescrire un m@dic%ment2 ,rene/ une cuillPre de sirop m%tin, midi et soir Il 8%ut p%sser un dsc%nnerd Il 8%ut p%sser des r%dios2 Il 8%ut vous op@rer2

Le docteur
• • • • • • •

.Q Aisiting the .entist
&udio 0 )%tive French 4pe%ker
• • • • • •

K7%i m%l %ux dents2 <ous %ve/ une c%rie2 Ke dois proc@der O une extr%ction2 FIl v% enlever l% dentH K7%i un %pp%reil dent%ire2 Ke v%is utiliser l% roulette2 &hhhhhhhhhh I

.Q /&ergencies
&udio 0 )%tive French 4pe%ker
• • • • • •

Ke v%is O l7hUpit%l2 =7est .r%ve I Ke v%is %ux ur.ences2 K7%i eu un %ccident de voiture2 4&A*m4ervice &mbul%ncier A@dic%l d7*r.ence 3n c%s d7%ccident .r%ve, il 8%ut t@l@phoner %u 4&A* F 5H ou %ux pompiers F 8H ou %u

"2

AQ Body #arts
-ere is the voc%bul%ry to spe%k %bout body p%rts 0 F&udio 0 5ne F)%tive French 4pe%kerH :!o French /nglish L% tSte -e%d Le corps ;ody Le br%s &rm L% E%mbe Le. L% poitrine =hest Le ventre ;elly L7@p%ule F8H 4houlder Le coude 3lbo! Le poi.net 'rist L% m%in -%nd Le doi.t Fin.er Le .enou Lnee Le pied Foot L7orteil FmH :oe L7oeil FmH 3ye Fpl2 les yeuxH L% bouche Aouth L% dent :ooth Le ne/ )ose L7oreille F8H 3%r Le cou )eck L% l%n.ue :on.ue Les cheveux -%ir L7on.le FmH )%il Le poumon Lun. L7estom%c FmH 4tom%ch Le coeur -e%rt Le 8oie Liver L7instestin FmH Intestine L7os FmH ;one Le crRne 4kull Le muscle Auscle Le cerve%u ;r%in L% r%te 4pleen L7ut@rus FmH 'omb Le nombril )%vel, belly button

AQ Body #osition
&nd here is the voc%bul%ry 8or body positions 0 French +ebout &ssis =ouch@ f .enoux &ccroupi /nglish 4t%ndin. 4e%tin. L%yin. do!n Lneelin. 4Du%tted

AQ Co&&on sentencies
'hen you 7c%tch % cold7 you 7%ttr%pes un rhume72 'hen you7re sick, tu es malade2 'hen you !ish to s%y th%t p%rts o8 your body %re sore, you s%y dK7%i m%l O abody p%rtc 222d2 3x%mple0 K7%i m%l O l% tete2 FI h%ve % he%d%cheHJ K7%i m%l %ux dents FAy teeth hurtH2

/Q lE0l

- Body :arts - Aisual =e&ori4ation

,oint to di88erent p%rts o8 the body %nd recite its n%me in French par cVur2 congratulations on completing

Lesson 3203 C -e%lth
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 3204 C Aoney
%Q :ersonal :ronouns 2evie*
)ain article' French personal pronouns live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

.irect 3bjects
'hile the subEect o8 % sentence initi%tes %n %ction Fthe verbH, the direct obEect is the one th%t is %88ected by the %ction2 & direct obEect pronoun is used to re8er to the direct obEect o8 % previous sentence0 ,ierre vois le ca&brioleur2 ,ierre sees the burglar2 ,ierre le vois2 ,ierre sees hi&2 :he 8ollo!in. t%ble sho!s the v%rious types o8 direct obEect pronouns0 French me, m7 te, t7 le, l7 him, /nglish me you it )otes0
• • • •

l%, l7 nous vous les her, it us you them

me% te% nous, %nd vous %re %lso used %s indirect obEects to me%n to me% to you% to us, %nd to you respectively2 :he pronoun 8orm !ith %n %postrophe is used be8ore % vo!el2 :he direct obEect pronoun 8or nous %nd vous is the s%me %s the subEect2 'hen the direct obEect comes be8ore % verb in % per8ect tense, % tense th%t uses % p%st p%rticiple, the direct obEect must %.ree in .ender %nd plur%lity !ith the p%st p%rticiple2 For ex%mple, in te phr%se =e les ai eus, or & had them, the p%st p%rticiple !ould be spelled eus i8 the direct obEect, les, !%s re8errin. to % m%sculine obEect, %nd eues i8 les is re8errin. to % 8eminine obEect2

Indirect 3bjects
&n indirect obEect is %n obEect th%t !ould be %sked 8or !ith To whom"""7 or From whom"""72 It is c%lled indirect bec%use it occurs usu%lly to.ether !ith % direct obEect !hich is %88ected directly by the %ction0 Il donne du p%in b :ierre2 :he m%n .ives some bre%d to :ierre2 Il lui donne du p%in2 -e .ives bre%d to hi&2 :he 8ollo!in. t%ble sho!s the v%rious types o8 direct obEect pronouns0 lui to him, to /nglish to me to you her )otes0
• • • •

French me, m7 te, t7

nous vous

leur

to us to you to them

me% te% nous, %nd vous %re %lso used %s direct obEects to me%n me% you% us, %nd you respectively2 :he pronoun 8orm !ith %n %postrophe is used be8ore % vo!el2 :he direct obEect pronoun 8or nous %nd vous is the s%me %s the subEect2 :he indirect obEect pronouns do not %.ree !ith the p%st p%rticiple like the direct obEect pronouns do2 'hen me% te% nous, %nd vous %re used in % per8ect tense, the !riter must decide !hether they %re used %s direct or indirect obEect pronouns2 :his is done by lookin. %t the verb %nd seein. !h%t type o8 %ction is bein. per8ormed2

:he bre%d is given by the m%n FdirectH2 ,ierre gets the given %pple FindirectH2

!he :ronoun + Indirect 3bject :ronoun - to it# to them
:he French pronoun y is used to repl%ce %n obEect o8 % preposition%l phr%se introduced by O2
• •

Ke r@ponds O les Duestions2 - K7 y r@ponds2 I respond to the Duestions2 - I respond to them2

)ote th%t lui %nd leur, %nd not y, %re used !hen the the obEect re8ers the % person or persons2 2e#lace&ent o1 :laces - there :he French pronoun y repl%ces % preposition%l phr%se re8errin. to % pl%ce th%t be.ins !ith %ny preoposition except de F8or !hich en is usedH2
• •

Les hommes vont en Fr%nce2 - Les hommes y vont2 :he men .o to Fr%nce - :he men .o there2

)ote th%t en, %nd not y is used !hen the obEect is o8 the preposition de2 Idio&s
• •

>% y estI - It7s +oneI K7y suisI - I .et itI

/n
)ote ho! !e s%y =e veux du pain to s%y 7I !%nt some bre%d7 ? ;ut !h%t h%ppens !hen !e !%nt to s%y 7I !%nt some7 !ithout speci8yin. !h%t !e !%nt? In these c%ses, !e use the pronoun 7en72 &s !ell, 7en7 c%n me%n 7o8 it7 !hen 7it7 is not speci8ied2 For inst%nce, inste%d o8 s%yin. =$ai !esoin de l$argent, i8 the ide% o8 money h%s %lre%dy been r%ised, !e c%n Eust s%y 7K7en %i besoin72 :his is bec%use !h%t en does is repl%ce du, de la or des !hen there is nothin. %8ter it2 Like !ith 7me7, 7te7 %nd other pronouns, en Fme%nin. 7some7H comes be8ore the verb2

:u Eoues du pi%no? )on, Ee n7en Eoue p%s <ous prene/ du poisson? 5ui, E7en prends2 <ous %ve/ comm%nd@ de l7e%u? 5ui, nous en %vons comm%nd@2

+o you pl%y pi%no? )o, I don7t pl%y it2 &re you h%vin. 8ish? Bes, I7m h%vin. some2 +id you order some !%ter? Bes, !e ordered some2

%Q Co&&ands *ith :ronouns - L8i&#Frati1
'hen expressin. positive comm%nds, there %re sever%l rules one must remember !hen usin. obEect pronouns2 :heses %re0
• • •

:he pronouns %re %tt%ched the the verb !ith % hyphen2 • 9etrouve-l%2 - Find it2 Ae %nd :e become moi %nd toi2 • +onne/-moi les vid@os2 - $ive me the videos2 Le, la, %nd les precede %ll other obEect pronouns2 • +onne/-le-moi2 - $ive it to me2

%Q :resent Conditional
:o conEu.%te % verb in the =ondition%l, one t%kes the in8initive %nd %ppends the s%me endin.s %s !hen usin. the imparfait, %s %ccordin. to the t%ble0 "dd /nding Conjugated Aerb Ke -%is r@ussir%is :u -%is r@ussir%is Il 1 3lle 1 5n -%it r@ussir%it )ous -ions r@ussirions <ous -ie/ r@ussirie/ Ils 1 3lles -%ient r@ussir%ient 'ubject

congratulations on completing

Lesson 3204 C Aoney
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 3205 C Bouth
live version discussion %Q I&#er1ect - I&#ar1ait exercises :he imp%r8%it is used to dset the toned o8 % p%st situ%tion2 &n ex%mple in 3n.lish edit lesson bein.0 d'e !ere sin.in. !hen +%d c%me home2d It tells !h%t !%s .oin. on !hen % comment p%rticul%r %ction or event occured2 In French, the %bove ex%mple !ould be0 d)ous report %n error ch%ntions Du%nd p%p% est rentr@2d %sk % Duestion In order to conEu.%te the imper8ect,

t%ke the st person plur%l o8 the verb you !%nt to conEu.%te0

jouer - to #lay singular #lural 1irst #erson Ee Eoue nous jouons second #erson tu Eoues vous Eoue/ third #erson il Eoue ils Eouent

9emove the *ons endin. to 8ind the stem, %nd %dd these endin.s0

French %ra&&ar 5 Couth 5 audio 6in1o 5 I kb 5 hel#7 !he I&#er1ect 5 L8i&#ar1ait jouer 1inir attendre subject ending 6nous /ouons7 6nous finissons7 6nous attendons7 je 0ais Eou%is 8iniss%is %ttend%is tu 0ais Eou%is 8iniss%is %ttend%is il^elle^on 0ait Eou%it 8iniss%it %ttend%it nous 0ions Eouions 8inissions %ttendions vous 0iez Eouie/ 8inissie/ %ttendie/ ils^elles 0aient Eou%ient 8iniss%ient %ttend%ient • )ote0 :he only verb th%t h%s %n irre.ul%r stem Fone not derived 8rom the nous 8orm o8 the present idic%tiveH is Stre2 :he imper8ect endin. %re %dded to @tttt2 3very other verb uses the nous 8orm o8 the present indic%tive %s its root2

%Q :ossesive :ronouns
,ossessive pronouns repl%ce possessive %rticle o noun sets2 French %ra&&ar 5 Couth 5 audioQ 3ne 5 !*o 6(lI [ (l( kb 5 hel#7 :ossesive :ronouns 5 Les #rono&s #ossesi1s mon cop%in ton cop%in son cop%in notre cop%in votre cop%in leur cop%in my 8riend your 8riend his1her 8riend our 8riend your 8riend their 8riend le &ien le tien le sien le ngtre le vgtre le leur &ine yours his^hers ours yours theirs ses cop%ins mes cop%ins tes cop%ins nos cop%ins vos cop%ins leurs cop%ins his1her my 8riends your 8riends our 8riends your 8riends their 8riends 8riends les &iens les tiens les siens les ngtres les vgtres les leurs &ine yours his^hers ours yours theirs m% copine t% copine s% copine notre copine votre copine leurs copine my 8riend your 8riend his1her 8riend our 8riend your 8riend their 8riend la &ienne le tienne le sienne la ngtre la vgtre la leur &ine yours his^hers ours yours theirs ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines leurs copines his1her my 8riends your 8riends our 8riends your 8riends their 8riends 8riends les &iennes les tiennes les siennes les ngtres les vgtres les leurs &ine yours his^hers ours yours theirs • <ous %ve/ votre voiture? - Bou h%ve your c%r? • 5ui, nous %vons l% nUtre2 - Bes, !e h%ve ours2 f o % stress pronoun is used !hen the noun repl%ced is %lso the subEect o8 the sentence2 :his usu%lly occurs in sentences !ith Stre2
• •

3lle est t% voiture? - Is th%t your c%r? 5ui, elle est O moi2 - Bes, it is mine2

%Q 'te& Changing Aerbs 2evie*
-exer Aerbs
-exer %re re.ul%r -er verbs, but %lso %re stem ch%n.in.2 :he stem ch%n.e %pplies to %ll 8orms except nous %nd vous2 :he stem ch%n.e involves %ddin. % .r%ve %ccent F u H over the e in the stem2

-Fxer Aerbs
Like -exer verbs, the %ccent %i.u %bove the e F @ H ch%n.es to %n %ccent .r%ve F P H2

-yer Aerbs
-yer verbs %re re.ul%r -er verbs2 -o!ever, !hen y is p%rt o8 the l%st syll%ble, it ch%n.es to i in order to keep the ay sound2 In the present indic%tive o8 -yer verbs, this %88ects %ll 8orms except nous %nd vous2

"##eler
&ll 8orms except nous %nd vous h%ve the l doubled2

-cer Aerbs
:he l%st c in the verb ch%n.es to ç in the nous 8orm2

-ger Aerbs
&n e is %dded %8ter the g in the nous 8orm2

AQ Children8s %a&es and !oys
• • • • • • • • • •

un hochet un chev%l de bois une poup@e une dinette un tr%in @lectriDue des l@.os un ours en peluche une console de Eeu Fune nintendo, une .%meboy, une ps"H des Eeux de soci@t@ 0 le monopoly, le cluedo, l% bonne p%ye des dtr%ns8ormersd

AQ French Children8s :oe&sS 'ongsS and 'tories
:etit :a#a -oil
,etit ,%p% )oXl Gu%nd tu descendr%s du ciel &vec des Eouets p%r milliers )7oublies p%s mes petits souliers A%is %v%nt de p%rtir Il 8%udr% bien te couvrir +ehors tu v%s %voir si 8roid =7est un peu O c%use de moi 222 congratulations on completing

Lesson 3205 C Bouth
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 320( C &dolescence
live version discussion %Q :rono&inal Aerbs 2evie* exercises ,ronomin%l verbs %re verbs th%t, put simply, include pronouns2 :hese pronouns %re edit lesson me% te% se% nous, %nd vous %nd %re used %s either direct obEects or indirect obEects, comment dependin. on the verb th%t they modi8y2 'hen pronimin%l verbs %re conEu.%ted in report %n error per8ect tenses, Stre is used %s the %uxili%ry verb2 :here %re three types o8 %sk % Duestion pronomin%l verbs0 re8lexive verbs, reciproc%l verbs, %nd n%tur%lly pronomin%l verbs2

2e1le0ive Aerbs
9e8lexive verbs re8lect the %ction on the subEect2
• • •

Ke me l%ve2 - I !%sh myself2 )ous nous l%vons2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 Ils se l%vent2 - :hey !%sh themselves2 Ke v%is me l%ver2 - I7m .oin. to !%sh mysel82 Ke ne v%is p%s me l%ver2 - I7m not .oin. to !%sh mysel82

9e8lexive verbs c%n %lso be used %s in8initives2

3ither the conEu.%ted verb or the in8initive c%n be ne.%ted e%ch !ith sli.htly di88erent me%nin.s2

In per8ect tenses, the p%st p%rticiples %.ree !ith the direct obEect pronoun, but not the indirect obEect pronoun, in .ender %nd plur%lity2 :here8ore it !ould only %.ree !hen the re8lexive pronoun is the direct obEect2 &lso remember th%t the p%st p%rticiple does not %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes %8ter the verb2
• • • •

3lle s7est l%v@e2 - 4he !%s hersel82 )ous nous sommes l%v@FeHs2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 3lle s7est l%v@ les m%ins2 - 4he !%shed her h%nds2 )ous nous sommes l%v@ les m%ins2 - 'e !%shed our h%nds2

2eci#rocal Aerbs
'ith reciproc%l verbs, people per8orm %ctions to e%ch other2
• •

)ous nous %imons2 - 'e like e%ch other2 Like re8lexive verbs, the p%st p%rticiple o8 reciproc%l verbs %.rees in number %nd .ender !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 It there8ore %.rees !ith %ll reciproc%l pronouns th%t 8unction %s direct obEects2 )ous nous sommes %im@FeHs2 - 'e liked e%ch other2 )ous nous sommes p%rl@2 - 'e spoke to e%ch other2 3lles se sont t@l@phon@2 - :hey c%lled to one %nother2 <ous vous Stes @crit souvent? - Bou !rite to e%ch other o8ten?

:he reciproc%l pronoun c%n %lso 8unction %s %n indirect obEect !ithout % direct obEect pronoun2
• • •

-aturally :rono&inal Aerbs
4ome verbs %re pronomin%l !ithout per8ormin. % re8lexive or reciproc%l %ction2 :u te souvenu? - Bou remember?
• •

In per8ect tenses, these verbs %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 5ther!ise, the p%st p%rticiple %.rees !ith the subEect2 3lle s7est souvenue2 - 4he remembered2 rendre - to return, to .ive b%ck se rendre FOH - to .o FtoH

4ome verbs h%ve di88erent me%nin.s %s pronomin%l verbs2
• •

%Q :lus->ue-:ar1ait
:he plus*Jue*parfait is used !hen there %re t!o occurrences in the p%st %nd one !%nts to symbolise th%t one occurrence h%ppened be8ore the other2 In 3n.lish, this is used in % phr%se like dI had given him the toy be8ore he !ent to sleep2d In this ex%mple, there %re t!o p%st tenses, but they occur %t di88erent times2 :he plus*Jue*parfait c%n be used to indic%te the occurrence o8 one be8ore the other2 3ssenti%lly, the p%st be8ore the p%st2 In French, the plus*Jue*parfait is 8ormed by conEu.%tin. the %uxili%ry verb in the imparfait %nd %ddin. the p%st p%rticiple2 4o to conEu.%te 0e mange FI e%tH in the plus*Jue*parfait, one 8inds the %ppropri%te %uxili%ry verb FavoirH, conEu.%tes it FavaisH %nd 8inds the p%st p%rticiple o8 manger Fmang-H2 4o, the conEu.%tion o8 =e mange in the plus*Jue*parfait becomes 0$avais mang- or, in 3n.lish, & had eaten2

/0a&#les
K7%i p%rl@ 8r%n6%is2 Ke p%rl%is 8r%n6%is2 I spoke French ,on one particular occasion.2 I spoke French ,during a period of time% and & don$t spea French any more.2

)ous %vons r@ussi 'e p%ssed the test2 l7ex%men2 Il % @t@ mon %mi2 -e !%s my 8riend ,and he is not my friend any more. Il @t%it mon %mi lorsDue222 -e !%s my 8riend !hen 2 2 2 Ils ont 8%it leurs devoirs2 :hey did their home!ork2 Il est venu2 -e c%me ,and & don$t need to say when. Il vint le lendem%in2 -e c%me the d%y %8ter2 Il ven%it tous les Eours2 -e c%me1used to come every d%y2 Il @t%it d@EO venu2 -e h%d %lre%dy come2 It should be noted th%t these ex%mples %re m%kin. use o8 %ll the possible p%st tensesJ not Eust the plusDue-p%r8%it2 congratulations on completing

Lesson 320( C &dolescence
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 320# C -istory
live version discussion exercises %Q :assF 'i&#le o1 2egular Aerbs edit lesson comment *nlike 3n.lish, there is % liter%ry p%st tense, used !hen !ritin. 8orm%lly2 :his p%st tense is the pass- simple2 It is rel%tively simple to predict !hen to use this tense0 8or report %n error every occurrence o8 the pass- compos- in convers%tion%l French, one simply uses %sk % Duestion the pass- simple in liter%ry French2 )ote th%t the p%ss@ simple is not % composed tense, %nd there8ore does not h%ve %n %uxili%ry verb like the p%ss@ compos@ does2 L$histoire de la France 0usJu$en WXYY"

For&ation
:o conEu.%te in this tense, one 8inds the stem %nd %ppends the 8ollo!in., %s %ccordin. to the t%ble0 French %ra&&ar 5 )istory !he 'i&#le :ast 5 Le #assF si&#le 'ubject /dning Conjugated Aerb /nglish Ke -%i Ke d%ns%i2 I d%nced2 :u -%s :u d%ns%s2 Bou d%nced2 Il -% Il d%ns%2 -e d%nced2 )ous -Rmes )ous d%nsRmes2 'e d%nced <ous -Rtes <ous d%nsRtes2 Bou d%nced2 Ils -Prent Ils d%nsPrent2 :hey d%nced2

2egular -or&ally-Irregular Aerbs
:he 8ollo!in. verbs %re irre.ul%r in the present indic%tive, put %re re.ul%r in their p%ss@ simple stems2 'te& ;eEEE -ir verbs dor&ir dorm dormis #artir p%rt p%rtis sentir sent sentis servir serv servis sortir sort sortis -rir Aerbs couvrir couvr couvris dFcouvrir d@crouvr d@couvris o11rir o88r o88ris ouvrir ouvr ouvris sou11rir sou88r sou88ris -re Aerbs co&battre comb%tt comb%ttis ro&#re romp rompis suivre suiv suivis In1initive

congratulations on completing

Lesson 320# C -istory
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

Level Three Lessons

Lesson 3208 C 9evolutionI
+@cl%r%tion des +roits de l7-omme et du =itoyen - -istoric%l :ext 8or this lesson2

%Q :assF 'i&#le o1 Irregular Aerbs
4ome p%ss@ simple stems %re b%sed o88 the p%st p%rticiple2 5thers must be memori/ed2

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

/nding For&ation
Ee -is Ee -in] /ndings -ins Ee -u] /ndings -us -i] /ndings tu -is tu -ins tu -us il -it il -int il -ut nous -Tmes nous -Tnmes nous -Vmes vous -Ttes vous -Tntes vous -Vtes ils irent ils inrent ils urent

Irregular Aerb List
French %ra&&ar 5 2evolution! 'i&#le :ast Irregular Aerbs 5 .es verbes irrFguliers du #assF si&#le :ast 'te& :assF si&#le :artE je tu il nous vous -i] /ndings assis ass m7%ssis t7%ssis s7%ssit nous %ssTmes vous %ssTtes conduis conduisis conduisis conduisit conduisTmes conduisTtes con?uis con?u conDuis conDuis conDuit conDuTmes conDuTtes contruis construisis construisis construisit construisTmes construisTtes craign cr%i.nis cr%i.nis cr%i.nit cr%i.nTmes cr%i.nTtes dit d dis dis dit dTmes dTtes 1 8is 8is 8it 8Tmes 8Ttes Fcriv @crivis @crivis @crivit @crivTmes @crivTtes &is & mis mis mit mTmes mTtes na?u n%Duis n%Duis n%Duit n%DuTmes n%DuTtes #eign pei.nis pei.nis pei.nit pei.nTmes pei.nTtes #ris #r pris pris prit prTmes prTtes rejoin reEoi.nis reEoi.nis reEoi.nit reEoi.nTmes reEoi.nTtes

In1initive

ils s7%ssirent conduisirent conDuirent construisirent cr%i.nirent dirent 8irent @crivirent mirent n%Duirent pei.nirent prirent reEoi.nirent

s8asseoir conduire con?uFrir construire craindre dire 1aire Fcrire &ettre naftre #eindre #rendre rejoindre

rire sourire vaincre devenir tenir venir

ri souri

avoir eu boire bu connaftre connus courir couru croire cru devoir dh etre 1alloir 1allu lire lut &ourir #laire #lu #leuvoir #lu #ouvoir # recevoir re9u savoir su valoir valu vivre vFcu vouloir voulu

r ris ris sour souris souris vain?u v%inDuis v%inDuis -in] /ndings dev devins devins t tins tins v vins vins -u] /ndings e eus eus b bus bus conn connus connus cour courus courus cr crus crus d dus dus 1 8us 8us 1all 8%llus 8%llus l lus lus &our mourus mourus #l plus plus #l plus plus pus pus put re9 re6us re6us s sus sus val v%lus v%lus vFc v@cus v@cus voul voulus voulus

rit sourit v%inDuit devin tint vint eut but connut courut crut dut 8ut 8%llut lut mourut plut plut pVmes re6ut sut v%lut v@cut voulut

rTmes sourTmes v%inDuTmes devTnmes tTnmes vTnmes eVmes bVmes connVmes courVmes crVmes dVmes 8Vmes 8%llVmes lVmes mourVmes plVmes plVmes pVtes re6Vmes suVmes v%lVmes v@cVmes voulVmes

rTtes sourTtes v%inDuTtes devTntes tTntes vTntes eVtes bVtes connVtes courVtes crVtes dVtes 8Vtes 8%llVtes lVtes mourVtes plVtes plVtes purent re6Vtes sVtes v%lVtes v@cVtes voulVtes

rirent sourirent v%inDuirent devinrent tinrent vinrent eurent burent connurent coururent crurent durent 8urent 8%llurent lurent moururent plurent plurent re6urent surent v%lurent v@curent voulurent

%Q 2elative :ronouns 1ui and 1ue
Les pronoms relatifs Jui et Jue

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• • • • • •

rel%tive pronouns be.in %dEective cl%uses • the m%n that !%s here • the m%n that I s%! Jui is the subEect o8 the cl%use it introduces • Ke vois l7homme ?ui l7% 8%it2 - I see the m%n th%t did it2 • L7homme ?ui l7% 8%it est ici2 - :he m%n th%t did it is here2 Jue is the direct obEect o8 the cl%use it introduces • Il est l7homme ?ue E7%i vu2 - -e is the m%n th%t I h%ve seen2 remember th%t in per8ect tenses, the p%st p%rticiple %.rees !ith the direct obEect in .ender %nd plur%lity i8 the direct obEect comes be8ore the verb • 3lles sont les 8emmes ?ue E7%i vues2 - :hey %re the !omen th%t I h%ve seen2 I8 Jue is 8olled by % vo!el, it is shortened to Ju$2 • Il est l7homme ?u8il % vu2 - -e is the m%n th%t he h%s seen2 Jui is never shortened, even !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el Jui %nd Jue c%n modi8y both people %nd thin.s • Ke vois l% voiture ?ui est c%ss@2 - I see the c%r th%t is broken2 Jui %nd Jue c%n modi8y both m%sculine %nd 8eminine nouns Jui %nd Jue c%n modi8y both sin.ul%r %nd plur%l nouns in the phr%ses ce Jui %nd ce Jue, !hich liter%lly me%n that which, but more n%tur%lly me%n what, ce is the noun congratulations on completing

Lesson 3208 C 9evolutionI
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Level Three Lessons

Lesson 3209 C Aodern Fr%nce
%Q Co&#arative
French %ra&&ar 5 =odern France !he Co&#arative 5 Le Co&#arati1 "djectives 'ubE [ Aerb Co&#arative "djective Co&#arative Ke suis #lus intelli.ent ?ue I %m &ore intelli.ent than Ke suis &oins intelli.ent ?ue I %m less intelli.ent than Ke suis aussi intelli.ent ?ue I %m as intelli.ent as "dverbs 'ubE [ Aerb Co&#arative "dverb Co&#arative Ke vois #lus^aussi^&oins cl%irement ?ue &ore than I see as cle%rly as less than Aerbs 'ubE Aerb Co&#arative Co&#arative Ke Eoue #lus^autant^&oins ?ue &ore than I pl%y as &uch as less than -ouns 'ubE [ Aerb Co&#arative -oun Co&#arative #lus de Ke Eoue O autant de Eeux ?ue &oins de &ore than I pl%y as &any .%mes as less than live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

3bject toi2 you toi2 you toi2 you2 3bject toi2 you2

3bject toi2 you2

3bject toi

toi2

Lesson 3209 C Aodern Fr%nce
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Level Three Lessons

Lesson 32 0 C =urrent events
%Q Future :er1ect
In French, the 8uture per8ect tense is c%lled the futur ant-rieur2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

For&ation
:he 8uture per8ect is % per8ect tense, %nd there8ore consists o8 %n %uxili%ry verb %nd % p%st per8ect2 :he %uxili%ry verb, avoir or Utre, is conEu.%ted in the 8uture tense2 &ll rules th%t %pply to the p%ss@ compos@ %nd other per8ect tenses, such %s cert%in verbs usin. Utre %s %n %uxili%ry verb, %ppy to the 8uture per8ect %s !ell2 French %ra&&ar 5 Current events !he Future :er1ect 5 Le 1utur antFrieur #arler #asser 'ubject "voir ConjE :ast :artE 'ubject otre ConjE :ast :artE E7 %ur%i p%rl@ Ee ser%i p%ss@FeH tu %ur%s p%rl@ tu ser%s p%ss@FeH il %ur% p%rl@ il ser% p%ss@ elle %ur% p%rl@ elle ser% p%ss@e nous %urons p%rl@ nous serons p%ss@FeHs vous %ure/ p%rl@ vous sere/ p%ss@FeHFsH ils %uront p%rl@ ils seront p%ss@s elles %uront p%rl@ elles seront p%ss@es

@se
,hr%ses constructed in the 8uture per8ect tense me%n d!ill h%ve tttedd in both French %nd 3n.lish2 :his construction is used to s%y th%t be8ore %n event occurs, somethin. else d!ill h%ved occured by th%t time2

AQ -e*s
un Duotidien l7%ctu%lit@ les nouvelles les 8%its divers l% une % d%ily ne!sp%per ne!s, current events ne!s loc%l ne!s items the 8rontp%.e un hebdom%d%ire % !eekly m%.%/ine

se tenir in8orm@FeH to st%y in8ormed

AQ French 'ocial :roble&s
le c%mbrioleur un voleur l7incendie F82H le v%nd%lisme l7%cte de terrorisme Fm2H or un %ttent%t l% crimin%lit@ bur.l%r % thie8 8ire v%nd%lism terrorism crime

AQ French %overn&ent

L8Flection #rFsidentielle Q • Le pr@sident de l% r@publiDue est @lu pour 5 %ns %u su88r%.e universel direct2 L7@lection comporte " tours 0 %u premier tour l% plup%rt des p%rtis, petits ou .r%nds, proposent un c%ndid%t2 Il existe %ussi de nombreux c%ndid%ts soutenus p%r %ucun p%rti2 Il y % souvent entre 0 et 5 c%ndid%ts %u premier tour2 Les " c%ndid%ts %rriv%nt en tSte %u premier tour s7%88rontent lors du deuxiPme tour2 3n .@n@r%l, il y % un c%ndid%t du ,4 et un c%ndid%t de l7*A, %u deuxiPme tour2 • 3n "00", O l% surprise .@n@r%le, Ke%n-A%rie Lepen FF)H est %rriv@ deuxiPme %u premier tour dev%nt Lionel Kospin F,4H2 Le second tour % donc oppos@ K%cDues =hir%c F*A,H et Ke%n-A%rie Lepen FF)H2 K%cDues =hir%c l7% l%r.ement emport@ %vec 80x des voix2 • Le ,r@sident de l% 9@publiDue est le che8 des %rm@es et il d@si.ne le ,remier Ainistre2 L8"sse&blFe -ationale Q • Les d@put@s sont @lus %u su88r%.e universel direct O " tours2 • Les d@put@s peuvent renvers@ le .ouvernement si l% politiDue Du7il conduit ne leur convient p%s2 Le ,remier Ainistre doit %lors d@missionner2 Le ,r@sident de l% 9@publiDue est donc obli.@ de choisir un ,remier Ainistre %y%nt l% m%Eorit@ des d@put@s O l7&ssembl@e )%tion%le2 • L7&ssembl@e )%tion%le vote les lois propos@es p%r le .ouvernement2 Le sFnat Q

Il est @lu %u su88r%.e indirect 0 seul les m%ires et les %utres @lus peuvent voter pour les s@n%teurs2 Les s@n%teurs peuvent modi8ier cert%ines lois m%is ont %sse/ peu de pouvoir2

AQ French :olitics
>uel?ues ho&&es #oliti?ues
Le ,%rti 4oci%liste F,4H 0 Lionel Eospin, Fr%n6ois -oll%nde, 4@.olPne 9oy%l, K%ck L%n.,2222 L7*A, 0 K%cDues =hir%c F,r@sident de l% 9@publiDueH, +ominiDue de <illepin F,remier ministreH, )icol%s 4%rko/y L7*+F 0 Fr%n6ois ;%yrou2 Le ,%rti =ommuniste Fr%n6%is F,=FH 0 A%rie$eor.es ;u88et Les <erts 0 +ominiDue <oynet Front n%tion%l FF)H 0 Ke%n-A%rie Lepen FextrSme droiteH L% li.ue =ommuniste 9@volutionn%ire FL=9H 0 5livier ;es%ncenot2 Lutte 5uvriPreFL5H 0 &rlette L%.uiller2

• •

• • • • • •

La #oliti?ue en France

3n 8r%nce, les p%rtis politiDues sont de droite ou de .%uche2 • O droite 0 l7*A,, l7*+F et le Front )%tion%l FF)H2 • O .%uche 0 le ,4, les <erts, le ,=F, l% L=9 et L52 3n "005, le .ouvernement est soutenu p%r l7*A,2 L7*+F et l7*A, sont %ctuellement 8%ch@s m%is ils ont souvent .ouvern@ ensemble2 Le F) est un p%rti souvent cl%ss@ O l7extrSme-droite et cert%ins l7%ccusent de r%cisme2 L7*A, et l7*+F re8usent tout cont%ct %vec le F)2

Les .ouvernements de .%uche sont compos@s de membres du ,%rti 4oci%liste, de DuelDues membres du ,=F et des <erts2 L% L=9 et L5 sont souvent cl%ss@s O l7extrSme .%uche et re8usent de p%rticiper O tout .ouvernement2

congratulations on completing

Lesson 32 0 C =urrent events
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

$9& A A &9

une fleuve au pont de Sainte*)arguerite

%ra&&ar Contents
• • • • • • • • •

#" - &dEectives #5 - &dverbs ## - $ender 8 - )e.%tion 83 - ,repositions 85 p ,ronouns 9 p 4entences 9"- :enses 95 p <erbs
• •

9( - Irre.ul%r =onEu.%tions "05 - ,ronomin%l

$r%mm%r

&dEectives
Kust like %rticles, French %dEectives %lso h%ve to m%tch the nouns th%t they modi8y in .ender %nd plur%lity2

2egular For&ation
'#elling
Aost %dEective ch%n.es occur in the 8ollo!in. m%nner0

live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

Feminine0 %dd %n -e to the m%sculine 8orm • un .%r6on int@ress%nt --e une 8ille int@ress%nte • un %mi %mus%nt --e une %mie %mus%nte • un c%mion lent --e une voiture lente ,lur%l0 %dd %n -s to the sin.ul%r 8orm • un .%r6on int@ress%nt --e des .%r6ons int@ress%nts • une 8ille int@ress%nte --e des 8illes int@ress%ntes

:ronunciation
$ener%lly, the 8in%l conson%nt is pronounced only !hen it comes be8ore %n -e2 Aost %dEectives, such %s those %bove, %re %88ected by this rule2
• •

A%sculine ,ronuci%tion0 int-ressan, amusan, len Feminine ,ronunci%tion0 int-ressant, amusant, lent

Irregular For&ation
Irregular :lural For&ation
<aty Leeanne ;ones /0a&#les = -- =E =ascE -=ascE :lural 'ingE V :lE 'ingular V -s un pl%8ond b%s des pl%8onds -s un .ros porc b%s -x des .ros porcs un homme .@n@reux des hommes -o -x un .%r6on .@n@reux change 8urieux des .%r6ons -/ 8urieux un .%/ -/ des .%/ d%n.ereux d%n.ereux -%u -%ux un Eourn%l des Eourn%ux -eu -eux un pieu -e%u -e%ux un chRte%u des pieux -%l -%ux un Eourn%l des chRte%ux des Eourn%ux ]]0 -ou -oux un biEou des biEoux

-otes

/0ce#tionsQl%nd%u Fl%nd%usH, s%rr%u Fs%rr%usH /0ce#tionsQbleu FbleusH, pneu FpneusH /0ce#tionsQb%l, c%l, c%rn%v%l, ch%c%l, 8estiv%l, p%l, r@cit%l et r@.%l t%ke %n 7s7 -otesQ'hile most -ou %dEectives h%ve %n s %dded in the plur%l 8orm, seven %re the exception2 :hese %re0 un biEou Fdes biEoux, 0ewelH, un c%illou Fdes c%illoux, stoneHH, un pou Fdes poux, louseH, un EouEou Fdes EouEoux, toy H, un chou Fdes choux, ca!!ageH, un hibou Fdes hiboux, owlH, un .enou Fdes .enoux, neeH

'#ecial 2ules
"djectives !hat :recede -ouns
&dEectives th%t %re used 8reDuently .o be8ore nouns2 :hese %re0
• • •

be%u nouve%u vieux bon m%uv%is petit .r%nd lon. Eoli Eeune .ros

Changes in =eaning 'hen .r%nd .oes be8ore % noun, it me%ns .re%t2 -o!ever, !hen it .oes %8ter the noun, it me%ns t%ll2 Like!ise, !hen p%uvre .oes be8ore % noun, it me%ns un8ortun%te2 'hen it comes %8ter the noun, it me%ns 8in%nci%lly poor2 :his rule !orks most o8 the time, but be c%re8ul, dp%uvred c%n me%n d8in%nci%lly poord even !hen used be8ore the nouns2

BeauS -ouveauS and Aieu0
=ascE 'ingE =ascE 'ing ConsE Ao*el Beau un be%u .%r6on un bel individu un nouve%u -ouveau un nouvel ordre c%mion Aieu0 un vieux c%mion un vieil ordre =ascE :lural de be%ux .%r6ons de nouve%ux ordres de vieux c%mions Fe&E 'ingE 6all7 une belle 8illette une nouvelle id@e une vieille id@e Fe&E :lural de belles 8illettes de nouvelles id@es de vieilles id@es

:ossessive "djectives
In 3n.lish, !e s%y dher c%rd !hen the o!ner o8 the c%r is % !om%n %nd dhis c%rd !hen the o!ner is % m%n2 In French, they s%y ds% voitured even i8 the o!ner is % m%le2 It is not the o!ner !ho determines the .ender o8 the possessive %dEective but the obEect o!ned2 First person sin.ul%r - mon, m%, mes 4econd person sin.ul%r Fin8orm%lH - ton, t%, tes :hird person sin.ul%r - son, s%, ses First person plur%l - notre, notre, nos 4econd person plur%l F%nd polite 8ormH - votre, votre, vos :hird person plur%l - leur, leur, leurs $r%mm%r

&dEectives
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$r%mm%r

&dverbs
French %dverbs, like their 3n.lish counterp%rts, %re used to modi8y live version French1$r%mm%r1&dEectives, other %dverbs, %nd French1$r%mm%r1<erbs or cl%uses2 discussion :hey do not displ%y %ny in8lectionJ th%t is, their 8orm does not ch%n.e to re8lect exercises their precise role, nor %ny ch%r%cteristics o8 !h%t they modi8y2 edit lesson comment report %n error For&ation %sk % Duestion In French, %s in 3n.lish, most %dverbs %re derived 8rom %dEectives2 In most c%ses, this is done by %ddin. the su88ix *ment Fd-lydH to the %dEective7s 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm2 For ex%mple, the 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm o8 lent Fdslo!dH is lente, so the correspondin. %dverb is lentement Fdslo!lydHJ simil%rly, heureux w heureusement Fdh%ppyd w dh%ppilydH2 &s in 3n.lish, ho!ever, the %dEective stem is sometimes modi8ied to %ccommod%te the su88ix0

I8 the %dEective ends in %n i, then *ment is %dded to the m%sculine sin.ul%r Fde8%ultH 8orm, r%ther th%n to the 8eminine sin.ul%r 8orm0 • vrai w vraiment Fdre%ld w dre%llydH • poli w poliment Fdpolited w dpolitelydH I8 the %dEective ends in *ant or *ent, then the correspondin. %dverb ends in *amment or *emment, respectively0 • constant w constamment Fdconst%ntd w dconst%ntlydH • r-cent w r-cemment Fdrecentd w drecentlydH 4ome %dEectives m%ke other ch%n.es0 • pr-cis w pr-cis-ment Fdprecised w dpreciselydH • gentil w gentiment Fdniced w dnicelydH

4ome %dverbs %re derived 8rom %dEectives in completely irre.ul%r 8%shions, not even usin. the su88ix *ment0
• • • •

!on w !ien Fd.oodd w d!elldH mauvais w mal Fdb%dd w db%dlydH meilleur w mieux Fdbetterd-%dEective w dbetterd-%dverbH pire w pis Fd!orsed-%dEective w d!orsed-%dverbH ainsi Fdthusd or dthuslydH

&nd, %s in 3n.lish, m%ny common %dverbs %re not derived 8rom %dEectives %t %ll0

:lace&ent
:he pl%cement o8 French %dverbs is %lmost the s%me %s the pl%cement o8 3n.lish %dverbs2 &n %dverb th%t modi8ies %n %dEective or %dverb comes be8ore th%t %dEective or %dverb0
• • •

compl-tement vrai Fdco&#letely truedH pas possi!le Fdnot possibledH tellement discr5tement Fdso discreetlydH marcher lentement Fdto !%lk slo*lydH ne pas marcher Fdnot to !%lkdH Lentement il commença 3 marcher or &l commença lentement 3 marcher Fd4lo!ly, he be.%n to !%lkd or d-e be.%n slo!ly to !%lkdH2 .amais 0e n$ai fait cela or =e n$ai /amais fait cela Fd-ever h%ve I done th%td or dI7ve never done th%tdH

&n %dverb th%t modi8ies %n In8initive Fverb%l nounH .ener%lly comes %8ter the in8initive0

;ut ne.%tive %dverbs, such %s pas FdnotdH, plus Fdnot %ny moredH, %nd 0amais come be8ore the in8initive0

&n %dverb th%t modi8ies % m%in verb or cl%use comes either %8ter the verb, or be8ore the cl%use0

)ote th%t, unlike in 3n.lish, this is true even o8 ne.%tive %dverbs0

List o1 Co&&on "dverbs

%prPs 2 %8ter!%rds

Gn va au cin-ma apr5s We$ll go the cinema afterwards "2 %lso % preposition $r%mm%r

&dverbs
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$r%mm%r

$ender
%ender o1 -ouns
In French, %ll nouns h%ve % gra&&atical gender, th%t is, they %re m%sculine or 8eminine 8or the purposes o8 .r%mm%r only2 Aost nouns th%t express entities !ith .ender Fpeople %nd %nim%lsH use both % 8eminine 8orm %nd % m%sculine 8orm, 8or ex%mple, the t!o !ords 8or d%ctord in French %re %cteur F&H %nd %ctrice F1H2 :he nouns th%t express entities !ithout .ender Fe2.2, obEects %nd %bstr%ct conceptsH h%ve only one 8orm2 :his 8orm c%n be m%sculine or 8eminine2 For ex%mple, la voiture Fthe c%rH c%n only be 8eminineJ le stylo Fthe penH c%n only be m%sculine2 :here %re some nouns th%t express entities !ith .ender 8or !hich there is only one 8orm, !hich is used re.%rdless o8 the %ctu%l .ender o8 the entity, 8or ex%mple, the !ord 8or personJ personneJ is %l!%ys 8eminine, even i8 the person is m%le, %nd the !ord 8or te%cherJ professeurJ is %l!%ys m%sculine even i8 the te%cher is 8em%le2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

/0a&#les French %ra&&ar 5 %ender 5 audio 6in1o 5 l kb 5 hel#7 %ender o1 -ouns 5 %enre des -o&s Co&&on /ndings @sed =asculine With =asculine -ounsQ le 8rom%.e le chev%l the horse -age the cheese le pro8esseur le chien the do. -r the te%cher le ch%t le livre the book -t the c%t le c%pit%lisme le bruit the noise -is&e c%pit%lism Co&&on /ndings @sed Fe&inine With Fe&inine -ounsQ l% boul%n.erie l% colombe the dove -ie the b%kery l% n%tion l% chemise the shirt -ion the n%tion l% 8r%ternit@ l% m%ison the house -ite^-itF brotherhood l% b%l%nce l% libert@ liberty -nce the sc%les l% 8ille -nne the .irl -&&e lkindienne -lle the Indi%n *n8ortun%tely, there %re m%ny exceptions in French !hich c%n only be le%rned2 :here %re even !ords th%t %re spelled the s%me, but h%ve % di88erent me%nin. !hen m%sculine or 8eminineJ 8or ex%mple, un livre F&H me%ns % book, but une livre F1H me%ns % poundI 4ome !ords th%t %ppe%r to be m%sculine Flike la photo, !hich is %ctu%lly short 8or la photographieH %re in 8%ct 8eminine, %nd vice vers%2 :hen there %re some th%t Eust don7t m%ke senseJ la foi is 8eminine %nd me%ns % belie8, !here%s le foie me%ns liver2 :o help overcome this hurdle !hich m%ny be.inners 8ind very di88icult, be sure to le%rn the .enders %lon. !ith the !ords2

.e1inite and Inde1inite "rticles
!he .e1inite "rticle
In 3n.lish, the de8inite %rticle is %l!%ys ithej2 In French, the de8inite %rticle is ch%n.ed dependin. on the noun7s0 2 $ender "2 ,lur%lity 32 First letter o8 the !ord :here %re three de8inite %rticles %nd %n %bbrevi%tion2 dLed is used 8or m%sculine nouns, dL%d is used 8or 8eminine nouns, dLesd is used 8or plur%l nouns Fboth m%sculine or 8eminineH, %nd dL7 d is used !hen the noun be.ins !ith % vo!el or silent dhd Fboth m%sculine or 8eminineH2 It is simil%r to en.lish, !here d%d ch%n.es to d%nd be8ore % vo!el2 French %ra&&ar 5 %ender 5 audio 6in1o 57I kb 5 hel#7 !he .e1inite "rticle 5 L8article dF1ini 8eminine l% l% 8ille the d%u.hter sin.ul%r le le 8ils the son sin.ul%r, st%rtin. !ith % vo!el lk lken8%nt the child sound les 8illes the d%u.hters plur%l les les 8ils the sons les en8%nts the children )ote0 *nlike 3n.lish, the de8inite %rticle is used to t%lk %bout somethin. in % .ener%l sense, % .ener%l st%tement or 8eelin. %bout %n ide% or thin.2

!he Inde1inite "rticle
In 3n.lish, the inde8inite %rticles %re d%d %nd d%nd2 d4omed is used %s % plur%l %rticle in 3n.lish2 &.%in, inde8inite %rticles in French t%ke di88erent 8orms dependin. on .ender %nd plur%lity2 :he %rticles d*nd %nd duned liter%lly me%n doned in French2 French %ra&&ar 5 %ender 5 audio 6in1o 5$$ kb 5 hel#7 !he Inde1inite "rticle 5 L8article indF1ini 8eminine une une 8ille % d%u.hter sin.ul%r m%sculine un un 8ils % son des 8illes some d%u.hters plur%l des des 8ils some sons

ddes 8ilsd does me%n dsome sonsd but is %n homo.r%ph0 it c%n %lso me%n dsome thre%dsd &lso note th%t des, like les is used in French be8ore plur%l nouns !hen no %rticle is used in 3n.lish2 Let7s im%.ine you %re lookin. %t photo.r%phs in %n %lbum2 In 3n.lish, !e !ould s%y dI %m lookin. %t photo.r%phs2d In French, you c%nnot s%y, dKe re.%rde photo.r%phies,d you must tell !hich photo.r%phs you %re lookin. %t usin. %n %rticle2 I8 you !ere lookin. %t % set o8 specific pictures, you !ould s%y dKe re.%rde les photo.r%phies2d FdI %m lookin. %t the photo.r%phs2dH I8 you !ere Eust 8lippin. throu.h the %lbum, lookin. %t nothin. in p%rticul%r, you !ould s%y, dKe re.%rd des photo.r%phies2d FdI %m lookin. %t some photo.r%phs2dH

'ubject #ronouns
French h%s six di88erent types o8 pronouns0 the st, "nd, %nd 3rd person sin.ul%r %nd the st, "nd, %nd 3rd person plur%l2 French %ra&&ar 5 %ender 5 audio 6in1o 5H kb 5 hel#7 'ubject :ronouns 5 Les #rono&s sou&is sin.ul%r Ee I st person plur%l nous !e sin.ul%r tu you "nd person plur%l vous you sin.ul%r il, elle, on he, she, one 3rd person they Fm%sculineH plur%l ils, elles they F8eminineH 'hen re8errin. to more th%n one person in the "nd person, ivousj must be used2 'hen re8errin. to % sin.le person, ivousj or ituj m%y be used dependin. on the situ%tionJ see notes in lesson 2 In %ddition to the nu%nces bet!een vous %nd tu, %s discussed in lesson , French pronouns c%rry me%nin.s th%t do not exist in 3n.lish pronouns2 :he French third person dond h%s sever%l me%nin.s, but most closely m%tches the no! %rch%ic 3n.lish doned2 'hile in 3n.lish, d5ne must be very c%re8ul in French .r%mm%rd sounds old-8%shioned, the French eDuiv%lent d5n doit 8%ire trPs %ttention O l% .r%mm%ire 8r%n6%ised is Duite %ccept%ble2 &lso, !hile the third person plur%l dtheyd h%s no .ender in 3n.lish, the French eDuiv%lents dilsd %nd dellesd do2 -o!ever, !hen pronounced, they norm%lly sound the s%me %s dild %nd delled, so distin.uishin. the di88erence reDuires underst%ndin. o8 the v%rious conEu.%tions o8 the verbs 8ollo!in. the pronoun2 &lso, i8 % .roup o8 people consists o8 both m%les %nd 8em%les, the m%le 8orm is used, even i8 there is only one m%le in % .roup o8 thous%nds o8 8em%les2 In everyd%y l%n.u%.e, ionj is used, inste%d o8 inousj, to express i!ejJ the verb is %l!%ys used in the 3rd person sin.ul%r2 For ex%mple, to s%y d'e F%reH meetin. %t # o7clockd, you could s%y either iGn se rencontre au cin-ma 3 sept heures"M FcolloDui%lH or i@ous nous rencontrons au cin-ma 3 sept heures"M F8orm%lH2 For more, see the 'ikipedi% entry2 $r%mm%r

$ender
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)e.%tion
ne..pas
• •

• •

4imple ne.%tion is done by !r%ppin. ne"""pas %round the verb2 • Ke ne vole p%s2 - I do not ste%l2 In % per8ect tense, ne"""pas !r%ps %round the %uxill%ry verb, not the p%rticiple2 • Ke n7%i p%s vol@2 - I h%ve never stolen2 'hen %n in8initive %nd conEu.%ted verb %re to.ether, ne"""pas usu%lly !r%ps %round the conEu.%ted verb2 • Ke ne veux p%s voler2 - I do not !%nt to ste%l2 ne pas c%n %lso .o directly in 8ront o8 the in8initive 8or % di88erent me%nin.2 • Ke veux ne p%s voler2 - I !%nt to not ste%l2 ne .oes be8ore %ny pronoun rel%tin. to the verb it %88ects2 • Ke ne le vole p%s2 - I did not ste%l it2

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3ther -egative /0#ressions
ne222%ucunFeH ne222E%m%is ne222ni222ni not %ny, none, no never neither222nor

ne222p%s du tout not %t %ll ne222p%s encore not yet ne222personne ne222plus ne222.uPre ne222Due

nobody no lon.er h%rdly only

• •

ne"""personne !r%ps %round the entire verb set2 • Ke ne l7%i donn@ O personne2 - I did not .ive it too %nyone2 • Ke ne veux le donner O personne2 - I do not !%nt to .ive it to %nybody2 ne"""ni"""ni reDuires t!o obEects, either direct or indirect, %nd comes be8ore them2 • Ke ne l7%i donn@ ni O mon 8rPre, ni O m% s^ur2 - I .%ve it neither to my brother nor my sister2 • Ke ne peux voir ni mon 8rPre ni m% s^ur2 - I %m not %ble to see neither my brother nor my sister2 In ne"""aucun,e., aucun,e. goes !efore an o!0ect" • Il n7% %ucun %mi2 &ucun2 - -e h%s no 8riend2 )one2 • Il n7% %ucune 8euille de p%pier2 &ucune2 - -e h%s no sheet o8 p%per2 )one2 Il n7% Du7une 8euille de p%pier2 - -e h%s only one piece o8 p%per2 Il Ke ne peux .uPre voir mon 8rPre et m% s^ur - I c%n h%rdly see my brother %nd sister2

'#oken French
)o!, the 7ne7 sometimes dis%ppe%rs !hen one spe%ks2 -o!ever, it is %l!%ys used in !ritten French %nd in 8orm%l convers%tions2
• •

Ke l7%i donn@ O personne FI didn7t .ive it to %nyoneH Ke s%is p%s FI don7t kno!H $r%mm%r

)e.%tion
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,repositions
Co&&on :re#ositions
live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion -otes -3xpresses % report1r%tio o8 pl%ce FtoH, time F%tH, possession Fo8 or 7sH, me%ns, m%nner, price2 - Introduced % complement o8 indirect obEect or % complement o8 %ttribution, % complement o8 the n%me or %dEective2 &ltern%tive0 ded%ns Fr%rely used %s % prepositionH 5n m%n.e a#ras %voir bu 'e e%t a1ter !e drink &lso %n %dverb2

:re#ostion

!ranslation

O

2 to "2 %t 32 o8 42 in

/0a&#le =e vais , Paris2 -- & am going to Paris2 =e pars , cinJ heures2 -- & am leaving at five 1$est un ami , moi" -- This is a friend of mine" 1$est la voiture 3 =ohn" -This is =ohn$s car"

O cUt@ de O l7int@rieur de %prPs %u-del% %vec che/ contre d%ns de dehors derriPre dev%nt en entre ici loin de

next to, besides inside %8ter beyond !ith %t the home o8 %.%inst in 2 o8, 8rom "2 %bout outside behind in 8ront o8 in bet!een here 8%r *sed mostly to indic%te dist%nce in time or sp%ce2 &lso % pronoun2 &lso % conEu.%tion o8 the verb entrer2 La paille est contre la maison the straw is against the house 4ynonym0 en &lso %n inde8inite %rtcle2 =ontr%ctions0 du, des I,&0 1d`1

p%r prPs de pour s%ns selon

2 throu.h "2 by, 8or ne%r 8or !ithout 2 %ccordin. to "2 in %ccord%nce !ith belo!, under 2 on "2 upon 32 on top o8 42 %bove 52 out o8 (2 sept sur dix Fseven out o8 tenH $r%mm%r

&lso % noun0 le par * ,golf. par I,&0 1pur1

sous

9el%ted term0 dessous &lso % noun0 m pl o8 sou * penny% wothless thing% peanuts 4ynonyms0 %u-dessus de F%boveH &ntonyms0 sous Fbelo!, underH &ntonyms0 dessous, %u-dessous-de Fbelo!H &lso %n %dEective0 m sing, me%nin. sure I,&0 1syr1 F%udioH

sur

,repositions
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,ronouns
live version discussion 'ubject :ronouns exercises • First person sin.ul%r FI, meH - Ke, moi edit lesson • 4econd person sin.ul%r FyouH - <ous FpoliteH, :u Fin8orm%l, !ell-kno!n comment %cDu%int%nces onlyH report %n error • :hird person sin.ul%r Fhe, sheH - Il Fm%leH, 3lle F8em%leH, 5n Findetermin%teH %sk % Duestion • First person plur%l F!eH - )ous • 4econd person plur%l FyouH - <ous • :hird person plur%l FthemH - Ils Fm%leH, 3lles F8em%leH

!he #ronoun on
:he subEect pronoun on is %n%lo.ous to the 3n.lish person%l pronoun one, except th%t it is not so 8orm%l, %nd is more common2 It h%s % number o8 uses0

It is used in the s%me !%ys %s the 3n.lish person%l pronoun one0 • It is used in expressin. .ener%lities0 y =7est en 8or.e%nt Du7on devient 8or.eur2 z FdIt is by bl%cksmithin. th%t one becomes % bl%cksmith2dH • It is the implicit subEect 8or %n in8initive th%t h%s no other implicit subEect0 y penser Du7on % r%ison z Fdto think th%t one is ri.ht,d i2e2 dto think onesel1 ri.htdH2 ;ec%use o8 French7s limited p%ssive voice, it is o8ten used %s %n empty subEect !hen the %.ent is unkno!n or unimport%nt0 y 3n me l7% donn@2 z Fd>Gn? .%ve it to med or dI !%s .iven itd or dIt !%s .iven to me2dH It is used %s % less 8orm%l substitute 8or the subEect pronoun nous FweH2 In this c%se, note th%t even thou.h on %l!%ys t%kes % third-person sin.ul%r verb, it t%kes plur%l %dEectives Fy 5n est %m@ric%ins z, d'e7re &meric%ndH2 &lso, note th%t the other 8orms o8 nous Fdirect obEect, indirect obEect, %nd disEunctiveH %re not repl%ced by 8orms o8 on unless on is the subEect %s !ell2 F-ence, y Ils nous l7ont donn@ z, d:hey .%ve it to us,d but y 5n se l7est donn@ z, d'e .%ve it to ourselves2dH It is not the number , %nd there8ore is not used to me%n done o8 them2d In French %s in 3n.lish, numbers c%n be used %s pronouns g y +eux sont entr@s et un est ressorti z, is un,e., not on2

d:!o !ent in %nd one c%me b%ck outd g but the number

Gn does not h%ve ordin%ry direct- %nd indirect-obEect pronouns, only the re8lexive pronoun se2 4imil%rly, its disEunctive-pronoun 8orm, soi, is only used !hen on is the subEect %nd soi re8ers to the s%me entity2 :he pronoun JuelJu$un FdsomeonedH c%n 8ill some o8 the roles o8 on, in the s%me !%y th%t one %nd someone %re sometimes interch%n.e%ble in 3n.lish2

me# te# nousS and vous

+irect %nd Indirect 5bEect ,ronouns

=eanings
• • • • • •

me - me, to me te - you, to you Fsin.ul%r, in8orm%lH lui - to him nous - us, to us vous - you, to you Fplur%l, 8orm%lH leurs - to them

:lace in sentences

:hese pronouns %re pl%ced be8ore the verb th%t they modi8y • Ke te vois2 - I see you2 • Ke veux te voir2 - I !%nt to see you2 I8 % per8ect tense is used, these pronouns .o be8ore the %uxill%ry verb2 • Ke t7%i vu2 - I s%! you2

.irect 3bject 2e#lace&ent
• • • •

Il me voit2 - -e sees me2 Il te voit2 - -e sees you2 Il nous voit2 - -e sees us2 Il vous voit2 - -e sees you2

Indirect 3bject 2e#lace&ent
• • • •

Il m7%ppelle2 - -e c%lls to me2 Il te le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to you2 Il nous le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to us2 Il vous le Eette2 - -e thro!s it to you2

le# laS and les
le% la, %nd les %re c%lled direct obEect pronouns, bec%use they %re pronouns th%t %re, you .uessed it, used %s direct obEect2 & direct obEect is % noun th%t receives the %ction o8 % verb2

Il Eette la !oule2 - -e thro!s the !all2

In the %bove sentence la !oule is the direct obEect2

Bou h%ve le%rned e%rlier th%t n%mes %nd re.ul%r nouns c%n be repl%ced by the subEect pronouns F0e% tu222H2 4imil%ry, direct obEects, such %s dl% bouled, c%n be repl%ced by pronouns2
• • • •

le - repl%ces % m%sculine sin.ul%r direct obEect la - repl%ces % 8eminine sin.ul%r direct obEect l$ - repl%ces le %nd la i8 they come be8ore % vo!el les - repl%ces plur%l direct obEects, both m%sculine %nd 8eminine Il la Eette2 - -e thro!s it2 Il les Eette2 - -e thro!s them2

:he direct obEect pronouns come be8ore the verb they %re linked to2
• •

lui and leur
Indirect obEects %re preposition%l phr%ses !ith the obEect o8 the preoposition &n indirect obEect is % noun th%t receives the %ction o8 % verb2
• • •

Il Eette l% boule O K%cDues2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to K%ck2 Il Eette l% boule O A%rie2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to A%ry2 Il Eette l% boule O K%cDues et A%rie2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to K%ck %nd A%ry2

Lui %nd leur %re indirect obEect pronouns2 :hey repl%ce nouns re8errin. to people %nd me%n to himCher %nd to them respectively2
• •

lui - repl%ces % sin.ul%r m%sculine or 8eminine indirect obEect re8errin. to % hum%n leur - repl%ces % plur%l m%sculine or 8eminine indirect obEect re8errin. to % hum%n Il lui Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to him2 Il lui Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to her2 Il leur Eette l% boule2 - -e thro!s the b%ll to them2

&n ex%mple 8ollo!s0
• • •

'hether lui me%ns to him or to her is .iven by context2 In 3n.lish, d-e thro!s him the b%lld is %lso s%id, %nd me%ns the s%me thin.2 'hen used !ith the direct obEect pronouns le% la, %nd les, lui %nd leur come %8ter those pronouns2

Il l% lui Eette2 - -e thro!s it to him2

)ote th%t !hile le% la, %nd les %re used to repl%ce people or in%nim%te obEects, lui %nd leur %re not used to repl%ce inn%nim%te obEects %nd thin.s2 &lso note th%t unlike le %nd la, !hich %re shortened to l$ !hen 8ollo!ed by % vo!el, lui is never shortened

*
Indirect 3bject :ronoun - to it# to them
:he French pronoun y is used to repl%ce %n obEect o8 % preposition%l phr%se introduced by O2

• •

Ke r@ponds %ux Duestions2 - K7 y r@ponds2 I respond to the Duestions2 - I respond to them2

)ote th%t lui %nd leur, %nd not y, %re used !hen the the obEect re8ers the % person or persons2

2e#lace&ent o1 :laces - there
:he French pronoun y repl%ces % preposition%l phr%se re8errin. to % pl%ce th%t be.ins !ith %ny preposition except de F8or !hich en is usedH2
• •

Les hommes vont en Fr%nce2 - Les hommes y vont2 :he men .o to Fr%nce - :he men .o there2

)ote th%t en, %nd not y is used !hen the obEect is o8 the preposition de2

Idio&s
• •

>% y estI - It7s +oneI K7y suisI - I .et itI

en
2e#lace&ent o1 a :artitive Construction 2e#lace&ent o1 >uanti1ied -ouns 2e#lace&ent o1 :hrases *ith de

:he pronoun en repl%ces preposition%l phr%ses be.innin. !ith de i8 the obEect o8 the preposition is re8errin. to % thin. or pl%ce2 • Ke viens de ,%ris2 - I come 8rom ,%ris2 • K7 en viens2 - I come 8rom it2 )ote th%t stress pronouns, %nd not en %re used i8 the obEect re8ers to % person or persons2

:ronoun 3rder
3rder Chart
I8 % sentence uses no in8initive, the pronouns %re embedded %s 8ollo!s0

'ubject .irect or .irect 3bj Indirect :ronoun -eg -eg Indirect :ronouns 3bjects 6or noun7 Ee me tu le te p%s il FelleH l% lui conEu.%ted p%st ne nous y en plus nous l7 leur verb p%rticiple vous etc222 vous les se Fre8lexiveH ils FellesH I8 % sentence uses %n in8initive, the pronouns %re embedded %s 8ollo!s0 'ubject .irect or .irect 3bj Indirect :ronoun -eg -eg Indirect :ronouns 3bjects 6or noun7 Ee me tu le p%s te il FelleH conEu.%ted p%st l% lui ne plus nous y en in8initive nous verb p%rticiple l7 leur etc222 vous vous les se Fre8lexiveH ils FellesH

3rder 2ules

• •

'hen % sentence uses the indirect obEect pronouns me, te, nous, %nd vous !ith the direct obEect pronouns le, la, %nd les, me, te, nous, %nd vous .o 8irst2 • Il me le donne2 - -e .%ve it to me2 'hen % sentence uses the indirect obEect pronouns lui %nd leur !ith the direct obEect pronouns le, la, %nd les, le, la, %nd les .o 8irst2 • Il le lui donne2 - -e .%ve it to him1her2 'hen y is used in the s%me sentence %s other pronouns, y .oes %8ter %ll o8 them !ith the exception o8 en2 • Il m7emmPne O ,%ris2 - -e t%kes me to ,%ris2 • Il m7y emmPne2 - -e t%kes me there2 K in conEunction !ith en is only used in % 8e! c%ses2 • Il y en %2 - :here exist sever%l ones2 'hen there %re t!o pronouns in % sentence, en %l!%ys .o l%st2

L8i&#Frati1
'hen expressin. positive comm%nds, there %re sever%l rules one must remember !hen usin. obEect pronouns2 :heses %re0
• • •

:he pronouns %re %tt%ched the the verb !ith % hyphen2 • 9etrouve-l%2 - Find it2 Ae %nd :e become moi %nd toi2 • +onne/-moi les vid@os2 - $ive me the videos2 Le, la, %nd les precede %ll other obEect pronouns2 • +onne/-le-moi2 - $ive it to me2

:ossesive :ronouns
,ossessive pronouns repl%ce possessive %rticle o noun sets2 French %ra&&ar 5 :ronouns :ossesive :ronouns 5 Les #rono&s #ossesi1s mon cop%in ton cop%in son cop%in notre cop%in votre cop%in my 8riend your 8riend his1her 8riend our 8riend your 8riend le &ien le tien le sien le ngtre le vgtre &ine yours his^hers ours yours ses cop%ins mes cop%ins tes cop%ins nos cop%ins vos cop%ins his1her my 8riends your 8riends our 8riends your 8riends 8riends les &iens les tiens les siens les ngtres les vgtres &ine yours his^hers ours yours m% copine t% copine s% copine notre copine votre copine my 8riend your 8riend his1her 8riend our 8riend your 8riend la &ienne le tienne le sienne la ngtre la vgtre &ine yours his^hers ours yours ses copines mes copines tes copines nos copines vos copines his1her my 8riends your 8riends our 8riends your 8riends 8riends les &iennes les tiennes les siennes les ngtres les vgtres &ine yours his^hers ours yours • <ous %ve/ votre voiture? - Bou h%ve your c%r? • 5ui, nous %vons l% nUtre2 - Bes, !e h%ve ours2

leur cop%in their 8riend le leur theirs leurs cop%ins their 8riends les leurs theirs leurs copine their 8riend la leur theirs leurs copines their 8riends les leurs theirs

f o % stress pronoun is used !hen the noun repl%ced is %lso the subEect o8 the sentence2 :his usu%lly occurs in sentences !ith Stre2
• •

3lle est t% voiture? - Is th%t your c%r? 5ui, elle est O moi2 - Bes, it is mine2 $r%mm%r

,ronouns
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4entences
Interrogation
>uestion Words
• • • • • •

5Q? - 'here? Gu%nd? - 'hen? ,ourDuoi? - 'hy? =omment? - -o!? Guel1Guels1Guelle1Guelles? - 'h%t? Gui? - 'ho?

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Co&&ands
)ain article' FrenchC:rammarCTensesC&mperative $r%mm%r

4entences
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:enses
Aerb !enses 'orted by =ood
-on-1inite For&s
• • • • •

Le p%rticipe pr@sent F:he ,resent ,%rticipleH Le p%rticipe p%ss@ F:he ,%st ,%rticipleH Le <erbe &uxili%ire F:he &uxili%ry <erbH L7in8initi8 F:he In8initiveH L7in8initi8 p%ss@ F:he ,%st In8initiveH

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L8indicati1 6!he Indicative =ood7
'i&#le !enses
• • • •

Le pr@sent de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,resent Indic%tiveH L7imp%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he Imper8ectH Le p%ss@ simple F:he ,%st -istoricH Le 8utur F:he FutureH

:er1ect !enses
• • • • •

Le p%ss@ compos@ F:he ,resent ,er8ectH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,luper8ect o8 the Indic%tiveH Le p%ss@ %nt@rieur F:he ,%st &nteriorH Le 8utur %nt@rieur F:he Future &nteriorH Le p%ss@ du subEoncti8 F:he 4ubEunctive ,%stH

3ther !enses
• •

Le p%ss@ r@cent F:he )e%r ,%stH Le 8utur proche F:he )e%r FutureH

Le subjoncti1 6!he 'ubjunctive =ood7
• • • •

Le subEoncti8 F:he 4ubEunctiveH L$imparfait du su!0onctif ,The &mperfect Su!0unctive. Le subEoncti8 p%ss@ F:he ,%st 4ubEunctiveH Le plus*Jue*parfait du su!0onctif ,The Pluperfect Su!0unctive.

L8i&#Frati1 6!he I&#erative =ood7
• •

L7imp@r%ti8 F:he Imper%tiveH L7imp@r%ti8 p%ss@ F:he ,%st Imper%tiveH

Le conditionnel 6!he Conditional =ood7
• • •

Le conditionnel F:he =ondition%lH Le conditionnel p%ss@ F:he ,%st =ondition%lH Le deuxi5me forme du conditionnel pass- ,The Second Form of the Past 1onditional.

Aerb !enses 'orted by !y#e
'i&#le !enses
• • • • • • •

Le pr@sent de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,resent Indic%tiveH L7imp%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he Imper8ectH Le p%ss@ simple F:he ,%st -istoricH Le 8utur F:he FutureH Le conditionnel F:he =ondition%lH Le pr@sent du subEoncti8 F:he ,resent 4ubEunctiveH L7imp%r8%it du subEoncti8 F:he Imper8ect 4ubEunctiveH

:er1ect !enses
• • • • • • •

Le p%ss@ compos@ F:he ,resent per8ectH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it de l7indic%ti8 F:he ,luper8ect o8 the Indic%tiveH Le plus-Due-p%r8%it du subEoncti8 F:he ,luper8ect o8 the 4ubEunctiveH Le p%ss@ %nt@rieur F:he ,%st &nteriorH Le 8utur %nt@rieur F:he Future &nteriorH Le conditionnel p%ss@ F:he =ondition%l ,%stH Le p%ss@ du subEoncti8 F:he 4ubEunctive ,%stH

:er1ect !ense Co&#onents
• • •

Le p%rticipe pr@sent F:he ,resent ,%rticipleH Le p%rticipe p%ss@ F:he ,%st ,%rticipleH Le verbe %uxili%ire F:he &uxili%ry <erbH

3ther !enses
• • • •

Le p%ss@ r@cent F:he )e%r ,%stH Le 8utur proche F:he )e%r FutureH L7Imp@r%ti8 F:he Imper%tiveH L7imp@r%ti8 p%ss@ F:he ,%st Imper%tiveH $r%mm%r

:enses
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<erbs
• • • •

Irre.ul%r <erb =onEu.%tions <erb )e.%tions ,ronomin%l verbs <erb :enses

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%eneral -otes

• •

• •

:he m%sculine 8orm %nd 8eminine 8orm o8 the third person %re conEu.%ted in ex%ctly the s%me m%nner2 Inste%d o8 mentionin. both, only the m%sculine 8orm !ill be used 8or the s%ke o8 brevity2 5ne m%y %ssume th%t il includes elle %nd ils includes elles unless the context cle%rly indic%tes other!ise2 In t%bles sho!in. the endin.s or conEu.%tions o8 verbs, %n %ccent m%rk is sho!n !ithout % letter belo! it indic%tes th%t the %ccent m%rk is pl%ced %bove the l%st letter o8 the stem2 +eriv%tives o8 % verb %re conEu.%ted in the s%me m%nner %s th%t verb2 For inst%nce, devenir %nd revenir 8ollo! the s%me p%tterns %s venir2 In this %ppendix, !hen the conEu.%tion o8 the root verb is .iven, it is %ssumed th%t the re%der !ill kno! th%t deriv%tive verbs %re simil%rly conEu.%ted2 :he verb tenses here %re or.%ni/ed by mood2 :he .ener%l uses o8 % p%rticul%r mood !ill be covered in the p%.e linkd to by the section he%din.2 Liter%ry tenses, !hich %re only used in 8orm%l !ritin., %re in italics2 $r%mm%r

<erbs
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

$r%mm%r <erbs

Irre.ul%r =onEu.%tions
Bou spend % lot o8 time in French le%rnin. the .r%mm%tic%l rules - there %re some !ords !hich bre%k these rules, %nd they %re listed belo!, !ith !h%t they do2 &lso see !iktion%ry0=%te.ory0French verbs %nd !iktion%ry08r0=%t@.orie0<erbes 8r%n6%is2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

aller
indicati1 #rFsent Ee v%is [vE] tu v%s [va] il v% [va] E7%ll%i [alE] tu %ll%s [ala] il %ll% [ala] tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 FEe1tu1il1ilsH subEoncti8 Fnous1vousH nous %llons [alO~] vous %lle/ [ale] ils vont [vO~] #assF si&#le nous %llRmes [alAm] vous %llRtes [alAt] ils %llPrent [alER] i&#Frati1 v% [va] %llons [alO~] %lle/ [ale] #artici#es %ll@ [ale] %ll%nt [alA~] radicau0 ir- [iR-] %ill- [aj-]

%ll- [al-] imp%r8%it :he verb aller uses the %uxili%ry verb Utre in the pass- compos-2

ac?uFrir
indicati1 #rFsent E7%cDuiers [akjER] tu %cDuiers [akjER] il %cDuiert [akjER] E7%cDuis [aki] tu %cDuis [aki] il %cDuit [aki] tu nous vous p%ss@ conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 FEe1tu1il1ilsH subEoncti8 Fnous1vousH imp%r8%it nous %cDu@rons [akerO~] vous %cDu@re/ [akeRe] ils %cDuiPrent [akjER] #assF si&#le nous %cDuTmes [akim] vous %cDuTtes [akit] ils %cDuirent [akiR] i&#Frati1 %cDuiers [akjER] %cDu@rons [akeRO~] %cDu@re/ [akeRe] #artici#es %cDuis [aki] radicau0 %cDuerr- [akER-] %cDuiPr- [akjER-] %cDu@r- [akeR-] %cDu@r- [akeR-]

avoir
indicati1 #rFsent E7%i [e] ou [E] tu %s [a] il % [a] E7eus [y] tu eus [y] il eut [y] Due E7%ie [E] Due tu %ies [E] Du7il %it [E] tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple imp%r8%it nous %vons [avO~] vous %ve/ [ave] ils ont [O~] #assF si&#le nous eVmes [ym] vous eVtes [yt] ils eurent [yR] subjoncti1 Due nous %yons [EjO~] Due vous %ye/ [eje] Du7ils %ient [E] i&#Frati1 %ie [E] %yons [EjO~] %ye/ [eje] #artici#es eu [y] %y%nt [ajA~] radicau0 %ur- [Or-] %v- [av-]

s8asseoir - to sit
#artici#e #rFsentQ s7%ssey%nt #artici#e #assFQ %ssisFeHFesH #rFsent Ee m7%ssieds nous nous %sseyons tu t7%ssieds vous vous %sseye/ il s7%ssied ils s7%sseyent i&#Frati1 %sseyons-nous %ssieds-toi %sseye/-vous #assF si&#le Ee m7%ssis tu t7%ssis il s7%ssit nous nous %ssTmes vous vous %ssTtes ils s7%ssirent

etre
indicati1 #rFsent Ee suis [sHi] tu es [E] il est [E] Ee 8us [fy] tu 8us [fy] il 8ut [fy] nous sommes [sOm] vous Stes [Et] ils sont [sO~] #assF si&#le nous 8Vmes [fym] vous 8Vtes [fyt] ils 8urent [fyR] subjoncti1 Due Ee sois [swa] Due tu sois [swa] Du7il soit [swa] tu nous vous Due nous soyons [swajO~] Due vous soye/ [swaje] Du7ils soient [swa] i&#Frati1 sois [swa] soyons [swajO~] soye/ [swaje]

#artici#es p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple imp%r8%it @t@ [ete] @t%nt [etA~] radicau0 ser- [s(@)r-] @t- [et-]

1aire
indicati1 #rFsent Ee 8%is [fE] tu 8%is [fE] il 8%it [fE] Ee 8is [fi] tu 8is [fi] il 8it [fi] tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 imp%r8%it nous 8%isons [f(@)zO~] vous 8%ites [fEt] ils 8ont [fO~] #assF si&#le nous 8Tmes [fim] vous 8Ttes [fit] ils 8irent [fiR] i&#Frati1 8%is [fE] 8%isons [f(@)zO~] 8%ites [fEt] #artici#es 8%it [fE] 8%is%nt [f(@)zA~] radicau0 8er- [fER-] 8%ss- [fas-] 8%is- [fEz-]

1alloir
indicati1 #rFsent il 8%ut [fo] #assF si&#le il 8%llut [faly] #artici#e #assF 8%llu [faly] radicau0 conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 imp%r8%it 8%udr- [fOdR-] 8%ill- [faj-] 8%ll- [fal-]

savoir
indicati1 #rFsent Ee s%is [sE] tu s%is [sE] il s%it [sE] Ee sus [sy] tu sus [sy] il sut [sy] tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple nous s%vons [savO~] vous s%ve/ [save] ils s%vent [sav] #assF si&#le nous sVmes [sym] vous sVtes [syt] ils surent [syR] i&#Frati1 s%che [sa ] s%chons [sa O~] s%che/ [sa e] #artici#es su [sy] s%ch%nt [sa A~] radicau0 s%ur- [sOR-]

subEoncti8 imp%r8%it

s%ch- [sa -] s%v- [sav-]

venir
:he verb tenir %nd verbs endin. in *tenir %nd *venir %lso 8ollo! this p%ttern2 indicati1 #rFsent Ee viens [vjE~] tu viens [vjE~] il vient [vjE~] Ee vins [vE~] tu vins [vE~] il vint [vE~] tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 FEe1tu1il1ilsH subEoncti8 Fnous1vousH nous venons [v(@)!O~] vous vene/ [v(@)!e] ils viennent [vjE!] #assF si&#le nous vTnmes [vE~m] vous vTntes [vE~t] ils vinrent [vE~R] i&#Frati1 viens [vyE~] venons [v(@)!O~] vene/ [v(@)!e] #artici#es venu [v(@)!y] ven%nt [v(@)!A~] radicau0 viendr- [vjE~dR-] vienn- [vjE!-]

ven- [v(@)!-] imp%r8%it :he verbs venir, devenir, %nd revenir use the %uxili%ry verb Utre in the pass- compos-2

vouloir
indicati1 #rFsent Ee veux [v"] tu veux [v"] il veut [v"] Ee voulus [vuly] tu voulus [vuly] il voulut [vuly] nous voulons [vulO~] vous voule/ [vule] ils veulent [v#l] #assF si&#le nous voulVmes [vulym] vous voulVtes [vulyt] ils voulurent [vulyR] i&#Frati1 tu nous vous veux [v"] or veuille [v#j] voulons [vulO~] voule/ [vule] or veuille/" [v#je] #artici#es p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 FEe1tu1il1ilsH subEoncti8 Fnous1vousH voulu [vuly] voul%nt [vulA~] radicau0 voudr- [vudR-] veuill- [v#j-]

voul- [vul-] imp%r8%it :he imper%tive 8orms veux, voulons, %nd vouleA %re r%re2 " :he imper%tive 8orm veuilleA is used to m%ke very polite reDuests2 It is most o8ten used on si.ns %nd in imperson%l !ritin.2 Fe2.2 dVeuilleA suivre les instructions ci*dessous"dH

devoir
indicati1 #rFsent Ee dois tu dois il doit Ee dus tu dus il dut tu nous vous p%ss@ pr@sent conditionnel 8utur simple subEoncti8 FEe1tu1il1ilsH subEoncti8 Fnous1vousH imp%r8%it nous devons vous deve/ ils doivent #assF si&#le nous dVmes vous dVtes ils durent i&#Frati1 dois devons deve/ #artici#es dV dev%nt radicau0 devrdoive dev$r%mm%r <erbs

Irre.ul%r =onEu.%tions
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$r%mm%r <erbs

,ronomin%l
,ronomin%l verbs %re verbs th%t, put simply, include pronouns2 :hese pronouns %re me% te% se% nous, %nd vous %nd %re used %s either direct obEects or indirect obEects, dependin. on the verb th%t they modi8y2 'hen pronimin%l verbs %re conEu.%ted in per8ect tenses, Stre is used %s the %uxili%ry verb2 :here %re three types o8 pronomin%l verbs0 re8lexive verbs, reciproc%l verbs, %nd n%tur%lly pronomin%l verbs2 live version discussion exercises edit lesson comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

2e1le0ive Aerbs
9e8lexive verbs re8lect the %ction on the subEect2
• • •

Ke me l%ve2 - I !%sh myself2 )ous nous l%vons2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 Ils se l%vent2 - :hey !%sh themselves2

9e8lexive verbs c%n %lso be used %s in8initives2

Ke v%is me l%ver2 - I7m .oin. to !%sh mysel82

3ither the conEu.%ted verb or the in8initive c%n be ne.%ted e%ch !ith sli.htly di88erent me%nin.s2

Ke ne v%is p%s me l%ver2 - I7m not .oin. to !%sh mysel82

In per8ect tenses, the p%st p%rticiples %.ree !ith the direct obEect pronoun, but not the indirect obEect pronoun, in .ender %nd plur%lity2 :here8ore it !ould only %.ree !hen the re8lexive pronoun is the direct obEect2 &lso remember th%t the p%st p%rticiple does not %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes %8ter the verb2
• • • •

3lle s7est l%v@e2 - 4he !%s hersel82 )ous nous sommes l%v@FeHs2 - 'e !%sh ourselves2 3lle s7est l%v@ les m%ins2 - 4he !%shed her h%nds2 )ous nous sommes l%v@ les m%ins2 - 'e !%shed our h%nds2

2eci#rocal Aerbs
'ith reciproc%l verbs, people per8orm %ctions to e%ch other2
• •

)ous nous %imons2 - 'e like e%ch other2 Like re8lexive verbs, the p%st p%rticiple o8 reciproc%l verbs %.rees in number %nd .ender !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 It there8ore %.rees !ith %ll reciproc%l pronouns th%t 8unction %s direct obEects2 )ous nous sommes %im@FeHs2 - 'e liked e%ch other2 )ous nous sommes p%rl@2 - 'e spoke to e%ch other2 3lles se sont t@l@phon@2 - :hey c%lled to one %nother2 <ous vous Stes @crit souvent? - Bou !rite to e%ch other o8ten?

:he reciproc%l pronoun c%n %lso 8unction %s %n indirect obEect !ithout % direct obEect pronoun2
• • •

-aturally :rono&inal Aerbs
4ome verbs %re pronomin%l !ithout per8ormin. % re8lexive or reciproc%l %ction2 :u te souvenu? - Bou remember?
• •

In per8ect tenses, these verbs %.ree !ith the direct obEect i8 it .oes be8ore the verb2 5ther!ise, the p%st p%rticiple %.rees !ith the subEect2 3lle s7est souvenue2 - 4he remembered2 rendre - to return, to .ive b%ck se rendre FOH - to .o FtoH

4ome verbs h%ve di88erent me%nin.s %s pronomin%l verbs2
• •

2e1le0ive Aerbs .etails
2e1le0ive Aerbs in French %re %ctions th%t one does to onesel82 :hey c%n be reco.nised bec%use their in8initive 8orm h%s the pronoun se in 8ront o8 it or s$ be8ore % vo!el2 'hen conEu.%tin. % re8lexive verb you must use the correct re8lexive pronoun2 :he 8ollo!in. t%bles sho! !hich re8lexive pronoun to use !ith e%ch 8orm o8 the verb0
u$je%t je tu il !ous vous ils Refle&ive 'ro!ou! me te se !ous vous se

-ere is %n ex%mple conEu.%tion o8 % re8lexive verb0 'e coucher - to go to bed :resent Ke me couche :u te couches Il se couche 3lle se couche )ous nous couchons <ous cous couche/ Ils se couchent 3lles se couchent -B :he 8utur simple, p%ss@ simple, imper8ect, condition%l %nd subEuntive %re %ll conEu.%ted !ith the re8lexive pronoun in this position2

:assF Co&#osF Ke me suis couch@ :u t7es couch@FeH Il s7est couch@ 3lle s7est couch@e )ous nous sommes couch@FeHs <ous vous Stes couch@FeHFsH Ils se sont couch@s 3lles se sone couch@es -B &ll re8lexive verbs %re t%ke Stre in the p%ss@ compos@ %nd there8ore h%ve %n e %dded to the p%st p%rticiple 8or 8em%les %nd %n s 8or plur%l2 Futur :roche Ke v%is me coucher :u v%s te coucher Il v% se coucher 3lle v% se coucher )ous %llons nous coucher <ous %lle/ vous coucher Ils vont se coucher 3lles vont se coucher -B 'hen % re8lexive verb is put %s %n in8initive behind %ny other verb Fe2.2 vouloir, pouvoir, %ller222H it still t%kes the %ppropri%te re8lexive pronoun2 $r%mm%r <erbs

,ronomin%l
live version C discussion C exercises C edit lesson C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

Le midi d$ossau dans les pyr-n-es

"##endices Contents
2" - +%tes, :ime, %nd )umbers "2 " 3 - French &uthors 32 " 5 - )%tions o8 the 'orld 42 ""( - ,hr%sebook 52 ""9 - 4l%n. (2 "40 - :ypin. =h%r%cters #2 "4" - 'eb 9esources

&ppendices

&ppendix &20 C +%tes, time, %nd numbers
Les jours de la se&aine

:he d%ys o8 the !eek2 al%y E/oor duh l%h suhmenc

French Aocabulary 5 .atesS ti&eS and nu&bers 5 audio 6in1o 5,(0 kb 5
hel#7

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

\ " 3 4 5 ( #

!he .ays o1 the WeekE 5 Les jours de la se&aineE French :ronunciation /nglish 3rigin lundi luhndee Aond%y Aoon m%rdi mahrdee :uesd%y A%rs mercredi maircruhdee 'ednesd%y Aercury Eeudi 0uhdee :hursd%y Kupiter vendredi vahndruhdee Frid%y <enus s%medi sahmdee 4%turd%y 4%turn dim%nche deemahnsh 4und%y 4un
• •

:he d%ys o8 the !eek %re not c%pit%li/ed in French2 For phr%ses rel%tin. to the d%y o8 the !eek, see the phr%sebook2

Les &ois de l8annFe

:he months o8 the ye%r2 al%y m!%h duh l%hn%yc
hel#7

French Aocabulary 5 .atesS ti&eS and nu&bers 5 audio 6in1o 5$H kb 5 \ 0 0" 03 04 05 0( 0# 08 09 0 "
• •

!he =onths o1 the Cear 5 Les &ois de l8annFe French :ronE /nglish E%nvier 0Aahnveeyay K%nu%ry 8@vrier fayvreeyay Febru%ry m%rs mahrse A%rch %vril ahvrill &pril m%i maye A%y Euin 0Awan Kuin Euillet 0Aooeeyay Kuly %oVt ootCoo &u.ust septembre septahm!ruh 4eptember octobre o tuh!ruh 5ctober novembre novahm!ruh )ovember decembre daysahm!ruh +ecember :he months o8 the ye%r %re not c%pit%li/ed in French2 For phr%ses rel%tin. to the months o8 the ye%r, see the phr%sebook

Les 'aisons
French Aocabulary 5 .atesS ti&eS and nu&bers 5 audio 6in1o 5 ,( kb 5
hel#7

l% s%ison le printemps l7@t@ FmH l7%utomne FmH l7hiver FmH

'easons 5 Les 'aisons se%son 4prin. 4ummer &utumn 'inter

&ppendices

&ppendix &20 C +%tes, time, %nd numbers
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &20" C List o8 %uthors
=iddle "ge

=hr@tien de :royes F%round

35 - %round

83H

Hth century
• • •

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

Fr%ncois 9%bel%is F%round 483 or 494 p 553H ,ierre de 9ons%rd F 5"4 p 585H Louise L%b@ F%2 5"( - %2 5(5H

7th century
• • • • • • •

9en@ +esc%rtes F 59( - (50H ,ierre =orneille F (0(p (84H Ke%n de L% Font%ine F (" p (95H AoliPre F (""p (#3H ;l%ise ,%sc%l F ("3p (("H =h%rles ,err%ult F ("8p #03H Ke%n 9%cine F (39p (99H

Ith century
• • • • • •

A%riv%ux F (88p #(3H AontesDuieu F (89p #55H <olt%ire F (94p ##8H Ke%n-K%cDues 9ousse%u F # " - ##8H +enis +iderot F # 3 - #84H ;e%um%rch%is F #3" - #99H

9th century
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Fr%n6ois-9en@ de =h%te%ubri%nd F #(8 - 848H -onor@ de ;%l/%c F #99 - 850H <ictor -u.o F 80" - 885H &lex%ndre +um%s F 80" - 8#0H ,rosper A@rim@e F 803 - 8#0H $eor.e 4%nd F 804 - 8#(H &l8red de Ausset F 8 0 - 85#H =h%rles ;%udel%ire F 8" - 8(#H $ust%ve Fl%ubert F 8" - 880H Kules <erne F 8"8 - 905H &lphonse +%udet F 840 - 89#H 3mile Nol% F 840 - 90"H ,%ul <erl%ine F 844 - 89(H -enri ;er.son F 859 - 94 H 3dmond 9ost%nd F 8(8 - 9 8H

(0th century
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

,%ul =l%udel F 8(8 - 955H A%rcel ,roust F 8# - 9""H $uill%ume &pollin%ire F 880 - 9 8H Ke%n =octe%u F 89" - 9(3H Louis-Ferdin%nd =@line F 894 - 9( H Ke%n $iono F 895 - 9#0H A%rcel ,%.nol F 895 - 9#4H &ndr@ ;reton F 89( - 9((H K%cDues ,r@vert F 900 - 9##H &ndr@ A%lr%ux F 90 - 9#(H 9%ymond Guene%u F 903 - 9#(H Ke%n-,%ul 4%rtre F 905 - 980H 9obert Aerle F 908 - "004H )icol%s ;ouvier F 9"9 - 998H $eor.es ,erec F 93( - 98"H

Links
List o8 French %uthors in the French 'ikipedi%2 &ppendices

&ppendix &20" C List o8 %uthors
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &203 C )%tions o8 the !orld
Les #ays du &onde 6-ations o1 the World7

"
French l7&8.h%nist%n FmH l7&8riDue du 4ud F8H l7&lb%nie F8H l7&l.@rie F8H l7&llem%.ne F8H &ndorre F8H l7&n.leterre F8H l7&n.ol% F8H l7&r%bie s%oudite F8H l7&r.entine F8H l7&rm@nie F8H &rub% l7&ustr%lie F8H l7&utriche F8H l7&/erb%YdE%n F8H /nglish &8.h%nist%n 4outh &8ric% &lb%ni% &l.eri% $erm%ny &ndorr% 3n.l%nd &n.ol% 4%udi &r%bi% &r.entin% &rmeni% &rub% &ustr%li% &ustri% &/erb%iE%n

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

&nti.u%-et-;%rbud% FmH &nti.u% %nd ;%rbud%

B
French le ;%hreYn le ;%n.l%desh l% ;%rb%de l% ;el.iDue le ;eli/e le ;@nin le ;hout%n l% ;i@lorussie l% ;irm%nie l% ;olivie le ;ots!%n% le ;r@sil le ;run@i l% ;ul.%rie le ;urundi /nglish ;%hr%in ;%n.l%desh ;%rb%dos ;el.ium ;eli/e ;enin ;hut%n ;el%rus ;urm% ;olivi% ;ots!%n% ;r%/il ;runei ;ul.%ri% ;urundi les ;%h%m%s F8H :he ;%h%m%s

le ;urkin%-F%so ;urkin% F%so

C
French le =%mbod.e le =%meroun le =%n%d% le =%p-<ert le =hili l% =hine =hypre F8H l% =olombie les =omores F8H le =on.o /nglish =%mbodi% =%meroon =%n%d% =%pe <erde =hile =hin% =yprus =olumbi% =omores =on.o

l% =or@e du )ord )orth Lore% l% =or@e du 4ud 4outh Lore% le =ost% 9ic% l% =Ute d7Ivoire l% =ro%tie =ub% =ost% 9ic% =ote d7Ivoire =ro%ti% =ub%

.
French +Eibouti /nglish +Eibouti le +%nem%rk +enm%rk l% +ominiDue +ominic%

/
French l7qcosse F8H l7q.ypte F8H les qmir%ts %r%bes unis FmH l7qDu%teur FmH l7qrythr@e F8H l73sp%.ne F8H l73stonie F8H les qt%s-*nis FmH l7qthiopie F8H 4cotl%nd 3.ypt :he *nited &r%b 3mir%tes 3Du%dor 3ritre% 4p%in 3stoni% :he *nited 4t%tes 3thiopi% /nglish

F
French /nglish les FidEi F8H FiEi l% Finl%nde Finl%nd l% Fr%nce Fr%nce

%
French le $%bon l% $%mbie l% $@or.ie le $h%n% l% $rPce l% $ren%de le $u%tem%l% l% $uin@e l% $uin@e-;iss%o l% $uy%n% /nglish $%bon $%mbi% $eor.i% $h%n% $reece $ren%d% $u%tem%l% $unie% $uine%-;iss%u $uy%n%

l% $uin@e-@Du%tori%le 3Du%tori%l $uine%

)
French -%Yti l% -on.rie /nglish -%iti -un.%ry

le -ondur%s -ondur%s

I
French l7vle A%urice F8H les vles =ook F8H les vles A%rsh%ll F8H les vles 4%lomon F8H l7Inde F8H l7Indon@sie F8H l7Ir%n FmH l7Ir%D1l7Ir%k FmH l7Irl%nde F8H l7Isl%nde F8H Isr%Xl FmH l7It%lie F8H /nglish A%uritius =ook Isl%nds A%rsh%ll Isl%nds 4olomon Isl%nds Indi% Indonesi% Ir%n Ir%D Irel%nd Icel%nd Isr%el It%ly

;
French le K%pon /nglish K%p%n l% K%m%YDue K%m%ic% l% Kord%nie Kord%n

<
French le Leny% Lirib%ti F8H le Lo!eYt /nglish Leny% Lirib%ti Lu!%it le L%/%khst%n L%/%khst%n le Lir.hi/st%n Lyr.y/st%n

L
French le L%os le Lesotho l% Lettonie le Lib%n le Lib@ri% l% Libye l% Litu%nie /nglish L%os Lesotho L%tvi% Leb%non Liberi% Liby% Lithu%ni%

le Lichtenstein Lichtenstein le Luxembour. Luxembour.

=
French l% A%c@doine l% A%l%isie le A%l%!i le A%li A%lte le A%roc l% A%urit%nie le AexiDue l% Aicron@sie l% Aold%vie Aon%co l% Aon.olie /nglish A%cedoni% A%l%ysi% A%l%!i A%li A%lt% Aorocco A%urit%ni% Aexico Aicronesi% Aold%vi% Aon%co Aon.oli%

A%d%.%sc%r F8H A%d%.%sc%r

les A%ldives F8H :he A%ldives

le Ao/%mbiDue Ao/%mbiDue

French l% )%mibie l% )%uru le )@p%l le )ic%r%.u% le )i.er le )i.eri% l% )orvP.e /nglish )%mibi% )%uru )ep%l )ic%r%.u% )i.er )i.eri% )or!%y

l% )ouvelle-N@l%nde )e! Ne%l%nd

3
French l75m%n FmH /nglish 5m%n

l75u.%nd% FmH *.%nd% l75u/b@kist%n */bekist%n

:
French le ,%kist%n le ,%n%m% le ,%r%.u%y les ,%ys-;%s FmH le ,%ys de $%lles FmH le ,@rou les ,hilippines F8H l% ,olo.ne l% ,olyn@sie 8r%n6%is le ,ortu.%l /nglish ,%kist%n ,%n%m% ,%r%.u%y :he )etherl%nds '%les ,eru :he ,hilippines ,ol%nd French ,olynesi% ,ortu.%l

l% ,%pou%ise-)ouvelle-$uin@e ,%pu% )e! $uine%

>
French /nglish le G%t%r G%t%r

2

French

/nglish

l% 9@publiDue centr%8ric%ine =entr%l &8ric%n 9epublic l% 9@publiDue dominic%ine +ominic%n 9epublic l% 9@publiDue tchPDue l% 9oum%nie le 9oy%ume-*ni l% 9ussie le 9!%nd% =/ech 9epublic 9om%ni% :he *nited Lin.dom 9ussi% 9!%nd%

'
French 4%int-=hristophe-et-)i@vPs FmH 4%inte-Lucie F8H 4%int-A%rin FmH le 4%int-4iP.e Fle <%tic%nH 4%int-<incent-et-les-$ren%dines FmH le 4%lv%dor les 4%mo% F8H 4%o :om@ et ,rincipe FmH le 4@n@.%l les 4eychelles F8H l% 4ierr% Leone 4in.%pour l% 4lov%Duie l% 4lov@nie l% 4om%lie le 4oud%n le 4ri L%nk% l% 4uPde l% 4uisse le 4urin%m le 4!%/il%nd l% 4yrie 4%int Luci% 4%n A%rino :he -oly 4ee F:he <%tic%nH 4%int <incent %nd the $ren%dines 3l 4%lv%dor 4%mo% 4%o :om@ %nd ,rincipe 4ene.%l 4eychelles 4ierr% Leone 4in.%pore 4lov%ki% 4loveni% 4om%li% 4ud%n 4ri L%nk% 4!eden 4!it/erl%nd 4urin%m 4!%/il%nd 4yri% /nglish 4%int Litts %nd )evis

!
French l% :%n/%nie le :ch%d l% :h%Yl%nde le :o.o les :on.% F8H l% :unisie le :urkm@nist%n l% :urDuie :uv%lu /nglish :%n/%ni% =h%d :h%il%nd :o.o :on.% :unisi% :urkmenist%n :urkey :uv%lu le :%dEikist%n FmH :%Eikist%n

:rinit@-et-:ob%.o :rinid%d %nd :ob%.o

@
French l7*kr%ine F8H /nglish *kr%ine

l7*ru.u%y FmH *ru.u%y

A
French <%nu%tu le <%tic%n /nglish <%nu%tu :he <%tic%n

le <ene/uel% <ene/uel% le <iSt-)%m <ietn%m

W
a)onec

B
a)onec

C
le B@men l% Bou.osl%vie FmH Bemen Bu.osl%vi%

D
French l% N%mbie /nglish N%mbi% &ppendices

le Nimb%b!e Nimb%b!e

&ppendix &203 C )%tions o8 the !orld
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &204 C ,hr%sebook
:r%vel'iki phr%se book

AQ %reetings
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5(7H kb 5 hel#7 %reetings 5 Les salutations 4%lut -i21;ye2 Fin8orm%lH Fmore 8orm%l th%n s%lutH F%ll ;onEour -ello d%yH ;onsoir $ood evenin. ;onne nuit $ood ni.ht !un nwee 'h%t7s up F%bout youH? Flit2 !h%t7s Guoi de neu8 ? ne!H ,%s .r%nd)ot much2 Flit2 no bi.-thin.H chose2

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

AQ )o* are you+
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5l
hel#7 kb 5

)o* are you+ 5 ma va+ =omment %lle/-vous? F8orm%lH, =omment v%s-tu? Fin8orm%lH, -o! %re you? =omment 6% v%?1>% v% ? Fin8orm%lH I7m doin. FveryH !ell >% v% FtrPsH bien Flit2 It7s .oin. FveryH !ellH 5ui, 6% v%2 Bes, it .oes2 :rPs bien, merci2 <ery !ell, th%nks2 ,%s m%l2 )ot ;%d p%s si bien1p%s trPs bien not so !ell FtrPsH m%l FveryH b%d =omme ci, comme 6%2 4o-4o2 +@sol@FeH2 I7m sorry2 3t toi? &nd you? Fin8orm%lH 3t vous? &nd you? F8orm%lH

!itles
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5l($ kb 5 hel#7 !itles 5 Les titres French "bbrE :ronunciation /nglishS @sage 'ingular Aonsieur muhsyur Ar2, 4ir2 A2 :lural Aessieurs2 mehsyur $entlemen2 'ingular A%d%me mahdahmn Ars2, A%7%m2 Ame maydahm :lural Aesd%mes L%dies 'ingular A%demoiselle lle mahdmwoiAell Aiss, Boun. l%dy :lural Aesdemoiselles A maydmwahAell Boun. l%dies

AQ Courtesy
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5,l, kb 5 hel#7 Courtesy 5 La #olitesse 47il te pl%Tt2 FLit0 I8 you ple%se2H ,le%se 47il vous pl%Tt2 F8orm%lH2 :h%nks F% lotH Aerci Fbe%ucoupH2 +e rien2 FLit0 58 nothin.2H FLit0 )ot o8 !h%t2H F)o ,%s de Duoi2 problem2H Bou7re !elcome2 Ke t7en prie2 shtahn pree Fin8orm%lH Ke vous en prie 0Auh vooA ahn pree F8orm%lH

AQ %ood-bye
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5(0( kb 5 hel#7 %ood-bye 5 "u revoir 4%lut2 -i21;ye2 Fin8orm%lH &u revoir2 $ood-bye2 ohrvwahr Fev not pronouncedH ah duhman FLit0 :o1*ntil f dem%in2 4ee you tomorro!2 :omorro!H &u revoir, O ;ye, see you dem%in2 tomorro!2 f tout O l7heure2 4ee you Fl%ter tod%yHI ah tootah luhr f l% proch%ine2 4ee you Ftomorro!HI ah lah proh shayn f bientUt2 4ee you soon2 ah !yantoe =i%o ;ye2 chow FIt%li%nH

AQ "sking 1or the day^date^ti&e
French Aocabulary 5 :hrasebook 5 audio 6in1o 5H ( kb 5 hel#7 "sking For !he .ayS .ateS !i&e 5 .e&ander le jourS la dateS le te&#s "sking 1or the dayE &uEourd7hui c7est Duel :od%y is !h%t d%y? o0Aoordwee say ell 0Aoor Eour? &uEourd7hui c7est a0ourc2 :od%y is adayc2 :omorro! is !h%t +em%in c7est Duel Eour Duhman say ell 0Aoor d%y? +em%in c7est a0ourc2 :omorro! is adayc2 "sking 1or the dateE Guelle est l% d%te 'h%t is the d%te ell ay lah daht F%uEourd7huiH? Ftod%yH? =7est le ahc amonthc2 It7s amonthc ahc2 "sking 1or the ti&eE Guelle heure est-il? ell er ayteel 'h%t hour1time is it? Il est Duelle heure? eel ay ell er Il est anombrec heureFsH2 It is anum!erc hours2 eelay >nom!re? er

% b "% "b 3% 3b 4% 4b 5

&ppendices

&ppendix &204 C ,hr%sebook
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &205 C 4l%n.
-otes on ho* to use slang
Foreign s#eakers
It is import%nt to note th%t, %s % 8orei.ner, your use o8 sl%n. !ill o8ten be received %s cute or 8unny, dependin. .re%tly upon your over%ll 8luency in spoken French2 :o underst%nd this, think on ho! it !ould sound to you i8 % 8orei.nerg!ith % stron. %ccent %nd odd rythym o8 speechgc%me up to you %nd s%id d+ude, !h%t % sketchy%ss h%ter th%t bi//-n%tch !%s, I tot%lly !%s Eust like 78uck o88 o-shee/y7d2 :here8ore, no m%tter ho! much sl%n. you use in your n%tive l%n.u%.e, limitin. your use o8 sl%n. in French Fproportion%lly to your level o8 8luencyH !ill %lso limit ho! much you %re p%troni/ed %nd .i..led %t by n%tive listeners2 live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

'langQ consistency J style
:o use sl%n. e88eciently, it is import%nt to m%int%in % consistency o8 style2 Aixin. styles mi.ht sound like s%yin.0 d:hy 8%ce, it is Duite 8inely r%!kin7d2
• •

&void vous unless % plur%l is necess%ry2 &void subEect-verb inversion in Duestions2 *se r%ther Duestion 8orm%tions !here there is no inversion or 7est-ce Due7, only the r%ised tone %t the end o8 the sentence2 'hen doin. this !ith interro.%tives FJui, Juand, comment, etc2H, pl%ce them %t the end o8 the sentenceJ i2e2 d5n v% bou88er Du%nd?d

!ranslating 8Fuck8
:he 3n.lish term 78uck7 is exception%l %s it c%n serve %s noun, verb, %dEective, excl%m%tion, %nd others2 :here is no such eDuiv%lent us%.e o8 %ny !ord in the French l%n.u%.e2 :here8ore the tr%nsl%tion o8 78uck7 into 8rench depends on the correspondin. p%rt o8 speech2 /0a&#les noun d-e7s % .re%t 8uckd m dIl est bien b%is%bled F%lthou.h 7b%is%ble7 m 8uck%bleH d-e is such % 8uckFerHd m d=7est un en8oir@1encul@1conn%rd1s%l%udd Finsert %ny insultH d-e7s such % 8uck-upd m d=7est un p%uvre con1un r%t@d verb sexu%l0 !aiser% niJuer% coucher avec J insultin.0 foutre% enculer dI 8ucked up on my French testd m dK7%i r%t@1niDu@ mon ex%men de 8r%n6%isd dI 8ucked FupH my c%rd m dK7%i niDu@ m% b%.noled d-e 8ucked me overd m dIl m7% tr%hid dI 8ucked your momd m dK7%i b%is@1niDu@ t% mPred dFuck o88d m dFous-moi l% p%ixd, dFous le c%mpd Fsee the verb 7Foutre7H dFuck youd1d$o 8uck yoursel8d m d<% te 8%ire 8outre1enculerd %dEective d:his is 8uckin. %!8uld m d,ut%in, 6% cr%intd1d=7est bordeliDued1d=7est de l% merded dI %m so 8ucked-upd m d>% v% p%s du toutd Fment%l st%teHJ dK7suis tot%lement bourr@FeHd FdrunkH %dverb dI %m tryin. to 8uckin. !ork hered m d,ut%in, lO, E7ess%ie de bosserd excl%m%tion dFuckId m dAerde Id J d,ut%in Id J d;ordel Id n2b20 these c%n %lso be compounded in French, i2e2, d,ut%in de merde Id d,ut%in de bordel de merded F8or strin.in. these to.ether, see the scene in the 8ilm A%trix 9elo%ded !ith the Frenchm%n in the rest%ur%ntH

%lossary
(otes o! 'ro!u!%iatio!) *+o feel ,ow R s,ould $e -ro!ou!%ed. /ar/le wit, water. t,e! try /ar/li!/ wit,out water0 +,at is w,at your t,roat s,ould $e doi!/ w,e! -ro!ou!%i!/ t,e R0 *+,e 1 is ,ardest for E!/lis, s-eakers0 +,e $a%k of t,e t,roat s,ould $e stret%,ed out as if you see a mouse a!d are sayi!/ 2eee32. $ut t,e li-s s,ould $e i! a ti/,t %ir%le as if you are sayi!/ 2ooo20

Look up &ategor*:fr:2lang on 'iktion%ry, the 8ree diction%ry2 &udio &udio" &udio3 &udio4 &brutiFeH n2, & ret%rd, %n idiot ah*9PGG*tee &ccro n2, %ddict ac *PG &do n2, teen%.erJ short 8or 7%dolescent7 #(*doh &pero n2, 4hort 8or %p@riti82 ah*P#&P*roh &pp%rt n2, 8l%t or %p%rtmentJ short 8or 7%pp%rtement7 ah*P#PP &prPm n2, 4hort 8or %prPs-midi2 ah*PP&m ;%.nole n2, 4l%n. 8or 7c%r7 !an*KGLI ;%hut n2, 4l%n. 8or 7hi.h school7 F8ormerly 8or 78%ctory7H ;%rE7 or ;%rEot

%dE2, cr%/y n2, % cr%/y person 9#Pge 9#(P*0oe ;%nder v2, to become erect, to .et % h%rd-on 9#(@*day ;en interE2 8or 7!ell72 o8ten used %t the be.innin. o8 % phr%se, %nd 8ollo!ed by dou%isd or dnond 9aaZ F7b%%7 like the sound % sheep m%kes !ith % n%s%li/ed sound %t the endH ;ite n2, dick !IIt ;l%ire%u n2, Loser !l*#&P*roh Le ;led n2, the boondocks !lID ;oule n2, litt2 7b%ll72 4ynonym 8or 7tSte7, or 7he%d7 in its sl%n. us%.eJ % rou.h eDuiv%lent in 3n.lish !ould be 78%ce7 r%ther th%n 7he%d7, i2e20 d:% boule me m%nDued m dI miss seein. your s!eet 8%ced !GGL ;ou88er v2, to e%t n2, la !ouffe, 8ood 9GGF*fay ;osser v2, to !ork !oss*S#K ;oulot n2, Eob !GGL*oh 4e ;r%nler v2, to m%sturb%te Flit2 to !obbleH suh 9P#hn*lay

>% % @t@ exp2, it !ent !ellJ %lso % Duestion d:% pr@sent%tion, 6% % @t@ ?d m d-o!7d your present%tion .o?d J &ns!ers to this Duestion0 d5u%is, 6% % @t@d FBes, it !ent !ellH 1 d,%s du toutd F)ot %t %llH saw ah #K*T#K =h%ud L%pin n2, 4ex m%ni%c Flit2 hot r%bbitH show lah*P#[ =inoche n2, & ni.ht %t the movies SII*noh*sh L% =it@ n2, .hetto see*T#K =on %dE2, stupid dK7%i @t@ con Du%nd E7%i d@cid@ de sortird m dI !%s dumb !hen I decided to .o outd n2, litt2 7cunt7 F%s used in *L 3n.lishHJ dGuel cond m d'h%t %n idiotd exp2 dO l% cond, stupid, in % stupid !%y2 dK7%i cet ex%men O l% cond m dI h%ve this stupid testd coh[ =rever v2, to burst or explodeJ to die, 7to kick the bucket7 %dE2, crev-,e., exh%usted2 &s in dKe suis crev@FeHd m dI7m exh%ustedd n2, la cr5ve, % cold, the 8lu2 exp20 dK7%i l% crPved2 creh*vay lah crehve +@bile n2 or %dE2 sl%n. 8or dstupidd D#K*!eel +irlo n2 =olloDui%l !ord me%nin. 7he%dm%ster72 dear*loh 3nculer v2 :o 8uck, to bu..er2 3Duiv%lent to d8uck in the %ssd Fdculdmd%ssdH2 'idely used under the 8orm dv% te 8%ire enculerd Flitt2 d.o .et 8ucked in the %ssdH !hich st%nds 8or d8uck o88d2 &lso, dencul@d is the p%rticiple turned into % subst%ntive, %nd me%ns db%st%rdd or d%ssholed2 exp2 0 denculer des mouchesd Flitt2 dto 8uck 8lies in the %ssdH me%ns dto nit-pickd2 eZ*1L*lay

L% F%c n2, colle.e or university fac F%ire l% tSte exp2, to pout2 4ynonyms0 7bouder7Fto broodHJ d8%ire l% .ueuled2 fer lah tet Foutre n2 4perm2 v2 <ul.%r eDuiv%lent o8 the verb 78%ire7J to do or to m%ke2 =ommonly employed in vul.%r18%mili%r expressions such %s0 d<% te 8%ire 8outred m d$o .et 8uckedd dK7en %i rien O 8outre Fici, %vec toiHd m dI h%ve nothin. to do Fhere, !ith youHd FGG*truh -yper %dE2, 7very7, 7re%lly7 J dKe suis hyper tristed m dI7m re%lly s%dd II*pair Li88er v2 =olloDui%l !ord 8rom %r%bic me%nin. 7to like72 4ometimes used under the 8orm faire iffer, e2. Tu me fais trop iffer2 eef*ay $@ni%l %dE2 =olloDui%l !ord me%nin. d.eniusd F%s used in *L 3n.lishH, d.re%td, dbrilli%ntd, dsens%tion%ld or d%!esomed 0* nee*al $r%ve %dE2 litt2 dsevered, rou.hly me%ns dstupidd e2. dmes p%rents sont .r%vesd Fmy p%rents %re stupidH %dv2 rou.hly me%nin. d% lotd or dre%llyd e2. dEe l% ki88e .r%veId FI re%lly like herH2 'hen used !ith % predic%te, it c%n be pl%ced be8ore or %8ter it2 e2. dil est d@bile .r%ve, luiId or dil est .r%ve d@bile, luiId Fhe7s re%lly stupidH grah*ve $ueule n2, sl%n. 8or 7mouth7 or 78%ce72 It c%n be used in d:% .ueuleId !hich c%n be tr%nsl%ted into 74hut upI72 gull $ueuler v2, sl%n.2 Ae%ns 7to shout72 e2.2 7&rrSte de me .ueuler dessus7 could be tr%nsl%ted into 74top shoutin. %t me72 3xists %lso engueuler, sl%n. 8or 7to reprim%nd72 guh*lay J oZ*guh*lay

A%cdo 4hort 8or A%c+on%ld7s2 mac *doh Aerde n2, excl2, tr%nsl%ted %s 7shit7, merde is not seen %s vul.%r %s 7shit72 :h%t is to s%y, %dults use it o8ten, %s !ell %s the youth2 It c%n %lso me%n 7rubbish7, 8or ex%mple 7=e rep%s, c7est de l% merde7, or 7:he me%l is cr%p7 :his !ord h%s produced the phr%se yle mot de cinD lettresz, %n ex%ct tr%nscribed me%nin. o8 the 3n.lish ph%se d8our-letter !ordd2 maPed 1 !ith emph%sis or in excl%m%tion0 mare*DL( )7importe Duoi exp2, 7!h%tever7 n2, bullshit %s in d=7est du n7importe Duoi, ce Du7il ditd nahm*poPt*L(* wah )iDuer v2 4l%n. 8or 7to h%ve sexu%l intercourse72 58ten used in insults such %s 7)iDue t% mPre7 FFuck your motherH, sometimes reduced to 7:% mPreI72 Aet%phoric%lly, sl%n. 8or 7to bre%k7 or 7to be .re%t72 7Ke v%is te niDuer t% .ueule Fvul.%ireH7 0 Ee v%is me b%ttre contre toi I e2.2 7=ette porte est niDu@e27 F:his door is out o8 order2H 7=e Eeu niDue tout27 F:his .%me is .re%t2H @II\*ay 5u%is 7ye%h7 F%s opposed to douid m dyesdH waay ,ut%in n2, excl2 9ou.hly eDuiv%lent to 7merde7 !hen used %s %n excl%m%tion2 &s % n%me, old 8orm 8or 7pute7 F!horeH2 7,ut%in7 is the closest eDuiv%lent to the 3n.lish 78uck7 Fsee note on 78uck7H2 pew*t#[ 4uper %dE2, 7very7, 7re%lly7 J dKe suis super contentd m dI7m re%lly h%ppyd soup*air :%88 n2 !ork, Eob, t%sk taff :ruc n2 4tu88 trew*uh :ronche

n2 =olloDui%l !ord me%nin. 78%ce72 TPon*shuh <%chement %dE2, Fr%nce, sl%n.2 Liter%lly dco!lyd, v%chement is % synonym 8or dveryd, %nd c%n be tr%nsl%ted in some c%ses 8or the 3n.lish %dEective 7Duite72 For inst%nce - 7Il est v%chement idiot7 could be tr%nsl%ted %s 7-e is Duite stupid72 'hilst on the subEect o8 7v%che7, % popul%r French phr%se is 7l% v%cheI7 !hich, %s %n excl%m%tion, me%ns 7d%mnI7 or 7d%rnI72 For ex%mple - 7tu %s perduI7 could be .reeted !ith 7l% v%cheI7 or 7minceI7 or other such expressions o8 discontent2 It c%n ho!ever be used sometimes %s %n excl%m%tion o8 surprise or %m%/ement 7l% v%cheI c7est .eni%l ce truc7 vah*shuhJ vah*shuh*)#W[ Nin/in n2 =olloDui%l !ord me%nin. 7cr%/y72

Aerlan
<erl%n is rou.hly simil%r to 3n.lish ,i. L%tin, in th%t cert%in !ords %re split in h%l8, %nd the t!o componenents s!itch positions, but do not necess%rily ret%in %ll letters Fdue to French pronunci%tion p%tternsH2 For ex%mple, i8 you h%ve !ord a "c, in verl%n it !ill become a"- c2 :he !ord verlan is in itsel8 %n ex%mple o8 thisJ it comes 8rom the !ord l$envers Fme%nin. 7b%ck!%rds7H2 <erl%n is, unlike ,i. L%tin, Duite commonly used %mon. youn. %dults %nd even %dults2 =ommon verl%n expressions include0 ;eur ou rebeu n2, & person o8 &r%b descent2 8rom ara!e2 F7;eur7 is so commonly used th%t it no! h%s its o!n <erl%n 8orm, 7reub7H2 =helou %dE2, Fishy, sh%dy, suspicious2 8rom louche2 Leu8 ,olicem%n Fnot politeH 8rom 8lic dIl est chelou ce mec I E7v%is le b%l%ncer %ux keu8s2d Aeu8 n2, 'om%n, chick, .irl2 8rom femme2 5u8 %dE2, =r%/y, ridiculous2 8rom fou2 *sed commonly in the expression dc7est un truc de ou8d Fdth%t is some cr%/y shitdH2 9elou %dE2, )ot 8unny, di88icult, somethin. th%t sucks2 8rom lourd, he%vy2 Fthe d is dropped in <erl%n bec%use the 8in%l d does not pronounce in lourdH2 9ipou %dE2, 9otten, %!8ul, .ross2 8rom pourri 9ipou m un policier Dui commet des %ctes .r%ves ill@.%ux pl 0 des ripou0 :eu8 n2, ,%rty2 8rom fUte2 <enPre %dE2, %..r%v%ted, %n.ry, pissed o882 8rom enerv-,e.2

Co&&on Chat "bbreviations
:here %re t!o .ener%l .uidelines0

F c%n be susbstituted 8or %ll homophonic eDuiv%lents includin. d-%isd, d-%itd, d-esd Fsuch %s in the %rticles les %nd desH, the conEunction detd F%ndH, %nd the verb destd Fthird person sin.2 conEu.%tion o8 Utre, dto bedH2 !ords th%t end in % silent -s commonly drop this s0 such %s pas FpaH, %nd vois FvoiH2 n2, !isous, dkissesd2

bi/ c subEoverb, c$est, dit isd2 ct subEoverb, c$-tait, dit !%sdJ imp%r8%it Fp%stH conEu.%tion o8 c$est2 dc conE2, donc, dthere8ore, sod2 dsl %dE2, d-sol-,e., dsorryd2 8ok exp2, il faut Jue, dit is necess%ryd2 ke interr2 %nd rel%tive pronoun, Jue, dth%td2 ki interr2 %nd rel2 pron2, Jui, dth%td or d!hichd2 koi interro.%tive, Juoi, d!h%tdJ %lso seen in pour oi, d!hyd2 mdr exp2, mort,e. de rire, dl%u.hin. mysel8 to de%thd, FeDuiv%lent o8 lol, l%u.hin. out loudH2 m@ conE2, mais, dbutd2 pr prep2, pour, d8ord2 ptdr exp2, pet-,e. de rire, dburstin. !ith l%u.hterd, FeDuiv%lent o8 lol, l%u.hin. out loudH2 stron.er th%n mdr2

tt %dE2, tout,e., d%lldJ %lso seen in the expression tout le monde2 vnr %dE2, 8rom the <erl%n 8orm o8 enerv-,e., pissed o88, %n.ry, %..r%v%ted2 &ppendices

&ppendix &205 C 4l%n.
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &20( C :ypin. ch%r%cters
International <eyboard Con1iguration
=ommonly one memorises the %lt-number code 8or insertin. non-3n.lish ch%r%cters Fbelo!H, but there is % much better method2 5ne c%n ch%n.e their keybo%rd con8i.ur%tion 8rom their previous settin. to % *4 FG!ertyH Intern%tion%l settin.2 4ee http011!!!2st%rr2net1kbh 8or more in8orm%tion2 In 'indo!s M,0
40 "0 80 :0 ;0 =0 tart -5 etti!/s -5 6o!trol 'a!el Re/io!al a!d 7a!/ua/e O-tio!s 7a!/ua/es -5 9etails 000 6li%k Add0 1!der <!-ut la!/ua/e. %,oose your !ative la!/ua/e0 1!der >ey$oard layout?<@E. %,oose 1!ited tates-<!ter!atio!al0

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

)o! to 8orm %ccents, you pre8ix the letter !ith either u 7 d { or n 4o, to .et P, one types u %nd then e2 :o .et |, one types d %nd then 32
A AltB4;4 or AltBC":# D AltB4;C or AltBC";4 E AltB4"# or AltBC";"

In =ac 3' B
Bou could ch%n.e your keybo%rd l%yout in 4ystem ,re8erences-eIntern%tion%l-eInput Aenu or !ith the de8%ult D!erty keybo%rd l%yout you c%n use met% keys to cre%te the %ccents2 For inst%nce i8 you !%nt to cre%te %n dud %ccent you !ould press optionou then press the vo!el you !%nt to %ppe%r under the letter to cre%te O, P, }, ~, or Q2 :he keystrokes 8or the di88ent %ccents %re222
o-tio! o-tio! o-tio! o-tio! B B B B 2F2 2e2 2i2 2u2 G G G G F H I J

Co#y J :aste
:his method c%n be use8ul i8 you %re Eust !ritin. % short text F8or ex%mple %n e-m%ilH %nd don7t h%ve % computer !here you c%n1!%nt ch%n.e l%n.u%.e settin.s2 Kust try to pull up % !eb p%.e or % document th%t cont%ins the speci%l ch%r%cters %nd p%ste them into your text2 For lon.er texts, ho!ever, this c%n become Duite tedious2

'earch J 2e#lace
I8 you %re !orkin. !ith % text editor you h%ve the option to se%rch 8or text %nd repl%ce it !ith other text2 :his 8e%ture c%n be used to 7type7 speci%l ch%r%cters2 :he ide% is to mar % ch%r%cter 8or becomin. % speci%l ch%r%cter, 8or ex%mple typin. ]a !hen you me%n 32 &8ter you h%ve !ritten your text you repl%ce m%rked ch%r%cters Fthe ]aH !ith speci%l ch%r%cters Fthe 3H2 58 course you h%ve to either type in the &lt number code or p%ste the ch%r%cter, but the point is th%t you only h%ve to do it once 8or the !hole text %nd not 8or every sin.le 3 th%t you !%nt to type2

@ni0 and the Co&#ose key
I8 you %re usin. *nix or % deriv%tive oper%tin. system Fsuch %s LinuxH !ith MFree8(, you c%n de8ine % compose key by openin. % termin%l !indo! %nd typin.0
To use the &modma- -e To use the &modma- -e To use the &modma- -e Windows menu key (between the right Windows key and right Ctrl key: 2keysym @e!u G @ultiKkey2 right Windows key: 2keysym RK@eta G @ultiKkey2 right Alt key: 2keysym AltKLr G @ultiKkey2

:o use the =ompose key, press %nd rele%se the =ompose key, then type t!o ch%r%cters2 =ombin%tions use8ul 8or typin. in French 8ollo!0
M 6om-ose B a B F N 6om-ose B a B O P 6om-ose B a B 2 Q 6om-ose B % B . R S U V W 6om-ose 6om-ose 6om-ose 6om-ose 6om-ose B B B B B e e e e E B B B B B F T O 2 T

X 6om-ose B i B O Y 6om-ose B i B 2 Z 6om-ose B o B O [ 6om-ose B o B 2 A 6om-ose B u B F D 6om-ose B u B O E 6om-ose B u B 2

&ppendices

&ppendix &20( C :ypin. ch%r%cters
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&ppendices

&ppendix &20# C 'eb resources
'ikipedi% French l%n.u%.e extern%l links - +o/ens o8 v%lu%ble links2

!ranslators
• • •

$oo.le :r%nsl%tor ;%bel8ish :r%nsl%tion 0 & tr%nsl%tion !ebsite $oo.le :oolb%r - %utom%tic tr%nsl%te on mouseover o8 % !ord F3n.lish to French onlyH

live version discussion edit %ppendix comment report %n error %sk % Duestion

Learning 1rench
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

&bout2com French L%n.u%.e &nne Fox ;;= Kump-$%te *niversity o8 &del%ide, &ustr%li% French L%n.u%.e Le%rnin. 4o8t!%re Free 5nline French :utori%l ;;= ;itesi/e .r%mm%r :r%vel'iki ,hr%sebook 5rbis L%tinus French AI: French I &ssi.nments AI: French II &ssi.nments *se8ul in8orm%tion on the French l%n.u%.e c%n be 8ound on the site o8 tv5 F!!!2tv52or.H +ictionn%ire de l%n.ue 8r%nc%ise, +ictionn%ire de synonymes, =onEu.%isons, +ictionn%ire %n.l%is18r%nc%is, +ictionn%ire 8r%nc%is1%n.l%is, %nd lots moreI

French gra&&ar
'ikipedi% h%s more %bout this subEect0 $rench language $rench grammar
• • • • •

,ort%il lettres =lo# French .r%mm%r lessons 3xercises on French .r%mm%r F+r2 Aeul 3tienneH 5nline verb conEu.%tor

.ictionaries
• •

Lexilo.os 0 %ll online French diction%ries French diction%ry

French Culture
• • •

Le port%il de l% culture =ortl%nd &mb%ss%de de Fr%nce en )ouvelle-N@l%nde

!ravel in France
• •

AinistPre des &88%ires 3tr%n.Pres 8r%n6%is :r%vel'iki

French "d&inistration

Le port%il de l7%dministr%tion &ppendices

&ppendix &20# C 'eb resources
live version C discussion C edit %ppendix C comment C report %n error C %sk % Duestion

&bout the ;ook

Plouhinec * 9ucht von Pors Poulhan

Current .evelo#&ent
• •

$ener%l0 the m%in t%lk p%.e2 Lessons0 Lessons pl%nnin. p%.e2

.o*nloadable and :rint Aersions
• •

=omplete ,rint <ersion =omplete ,+F <ersion • +escription ,%.e • :hird 3dition C A%y 05, "00( C "25A; • ,revious 3ditions0 • First Lessons 3dition FFebru%ry 8, "00(H • 4econd 3dition FA%rch 8, "00(H 4peci8ic1+et%iled ;ook <ersions0 • Lessons ,rint <ersion • $r%mm%r ,rint <ersion • cont%ins tenses %nd minor p%.es not included in the .ener%l print version • :exts ,rint <ersion • cont%ins texts too lon. 8or the .ener%l print version

"uthors
2 -%sh%r - =re%ted this bookI "2 :r%roth - =re%ted Intro p%.e, edited sever%l errors2 32 -%.ind%/

License and .istrubtion
=opyri.ht FcH "00( 'ikibooks2 ,ermission is .r%nted to copy, distribute %nd1or modi8y this document under the terms o8 the $)* Free +ocument%tion License, <ersion 2" or %ny l%ter version published by the Free 4o8t!%re Found%tionJ !ith no Inv%ri%nt 4ections, no Front=over :exts, %nd no ;%ck-=over :exts2 & copy o8 the license is included in the section entitled d$)* Free +ocument%tion Licensed2

%-@ F2// .3C@=/-!"!I3- LIC/-'/

<ersion 2", )ovember "00" 6o-yri/,t (6) "CCC."CC4."CC" \ree oftware \ou!datio!. <!%0 ;# +em-le 'la%e. uite 88C. ]osto!. @A C"444-48C^ 1 A Everyo!e is -ermitted to %o-y a!d distri$ute ver$atim %o-ies of t,is li%e!se do%ume!t. $ut %,a!/i!/ it is !ot allowed0

0E :2/"=BL/
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E "::LIC"BILI!C "-. ./FI-I!I3-'
:his License %pplies to %ny m%nu%l or other !ork, in %ny medium, th%t cont%ins % notice pl%ced by the copyri.ht holder s%yin. it c%n be distributed under the terms o8 this License2 4uch % notice .r%nts % !orld-!ide, roy%lty-8ree license, unlimited in dur%tion, to use th%t !ork under the conditions st%ted herein2 :he d+ocumentd, belo!, re8ers to %ny such m%nu%l or !ork2 &ny member o8 the public is % licensee, %nd is %ddressed %s dyoud2 Bou %ccept the license i8 you copy, modi8y or distribute the !ork in % !%y reDuirin. permission under copyri.ht l%!2 & dAodi8ied <ersiond o8 the +ocument me%ns %ny !ork cont%inin. the +ocument or % portion o8 it, either copied verb%tim, or !ith modi8ic%tions %nd1or tr%nsl%ted into %nother l%n.u%.e2 & d4econd%ry 4ectiond is % n%med %ppendix or % 8ront-m%tter section o8 the +ocument th%t de%ls exclusively !ith the rel%tionship o8 the publishers or %uthors o8 the +ocument to the +ocument7s over%ll subEect For to rel%ted m%ttersH %nd cont%ins nothin. th%t could 8%ll directly !ithin th%t over%ll subEect2 F:hus, i8 the +ocument is in p%rt % textbook o8 m%them%tics, % 4econd%ry 4ection m%y not expl%in %ny m%them%tics2H :he rel%tionship could be % m%tter o8 historic%l connection !ith the subEect or !ith rel%ted m%tters, or o8 le.%l, commerci%l, philosophic%l, ethic%l or politic%l position re.%rdin. them2 :he dInv%ri%nt 4ectionsd %re cert%in 4econd%ry 4ections !hose titles %re desi.n%ted, %s bein. those o8 Inv%ri%nt 4ections, in the notice th%t s%ys th%t the +ocument is rele%sed under this License2 I8 % section does not 8it the %bove de8inition o8 4econd%ry then it is not %llo!ed to be desi.n%ted %s Inv%ri%nt2 :he +ocument m%y cont%in /ero Inv%ri%nt 4ections2 I8 the +ocument does not identi8y %ny Inv%ri%nt 4ections then there %re none2 :he d=over :extsd %re cert%in short p%ss%.es o8 text th%t %re listed, %s Front-=over :exts or ;%ck-=over :exts, in the notice th%t s%ys th%t the +ocument is rele%sed under this License2 & Front-=over :ext m%y be %t most 5 !ords, %nd % ;%ck-=over :ext m%y be %t most "5 !ords2 & d:r%nsp%rentd copy o8 the +ocument me%ns % m%chine-re%d%ble copy, represented in % 8orm%t !hose speci8ic%tion is %v%il%ble to the .ener%l public, th%t is suit%ble 8or revisin. the document str%i.ht8or!%rdly !ith .eneric text editors or F8or im%.es composed o8 pixelsH .eneric p%int pro.r%ms or F8or dr%!in.sH some !idely %v%il%ble dr%!in. editor, %nd th%t is suit%ble 8or input to text 8orm%tters or 8or %utom%tic tr%nsl%tion to % v%riety o8 8orm%ts suit%ble 8or input to text 8orm%tters2 & copy m%de in %n other!ise :r%nsp%rent 8ile 8orm%t !hose m%rkup, or %bsence o8 m%rkup, h%s been %rr%n.ed to th!%rt or discour%.e subseDuent modi8ic%tion by re%ders is not :r%nsp%rent2 &n im%.e 8orm%t is not :r%nsp%rent i8 used 8or %ny subst%nti%l %mount o8 text2 & copy th%t is not d:r%nsp%rentd is c%lled d5p%Dued2 3x%mples o8 suit%ble 8orm%ts 8or :r%nsp%rent copies include pl%in &4=II !ithout m%rkup, :exin8o input 8orm%t, L%:eM input 8orm%t, 4$AL or MAL usin. % publicly %v%il%ble +:+, %nd st%nd%rd-con8ormin. simple -:AL, ,ost4cript or ,+F desi.ned 8or hum%n modi8ic%tion2 3x%mples o8 tr%nsp%rent im%.e 8orm%ts include ,)$, M=F %nd K,$2 5p%Due 8orm%ts include propriet%ry 8orm%ts th%t c%n be re%d %nd edited only by propriet%ry !ord processors, 4$AL or MAL 8or !hich the +:+ %nd1or processin. tools %re not .ener%lly %v%il%ble, %nd the m%chine-.ener%ted -:AL, ,ost4cript or ,+F produced by some !ord processors 8or output purposes only2 :he d:itle ,%.ed me%ns, 8or % printed book, the title p%.e itsel8, plus such 8ollo!in. p%.es %s %re needed to hold, le.ibly, the m%teri%l this License reDuires to %ppe%r in the title p%.e2 For !orks in 8orm%ts !hich do not h%ve %ny title p%.e %s such, d:itle ,%.ed me%ns the text ne%r the most prominent %ppe%r%nce o8 the !ork7s title, precedin. the be.innin. o8 the body o8 the text2 & section d3ntitled MBNd me%ns % n%med subunit o8 the +ocument !hose title either is precisely MBN or cont%ins MBN in p%rentheses 8ollo!in. text th%t

tr%nsl%tes MBN in %nother l%n.u%.e2 F-ere MBN st%nds 8or % speci8ic section n%me mentioned belo!, such %s d&ckno!led.ementsd, d+edic%tionsd, d3ndorsementsd, or d-istoryd2H :o d,reserve the :itled o8 such % section !hen you modi8y the +ocument me%ns th%t it rem%ins % section d3ntitled MBNd %ccordin. to this de8inition2 :he +ocument m%y include '%rr%nty +iscl%imers next to the notice !hich st%tes th%t this License %pplies to the +ocument2 :hese '%rr%nty +iscl%imers %re considered to be included by re8erence in this License, but only %s re.%rds discl%imin. !%rr%nties0 %ny other implic%tion th%t these '%rr%nty +iscl%imers m%y h%ve is void %nd h%s no e88ect on the me%nin. o8 this License2

(E A/2B"!I= C3:CI-%
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lE C3:CI-% I- >@"-!I!C
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• • • • • • • • • •

"E *se in the :itle ,%.e F%nd on the covers, i8 %nyH % title distinct 8rom th%t o8 the +ocument, %nd 8rom those o8 previous versions F!hich should, i8 there !ere %ny, be listed in the -istory section o8 the +ocumentH2 Bou m%y use the s%me title %s % previous version i8 the ori.in%l publisher o8 th%t version .ives permission2 BE List on the :itle ,%.e, %s %uthors, one or more persons or entities responsible 8or %uthorship o8 the modi8ic%tions in the Aodi8ied <ersion, to.ether !ith %t le%st 8ive o8 the princip%l %uthors o8 the +ocument F%ll o8 its princip%l %uthors, i8 it h%s 8e!er th%n 8iveH, unless they rele%se you 8rom this reDuirement2 CE 4t%te on the :itle p%.e the n%me o8 the publisher o8 the Aodi8ied <ersion, %s the publisher2 .E ,reserve %ll the copyri.ht notices o8 the +ocument2 /E &dd %n %ppropri%te copyri.ht notice 8or your modi8ic%tions %dE%cent to the other copyri.ht notices2 FE Include, immedi%tely %8ter the copyri.ht notices, % license notice .ivin. the public permission to use the Aodi8ied <ersion under the terms o8 this License, in the 8orm sho!n in the &ddendum belo!2 %E ,reserve in th%t license notice the 8ull lists o8 Inv%ri%nt 4ections %nd reDuired =over :exts .iven in the +ocument7s license notice2 )E Include %n un%ltered copy o8 this License2 IE ,reserve the section 3ntitled d-istoryd, ,reserve its :itle, %nd %dd to it %n item st%tin. %t le%st the title, ye%r, ne! %uthors, %nd publisher o8 the Aodi8ied <ersion %s .iven on the :itle ,%.e2 I8 there is no section 3ntitled d-istoryd in the +ocument, cre%te one st%tin. the title, ye%r, %uthors, %nd publisher o8 the +ocument %s .iven on its :itle ,%.e, then %dd %n item describin. the Aodi8ied <ersion %s st%ted in the previous sentence2 ;E ,reserve the net!ork loc%tion, i8 %ny, .iven in the +ocument 8or public %ccess to % :r%nsp%rent copy o8 the +ocument, %nd like!ise the net!ork loc%tions .iven in the +ocument 8or previous versions it !%s b%sed on2 :hese m%y be pl%ced in the d-istoryd section2 Bou m%y omit % net!ork loc%tion 8or % !ork th%t !%s published %t le%st 8our ye%rs be8ore the +ocument itsel8, or i8 the ori.in%l publisher o8 the version it re8ers to .ives permission2 <E For %ny section 3ntitled d&ckno!led.ementsd or d+edic%tionsd, ,reserve the :itle o8 the section, %nd preserve in the section %ll the subst%nce %nd tone o8 e%ch o8 the contributor %ckno!led.ements %nd1or dedic%tions .iven therein2

• • • •

LE ,reserve %ll the Inv%ri%nt 4ections o8 the +ocument, un%ltered in their text %nd in their titles2 4ection numbers or the eDuiv%lent %re not considered p%rt o8 the section titles2 =E +elete %ny section 3ntitled d3ndorsementsd2 4uch % section m%y not be included in the Aodi8ied <ersion2 -E +o not retitle %ny existin. section to be 3ntitled d3ndorsementsd or to con8lict in title !ith %ny Inv%ri%nt 4ection2 3E ,reserve %ny '%rr%nty +iscl%imers2

I8 the Aodi8ied <ersion includes ne! 8ront-m%tter sections or %ppendices th%t Du%li8y %s 4econd%ry 4ections %nd cont%in no m%teri%l copied 8rom the +ocument, you m%y %t your option desi.n%te some or %ll o8 these sections %s inv%ri%nt2 :o do this, %dd their titles to the list o8 Inv%ri%nt 4ections in the Aodi8ied <ersion7s license notice2 :hese titles must be distinct 8rom %ny other section titles2 Bou m%y %dd % section 3ntitled d3ndorsementsd, provided it cont%ins nothin. but endorsements o8 your Aodi8ied <ersion by v%rious p%rties--8or ex%mple, st%tements o8 peer revie! or th%t the text h%s been %pproved by %n or.%ni/%tion %s the %uthorit%tive de8inition o8 % st%nd%rd2 Bou m%y %dd % p%ss%.e o8 up to 8ive !ords %s % Front-=over :ext, %nd % p%ss%.e o8 up to "5 !ords %s % ;%ck-=over :ext, to the end o8 the list o8 =over :exts in the Aodi8ied <ersion2 5nly one p%ss%.e o8 Front-=over :ext %nd one o8 ;%ck-=over :ext m%y be %dded by For throu.h %rr%n.ements m%de byH %ny one entity2 I8 the +ocument %lre%dy includes % cover text 8or the s%me cover, previously %dded by you or by %rr%n.ement m%de by the s%me entity you %re %ctin. on beh%l8 o8, you m%y not %dd %notherJ but you m%y repl%ce the old one, on explicit permission 8rom the previous publisher th%t %dded the old one2 :he %uthorFsH %nd publisherFsH o8 the +ocument do not by this License .ive permission to use their n%mes 8or publicity 8or or to %ssert or imply endorsement o8 %ny Aodi8ied <ersion2

$E C3=BI-I-% .3C@=/-!'
Bou m%y combine the +ocument !ith other documents rele%sed under this License, under the terms de8ined in section 4 %bove 8or modi8ied versions, provided th%t you include in the combin%tion %ll o8 the Inv%ri%nt 4ections o8 %ll o8 the ori.in%l documents, unmodi8ied, %nd list them %ll %s Inv%ri%nt 4ections o8 your combined !ork in its license notice, %nd th%t you preserve %ll their '%rr%nty +iscl%imers2 :he combined !ork need only cont%in one copy o8 this License, %nd multiple identic%l Inv%ri%nt 4ections m%y be repl%ced !ith % sin.le copy2 I8 there %re multiple Inv%ri%nt 4ections !ith the s%me n%me but di88erent contents, m%ke the title o8 e%ch such section uniDue by %ddin. %t the end o8 it, in p%rentheses, the n%me o8 the ori.in%l %uthor or publisher o8 th%t section i8 kno!n, or else % uniDue number2 A%ke the s%me %dEustment to the section titles in the list o8 Inv%ri%nt 4ections in the license notice o8 the combined !ork2 In the combin%tion, you must combine %ny sections 3ntitled d-istoryd in the v%rious ori.in%l documents, 8ormin. one section 3ntitled d-istorydJ like!ise combine %ny sections 3ntitled d&ckno!led.ementsd, %nd %ny sections 3ntitled d+edic%tionsd2 Bou must delete %ll sections 3ntitled d3ndorsements2d

HE C3LL/C!I3-' 3F .3C@=/-!'
Bou m%y m%ke % collection consistin. o8 the +ocument %nd other documents rele%sed under this License, %nd repl%ce the individu%l copies o8 this License in the v%rious documents !ith % sin.le copy th%t is included in the collection, provided th%t you 8ollo! the rules o8 this License 8or verb%tim copyin. o8 e%ch o8 the documents in %ll other respects2 Bou m%y extr%ct % sin.le document 8rom such % collection, %nd distribute it individu%lly under this License, provided you insert % copy o8 this License into the extr%cted document, %nd 8ollo! this License in %ll other respects re.%rdin. verb%tim copyin. o8 th%t document2

7E "%%2/%"!I3- WI!) I-./:/-./-! W32<'
& compil%tion o8 the +ocument or its deriv%tives !ith other sep%r%te %nd independent documents or !orks, in or on % volume o8 % stor%.e or distribution medium, is c%lled %n d%..re.%ted i8 the copyri.ht resultin. 8rom the compil%tion is not used to limit the le.%l ri.hts o8 the compil%tion7s users beyond !h%t the individu%l !orks permit2 'hen the +ocument is included in %n %..re.%te, this License does not %pply to the other !orks in the %..re.%te !hich %re not themselves deriv%tive !orks o8 the +ocument2 I8 the =over :ext reDuirement o8 section 3 is %pplic%ble to these copies o8 the +ocument, then i8 the +ocument is less th%n one h%l8 o8 the entire %..re.%te, the +ocument7s =over :exts m%y be pl%ced on covers th%t br%cket the +ocument !ithin the %..re.%te, or the electronic eDuiv%lent o8 covers i8 the +ocument is in electronic 8orm2 5ther!ise they must %ppe%r on printed covers th%t br%cket the !hole %..re.%te2

IE !2"-'L"!I3:r%nsl%tion is considered % kind o8 modi8ic%tion, so you m%y distribute tr%nsl%tions o8 the +ocument under the terms o8 section 42 9epl%cin. Inv%ri%nt 4ections !ith tr%nsl%tions reDuires speci%l permission 8rom their copyri.ht holders, but you m%y include tr%nsl%tions o8 some or %ll Inv%ri%nt 4ections in %ddition to the ori.in%l versions o8 these Inv%ri%nt 4ections2 Bou m%y include % tr%nsl%tion o8 this License, %nd %ll the license notices in the +ocument, %nd %ny '%rr%nty +iscl%imers, provided th%t you %lso include the ori.in%l 3n.lish version o8 this License %nd the ori.in%l versions o8 those notices %nd discl%imers2 In c%se o8 % dis%.reement bet!een the tr%nsl%tion %nd the ori.in%l version o8 this License or % notice or discl%imer, the ori.in%l version !ill prev%il2 I8 % section in the +ocument is 3ntitled d&ckno!led.ementsd, d+edic%tionsd, or d-istoryd, the reDuirement Fsection 4H to ,reserve its :itle Fsection H !ill typic%lly reDuire ch%n.in. the %ctu%l title2

9E !/2=I-"!I3Bou m%y not copy, modi8y, sublicense, or distribute the +ocument except %s expressly provided 8or under this License2 &ny other %ttempt to copy, modi8y, sublicense or distribute the +ocument is void, %nd !ill %utom%tic%lly termin%te your ri.hts under this License2 -o!ever, p%rties !ho h%ve received copies, or ri.hts, 8rom you under this License !ill not h%ve their licenses termin%ted so lon. %s such p%rties rem%in in 8ull compli%nce2

0E F@!@2/ 2/AI'I3-' 3F !)I' LIC/-'/
:he Free 4o8t!%re Found%tion m%y publish ne!, revised versions o8 the $)* Free +ocument%tion License 8rom time to time2 4uch ne! versions !ill be simil%r in spirit to the present version, but m%y di88er in det%il to %ddress ne! problems or concerns2 4ee http011!!!2.nu2or.1copyle8t12 3%ch version o8 the License is .iven % distin.uishin. version number2 I8 the +ocument speci8ies th%t % p%rticul%r numbered version o8 this License dor %ny l%ter versiond %pplies to it, you h%ve the option o8 8ollo!in. the terms %nd conditions either o8 th%t speci8ied version or o8 %ny l%ter version th%t h%s been published Fnot %s % dr%8tH by the Free 4o8t!%re Found%tion2 I8 the +ocument does not speci8y % version number o8 this License, you m%y choose %ny version ever published Fnot %s % dr%8tH by the Free 4o8t!%re Found%tion2

)o* to use this License 1or your docu&ents
:o use this License in % document you h%ve !ritten, include % copy o8 the License in the document %nd put the 8ollo!in. copyri.ht %nd license notices Eust %8ter the title p%.e0 6o-yri/,t (%) _EAR _O1R (A@E0 'ermissio! is /ra!ted to %o-y. distri$ute a!d?or modify t,is do%ume!t u!der t,e terms of t,e L(1 \ree 9o%ume!tatio! 7i%e!se. `ersio! 40" or a!y later versio! -u$lis,ed $y t,e \ree oftware \ou!datio!a wit, !o <!varia!t e%tio!s. !o \ro!t-6over +e&ts. a!d !o ]a%k-6over +e&ts0 A %o-y of t,e li%e!se is i!%luded i! t,e se%tio! e!titled 2L(1 \ree 9o%ume!tatio! 7i%e!se20 I8 you h%ve Inv%ri%nt 4ections, Front-=over :exts %nd ;%ck-=over :exts, repl%ce the d!ith222:exts2d line !ith this0 wit, t,e <!varia!t e%tio!s $ei!/ 7< + +HE<R +<+7E . wit, t,e \ro!t-6over +e&ts $ei!/ 7< +. a!d wit, t,e ]a%k-6over +e&ts $ei!/ 7< +0 I8 you h%ve Inv%ri%nt 4ections !ithout =over :exts, or some other combin%tion o8 the three, mer.e those t!o %ltern%tives to suit the situ%tion2 I8 your document cont%ins nontrivi%l ex%mples o8 pro.r%m code, !e recommend rele%sin. these ex%mples in p%r%llel under your choice o8 8ree so8t!%re license, such %s the $)* $ener%l ,ublic License, to permit their use in 8ree so8t!%re2

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