A Gentle Introduction to GIS

Brought to you with Quantum GIS, a Free and Open Source Software GIS Application for everyone.

T. Sutton, O. Dassau, M. Sutton sponsored y! "hief #irectorate! Spatial $lanning % Information, #epartment of &and Affairs, 'astern "ape, South Africa.

in partnership with! Spatial Information (anagement )nit, Office of the $remier, 'astern "ape, South Africa.

Copyright (c)

2009

Chief Directorate: Spatial Planning & Information, Department of Land ffair!, "a!tern Cape#

Permi!!ion i! granted to copy, di!tri$%te and&or modify thi! doc%ment %nder the term! of the '() *ree Doc%mentation Licen!e, +er!ion ,#2 or any later -er!ion p%$li!hed $y the *ree Soft.are *o%ndation/ .ith no In-ariant Section!, no *ront0Co-er 1e2t!, and no 3ac40Co-er 1e2t!# copy of the licen!e i! incl%ded in the !ection entitled 5'() *ree Doc%mentation Licen!e5#

1he a$o-e copyright notice e2cl%de! the 6'IS )!er 7an%al .hich may $e appended to thi! doc%ment# Con!%lt the 6'IS 7an%al! for f%rther copyright and licen!ing information#

A word from the editor: *his pro+ect was sponsored y the "hief #irectorate! Spatial $lanning % Information, #epartment of &and Affairs ,#&A-, 'astern "ape, in con+unction with the Spatial Information (anagement )nit, Office of the $remier, 'astern "ape, South Africa. GIS is ecoming an increasingly important tool in environmental management, retail, military, police, tourism and many other spheres of our daily lives. If you use a computer or a cell phone, you have pro a ly already used a GIS in some form without even realising it. (ay e it was a map on a we site, Google 'arth, an information ooth or your cell phone telling you where you are. $roprietary GIS software ,software that cannot e freely shared or modified- is availa le that will let you do everything we descri e in these wor.sheets and a lot more. /owever this software is usually very e0pensive or otherwise limits your freedom to copy, share and modify the software. GIS vendors sometimes ma.e an e0ception for educational activities, providing cheaper or free copies of their software. *hey do this .nowing that if teachers and learners get to .now their software, they will e reluctant to learn other pac.ages. 1hen learners leave school they will go into the wor.place and uy the commercial software, never .nowing that there are free alternatives that they could e using. 1ith Quantum GIS, we offer an alternative 2 software that is free of cost and free in a social sense. 3ou can ma.e as many copies as you li.e. 1hen learners leave school one day they can use this software to uild their s.ills, solve pro lems at wor. and ma.e the world a etter place. 1hen you uy commercial software, you limit your options for the future. By learning, using and sharing Free and Open Source Software, you are uilding your own s.ills, freeing money to e spent on important things li.e food and shelter and oosting our own economy. By sponsoring the creation of this resource, the #&A has created a foundation to which young minds can e e0posed. '0citing possi ilities lie ahead when principles of free sharing of .nowledge and data are em raced. For this we give our heartfelt than.s to the #&A4 1e hope you en+oy using and learning QGIS in the spirit of ) untu4

*im Sutton, April 5667

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??@ 5>. Information System. displaying graphics and processing data.76@ 5>.756?<7 2:8.7887@@ #isease (umps (umps (umps (easles (easles (easles (easles (umps #ate 8:F85F566@ 5. GIS. Analysis Beywords! Overview: Cust as we use a word processor to write documents and deal with words on a computer. create new spatial information to add to a map.@<. GIS stands for Geo!raphical Information S"stem .@>76?5 &atitude 2:8.er and you ma.:> 5>.e a note of the date and place of residence of every patient you treat. #omputer Software D computer programs that run on the computer hardware and allow you to wor. with digital data. #omputer $ardware D computers used for storing data.75<885 2:8.@?6.7675<7 2:8.786. A software program that forms part of the GIS is called a GIS Application.@<5?>. at a little e0ample of how GIS can e useful.758757 2:8.@<<@8? 5>. Imagine you are a health wor. #ata. 2:8. "omputer.@>@>@5 5>. A GIS consists of! ● ● ● Di!ital Data D the geographical information that you will view and analyse using computer hardware and software. we can use a GIS application to deal with spatial information on a computer.767<87 2:8.758757 2:8. 1ith a GIS application you can open digital maps on your computer. create printed maps customised to your needs and perform spatial analysis.@>??6? 5>.F85F566@ 55F68F5667 88F68F5667 5>F68F5667 86F65F5667 55F65F5667 65F65F5667 5 . &ongitude 5>.GIS for 'ducators Topic 1: Introducing GIS O +ectives! )nderstanding what GIS is and what it can e used for. (aps. 5>.@<.7. &etEs loo. Spatial.

ly see that there were a lot of measles cases in Canuary and Fe ruary. It used to e that computerised GIS was only availa le to companies and universities that had e0pensive computer eGuipment. It is easy to see that the mumps patients all live close to each other.6> "hic. More a%out GIS: GIS is a relatively new field 2 it started in the 87?6Es. it refers to all aspects of managing and using digital geographical data. )sing this data in a GIS Application. at the ta le a ove you will Guic. In the tutorials that follow we : . Over time GIS Applications have also ecome easier to use D it used to reGuire a lot of training to use a GIS Application. *hese days. GIS is more than +ust software.5>. ut now it is much easier to get started in GIS even for amateurs and casual users. Our health wor. 2:8.en $o0 5>F65F5667 If you loo. As we descri ed a ove.@>::<.78>.er recorded the location of each patientEs house y noting its latitude and longitude in the ta le. anyone with a personal computer or laptop can use GIS software. we can Guic.ly understand a lot more a out the patterns of illness! Illustration 1: Example showing disease records in a GIS application.

expand to show a list o! actions that can "e carried out. Illustration #: $ool"ars provide %uic access to commonly used !unctions.. *he application provides menus near to the top of the window . (ap layers are stored as files on a dis. &hat is GIS Software ' a GIS Application(: 3ou can see an e0ample of what a GIS Application loo.s li. For e0ample you may use the menus to tell the GIS Application to add a new layer to the display output. GIS Applications are normally programs with a graphical user interface that can e manipulated using the mouse and .ed using the mouse. &olding your mouse over a picture will usually tell you what will happen when you clic on it. or as records in a data ase. *hese actions provide a way for you to tell the GIS Application what you want to do. 'dit etc.File. Tool%ars .ey oard. .rows of small pictures that can e clic.er way to use freGuently needed actions.e in Illustration 8 a ove.will e focusing on GIS Software.normally sit +ust elow the menus and provide a Guic. show a panel of actions. when clic. Illustration 2: Application menus.ed with the mouse. Aormally each map layer will represent something in the real world D a roads layer for e0ample will have data a out the street networ.which. 1hen you open a layer in the GIS Application it will appear in the map view.. . A common function of GIS Applications is to display map la"ers. when clic ed with the mouse.

s D as shown in Illustration @ elow.ly and easily. and GIS Applications are very good at letting you change sym ology Guic. Sym ology plays an important role in how we interpret maps. if we ta.panning. Illustration +: GIS So!tware let you easily change sym"ology . to ? elow show a map view that has several layers eing added to it. < . we can completely change how it loo. Illustrations . the way in!ormation is displayed. )nli. For e0ample.e them appear in different colours or sym ols. the maps displayed in GIS Applications can e changed after they have een created. Hoom out to see a greater area and move around . An important function of the map view is to allow you to Hoom in to magnify. the layers are overlaid on top of each other. Illustration (: A towns layer added to the map view.e paper maps. 1hen you add more than one layer to a map view.e the map in Illustration ? and change the sym ology. 3ou can change the s"m%olo!" of the map layers to ma.*he map view shows a graphic representing your layer. Illustration ): A railways layer added to the map view. Illustration ': A schools layer added to the map view.in the map. Illustration *: A rivers layer added to the map view.

Some have many sophisticated features and cost tens of thousands of =ands for each copy. you can o tain a GIS Application for free. #eciding which GIS Application to use is a Guestion of how much money you can afford and personal preference. letEs tal. you should have received a copy of QGIS with it. Illustration 1/: A!ter changing the layer order. By changing the layer order. )nli. If not.e!ore changing the layer order. a out GIS data.e a paper map legend. the way that layers are drawn can e ad+usted D in this case so that rivers are drawn over the roads instead of elow them. *he map legend provides a list of layers that have een loaded in the GIS Application. For these tutorials.e. the map legend is shown as the area to the left of the GIS Application window. rivers are drawn on top o! roads.Another common feature of GIS Applications is the map le!end. Gettin! a GIS Application for "our own computer)s*: *here are many different GIS Applications availa le. we will e using the Quantum GIS Application.nown as QGIS. In Illustrations 7 and 86 elow. In other cases.now what a GIS is and what a GIS Application can do. #ata is another word for information.org to download your free copy if you have access to the internet. "hanging the layer order is done y clic. Illustration -: .ing on a layer in the legend. GIS Data: Aow that we . Quantum GIS is completely free and you can copy it and share it with your friends as much as you li. hide. rivers are drawn underneath roads. you can always visit http!FFGgis. holding the mouse utton down and then dragging the layer to a new position. the map legend or Elayers listE in the GIS Application provides a way to re2order. show and group layers. If you received this tutorial in printed form. *he information we > . also .

-aster data are stored as a grid of values.g. our health care wor. lines and areas. with a GIS Application we have a way to easily change the appearance of the maps we created ased on the non2geographical data associated with places. *here are many satellites circling ? . 9ector data is used to represent points. In fact. or ased on disease type. the GIS Application can store many pieces of information which are associated with each place D something that paper maps are not very good at. with many different types of data. In the tutorials that follow we will e e0ploring vector data in more detail. She created a ta le to record diseases that loo.er.non2geographical data.ector data is stored as a series of I. . Illustration 88 elow shows different types of vector data eing viewed in a GIS application. A common feature of GIS is that they allow you to associate information .er could store the personEs age and gender on her ta le. a out the health care wor.g.3 coordinate pairs inside the computerEs memory. GIS Systems wor.with places .@?6.g. For e0ample.:> &atitude 2:8.ed li. rivers2 and polygons 1e.use in a GIS normally has a geographical aspect to it. and so on. *he disease and date columns hold non+!eo!raphical data. So.e this! &ongitude 5>. of our e0ample a ove. 1hen the GIS Application draws the layer. you can tell it to draw the layer ased on gender. Illustration 11: 0ector data is used to represent points 1e.geographical data-. *hin. towns2. municipal "oundaries2. lines 1e.767<87 #isease (umps #ate 8:F85F566@ *he longitude and latitude columns hold !eo!raphical data.

In fact these loc. of! ○ GIS Applications allow you to create many different types of maps from the same data. "ut this time 5oomed in.g.see illustrations 85 and 8: elow-.s are the individual cells of the data grid that ma. &hat have we learned( Illustration 1#: $he same raster data.sheet! ● A GIS is a system of computer hardware. ○ GIS is a great visualisation tool that can show you things a out your data and how they are related in space .ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● Geo!raph": #escri e the concept of GIS to your learners as outlined in this tutorial. Illustration 12: 3aster data are o!ten images ta en "y satellites. ● A GIS Application allows you to view geographical data and is an important part of the GIS. ● A GIS Application normally consists of a menu %ar. computer software and geographical data. &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. those disease out rea.ind of raster data that can e viewed in a GIS. 1e will e loo. it will start to appear E loc. ● Geo!raphical data can have associated non+!eo!raphical data.the earth and the photographs they ta. /ere are some that we could thin. &ere we can see mountains in the Eastern 4ape.ector and raster data are geographical data used in a GIS application.e are a .s @ . One important difference etween raster and vector data is that if you Hoom in too much on a raster image. As.es up the raster image.e. $he grid nature o! the data can "e seen.yE . a map view and a le!end. . tool%ars. ● . of : reasons why it might e handy to use a GIS instead of paper maps.ing at raster data in greater detail in later tutorials. them to try to thin.

● Geo!raph": "an you and your learners thin.:<>6>? &e%site: http!FFwww. *he GIS can hold a very large amount of map data and ma.ing with QGIS. of how raster data from satellites could e usefulJ /ere are some ideas we had! ○ #uring natural disasters.○ we saw earlier-.htm *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on wor.gisdevelopment. ○ Sometimes people do ad things to the the environment. /owever. at vectors4 7 . 1urther readin!: 2oo0: #es. showing you how to use a GIS Application. many of the topics we cover in this tutorial can e reproduced using an overhead and transparency as it uses the same techniGue of layering information.netFtutorialsFtuman66>. Author: Gary Sherman.top GIS! (apping the $lanet with Open Source *ools. Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le. raster data can e useful to show where the impacted areas are. IS2. &hat s ne3t( In the sections that follow we are going to go into more detail.e it Guic.ill plants and animals. )sing raster data from satellites can help us to monitor for these type of pro lems. For e0ample a recent satellite image ta. ○ *own planners can use raster data from satellites to see where informal settlements are and to help in planning infrastructure. $aper maps need to e filed and are time consuming to view.e dumping dangerous chemicals that .: 7?@87:. and easy to find a place you are interested in. li. All of the tutorials will e done using QGIS. Ae0t up. to properly understand GIS it is always etter to learn it using a computer. letEs loo.en during a flood can help to show where people may need rescuing.

86 . houses and trees. A vector feature has its shape represented using !eometr". Geometry. 9ector. roads. Illustration 1(: 6oo ing over a landscape you can see the main !eatures. A verte0 descri es a position in space using an 3.ing down you can see houses. trees. #ata Sources Overview: . 'ach one of these things would e a feature when we represent them in a GIS Application. and so on .6D since they descri e height or depth at each verte0. $oint. Sym ology. such as roads. $olyline. rivers. Geometries which have vertices with a H a0is are often referred to as 4. elow-. &oo.GIS for 'ducators Topic 4: Vector Data O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstanding of vector data models as used in GIS. Imagine you are standing on the top of a hill. #ata Quality. 9erte0.see Illustration 8. ut not oth. $olygon.ector data provide a way to represent real world features within the GIS environment. *he geometry is made up of one or more interconnected vertices. " and optionally 5 a0is. which consist of te0t or numerical information that descri%e the features. Scale. 9ector features have attri%utes. A feature is anything you can see on the landscape.

see Illustration 8< elow-. 7oint features in detail: *he first thing we need to realise when tal.see Illustration 8? elow-.how far away are you from the feature-. 1hen you choose to use points to represent a feature is mostly a matter of scale . If you have a small scale map . a pol"line feature is formed . Illustration 1*: A polygon. at cities for e0ample. and often dependent on scale.it ta. Illustration 1': A point !eature is descri"ed "y its 7.ing ac. and the type of 88 . 1here four or more vertices are present.1hen a featureEs geometry consists of only a single verte0.which covers a large area-. letEs loo. moving towards a larger scale. Illustration 1): A polyline is a se%uence o! :oined vertices.es more sense to show the city limits as a polygon. /owever as you Hoom in to the map.ing a out point features is that what we descri e as a point in GIS is a matter of opinion. &oo. it is referred to as a point feature . li e a polyline. you should e a le to see the different types of features in the way that a GIS represents them now . 1here the geometry consists of two or more vertices and the first and last verte0 are not eGual. an enclosed pol"!on feature is formed . &owever in a polygon.es less time and effort to create point features than polygon features-. Attri"utes descri"e the polyline.see Illustration 8@ elow-. i! it is a tree or a lamp post. it may ma. at the picture of a landscape we showed you further up. the !irst and last vertices are always at the same position. 8 and optionally 9 coordinate. it ma. Each vertex has an 7.see Illustration 8> elow-. and the last verte0 is eGual to the first. 8 1and optionally 92 coordinate.g. is a se%uence o! vertices. $he point attri"utes descri"e the point e. convenience .e sense to represent a city using a point feature.

a pol"line has two or more vertices. 1hen more than two are +oined. One of the most common reference systems is 8on!itude and 8atitude. *he polyline is a continuous path drawn through each verte0. 3ivers 1"lue2 and roads 1green2 can "e represented as lines.some things li. you will have created a point feature. Since we . *he I and 3 values will depend on the #oordinate -eference S"stem . If you ma. they form a Eline of linesE.and &atitude . 7ol"line features in detail: 1here a point feature is a single verte0.e telephone poles +ust donEt ma. 85 ."=S. *his descri es how high a ove sea level you are.e sense to e stored as polygons-. 1e are going to go into more detail a out "oordinate =eference Systems in a later tutorial.ed it on a map.feature . For now letEs simply say that a "=S is a way to accurately descri e where a particular place is on the earthEs surface. as shown in Illustration 8> a ove-. or pol"line. it is often useful to add a K value to a point feature.e a similar measurement for a tree or a telephone pole and mar. a line is created.eing used. Illustration 1+: 6andscape !eatures as we would represent them in a GIS.I. trees as points 1red2 and houses as polygons 1white2.3-. K value. 3ou can descri e precisely where you are at any place on the earth y giving someone your &ongitude .3 and optionally. As we show in Illustration 8<. a point feature has an I. &ines of &ongitude run from the Aorth $ole to the South $ole.now the earth is not flat. &ines of &atitude run from the 'ast to 1est. 1hen two vertices are +oined.

A polyline is used to show the geometry of linear features such as roads.e. depending on the scale at which it is viewed . how many lanes it has.with distances etween vertices that are small enough for the scale at which you want to use the data. roads. &i.ut should never cross over each other. (any GIS applications have the capa ility to ensure that the oundaries of neigh ouring polygons e0actly 8: .and the GIS will ensure that these polylines always comply to these rules. For e0ample contour lines may touch . Illustration 1-: .see Illustration 87 elow-.captured into the computer.e polyline features. at a cliff face. If a curved polyline has very large distances etween vertices. it may appear an!ular or +agged. Similarly.e. *he attri%utes of a polyline decri e its properties or characteristics. the first and last vertices should always e at the same place4 $olygons often have shared !eometr" D oundaries that are in common with a neigh ouring polygon. footpaths. and so on. contours. Sometimes we have special rules for polylines in addition to their asic geometry. polylines used to store a road networ. whether it is a one way street.e dams. flight paths and so on. *he GIS can use these attri utes to sym olise the polyline feature with a suita le colour or line style. polygons are created from a series of vertices that are connected with a continuous line.olylines viewed at a smaller scale 11:2/ /// to the le!t2 may appear smooth and curved.g.g. rivers. country oundaries and so on. For e0ample a road polyline may have attri utes that descri e whether it is surfaced with gravel or tar. 7ol"!on features in detail: $olygon features are enclosed areas li. <hen 5oomed in to a larger scale 11:'// to the right2 polylines may loo very angular. islands. should e connected at intersections. In some GIS applications you can set these special rules for a feature type . /owever ecause a polygon always descri es an enclosed area. Because of this it is important that polylines are digitised .

.e.g. *his is convenient ecause it allows you to hide or show all of the features for that layer in your GIS application with a single mouse clic. you can o tain vector data that appears on the 8!<6 666 map sheets from the "hief #irectorate ! Surveys and (apping. Scale and vector data: (ap scale is an important issue to consider when wor.and the same . Say for e0ample you are monitoring pollution in a river.coincide. "reating and editing vector data is an important function of a GIS since it is one of the main ways in which you can create personal data for things you are interested in.inds of attri utes . 1e will e0plore this in the topolo!" topic later in this tutorial. they will usually e stored together on the computer hard dis. If a layer contains polygons . (ost GIS applications group vector features into la"ers. For e0ample.ector data in la"ers: Aow that we have descri ed what vector data is. For e0ample if you have recorded the positions of all the footpaths in your school. or y ta. at more closely in a later tutorial. and shown in the GIS as a single layer.. the application will only allow you to do it if the changed shape is correct. there is a lot of free vector data that you can o tain and use. 3ou could use the GIS to digitise all outfalls for storm water drains . the GIS application will only allow you to create new polygons in that layer. Similarly if you want to change the shape of a feature. so if you import vector data from a map 8. .e. 9ditin! vector data: *he GIS application will allow you to create and modify the geometry data in a layer D a process called di!itisin! D which we will loo. it is usually digitised from e0isting maps. 3ou could also digitise the river itself .as point features-.g. (aps have different scales. polygons have attri%utes. they will all e points.e readings of p/ levels along the course of the river and digitise the places where you made these readings .e. letEs loo. For e0ample a dam may have attri utes for depth and water Guality. at how vector data is managed and used in a GIS environment. farm dams-. 1hen data is captured.as a point layer-. information a out what species a tree is for a trees layer-. *he attri utes descri e each polygon.as a polyline feature-. Finally you could ta. As well as creating your own data.ing with vector data in a GIS. As with points and polylines. Features in a layer have the the same geometry type . For e0ample it wonEt allow you to edit a line in such a way that it has only one verte0 D remem er in our discussion of lines a ove that all lines must have at least two vertices.g.ing information from surveyor records and glo al positioning system devices.

see Illustrations 55. you can tell it to draw a water odies vector layer in lue-. One of the great advantages of using a GIS is that you can create personalised maps very easily.5: % 5.ing a poor choice of map scale. they will e drawn with random colours and asic sym ols. the digital vector data will have the same scale issues as the original map. For e0ample using the vector data in Illustration Illustration 56 elow. *he GIS will also let you ad+ust the sym ol used.er that the GIS uses when you first load the layer . *he GIS program will let you choose colours to suite the feature type .g. (any issues can arise from ma. So if you have a trees point layer. you can show each tree position with a small picture of a tree. *his effect can e seen in Illustrations 56 and 58 elow.e. 8< .to plan a wetland conservation area could result in important parts of the wetland eing left out of the reserve4 On the other hand if you are trying to create a regional map. elow-.for e0ample y digitising paper maps-. rather than the asic circle mar. S"m%olo!": Illustration 21: 0ector data 1green lines2 that was digitised !rom a large scale 11:'/ ///2 map. using data captured at 8!8666 666 might e +ust fine and will save you a lot of time and effort capturing the data. Illustration 2/: 0ector data 1red lines2 that was digitised !rom a small scale 11:1/// ///2 map.into a GIS environment . 1hen you add vector layers to the map view in a GIS application.

a GIS application will give it a generic sym"ol. Illustration 2#: In the GIS.Illustration 22: <hen a layer 1!or example the trees layer a"ove2 is !irst loaded. you can use a panel 1li e the one a"ove2 to ad:ust how !eatures in your layer should "e drawn. 8> .

ing maps come to life and the data in your GIS easier to understand. at spatial analysis in more detail. when the people capturing the data arenEt eing careful. In the topic that follows . Inaccurate vector data can occur when the instruments used to capture the data are not properly set up. #ommon pro%lems with vector data: 1or.ing with attri ute data. A GIS is a great tool for answering these types of Guestions with the help of vector data. 9ector data also needs a lot of wor.ing with vector data does have some pro lems.we will e0plore more deeply how sym ology can help the user to understand vector data. Sym ology is a powerful feature. and so on. Generally we refer to the process of answering these types of Guestions as spatial anal"sis.wor. In later topics of this tutorial we will loo.Illustration 2(: A!ter ma ing our ad:ustments it is much easier to see that our points represent trees. Guestions li. 1e already mentioned the issues that can arise with vectors captured at different scales. If you have poor Guality vector data. *he real power of GIS starts to show itself when you start to as. &hat can we do with vector data in a GIS(: At the simplest level we can use vector data in a GIS Application in much the same way you would use a normal topographic map. ma. when time or money donEt allow for enough detail in the collection process. and maintenance to ensure that it is accurate and relia le.e Ewhich houses are within the 866 year flood level of a riverJEL Ewhere is the est place to put a hospital so that it is easily accessi le to as many people as possi leJEL Ewhich learners live in a particular su ur JE. you can often detect 8? .

e.does not e0actly meet another feature to which it should e connected. Because of these types of errors. At a small scale 1e.g. :ndershoots can occur when a line feature .e. a river. In the upcoming topic on topolo!". Illustration 2': Slivers occur when the vertices o! two polygons do not match up on their "orders. For e0ample slivers can occur when the edges of two polygon areas donEt meet properly . At a large scale they are visi"le as thin strips "etween two polygons 12 on right2. it is very important to digitise data carefully and accurately. Illustration 5> elow demonstrates what undershoots and overshoots loo. li. 8@ . we will e0amine some of these types of errors in more detail.g. Overshoots can occur when a line feature such as a road does not meet another road e0actly at an intersection. 1 on le!t2 you may not "e a"le to see these errors.see Illustration 5< elow-.this when viewing the data in a GIS.

?vershoots 122 happen i! a line ends "eyond the line it should connect to. line or a pol"!on. ● #igitising is the process of creating digital vector data y drawing it in a GIS application. convenience and what you want to do with the data in the GIS.3 and optionally K-. 87 .I.Illustration 2): =ndershoots 112 occur when digitised vector lines that should connect to each other don>t %uite touch. ● $olyline geometries are made up of two or more vertices forming a connected line. ● 'ach vector feature has attri%ute data that descri es it.sheet! ● . ● (ost GIS applications do not allow you to mi0 more than one geometry type in a single layer.ector data is used to represent real world features in a GIS. ● $oint geometries are made up of a sin!le verte3 . ● 9ector data can have Guality issues such as undershoots. ● Feature geometry is descri ed in terms of vertices. overshoots and slivers which you need to e aware of. ● "hoosing which geometry type to use depends on scale. &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. *he first and last vertices are always in the same place. ● A vector feature can have a !eometr" type of point. ● $olygon geometries are made up of at least four vertices forming an enclosed area.

● ●

9ector data can e used for spatial anal"sis in a GIS application, for e0ample to find the nearest hospital to a school. 1e have summarised the GIS 9ector #ata concept in Illustration 5? elow.

Illustration 2*: $his diagram shows how GIS applications deal with vector data. .ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners!

)sing a copy of a toposheet map for your local area ,li.e the one shown in Illustration 5@ elow-, see if your learners can identify e0amples of the different types of vector data y highlighting them on the map. *hin. of how you would create vector features in a GIS to represent real world features on your school grounds. "reate a ta le of different features in and around your school and then tas. your learners to decide 56

whether they would e est represented in the GIS as a point, line or polygon. See *a le 8 elow for an e0ample.

Illustration 2+: 4an you identi!y two point !eatures, !our line !eatures and one polygon !eature on this map@

=eal world feature *he school flagpole *he soccer field *he footpaths in and around the school $laces where taps are located 'tc.

Suita le Geometry *ype

$a"le 1: 4reate a ta"le li e this 1leaving the geometry type column empty2 and as your learners to decide on suita"le geometry types. Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le, you can use a toposheet and transparency sheets to show your learners a out vector data. 1urther readin!: *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on wor.ing with vector data in QGIS. &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta.e a closer loo. at attri%ute data to see 58

how it can e used to descri e vector features.

55

e out what was going on.e interesting and informative maps. whether there is a alcony.now a out the feature such as the year it was uilt. In this topic we will loo. it would e very hard to ma.e a loo. at how attri ute data can help us to ma.e a loo. vector. data ase. and the year the house was uilt. we riefly e0plained that attri%ute data are used to descri%e vector features. and had the same la el. data.see Illustration :8 elow-.: Vector Attribute Data O +ectives! In this topic we descri e how attri ute data are associated with vector features and can e used to sym olise data. In a GIS Application. width. Aote that attri utes donEt have to e visi le things D they can descri e things we . *he geometry of these house features is a polygon . *a. Attri ute.GIS for 'ducators Topic . ased on the floor plan of the house-. at Illustration 57 elow for e0ample. at the house pictures in Illustration :6 elow. *a. fields. roads and contours using the map on the le!t@ =sing the map on the right it is much easier to see the di!!erent !eatures. we can represent this feature type in a houses polygon layer. the attri utes we have recorded are roof colour. sym ology Beywords! Overview: If every line on a map was the same colour. and the attri utes in an attri ute ta le .ness. Illustration 2-: Aaps come to li!e when colour and di!!erent sym"ols are used to help you to tell one type o! !eature !rom the next. thic. 5: . *he map would also give us very little information. In the previous topic on vector data. 4an you tell the di!!erence "etween rivers.

g. $hese can "e visi"le things.Illustration #/: Every !eature has characteristics that we can descri"e. year "uilt2. or things we now a"out the !eature 1e. . 5.

see Illustration :5 elow-. (ost GIS Applications will have a facility to select an attri ute that should e used to la el each feature. &ouse !eatures have attri"utes that descri"e the houses> roo! colour and other properties. $he attri"ute ta"le 1lower image2 lists the attri"utes !or the house areas shown on the map. 5< .Illustration #1: A houses layer. For e0ample we can use the attri ute values to tell the GIS what colours and style to use when drawing features . *he fact that features have attri utes as well geometry in a GIS Application opens up many possi ilities. <hen a !eature is highlighted in the ta"le. it will appear as a yellow polygon on the map. Attri ute data can also e useful when creating map la%els. *he process of setting colours and drawing styles is often referred to as setting feature s"m%olo!".

*he possi ilities are endless4 In a later topic we will e e0ploring spatial analysis in more detail. you will . Before we move on to attri ute data in more detail. ?n the le!t we have drawn house polygons with the same colour as the roo! attri"ute. and easy. attri ute data can e very useful in carrying out spatial anal"sis. If you have tree features.e searching for a specific feature Guic. 1e can use the attri utes stored for water samples along a river course to understand where pollution is entering into the stream. letEs ta. A feature has a !eometr" . recap! Features are real world things such as roads. property oundaries. elow. 5> . ?n the right we colour coded houses according to whether they have a "alcony or not. In Illustration :: elow you can see an e0ample of an attri ute search in a GIS.e a Guic. *his is shown in Illustration :. Spatial analysis com ines the spatial information stored in the geometry of features with their attri ute information.Illustration #2: In a GIS Application. you could use GIS to try to find out which species might e affected if a piece of land is developed.which determines if it is a point. electrical su station sites and so on. *his allows us to study features and how they relate to each other. *here are many types of spatial analysis that can e carried out. you could use GIS to find out how many red roofed houses occur in a particular area. for e0ample. we can draw !eatures di!!erently depending on their attri"utes.which descri e the feature-. pol"line or pol"!on.and attri%utes . If you have ever searched a map for a place name or a specific feature. Finally. /aving attri ute data can ma.now how time consuming it can e.

&ere we see a search !or houses with "lac roo!s. we can also search !or !eatures "ased on their attri"utes. 5? . Illustration #(: 0ector !eatures at a glance.Illustration ##: In a GIS Application. tur%uoise on the ta"le. 3esults are shown in yellow in the map.

*he GIS application lin. 'ach field in the attri ute ta le contains contains a specific type of data D te0t. house etcyear the house was uilt area of floor space in the house and so on. If you want to produce a colour coded map showing houses y age. it will ma. 1ith so many options.e do with what we get. presence of a alcony and month of construction as attri utes of interest. )sually the information in the attri ute ta le is stored in some .. it is etter to not store the information. Attri ute *a le =ecord 8 =ecord 5 =ecord : Field 8 ! 3earBuilt 877@ 5666 5668 Field 5! =oof"olour =ed Blac. "ollecting and storing unneeded information is a ad idea ecause of the cost and time reGuired to research and capture the information. Silver Field :! Balcony 3es Ao 3es $a"le 2: An attri"ute ta"le has !ields 1columns2 and records 1in rows2.now for sure you will never use this type of map. of flats. If you ..e a good choice as to what attri utes are needed for a featureJ It usually oils down to what you plan to do with the data.ind of data ase. we chose roof colour. how do we ma. *he records in the attri ute ta le in a GIS each correspond to one feature.. 'ach column in the ta le is called a field.e sense to have a E3ear BuiltE attri ute for your feature. loc. and find features on the map y selecting features in the ta le. 9ery often we o tain vector data from companies. A ta le is li. ric. #eciding what attri utes to use for a feature reGuires some thought and planning. friends or the government.s in a GIS. shac. numeric or date. In these cases it is usually not possi le to reGuest specific attri utes and we have to ma. *a le 5 elow Shows a simple e0ample of how an attri ute ta le loo. 'ach row in the ta le is a record.e a spreadsheet.Attri%utes in detail: Attri utes for a vector feature are stored in a ta%le.=#$ /ouse. In our house e0ample earlier on in this topic.s the attri ute records with the feature geometry so that you can find records in the ta le y selecting features on the map. Sin!le S"m%ols: 5@ .. 1e could +ust as easily have chosen other aspects of a house such as! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● num er of levels num er of rooms num er of occupants type of dwelling .

For e0ample we can draw low lying areas with one colour.If a feature is sym olised without using any attri ute ta le data. "ontour lines are a good e0ample of this. and so on . In order to do that. 1ith line and polygon layers there is no mar. it can only e drawn in a simple way. Adding colour to the contours can help us to interpret the meanings of contours. 3ou cannot tell the GIS to draw the features ased on one of its properties in the attri ute ta le.. $his is the dialog !or point !eatures. different options may e shown. Sometimes vector features represent things with a changing numerical value. In Illustration :: earlier in this topic we showed contours all drawn with the same colour. you need to use either a !raduated. mid2altitude areas with another and high2altitude areas with a third. sGuare. the !eature is drawn without using an attri"ute to control how it loo s. In this dialog o0 you can choose colours and sym ol styles. 57 . continuous or uni<ue value sym ol. solid orange for minor roads. 1ith polygon layers you also have the option of setting a fill st"le and colour. Illustration #': <hen using simple sym"ols.circle. A GIS application will normally allow you to set the sym ology of a layer using a dialo! %o3 such as the one shown in in Illustration :< elow. Graduated S"m%ols: Illustration #): $here are di!!erent options when de!ining simple sym"ols !or polyline and polygon !eatures.as shown in Illustration :> elow-. star etc. For e0ample with point layers you can choose a mar0er st"le. #epending on the geometry type of a layer. ut instead you can select a line st"le and colour such as dashed orange for gravel roads. 'ach contour usually has an attri ute value called EheightE that contains information a out what height that contour represents.ut that is all.er style option. *hese are descri ed in detail in the sections that follow. For e0ample with point features you can set the colour and mar0er .

*his process is illustrated in *a le : elow. :6 . Setting colours ased on discrete groups of attri ute values is called Graduated Sym ology in QGIS. *he GIS Application will analyse the attri ute data . Graduated s"m%ols are most useful when "ou want to show clear differences %etween features with attri%ute values in different value ran!es. Illustration #+: ?ur map a!ter setting graduated colours !or our contours. create groupings for you.g.Illustration #*: $he height attri"ute o! contours can "e used to separate the contours into # classes. ased on the num er of classes you reGuest. height. 4ontours "etween -+/m and 112/m will "e drawn in "rown. *he process is shown in Illustrations :? and :@ a ove.e. those "etween 112/m and 12(/m in green and those "etween 12(/m and 1'//m in purple.and.

< > ? @ 7 "lass and "olour "lass 8 "lass 8 "lass 8 "lass 5 "lass 5 "lass 5 "lass : "lass : "lass : $a"le #: Graduated colour "rea s up the attri"ute value ranges into the num"er o! classes you select. *he GIS Application will use a numerical attri ute value from a feature . contour heights or pollution levels in a stream.no classes or grouping- . light orange shown here2 and an end colour 1e.g. < > ? @ 7 $a"le (: 4ontinuous colour sym"ology uses a start colour 1e. *he process starts y setting the layers properties to continuous colour using a dialog li. *a le .to decide which colour to use. #ontinuous #olour S"m%ols: In the previous section on Graduated "olour sym ols we saw that we can draw features in discrete groups or classes.e the one shown in Illustration :7 elow.g. Sometimes it is useful to draw features in a colour ran!e from one colour to another. Each class is represented "y a di!!erent colour.e. )sing the same contours e0ample we used in the previous section.g. Attri ute 9alue 8 5 : . :8 "olour . letEs see how a map with continuous colour sym ology is defined and loo.s. dar "rown shown here2 and creates a series o! shades "etween those colours. elow shows how the attri ute value is used to define a continuous range of colours.Attri ute 9alue 8 5 : .

6 elow Illustration (/: A contour map drawn using continuous colour sym"ology.. contours with a value of close to 8. On the other hand contours with a value near to 8666m will e drawn close to orange. the value range is 8666 to 8.66m will e drawn close to lac. If the colour set for the minimum value is set to orange and the colour for the ma0imum value is lac. For e0ample if you have contour features with values starting at 8666m and ending at 8. $he contour height attri"ute is used to determine colour values.66m. the colour features are drawn in will depend on where the attri ute lies in the range etween minimum and ma0imum. See Illustration . After defining the minimum and ma0imum colours in the colour ran!e.. $he GIS Application will then create a gradient o! colours !or drawing the !eatures "ased on their heights.66.Illustration #-: Setting up continuous colour sym"ology. 4olours are de!ined !or the minimum and maximum values. :5 .

g. EstreetE. *he GIS will scan through all the different string values in the attri ute field and uild a list of uniGue strings or num ers. *his is shown in Illustration . Emain roadE etc. Strings attri utes are often used to classify things y name. roads2 can each have their own sym"ol.-. *his is illustrated in *a le < elow. 1ithin the GIS Application we can open Fchoose to use )niGue 9alue sym ology for a layer.e. EStringE is a computer term meaning a group of letters.8 elow. "olour class and sym ol Illustration (1: Be!ining uni%ue value sym"ology !or roads "ased on the road type. num ers and other writing sym ols. 'ach uniGue value can then e assigned a colour and style. each drawn in the map view of the GIS with different colours or sym ols.g. 1e can tell the GIS Application to give each uniGue string or num er its own colour and sym ol.:ni<ue . =oad features may have different classes . Attri ute 9alue Arterial route (ain road Secondary road Street $a"le ': =ni%ue attri"ute values !or a !eature type 1e. :: .alue S"m%ols: Sometimes the attri utes of features are not numeric. ut instead strin!s are used. Esecondary roadE.

Before you start collecting any GeoSpatial data. . the road line will e drawn with suita le colour and line style . &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. and re2collect data if you plan poorly the first time around. /ow you do this depends on the Guestions you are trying to answer. Because of this you should put a lot of thought into how you sym olise your maps in order to ma. Sym ology is a visual language that allows people to see and understand your attri ute data ased on the colours and sym ols you use. Thin!s to %e aware of: #eciding which attri utes and sym ology to use reGuires some planning. at the attri utes of each feature efore drawing it to the screen.e them easy to understand. =emem er also that the goal of collecting attri ute data is to allow you to analyse and interpret spatial information.1hen the GIS draws the layer.now what attri utes are needed and how it will e sym olised. Illustration (2: A roads vector layer sym"olised using a uni%ue value per road type. *his is shown in Illustration . It is very difficult to go ac. it will loo. you should ensure you .sheet! ● 9ector features have attri%utes ● Attri utes descri%e the properties of the feature ● *he attri utes are stored in a ta%le ● =ows in the ta le are called records ● *here is one record per feature in the vector layer ● "olumns in the ta le are called fields :.and fill style if its a polygon feature-.5 elow. Based on the value in the chosen field in the attri ute ta le.

in a city ○ polygons for houses with an attri ute that shows whether it is made of ric. *ry to identify which sym ology types you would use for the following types of vector features! ○ points showing p/ level of soil samples ta.ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● )sing the ta le that you created in the last topic.en around your school ○ lines showing a road networ. height. wood or EotherE material. roof colour etc.and date information *he attri ute data for a feature can e used to determine how it is s"m%olised Graduated colour sym ology groups the data into discrete classes #ontinuous colour sym ology assigns colours from a colour range to the features ased on their attri utes :ni<ue value sym ology associates each different value in the chosen attri ute column with a different sym ol . Fields can contain numerical.any te0t. it is drawn using a sin!le s"m%ol only .g. :< .see *a le > elow for an e0ample-. strin! .● ● ● ● ● ● ● Fields represent properties of the feature e.. add a new column for the sym ology type you would use for each feature type and have the learners identify which sym ology type they would use .colour and styleIf the attri ute of a vector layer is not used to determine its sym ology.

&hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta. you can use transparency sheets and a 8!<6 666 map sheet to e0periment with different sym ology types. at data capture.e a closer loo. For e0ample place a transparency sheet over the map and using different coloured .orgFwi.i pens.iF"artographyM(apNsym ology *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on wor. )se !raduated s"m%ols to classify the condition attri ute.or similar. "an you thin. of how to reproduce other sym ology types using the same techniGueJ 1urther readin!: &e%site: http!FFen. draw in red all contour lines elow 766m .=eal world feature Geometry Sym ology *ype *ype Sin!le S"m%ol Sin!le S"m%ol /ave your learners count the num er of learners using each footpath in the hour efore school and then use !raduated s"m%ols to show the popularity of each footpath Sin!le s"m%ol :ni<ue value ased on the grade of the learners in the classroom /ave your learners rate the condition of the fence around your school y separating it into sections and grading each section on a scale of 827 ased on its condition. $olygon $olyline *he school flagpole $oint *he soccer field *he footpaths in and around the school $laces where taps are located "lassrooms Fence $oint $olygon $olyline "lassrooms $olygon $a"le ): An example o! a ta"le that de!ines the !eature types and the ind o! sym"ology you would use !or each. Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le.o.and in green all lines a ove or eGual to 766m.wi.ipedia.ing with attri ute data and sym ology in QGIS. "ount the num er of learners in each classroom and use a continuous colour s"m%ol to define a range of colours from red to lue. 1e will put the things we have learned a out vector data and attri utes into practice :> .

y creating new data. :? .

ut the most common one is pro a ly the Eshape fileE. GIS Applications can store their data in files on the computer hard dis. heads2up. In this section we will loo. it is important to give them all of the files for that layer.ly.ages are all programs that let you create and edit digital data.e Illustration .colour.shp . and so on. it actually consists of at least three different files that wor. at the files that ma. spreadsheets and graphics pac. as shown in *a le ? elow. *here are a num er of different file formats for GIS data. word processors let you save your document as an E.ed at vector data..+pgE C$'G image.odtE Open#ocument or E. ta le.docE 1ord #ocument.singular-. together to store your digital vector data. 1hen you loo.-.ey concepts to vector data. data ase.: elow.GIS for 'ducators Topic =: Data Capture O +ectives! Beywords! &earn how to create and edit vector and attri ute data.. 'ach type of application saves its data into a particular file format. more closely at the process of creating and editing vector data D oth the geometry and attri utes of vector features.e up a shapefile on the computer hard dis.d f . data capture. 1e saw that there are two . Cust li. $ow does GIS di!ital data !et stored(: 1ord processors. 'diting. '0tension . while the attri%utes of a vector feature descri e its properties .: :@ . siHe. *he name is a little odd in that although we call it a shape file . you will see something li. age etc. a graphics program will let you save your drawing as a E. namely! !eometr" and attri%utes. For e0ample.sh0 #escription *he geometry of vector features are stored in this file *he attri utes of vector features are stored in this file *his file is an inde0 that helps the GIS Application to find features more Guic. $a"le *: $he "asic !iles that together ma e up a >shape!ile>. Overview: In the previous two topics we loo. *he geometry of a vector feature descri es its shape and position. So in the case of the trees layer shown in Illustration .e these other applications. If you want to share vector data stored in shapefiles with another person.

trees. letEs thin. trees. )sing a data ase also allows many people to wor.shp. and you need to .Gml. 1e .d f. polyline or polygon features.ers overlaid for sites of interest to tourists.which will e stored in a shapefile-.elow. you need . Illustration (#: $he !iles that ma e up a >trees> shape!ile as seen in the computer>s !ile manager. 1hich :7 . at a few e0amples and it will ecome clearer how to go a out doing this. In general storing GIS data in a data ase is a good solution ecause the data ase can store lar!e amounts of data efficientl" and can provide data to the GIS Application Guic. a out the geometry. Setting up a data ase to store GIS data is more complicated than using shapefiles. trees.now that we can represent a vector layer using point.sh0.now what the attri utes of that layer will e. 93ample 1! "reating a tourism map Imagine that you want to create a nice tourism map for your local area. 7lannin! %efore "ou %e!in: Before you can create a new vector layer .ly. you would need to give the person trees. polyline or polygon-.point.pr+ and trees.now what the geometry of that layer will e . so for this topic we will focus on creating and editing shapefiles. First. (any GIS Applications are also a le to store digital data inside a data%ase. with the same vector data layers at the same time. &etEs loo. 3our vision of the final map is a 8!<6 666 toposheet with mar.

they provide a river areas . South Africa. <e have used three di!!erent geometry types !or tourism data so that we can properly represent the di!!erent inds o! !eatures needed !or our visitors. As you can see itEs often not easy to . it might ma.one ma. polygons might ma. Illustration ((: A map with tourism layers. and they use river polylines to represent narrow stretches of river. memorials.polygons. such as a nature reserve or a cultural village.e a good choice. such as a scenic route through a mountain pass. elow we can see how our tourism layers might loo..es the most sense for our tourism mapJ 1e could use points if we wanted to mar. giving them all the in!ormation they need.6 . If we have whole areas that are of tourism interest.layer and a rivers polyline layer. at digital data provided y the "hief #irectorate ! Surveys and (apping.e sense to use polylines. on a map if we used all three geometry types. One common approach to this pro lem is to ma.to represent river stretches that are wide. for e0ample.now what type of geometry you will need. If we wanted to ta. *hey use the river areas . out points. In Illustration .polygons. attle sites and so on. 93ample 4! "reating a map of pollution levels along a river .e tourists along a route. specific locations such as loo.e one layer for each geometry type you need. So. if you loo.

en represents the conditions at a very specific place. *he process usually starts with choosing the Enew vector layerE option in your GIS Application and then selecting a !eometr" t"pe .s.counts. So we may end up with an attri ute ta le that loo.7 #O > < > "B A 3 3 *ur idity &ow (edium /igh "ollector $atience *ha o 9ictor #ate 85F68F5667 85F68F5667 85F68F5667 $a"le +: Brawing a ta"le li e this "e!ore you create your vector layer will let you decide what attri"ute !ields 1columns2 you will need. this means choosing either point.es sense here ecause each sample ta. . polyline or polygon for the geometry.If you wanted to measure pollution levels along the course of a river you would typically travel along the river in a oat or wal. along its an. *o store the data collected from an e0ercise li.< elow-. First you choose the geometry type. For the attri utes we would want a field for each thing that descri es the sample site. At regular intervals you would stop and ta. you can move on to the ne0t step of creating an empty shapefile. *ur idity levels and p/.@ >.e *a le @ elow.see Illustration .#O. and then you add the attri"ute !ields.e this in a GIS Application. As we covered in an earlier topic. SampleAo p/ 8 5 : ? >.s something li.8 Illustration (': 4reating a new vector layer is as simple as !illing in a !ew details in a !orm. )sing point geometry ma.levels."B. and the geometry type and attri utes that each feature should have. you would pro a ly create a GIS layer with a point geometry. 3ou would also need to ma.e various measurements such as #issolved O0ygen .e a map reading of your position or o tain your position using a G$S receiver. Cote that the geometry 1positions where samples were ta en2 is not shown in the attri"ute ta"le D the GIS Application stores it separatelyE #reatin! an empt" shapefile: Once you have planned what features you want to capture into the GIS. "oliform Bacteria . .

you need to indicate how the information should e stored in that field D i. E=oof"olourE. efore hand whether the numeric data you are going to capture will have decimal places or not. *he shapefile format allows you to store the numeric field information as either a whole num er . or a dateJ "omputer programs usually call information that is made up of words or sentences Estrin!sE.5 . . Good e0amples are EriversE.D so you need to thin.or a decimal num er .for creating a shapefile is to give it a name and a place on the computer hard dis. It is important to give a short "ut meaning!ul name to your shape!ile. Illustration (): A!ter de!ining our new layer>s geometry and attri"utes. EwatersamplesE and so on.as shown in Illustration . '0ample field names may e Ep/E. is it a num er.floatin! point. *he final step .inte!er.> elow.e a street name or the name of a river. where it should e created. E=oad*ypeE and so on. Once again it is a good idea to give the shapefile a short and meaningful name. you should use string for the field type. have no spaces and indicate what type of information is eing stored in that field. Aormally we give field names that are short. so if you need to store something li. we need to save it to dis .Ae0t you will add fields to the attri ute ta le. As well as choosing a name for each field.e. a word or a sentence.

'asy as 8252:4 Addin! data to "our shapefile So far we have only created an empty shapefile.&etEs recap the process again Guic. After you clic.? elow-.. with the left mouse %utton in the map view. then you create one or more fields for the attri ute ta le. If you are unsure of the data for a given field you can usually leave it lan. polylines and polygons.e a useful map from your data4 . Ae0t you will need to ena le the point capture tool. using an easy to recognise name. it will e hard to ma. Aow we need to ena%le editin! in the shapefile using the Eena le editingE menu option or tool ar icon in the GIS Application. Shapefiles are not ena led for editing y default to prevent accidentally changing or deleting the data they contain.see Illustration . ut e aware that if you leave a lot of fields lan.'ntering attri utes *he process of capturing geometry is different for points.: . on the map. *here are two steps we need to complete for each record we add to the shapefile! 8. the ne0t place you clic. you first use the map pan and Hoom tools to get to the correct geographical area that you are going to e recording data for. a window will appear and you can enter all of the attri%ute data for that point . *o create a shapefile you first say what . *o capture a point.ly. and then you save the shapefile to the hard dis. Ae0t we need to start adding data."apturing geometry 5.ind of geometry it will hold. /aving done that. is where you want your new point !eometr" to appear.

Illustration (*: A!ter you have captured the point geometry. in that you need to first use the pan and Hoom tools to move the map in the map view to the correct geographical area. $he attri"ute !orm is "ased on the !ields you speci!ied when you created the vector layer. . <hen editing a line layer. 3ou should e Hoomed in enough so that your Illustration (+: 4apturing lines !or a tourism map. the vertices are shown with circular mar ers which you can move a"out with the mouse to ad:ust the line>s geometry. <hen adding a new line 1shown in red2. . you will "e as ed to descri"e its attri"utes. *o capture a pol"line the process is similar to that of a point.. each clic o! the mouse will add a new vertex.

always e sure to clic.ing on the map.such as an aerial photograph or a satellite image. 'ach time you clic. again on the map with the point. a new verte0 will e added to the map. you will notice that the line stretches li. After you ma. *o add a new feature after you have created your first one. the polyline capture icon in the tool ar and then start drawing your line y clic. *his process is shown in Illustration . the GIS Application always creates an enclosed area.ed to enter in the attri ute data for your new polyline feature. the Eallow editingE icon to toggle it off.new vector polyline feature will have an appropriate scale .. polyline or polygon capture tool active and start to draw your ne0t feature. with the left mouse %utton. you can clic.ing with 9ector #ata for more details on scale issues-. One common solution to this pro lem is to use a raster layer .7 elow. .drop layer. you will then e as. it is pretty hard to draw the features so that they are spatiall" correct if you do not have other features that you can use as a point of reference. use the ri!ht mouse %utton to tell the GIS Application that you have completed your edits. Also.< . $eads+up di!itisin! As you have pro a ly discovered y now if you followed the steps a ove.as a ac.see *opic 5! 1or. you can simply clic. 1hen you are ready. As with the procedure for capturing a point feature. *he process for capturin! a pol"!on is almost the same as capturing a polyline e0cept that you need to use the polygon capture tool in the tool ar. 3ou can then use this layer as a reference map.@ a ove. *he GIS Application will then save your newly created layer to the hard dis. 1hen you have no more features to add. you will notice that when you draw your geometry on the screen.e an elastic and to follow the mouse cursor around as you move it.. 1hen you have finished defining your line.e your first clic.nown as Eheads2up digitisingE and is shown in Illustration . *his process is . or even trace the features off the raster layer into your vector layer if they are visi le.

Illustration (-: &eads. loo. is to place a paper map on the ta le.s li.> . are used to ensure that lines and points are drawn accurately. *iny cross2hairs in the puc. Di!itisin! usin! a di!itisin! ta%le Another method of capturing vector data is to use a digitising ta le.E is used to trace features from the map. is connected to a computer and each feature that is captured using the puc. . *he puc. *hen a special device called a Epuc. 3ou can see what a digitising puc. *his approach is less commonly used e0cept y GIS professionals.up digitising using a satellite image as a "ac drop. *he process of using a digitising ta le. and it reGuires e0pensive eGuipment. $he image is used as a re!erence !or capturing polyline !eatures "y tracing over them. *he paper map is held securely in place using clips. gets stored in the computerEs memory.e in Illustration <6 elow.

: Once your features are digitised. . After "our features are di!itised.drop raster layer such as an aerial photograph or satellite image. #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: If you are digitising using a ac.Illustration '/: A digitising ta"le and puc are used "y GIS pro!essionals when they want to digitise !eatures !rom existing maps. 1e can see the effect of a poorly georeferenced image in Illustration <8 elow. you can use the techniGues you learned in the previous *opic to set the sym ology for your layer. "hoosing an appropriate sym ology will allow you to etter understand the data you have captured when you loo. A layer that is georeferenced properly displays in the correct position in the map view ased on the GIS ApplicationEs internal model of the earth... at the map.? . it is very important that the raster layer is properly georeferenced.

?n the le!t we can see the image is properly georegistered and the road !eatures 1in orange2 overlap per!ectly.sh0-. strin!s . . ● One commonly used file format is the shapefile which is actually a group of three or more files . &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. *his is repeated for each feature. ● $eads+up di!itisin! is often used to provide orientation during digitising y using a raster image in the ac. ● Before you create a new vector layer you need to plan oth what !eometr" type and attri%ute fields it will contain. ● Geometry can e point.Illustration '1: $he importance o! using properly geore!erenced raster images !or heads. polyline or polygon.nowledge of a featureEs !eometr" and attri%utes into a di!ital format stored on the computerEs dis. i! the image on the right is used as a re!erence when capturing new !eatures. I! the image is poorly geore!erenced 1as shown on the right2 the !eatures will not "e well aligned. the newly captured data will "e inaccurateE Also remem er that it is important that you are Hoomed in to an appropriate scale so that the vector features you create are useful.or dates. it is a ad idea to digitise your data when you are Hoomed out to a scale of 8!8666 666 if you intend to use the data you capture at a scale of 8!<6 666 later.decimal num ers-. .words.shp.ground.whole num ers-. <orse still.d f and ..up digitising. ● GIS #ata can e stored in a data%ase or as files. As we saw in the previous topic on vector geometry.ow "ou tr"/ . ● $rofessional GIS users sometimes use a di!itisin! ta%le to capture information from paper maps. ● Attri utes can e inte!ers .sheet! ● Di!itisin! is the process of capturing . ● *he digitising process consists of drawin! the geometry in the map view and then entering its attri utes.@ . floatin! points ..

)se an aerial photo. /ave them sym olise their layers so that they are more meaningful to loo. and so on. (a. the position of fire assem ly points.. For e0ample! the school oundary. and then fill in all the additional information you want to record.. writing a num er ne0t to each feature so that it can e identified. "apture the data using the GIS application and ma.ground layer. "ould you identify any areas of concernJ 1as the GIS Application a le to help you to identify these areasJ Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le. at.e maps that show the samples with a suita le sym ology.. you can follow the same process y using transparency sheets and a note oo. "om ine the layers from all the groups to create a nice map of your school and its surroundings4 Find a local river and ta.e measurements such as p/.e water samples along its length. *ry to use a mi0 of different geometry types. would e interesting to capture.85science. the layout of each class room.ing it on a toposheet. . #raw columns down the page in your note oo.e a careful note of the position of each sample using a G$S or y mar. and write in the column headings for each attri ute field you want to store information a out.e a closer loo. 1urther readin!: &e%site: http!FFwww. dissolved o0ygen etc./ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● #raw up a list of features in and around your school that you thin. at raster data to learn all a out how image data can e used in a GIS. *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on digitising vector data in QGIS. Aow trace the geometry of features onto the transparency sheet. Aow write the same num er in the first column in your ta le in your note oo. orthosheet or satellite image printout as your ac.html D A school pro+ect to assess water Guality in their local river. &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta.orgFcurriculumFwaterpro+FS66pro+ectFmiami5666Fmiam iriverfinal. For each sample ta. Aow split your learners into groups and assign each group a few features to capture.7 .

en a closer loo.see Illustration <5 elow-. Illustration '2: A raster dataset is composed o! rows 1running across2 and columns 1running down2 o! pixels 1also now as cells2. Georeference Overview: In the previous topics we have ta. =emote Sensing.points. polylines and polygons. $i0el. -aster data in detail: =aster data is used in a GIS application when we want to display information that is continuous across an area and cannot easily e divided into vector features. 1hen we introduced you to vector data we showed you the image in Illustration <: elow.e a closer loo. In this topic we are going to ta.es more sense to use vector data.also called cells-. Image. well for representing some features on this landscape.GIS for 'ducators Topic 6: Raster Data O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstand what raster data is and how it can e used in a GIS. For e0ample the grasslands shown have many <6 . at vector data. =asters are made up of a matri0 of pi0els .es a different approach. and the value in that pixel represents some characteristic o! that region. $oint. polyline and polygon features wor. at raster data. =aster. Each pixel represents a geographical region. Other features on a landscape can e more difficult to represent using vector features. raster data ta. 1hile vector features use geometry . each containing a value that represents the conditions for the area covered y that cell . Satellite. roads and uilding footprints.to represent the real world. such as trees. when it is useful and when it ma.

g. in order to create a good vector dataset. *his is ecause when you give a vector feature attri ute values.all over. roads. they apply to the whole feature.variations in colour and density of cover. (any people use raster data as a %ac0drop to e used ehind vector layers in order to provide more meaning to the vector information. on a landscape. )sing raster data is a solution to these pro lems. polylines and polygons 1e. so vectors arenEt very good at representing features that are not homogeneous . Illustration '#: Some !eatures on a landscape are easy to represent as points.e a huge amount of wor. rasters can e used to show rainfall trends over an area. ris.entirely the same. satellite images and aerial photographs-. ut a lot of the information a out the grassland would e lost in the process of simplifying the features to a single polygon. houses2. or to depict the fire ris. It would e easy enough to ma. of fire on a scale of one to ten. raster data can "e a "etter choice. In other cases it can "e di!!icult.g. *he pro lem with that approach is that it will ta. For example how would you represent the grasslands@ As polygons@ <hat a"out the variations in colour you can see in the grass@ <hen you are trying to represent large areas with continuously changing values. results in maps with a lot more meaning. each cell in the raster represents a different value. An e0ample that shows the difference etween an image o tained from a <8 . For e0ample. trees.e is to digitise every small variation of grass colour and cover as a separate polygon. Another approach you could ta.g. they are also good for representing more a stract ideas.e.e a single polygon around each grassland area.inds of applications. *he human eye is very good at interpreting images and so using an image ehind vector layers. =aster data is not only good for images that depict the real world surface . In these . e.

<5 . Once the image has een ta.if any.e an image of the area on earth they are passing over. it uses the positional information to ensure that the photo appears in the correct place on the map. *wo of the most common ways are aerial photography and satellite imagery. *his positional information is stored with the digital version of the aerial photo. 1hen the GIS application opens the photo.y which the image is rotated. 1ith these few pieces of information. to earth using radio signals to special receiving stations such as the one shown in Illustration << elow.satellite and one that shows calculated values can e seen in Illustration <. *he georeferencing information for a raster is often provided in a small te0t file accompanying the raster. Aormally this positional information consists of a coordinate for the top left pi0el in the image. the siHe of each pi0el in the I direction.photographic data such as the raster layer shown on the right which shows the calculated average minimum temperature in the <estern 4ape !or the month o! Aarch.en it is sent ac. Sources of raster data: =aster data can e o tained in a num er of ways. Illustration '(: $rue colour raster images 1le!t2 are use!ul as they provide a lot o! detail that is hard to capture as vector !eatures "ut easy to see when loo ing at the raster image. 3aster data can also "e non. an aeroplane flies over an area with a camera mounted underneath it. *he photographs are then imported into a computer and georeferenced. and the amount . Georeferencin!: Georeferencing is the process of defining e0actly where on the earthEs surface an image or raster dataset was created. In aerial photography. the GIS application can ensure that raster data are displayed in the correct place. Satellite imagery is created when satellites or iting the earth point special digital cameras towards the earth and then ta. the siHe of each pi0el in the 3 direction. elow. *he process of capturing raster data from an aeroplane or satellite is called remote sensin!.

they will often use raster analysis techniGues such as interpolation . rainfall and wind direction using data collected from weather stations . In these cases.see Illustration <? elow-.see Illustration <> elow.which we descri e in *opic 86-.of a fi0ed siHe that determine its spatial resolution. at an image at a small scale .see Illustration <. (eteorologists .e police crime incident reports and create a country wide raster map showing how high the incidence of crime is li. Spatial -esolution: 'very raster layer in a GIS has pi0els .might generate a province level raster showing average temperature. rail. For e0ample an insurance company may ta. *his is normally only useful if the attri utes. at the attri ute ta le for the data. cadastral and other vector datasets may choose to generate a raster version of these datasets so that employees can view these datasets in a we rowser.cells.Illustration '': $he 4SI3 Satellite Applications 4enter at &arte"eeshoe near Gohannes"urg.people who study weather patterns. raster data can e computed. For e0ample. can e represented on the map with la els or sym ology. that users need to e aware of. <: . providing it in raster format could e a ad choice ecause raster layers do not usually have any attri ute data associated with them. Sometimes raster data are created from vector data ecause the data owners want to share the data in an easy to use format.ely to e in each area. If the user needs to loo. *his ecomes apparent when you loo. a company with road. Special antennae trac satellites as they pass overhead and download images using radio waves. In other cases. a ove-.and then Hoom in to a large scale .

For e0ample S$O*< satellites can ta.. Illustration '*: . In aerial photography."ut when viewed at a large scale you can see the individual pixels that the image is composed o!. each of which contains a num er representing average rainfall. For remote sensing data. *o store all the information contained in the raster. Several factors determine the spatial resolution of an image.. . Images with a pi0el siHe covering a small area are called Ehi!h resolutionE images ecause it is possi le to ma. Aow imagine you want to have a raster layer for the <. the spatial density of information used to create the raster will usually determine the spatial resolution. For e0ample if you want to create a high resolution average rainfall map.e images where each pi0el is 86m 0 86m.e out a high degree of detail in the image.Illustration '): $his satellite image loo s good when using a small scale. spatial resolution is usually determined y the capa ilities of the sensor used to ta... you would ideally need many weather stations in close pro0imity to each other. One of the main things to e aware of with rasters captured at a high spatial resolution is storage reGuirements. pi0el siHes of <6cm 0 <6cm are not uncommon. *hin.e images only at <66m 0 <66m per pi0el. of a raster that is :0: pi0els. Images with a pi0el siHe covering a large area are called Elow resolutionE images ecause the amount of detail the images show is low. Other satellites.such as the rainfall map we mentioned earlier-.e an image. you will need to store 7 num ers in the computerEs memory. for e0ample (O#IS ta. In raster data that is computed y spatial analysis .

(a. green and lue so that the human eye can see them.e the differences in values in the pi0els more o vious.e a separate layer. the red. the electronic sensors in cameras are a le to detect wavelengths that our eyes cannot. 1hilst our eyes can only see =GB wavelengths. the camera uses electronic sensors to detect red.=GB.ing at any one area in a lot of detail. using low resolution raster data can e pro lematic if you are interested in a small region ecause you pro a ly wonEt e a le to ma. *he cloud maps you see on the weather report. Images with false colouring applied are often referred to as pseudocolour ima!es. Of course in a hand held camera it pro a ly doesnEt ma. you can apply false colouring to ma. << . 1hile the information is still in digital format though. Sometimes using a low spatial resolution is useful when you want to wor.e a colour photograph with a digital camera or camera on a cellphone. 'ach and in the image is li. in order to hold all of the information. it is often called a !ra"scale image.676 .m. are an e0ample of this D itEs useful to see the clouds across the whole country. *he num er of ands in a raster image is referred to as its spectral resolution. Because having images containing multiple ands of light is so useful in GIS. =aster images that include data for non2visi le parts of the light spectrum are often referred to as multi2spectral images. Spectral resolution: If you ta. South Africa is around 8. with a large area and are not interested in loo. 1ith grayscale images.whole of South Africa with pi0els of 8. For e0ample. Kooming in to one particular cloud in high resolution will not tell you very much a out the upcoming weather4 On the other hand.e out any individual features from the image. 1hich means your computer would need to store over a million num ers on its hard dis.e sense to record information from the non+visi%le parts of the spectrum since most people +ust want to loo.587. raster data are often provided as multi2 and images. green and lue light. this =GB information is stored in separate colour %ands.m 0 8. measuring infra2red light can e useful in identifying water odies.information is com ined to show you an image that your eyes can interpret.ing the pi0el siHe smaller would greatly increase the amount of storage needed. at pictures of their dog or what have you. green and lue . In GIS recording the non2visi le parts of the spectrum can e very useful. 1hen the picture is displayed on a screen or printed out. *he GIS will com ine three of the ands and show them as red.m5. If an image consists of only one and.

and often e0pensive. /aving vectors converted to raster format can e useful though when you want to give GIS data to non GIS users. *his . 1ith the simpler raster formats. Analysis of #igital 'levation (odels .es place. Foresters use raster data to estimate how much tim er can e harvested from an area. =aster data is also very important for disaster management.-aster to vector conversion: In our discussion of vector data.s e0ist. rasters can e used to model water flow over the land surface.drop layer.ind of raster where each pi0el contains the height a ove sea level. Another approach is to use advanced computer programs to automatically e0tract vector features from images. #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: As we have already mentioned. *his can then e used to target rescue and relief efforts to areas where it is needed the most. =aster data are also often used in agriculture and forestry to manage crop production.s for such colour changes and creates vector features as a result.a . <> . -aster anal"sis: *here are a great many analytical tools that can e run on raster data which cannot e used with vector data. One side effect of this is that attri ute data . you can identify areas where the plants are growing poorly and then use that information to apply more fertiliHer on the affected areas only. *he computer program loo.ind of functionality is normally only availa le in very specialised . For e0ample.that is attri utes associated with the original vector data. For e0ample with a satellite image of a farmerEs lands.ector to raster conversion: Sometimes it is useful to convert vector data into raster data.will e lost when the conversion ta. we e0plained that often raster data are used as a ac. which is then used as a ase from which vector features can e digitised. the person you give the raster image to can simply view it as an image on their computer without needing any special GIS software. .GIS software.can then e used to identify areas that are li.ely to e flooded. high resolution raster data can reGuire large amounts of computer storage. *his information can e used to calculate where watersheds and stream networ. ased on the terrain. Some features such as roads show in an image as a sudden change of colour from neigh ouring pi0els.

Overlay the transparencies onto a toposheet or aerial photograph of your school. . ● =aster images can consume a large amount of storage space. uilding. footpaths etc. they are called multi+spectral ima!es. overlay all the sheets together and see if it ma. 1hen they are all finished. ● Single and. give it a value of 5. Fill the grid in with num ers representing values for grass cover on your soccer field. "olour cells with value 5 dar. Green and Blue so that we can see them.ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● #iscuss with your learners in which situations you would use raster data and in which you would use vector data. ut containing different information. ● Images with a single and are called grayscale images. 9alue 8 should get coloured light green. transparency sheets with grid lines drawn on them. Get your learners to create a raster map of your school y using A. you should have a raster map of your soccer field4 <? .&hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. 1hich types of features wor. green. ● *he siHe of pi0els in a raster determines its spatial resolution.sheet! ● =aster data are a grid of regularly siHed pi3els. e. give it a value of 8. and value 6 coloured in rown.es a good raster map representation of your school. each covering the same spatial area. If a patch is are give the cell a value of 6. trees. grayscale images can e shown in pseudocolour y the GIS.g. sports field. you can understand raster data using pen and paper. Aow let each learner or group of learners colour in cells that represent a certain type of feature. ● 1hen raster data contains ands from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. ● *hree of the ands of a multi2spectral image can e shown in the colours =ed. If an area is completely covered with grass. 1hen you finish.ed well when represented as rastersJ /ow did your choice in cell siHe affect your a ility to represent different feature typesJ Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le. ● =aster images can contain one or more %ands. ● =aster data are good for showing continuall" var"in! information. Aow use pencil crayons to colour the cells ased on their values. #raw a grid of sGuares onto a sheet of paper to represent your soccer field. If the patch is mi0ed are and covered. playground.

at topolo!" to see how the relationship etween vector features can e used to ensure the est data Guality. :rd 'dition.ing with raster data in QGIS.ISBA 7@8.orgFwi. :rd 'dition. <@ . .wi. (ichael A.e a closer loo.1urther readin!: 2oo0: ● ● "hang. . Bang2*sung . (cGraw /ill.ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.iFGISM=aster *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on wor. . &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta. 1iley.ipedia.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems.85>87<- &e%site: http!FFen.

topology. *opology is necessary for carrying out some types of spatial analysis. "hanging trains at stations allows you to move from one connected part of the networ.you have to find connecting trains to get from "ovent Garden to St. two lines in a roads vector layer that do not meet perfectly at an intersection-.GIS for 'ducators Topic >: Topology O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstanding topology in vector data 9ector.et for some souvenirs.points.a out where it is possi le to change trains.g.see Illustration <@ elow.ing at a map of the underground. simple feature Overview: Topolo!" e0presses the spatial relationships etween connecting or ad+acent vector features . <7 . snapping distance. &oo. $aulEs "athedral first and in the afternoon "ovent Garden (ar. such as networ.e. analysis. polylines and polygons. Illustration '+: $opology o! 6ondon =nderground Cetwor .in a GIS. topology rules. *his reGuires topological information . On a sightseeing tour you plan to visit St. Imagine you travel to &ondon. to another. topology errors. $aulEs.ing at the )nderground map of &ondon .data. &oo. *opological or topology2 ased data are useful for detecting and correcting digitising errors . the topological relationships are illustrated y circles that show connectivity. search radius.

It is not only important for your own analysis to create and have topologically correct data. 3ou will not . If such errors were present. gaps etween polygon orders or overlapping polygon orders. and an overshoot if a line ends eyond the line it should connect to .e.e. A common topological error with pol"line features is that they do not meet perfectly at a point . ut also for people who you pass data on to. *he result of overshoot and undershoot errors are so2called Edangling nodesE at the end of the lines.g..e networ.or measurement . the relationship etween features. finding out the length of a river-. ?vershoots 122 happen i! a line ends "eyond the line it should connect to.see Illustration <7 elow-. In addition to topology eing useful for networ. *hese errors need to e fi0ed in order to e a le to analyse vector data with procedures li. Cust imagine you digitise a municipal oundaries map for your province and the polygons overlap or show slivers. finding the est route across a road networ. analysis . Illustration '-: =ndershoots 112 occur when digitised vector lines that should connect to each other don>t %uite touch. analysis and measurement. Slivers 1#2 occur when the vertices o! two polygons do not match up on their "orders. *opological errors with pol"!on features can include unclosed polygons. where the orders etween the municipalities are. *opological errors rea. ut the results you get will e incorrect.now the correct area for any municipality and you will not e a le to define e0actly. for e0ample if they are attached to dead2end streets. there are other reasons why it is important and useful to create or have vector data with correct topology. #angling nodes are accepta le in special cases. *hey will e e0pecting your data and analysis results to e correct4 >6 . you would e a le to use the measurement tools.Topolo!" errors *here are different types of topological errors and they can e grouped according to whether the vector feature types are polygons or polylines. *his type of error is called an undershoot if a gap e0ists etween the lines.node-.g.

5. For e0ample in QGIS you can ena%le topolo!ical editin! to improve editing and maintaining common oundaries in polygon layers. $olygons showing property oundaries must e closed. (any common GIS.Topolo!" rules Fortunately.elow.8. '0cept for some special GIS data formats. all !eatures that share that vertex are updated. Topolo!ical tools (any GIS applications provide tools for topological editing. when a new polygon is digitised 1shown in red2 it is clipped to avoid overlapping neigh"ouring areas.e QGIS. topology is usually not enforced y default. to e implemented in a vector layer. )ndershoots or overshoots of the order lines are not allowed. when moving vertices. ● ● ● ● Area edges of a municipality map must not overlap. many common errors that can occur when digitising vector features can e prevented y topology rules that are implemented in many GIS applications. *he following list shows some e0amples of where topology rules can e defined for real world features in a vector map. it is possi le with this option to digitise a second ad+acent polygon so that oth polygons overlap and QGIS then clips the second polygon to the common oundary.slivers-. If you already have one polygon. Illustration )/: 112$opological editing to detect shared "oundaries. Another topological option allows you to prevent pol"!on overlaps during digitising . Area edges of a municipality map must not have gaps . <hen moving a vertex. define topology as relationship rules and let the user choose the rules. "ontour lines in a vector line layer must not intersect . 122 $o avoid polygon overlaps. li. >8 .see Illustration >6.elow-.cross each other-. A GIS such as QGIS EdetectsE a shared oundary in a polygon map so you only have to move the edge verte0 of one polygon oundary and QGIS will ensure the updating of the other polygon oundaries as shown in Illustration >6. if any.

-. Simple feature datasets are mainly designed for simplicity and for fast rendering ut not for data analysis that reGuire topology . (ost commonly used vector data formats use something called ESimple FeaturesE which also consists of point.see Illustration >8 elow-. If you specify the search radius too small the GIS application wonEt find any feature or verte0 to move or edit. *rue topological vector datasets are stored in special file formats that record all the relationships etween features. decimal degrees2 !or snapping to either vertices or segments. Search -adius Search radius is the distance a GIS uses to search for the closest verte0 you are trying to move when you clic. especially if you are dealing with a large num er of vertices close together. a GIS such as QGIS will leave the verte0 where you release the mouse utton. If you arenEt within the search radius. the GIS wonEt find and select any verte0 of a feature for editing. >5 .g. A se!ment is a straight line formed etween two vertices in a polygon or polyline geometry. on the map. it is Guite similar to the snapping distance functionality. edit and analyse oth. line and polygon features. instead of snapping it to an e0isting verte0 and F or segment . the GIS may snap to a wrong verte0. #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of *opology is a comple0 representation of vector data.such as finding routes across a networ. (any GIS applications are a le to show topological and simple feature data together and some can also create. In principle. If you arenEt within the snapping distance. Illustration )1: $he snapping distance 1"lac circle2 is de!ined in map units 1e. Snapping distance and search radius are oth set in map units so you may need to e0periment to get the distance value set right. If you specify a value that is too ig.Snappin! distance Snapping distance is the distance a GIS uses to search for the closest verte0 and F or segment you are trying to connect when you digitise.

ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.html http!FFen. *hin.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 1urther readin!: 2oo0s: ● ● "hang. you can use a map of a us or railway networ.e sure that the new road layer is topologically correctJ Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le.&hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. and discuss the spatial relationships and topology with your learners. *opology can e used to detect and correct di!iti5in! errors.iFGeospatialNtopology *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on topological editing provided in QGIS. 1iley. topological data is essential.ISBA 7@8. . your local us stops on a toposheet map and then tas. *opology in GIS is provided y topolo!ical tools. (ichael A. (cGraw /ill.orgFwi. &hat s ne3t( >: . of your town. .innovativegis. . such as networ0 anal"sis. your learners to find the shortest route etween two stops.comF asisFprimerFconcepts. of how you would create vector features in a GIS to represent a topological road networ. . :rd 'dition. Snappin! distance and search radius help us to digitise topologically correct vector data.ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● (ar.wi.ipedia. For some tools. 1hat topological rules are important and what tools can your learners use in QGIS to ma. Bang2*sung . :rd 'dition.85>87<- &e%sites: ● ● http!FFwww. Simple feature data is not a true topological data format ut it is commonly used y GIS applications.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.sheet! ● ● ● ● ● ● Topolo!" shows the spatial relation of neigh ouring vector features.

. at #oordinate -eference S"stems to understand how we relate data from our spherical earth onto flat maps4 >.e a closer loo.In the section that follows we will ta.

g. ut may e an e0cellent choice for a lar!e+scale )detailed* map of your country. depending on the level of detail. &ongitude. (ost of the thematic map data commonly used in GIS applications are of considera ly larger scale. they are very difficult to carry in oneEs poc. (aps. in. are representations of reality."=S-.then defines. &atitude. As a result. A glo e of this siHe would e difficult and e0pensive to produce and even more difficult to carry around. *ypical GIS datasets have scales of 8!5<6 666 or greater. 1hen viewed at close range the earth appears to e relatively flat."=S. *he properties of a map pro+ection may also influence some of the design features of the map.e. with reasona le accuracy. some are good for mapping areas with a large 'ast21est >< . *he est pro+ection for a map depends on the scale of the map. the spherical earth in two2 dimensions. however. (ap $ro+ection. with the help of coordinates. and on the purposes for which it will e used. ut also their shape and spatial arrangement. Although glo es preserve the ma+ority of the earthEs shape and illustrate the spatial configuration of continent2siHed features. For e0ample. /owever when viewed from space. a pro+ection may have unaccepta le distortions if used to map the entire African continent. cartographers have developed a set of techniGues called map pro@ections designed to show. Some pro+ections are good for small areas. "oordinate =eference System . a pro lem with this approach. A coordinate reference s"stem .et. Aorthing. *he decision as to which map pro+ection and coordinate reference system to use. depends on the regional e0tent of the area you want to wor. 'ach map pro+ection has advanta!es and disadvanta!es. on the analysis you want to do and often on the availa ility of data. as we will see in the upcoming map production topic. we can see that the earth is relatively spherical. Map 7ro@ection in detail A traditional method of representing the earthEs shape is the use of glo es. 'asting Overview: Map pro@ections try to portray the surface of the earth or a portion of the earth on a flat piece of paper or computer screen. *here is. pro+ected map in your GIS is related to real places on the earth. 8 ! 866 million-. On the Fly $ro+ection. *hey are designed to not only represent features.GIS for 'ducators Topic ?: Coordinate Reference Systems O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstanding of "oordinate =eference Systems. *hey are also only convenient to use at e0tremely small scales . how the two2 dimensional.

a family of c"lindrical pro@ections. The three families of map pro@ections *he process of creating map pro+ections can e visualised y positioning a light source inside a transparent glo e on which opaGue earth features are placed. every map shows distortions of an!ular conformit". and some are etter for mapping areas with a large Aorth2South e0tent. *his recreates the physical pro+ection of light through the glo e. A map pro+ection may com ine >> . *oday. of course. Accurac" of map pro@ections (ap pro+ections are never a solutely accurate representations of the spherical earth. $hey can "e represented "y a2 cylindrical pro:ections.e0tent. and another called conical pro@ections . the process of pro+ecting the spherical earth onto a flat piece of paper is done using the mathematical principles of geometry and trigonometry. *herefore. there is a family of planar pro@ections. *hen pro+ect the feature outlines onto a two2dimensional flat piece of paper. #ifferent ways of pro+ecting can e produced y surrounding the glo e in a c"lindrical fashion. 'ach of these methods produces what is called a map pro@ection famil".see Illustration >5- Illustration )2: $he three !amilies o! map pro:ections. As a result of the map pro+ection process. "2 conical pro:ections or c2 planar pro:ections. as a cone. or even as a flat surface. distance and area.

(aintaining correct an!ular properties can e preserved on a map pro+ection as well. '0amples of compromise pro+ections are the &in0el Tripel pro@ection and the -o%inson pro@ection . Illustration )#: $he 3o"inson pro:ection is a compromise where distortions o! area. It is usually impossi le to preserve all characteristics at the same time in a map pro+ection. 'ast will always occur at a 76 degree angle to Aorth. Map pro@ections with an!ular conformit" 1hen wor.Aorth. angular con!ormity and distance are accepta"le. within some accepta le limit. 'ast. South and 1est. A map pro+ection that retains this property of angular conformity is called a conformal or orthomorphic pro@ection. *his means that when you want to carry out accurate analytical operations. >? . you should try to use a map pro+ection for your data that provides high accuracy for distances.several of these characteristics.ing with a glo e. distance and angular conformity.see Illustration >: elow-. For e0ample.will always occur at 76 degrees to one another. the main directions of the compass rose . if you need to measure distances on your map. which are often used for world maps. or may e a compromise that distorts all the properties of area. you need to use a map pro+ection that provides the est characteristics for your analyses. In other words.

*hey are commonly used for navigational or meteorological tas. you should select a pro+ection that is designed to preserve distances well. It is important to remem er that maintaining true angles on a map is difficult for large areas and should e attempted only for small portions of the earth. Map pro@ections with e<ual distance If your goal in pro+ecting a map is to accurately measure distances. *he ). reGuire that the scale of the map is 0ept constant. *he larger the area the less accurate the area measurements will e. *he conformal type of pro+ection results in distortions of areas. *hese pro+ections are used when the preservation of an!ular relationships is important.Illustration )(: $he Aercator pro:ection. Geological Survey uses a conformal pro+ection for many of its topographic maps.as shown in Illustration >. meaning that if area measurements are made on the map. !or example. .and the 8am%ert #onformal #onic pro@ection. they will e incorrect. A map is eGuidistant when it correctly represents distances >@ Illustration )': $he =nited Cations 6ogo uses the A5imuthal E%uidistant pro:ection. Such pro+ections. "ut the relationship o! areas are distorted. is used where angular relationships are important. '0amples are the Mercator pro@ection . called e<uidistant pro@ections.s.S. a ove.

On the other hand. 9<uidistant pro@ections maintain accurate distances from the centre of the pro+ection or along given lines. the larger the area you are analysing. is used when accurate distance measurement is important. If.are types of eGual area pro+ections that are often encountered in GIS wor. *he A5imuthal 9<uidistant pro@ection is the pro+ection used for the em lem of the )nited Aations ..shown in Illustration >? elow. !or example. *he 7late #arree 9<uidistant #"lindrical . if you use an eGual area pro+ection rather than another type. *hese pro+ections are used for radio and seismic mapping. and for navigation.see Illustration >> elow.late 4arree E%uidistant 4ylindrical pro:ection.from the centre of the pro+ection to any other place on the map. As the name implies. the more precise your area measures will e. you are trying to analyse a particular area in your town to find out whether it is large enough for a new shopping mall. Al%er s e<ual area. the map is an e<ual area map. Small areas will e far less prone to having their angles distorted when you use an eGual area pro+ection. these maps are est used when calculations of area are the dominant calculations you will perform. an eGual area pro+ection results in distortions of an!ular conformit" when dealing with large areas. 8am%ert s e<ual area and Mollweide 9<ual Area #"lindrical pro@ections .see Illustration >< elow-. for e0ample. >7 . eGual area pro+ections are the est choice.and the 9<uirectan!ular pro@ection are two good e0amples of eGuidistant pro+ections. Illustration )): $he . general reference and educational maps most often reGuire the use of e<ual area pro@ections. In practice. 7ro@ections with e<ual areas 1hen a map portrays areas over the entire map. so that all mapped areas have the same proportional relationship to the areas on the 'arth that they represent. On the one hand.

"=S. Geo!raphic #oordinate S"stems *he use of Geographic "oordinate =eference Systems is very common. *he reference line for latitude is the eGuator and each hemisphere is divided into ninety sections. Illustration )*: $he Aollweide E%ual Area 4ylindrical pro:ection. 8ines of latitude run parallel to the eGuator and divide the earth into 8@6 eGually spaced sections from Aorth to South . In reality. In general "=S can e divided into pro@ected coordinate reference s"stems .every place on the earth can e specified y a set of three num ers.and !eo!raphic coordinate reference s"stems.Beep in mind that map pro+ection is a very comple0 topic. will often e made for you. the choice of which pro+ection to use. degrees of latitude are measured from Hero at the eGuator to ninety at the north pole. the distance etween the lines of latitude is the same ?6 . 1herever you are on the earthOs surface. (ost countries have commonly used pro+ections and when data is e0changed people will follow the national trend. *hey use degrees of latitude and longitude and sometimes also a height value to descri e a location on the earthOs surface. degrees of latitude in the southern hemisphere are often assigned negative values . each representing one degree of latitude. In the southern hemisphere. In the northern hemisphere. *he most popular is called &GS A=.6 to 276P-.or South to Aorth-. ensures that all mapped areas have the same proportional relationship to the areas on the Earth. #oordinate -eference S"stem )#-S* in detail 1ith the help of coordinate reference systems . called coordinates.also called "artesian or rectangular coordinate reference systems. *o simplify the digitisation of maps. *here are hundreds of different pro+ections availa le world wide each trying to portray a certain portion of the earthEs surface as faithfully as possi le on a flat piece of paper. !or example. degrees of latitude are measured from Hero at the eGuator to ninety degrees at the south pole.

:>< sGuare . until. one second of latitude or longitude R :6.@?>5.with an accepta le level of accuracy. and si0ty seconds in a minute . the distance represented y one line of longitude is eGual to the distance represented y one degree of latitude. *o accomplish this.the prime meridianruns from the Aorth pole to the South pole through Greenwich.>6 nautical miles-.ilometres at the eGuatorQa good start. ut not very useful for determining the location of anything within that sGuare.. at the e0act location of the pole. a map grid must e divided into small enough sections so that they can e used to descri e . *o e truly useful. we have a grid of lines dividing the earth into sGuares that cover appro0imately 85:>:.:>66 seconds in a degree-. &ines of longitude run perpendicular to the eGuator and converge at the poles. on the other hand. 8ines of lon!itude. Su seGuent lines of longitude are measured from Hero to 8@6 degrees 'ast or 1est of the prime meridian. 'ngland.the location of a point on the map. *here are si0ty minutes in a degree. )sing the geographic coordinate system. do not stand up so well to the standard of uniformity.you pro a ly would want to wear gloves though-. all :>6P of longitude are represented y a single point that you could put your finger on . So. *he reference line for longitude . Illustration )+: Geographic coordinate system with lines o! latitude parallel to the e%uator and lines o! longitude with the prime meridian through Greenwich. the distance etween lines of longitude ecomes progressively less. See Illustration >@ elow for a pictorial view. and only at the eGuator. Aote that values 1est of the prime meridian are assigned negative values for use in digital mapping applications. As you move towards the poles. degrees are divided into minutes ) * and seconds )B*. At the eGuator. at the eGuator. See Illustration >@ a ove for a pictorial view. meters. ?8 .

?5 .

north of the eGuator. Aow the 3+values increase Southwards and the C2values increase to the 1est.south of the eGuator. *his means that the 32values increase southwards and the I2values increase to the 1est. normally la elled E. /owever.for e0ample South Africa. 'very point that is e0pressed in spherical coordinates can e e0pressed as an C D E coordinate. It is also at right angles to the C and D a0es. another a0is.dimensional with 7. they form a so called CD2plane . *he E a0is provides the third dimension of space . called :niversal Transverse Mercator ):TM* often used for South Africa. distance and area occur. *o avoid too much distortion. is added. and the vertical a0is is normally la elled D. *his means.coordinate reference system has its origin on the e<uator at a specific 8on!itude.see Illustration >7 on the left side-. A pro+ected coordinate reference system in the southern hemisphere .7ro@ected coordinate reference s"stems A two2dimensional coordinate reference system is commonly defined y two a0es. the world is divided into >F e<ual 5ones that are all > de!rees wide in longitude from ?: . In the northern hemisphere . 8 and 9 coordinates 1right2. In the following section. Illustration )-: . it is generally used all over the world. In a three2dimensional coordinate reference system.normally has its origin on the eGuator at a specific 8on!itude. $wo.the origin is also the eGuator at a specific 8on!itude.see Illustration >7 on the right side-.the more distortion of angular conformity. we descri e a pro+ected coordinate reference system. the larger the area . *he horiHontal a0is is normally la elled C.ro:ected coordinate re!erence systems.)*(. *he )*( "=S is a glo al map pro+ection. :niversal Transverse Mercator ):TM* #-S in detail: *he )niversal *ransverse (ercator .dimensional with 7 and 8 coordinates 1le!t2 and three. But as already descri ed in the section Saccuracy of map pro+ectionsT a ove. At right angles to each other. now the 32values increase northwards and the I2values increase to the 'ast.

*he :TM 5ones are num ered 1 to >F.6S and :TM . As you can see in Illustration ?6 a ove and Illustration ?8 elow. *he S after the Hone means that the )*( Hones are located south of the e<uator. South Africa is covered y four :TM 5ones to minimiHe distortion.S..5one >F at 8@6 degrees 'ast longitude. starting at the international date line .=S. #(S. *he 5ones are called :TM . and #)S are used. #'S. :TM . :TM . Illustration */: $he =niversal $ransverse Aercator 5ones.5one 1 at 8@6 degrees 1est longitude.'ast to 1est. . ?. For South A!rica =$A 5ones ##S.as shown in Illustration ?6 elow. to the international date line .>S.and progressing 'ast ac.

Illustration *1: =$A 5ones ##S, #(S, #'S, and #)S with their central longitudes 1meridians2 used to pro:ect South A!rica with high accuracy. $he red cross shows an Area o! Interest 1A?I2. Say, for e0ample, that we want to define a two2dimensional coordinate within the Area of Interest )AOI* mar.ed with a red cross in Illustration ?8 a ove 3ou can see, that the area is located within the :TM 5one ;6S. *his means, to minimiHe distortion and to get accurate analysis results, we should use :TM 5one ;6S as the coordinate reference system. *he position of a coordinate in )*( south of the eGuator must e indicated with the 5one num%er ,:<- and with its northin! )"* value and eastin! )3* value in meters. *he northin! value is the distance of the position from the e<uator in meters. *he eastin! value is the distance from the central meridian ,longitude- of the used )*( Hone. For )*( Hone :<S it is 4? de!rees 9ast as shown in Illustration ?8 a ove. Furthermore, ecause we are south of the eGuator and negative values are not allowed in the )*( coordinate reference system, we have to add a so called false northin! value of 86,666,666m to the northing ,y- value and a false easting value of <66,666m to the easting ,0- value. *his sounds difficult, so, we will do an e0ample that shows you how to find the correct :TM ;6S coordinate for the Area of Interest. The northin! )"* value *he place we are loo.ing for is :,<<6,666 meters south of the eGuator, so the northing ,y- value gets a ne!ative si!n and is 2:,<<6,666m. According to the )*( definitions we have to add a false northin! value of 86,666,666m. *his means the northing ,y- value of our coordinate is >,;<6,666m ,2:,<<6,666m U 86,666,666m-. The eastin! )3* value

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First we have to find the central meridian ,longitude- for the :TM 5one ;6S. As we can see in VVV?8VVV it is 4? de!rees 9ast. *he place we are loo.ing for is A6,FFF meters &est from the central meridian. Cust li.e the northing value, the easting ,0- value gets a negative sign, giving a result of +A6,FFFm. According to the )*( definitions we have to add a false eastin! value of <66,666m. *his means the easting ,0- value of our coordinate is ;8<,666m ,2 @<,666m U <66,666m-. Finally, we have to add the 5one num%er to the easting value to get the correct value. As a result, the coordinate for our 7oint of Interest, pro+ected in :TM 5one ;6S would e written as! ;6 =16,FFFm9 ' >,=6F,FFFm.. In some GIS, when the correct )*( Hone :<S is defined and the units are set to meters within the system, the coordinate could also simply appear as =16,FFF >,=6F,FFF. On+The+1l" 7ro@ection As you can pro a ly imagine, there might e a situation where the data you want to use in a GIS are pro+ected in different coordinate reference systems. For e0ample, you might get a vector layer showing the oundaries of South Africa pro+ected in )*( :<S and another vector layer with point information a out rainfall provided in the geographic coordinate system 1GS @;. In GIS these two vector layers are placed in totally different areas of the map window, ecause they have different pro+ections. *o solve this pro lem, many GIS include a functionality called On+the+fl" pro+ection. It means, that you can define a certain pro+ection when you start the GIS and all layers that you then load, no matter what coordinate reference system they have, will e automatically displayed in the pro+ection you defined. *his functionality allows you to overlay layers within the map window of your GIS, even though they may e in different reference systems. #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: *he topic map pro@ection is very comple0 and even professionals who have studied geography, geodetics or any other GIS related science, often have pro lems with the correct definition of map pro+ections and coordinate reference systems. )sually when you wor. with GIS, you already have pro+ected data to start with. In most cases these data will e pro+ected in a certain "=S, so you donEt have to create a new "=S or even re pro+ect the data from one "=S to another. *hat said, it is always useful to have an idea a out what map pro+ection and "=S means. &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor.sheet!

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Map pro@ections portray the surface of the earth on a two2dimensional, flat piece of paper or computer screen. *here are glo al map pro+ections, ut most map pro+ections are created and optimi5ed to pro@ect smaller areas of the earthEs surface. (ap pro+ections are never a solutely accurate representations of the spherical earth. *hey show distortions of an!ular conformit", distance and area. It is impossi le to preserve all these characteristics at the same time in a map pro+ection. A #oordinate reference s"stem ,"=S- defines, with the help of coordinates, how the two2dimensional, pro+ected map is related to real locations on the earth. *here are two different types of coordinate reference systems! Geo!raphic #oordinate S"stems and 7ro@ected #oordinate S"stems. On the 1l" pro@ection is a functionality in GIS that allows us to overlay layers, even if they are pro+ected in different coordinate reference systems.

.ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners!

Start QGIS and load two layers of the same area ut with different pro+ections and let your pupils find the coordinates of several places on the two layers. 3ou can show them that it is not possi le to overlay the two layers. *hen define the coordinate reference system as GeographicF 1GS @; inside the $ro+ect $roperties #ialog and activate the chec. o0 Eena le On2the2fly "=S transformationE. &oad the two layers of the same area again and let your pupils see how On2the2fly pro+ection wor.s. 3ou can open the $ro+ect $roperties #ialog in QGIS and show your pupils the many different "oordinate =eference Systems so they get an idea of the comple0ity of this topic. 1ith EOn2the2fly "=S transformationE ena led you can select different "=S to display the same layer in different pro+ections.

Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le, you can show your pupils the principles of the three map pro+ection families. Get a glo e and paper and demonstrate how cylindrical, conical and planar pro+ections wor. in general. 1ith the help of a transparency sheet you can draw a two2dimensional coordinate reference system showing I a0es and 3 a0es. *hen, let your pupils define coordinates ,0 and y values- for different places. 1urther readin!: 2oo0s: ??

?@ .ISBA 7@8.ISBA 8<@6<:<::I- &e%sites: ● ● http!FFwww. .ht ml http!FFgeology.85>87<Galati.colorado.htm *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on wor. Bang2*sung .ing with map pro+ections in QGIS. &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta.eduFgeographyFgcraftFnotesFmappro+Fmappro+Nf. (ichael A. :rd 'dition.eduFgeostacFFieldN'0erciseFtopomapsFinde0. Stephen =. . (cGraw /ill.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. at Map 7roduction. 1iley.566>-! Geographic Information Systems #emystified. . Artech /ouse Inc. .isu.e a closer loo.ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.● ● ● "hang. :rd 'dition. .

Other elements that might e added are e. scale "ar. map "ody.ground in GIS. map %od". legend. a map has to e effective in communicating spatial information. scale ar. (aps are usually produced for presentations and reports where the audience or reader is a politician. or name of the ?7 . map ody. scale %ar. "ommon elements of a map are the title. map layout. ac0nowled!ement. citiHen or a learner with no professional ac. a !raticule. and map %order . Because of this. le!end.GIS for 'ducators Topic A: Map Production O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstanding of map production for spatial data (ap production.see Illustration ?5 elow-. the average person can understand what it is all a out. map unit Overview: Map production is the process of arranging map elements on a sheet of paper in a way that. north arrow. ac nowledgement and map "order. legend.g. even without many words. Illustration *2: 4ommon map elements 1la"elled in red2 are the title. north arrow. north arrow.

It should e short ut give the reader a first idea of what the map is a out. It is li. A map legend is usually shown as a little o0 in a corner of the map. map sym"ols and colours in the legend. the most important part of the map ecause it contains the map information. For e0ample. For e0ample. Illustration *#: $wo maps !rom the same area. *he other elements support the communication process and help the map reader to orientate himself and understand the map topic. It contains icons. of course. It can e compared with a title in a newspaper.which we descri e further down-. as you can see in Illustration ?: elow. these elements help the map reader to interpret the information shown on the map.see Illustration ?: elow-.e a dictionary that allows you to understand the meaning of what the map shows. each of which will represent a type of feature. a house icon will show you how to identify houses on the map . a map legend is used to provide a . Title in detail: *he map title is very important ecause it is usually the first thing a reader will loo. we wouldnEt understand maps. 1hen printing a map with a graticule . *ogether. *o ensure that a person can correctly read a map. *he map ody is.map pro@ection . Map 2order in detail: *he map order is a line that defines e0actly the edges of the area shown on the map. @6 . Map 8e!end in detail: A map is a simplified representation of the real world and map s"m%ols are used to represent real o +ects. "oth with a water "ody in the "ac ground "ut with di!!erent themes. you often find the coordinate information of the graticule lines along the order lines. 1ithout sym ols."=S-.ey to all the sym ols used on the map. at on a map. the title descri es the su +ect matter and the legend relates map sym ols to the mapped data.

e you will find it on the left side on the map. ecause it reduces confusion. 9ast and &est.e can e found on top of the la.3ou can also use different sym ols and icons in your legend to show different themes.meters. it is called a lar!e scale map. For e0ample. *he values are shown in map units . *he scale can e e0pressed in several ways.e in light lue overlaid with contour lines and spot heights to show information a out the terrain in that area.666 means that any distance on the map is 8F5<. in words. It is handy to remem er that a small scale map covers a lar!e area. It uses righter colours.see Illustration ?. .see Illustration ?. for e0ample. where oth the map distance and the ground distance in the real world are given in the same map units. (ore e0perienced users often prefer the representative fraction method. Another option is the representative fraction )-1* method.orth arrow in detail: A north arrow . On the other hand if the ratio is very large. On the right side you see the same area with the la. On a map it is used to indicate the direction of Aorth.ground ut this map is designed to show tourists the location of houses they can rent for their holidays. representing distance in the real world.e in the ac. In Illustration ?: a ove you can see a map with a la. *he value 5<. South. for e0ample 8!8666 666. a river in the south will e elow the water ody and if you are searching for a train station to the west of the la.sometimes also called a compass rose. *he road in the east will then e to the right of the water ody on the map. as a ratio. 93pressin! a scale in words is a commonly used method and has the advantage of eing easily understood y most map users. is the value of a single unit of distance on the map.e on a map. .666 in the ratio is called the scale denominator. feet or degrees-. for e0ample a 8!<6 666 map.is a figure displaying the main directions. A ar scale shows measured distances on the map. as a ratio or as a graphical scale ar . in GIS this means that a house that is located north from a la. elow-. and a large scale map covers a small area4 A scale e3pression as a !raphic or %ar scale is another asic method of e0pressing a scale.666th of the real distance on the ground . 3ou can see an e0ample of a word ased scale in Illustration ?.a elow.orth. 1hen a representative fraction e0presses a very small ratio. elow-. For e0ample. a =F value 8!5<. a house icon and more descriptive and inviting words in the legend. it is called a small scale map. *he @8 . Scale in detail *he scale of a map.

<66. Another interesting aspect of a map scale./// H 2. @5 .c elow.666 we calculate the real world distance li. 8!5<6 666. for e0ample. or as graphic or "ar scale 1c2. the more detailed the feature information in the map will e. In the image on the right you can only see a lac. clump of rectangles and you are not a le to see each house clearly. for e0ample the houses south2west of the water ody can e clearly identified as separate sGuares.5<6m. you will . 8!5< 666. Illustration *(: A map scale can "e expressed in words 1a2. 8!<66 666. In Illustration ?< elow. if we want to measure a distance of 866mm on a map with a scale of 8!5<. *he image on the left side shows more details. For e0ample.'//. as a ratio 1"2.666mm . 8!866 666. Both maps are the same siHe ut have a different scale.eGuivalent distance in the real world is placed a ove as you can see in Illustration ?.in the real word. you can see an e0ample of this.e this! 1//mm x 2'. is that the lower the map scale. 8!<6 666. (aps are usually produced at standard scales of./// mm *his means that 866mm on the map is eGuivalent to 5. 8!86 666. 1hat does this mean to the map readerJ It means that if you multiply the distance measured on the map y the scale denominator.now the distance in the real world.

e spatial orientation easier for the reader. For e0ample information a out the Guality of the used data can e useful to give the reader an idea a out details such as how. 1hen you want to refer to a special area on a map during your presentation or in a report you could say! Sthe houses close to latitude 5>. As an e0ample. F longitude 2:5. the lines of a graticule can represent the earthEs parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. If you . at a topographical map of your town.now that the map was created y an official institution. $he map scale on the le!t is 1:2'.Illustration *': Aaps showing an area in two di!!erent scales.///. if they have a more current version of that map with updated information. *he lines can e used as a reference.see Illustration ?> elow-. If the map is already <6 years old. y whom and when a map was created. you will pro a ly find a lot of houses and roads that no longer e0ist or may e never even e0isted. you could contact them and as.nowledgment area of a map it is possi le to add te0t with important information. $he map scale on the right is 1:'/. Ac0nowled!ment in detail: In the ac.now when the map was created and who did it.///.6. @: . it would e useful to . Graticule in detail: A graticule is a networ. If you loo. of lines overlain on a map to ma.88 are often e0posed to flooding during Canuary and Fe ruaryT .

people have studied. *o e a le to create maps as precisely as possi le.late 4arree E%uidistant 4ylindrical pro:ection on the right. roads or la. and produced many different . . Illustration **: $he world in di!!erent pro:ections.e houses. .ame of the map pro@ection in detail A map pro+ection tries to represent the :2dimensional 'arth with all its features li. @. *his is very difficult as you can imagine.inds of pro+ections. a . $he latitude and longitude values on the map "order can "e used !or "etter orientation on the map. 'very pro+ection has advantages and disadvantages.es on a flat sheet of paper.see Illustration ?? elow-. modified. In the end almost every country has developed its own map pro+ection with the goal of improving the map accuracy for their territorial area . A Aollweide E%ual Area pro:ection le!t.Illustration *): Graticules 1red lines2 representing the Earth>s parallels o! latitude and meridians o! longitude. and even after hundreds of years there is no single pro+ection that is a le to represent the 'arth perfectly for any area in the world.

feet or degreesA le!end e0plains all the sym ols on a map. we can now understand why it ma. By doing this. It allows the reader to see Guic. map ody.sheet! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Map production means arranging map elements on a sheet of paper.now more a out it. li. *o achieve this. at our previous topic! "oordinate =eference Systems if you want to . that people would li. if one map can e compared with another.see Illustration ?? a ove-.nowledgement.1ith this in mind. Map elements are the title. you will have a well designed and educational map.meters. scale ar and ac.ly. you need to create an ideal arrangement and composition of all the map elements. so a reader can most easily figure out @< . Scale represents the ratio of a distance on the map to the actual distance in the real world. at and e a le to understand.orth up .nowledgements should e ordered. &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. 3ou should concentrate on what story you want to tell with your map and how the elements. legend. scale. (ap pro+ection is a very comple0 topic and we cannot cover it completely here. 3ou may want to ta. For e0ample. (aps are usually always displayed E. .e a loo. See if your learners can identify e0amples of different types of legend elements such as road types or uildings. such as the legend. Scale is displayed in map units .es sense to add the name of the pro+ection on a map. north arrow and the ac. map order. "reate a list of legend elements and define what the icons should loo.e to loo.e.ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● &oad some vector layers in your GIS for your local area. #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: It is sometimes difficult to create a map that is easy to understand and well laid out whilst still showing and e0plaining all the information that the reader needs to . features on a map in a so2 called E%ual Area pro+ection appear very different to features pro+ected in a 4ylindrical E%uidistant pro+ection . A map should e3plain comple3 information as simpl" as possi%le.now.

ing maps4 @> .e a closer loo.ISBA 7@8. 1hen you have a template.eduFgeographyFgcraftFnotesFmappro+Fmappro+. open the QGIS (ap "omposer and try to arrange a map layout as planned. .wi.colorado.orgFwi.ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.maphttp!FFwww.ing good loo. "reate a map layout with your learners on a sheet of paper. Bang2*sung . you can use any topographical map and discuss the map design with your learners. (cGraw /ill. .iFScaleN. Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le. )se the techniGues you learned in *opics 5 and : to ad+ust the sym ology accordingly. :rd 'dition. Figure out if they understand what the map wants to tell.ipedia.● their meaning in the map.html *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on map production provided in QGIS.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 1hat can e improvedJ /ow accurately does the map represent the history of the areaJ /ow would a map from 866 years ago differ from the same map todayJ 1urther readin!: 2oo0s: ● ● "hang.85>87<- &e%sites: ● ● http!FFen. &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta. 1iley. (ichael A. at vector anal"sis to see how we can use a GIS for more than +ust ma. . #ecide on the title of the map. :rd 'dition. what GIS layers you want to show and what colours and icons to have on the map.

ely e interested in analysing terrain and modelling water as it moves across it.e. spatial analysis. *he area that is within the specified distance is called the %uffer 5one. In wildlife management users are interested in analytical functions that deal with wildlife point locations and their relationship to the environment. $eople wor. how many vertices ma. A %uffer 5one is any area that serves the purpose of . uffer Hone. protect residential and commercial Hones from industrial accidents or natural disasters. )sually spatial analysis is carried out using a GIS Application. dissolve oundary.hydrology. outward and inward uffer.ing in water management and research .e up this polylineJ. 2ufferin! in detail: 2ufferin! usually creates two areas! one area that is within a specified distance to selected real world features and the other area that is %e"ond.or geoprocessing such as feature uffering.g. multiple uffer Beywords! Overview: Spatial anal"sis uses spatial information to e0tract new and additional meaning from GIS data.will most li.eeping real world features distant from one another. or to prevent violence. Buffer Hones are often set up to protect the environment. @? . GIS Applications normally have spatial analysis tools for feature statistics . *he types of spatial analysis that are used vary according to su +ect areas.GIS for 'ducators Topic G: Vector Spatial Analysis ( uffers! O +ectives! )nderstanding the use of uffering in vector spatial analysis. uffer distance. In this topic we will discuss uffering as an e0ample of a useful spatial analysis that can e carried out with vector data. 9ector.

order Hones etween countries .see Illustration ?@ a ove-. *he numerical values have to e defined in map units according to the "oordinate =eference System .used with the data. Illustration +1: A "u!!er 5one around vector polygons *here are several variations in uffering. "ommon types of uffer Hones may e green elts etween residential and commercial areas. Illustration *-: A "u!!er 5one around vector points .hoto ta en "y SG$ Gim Greenhill 2//)2.ariations in %ufferin!: Illustration +/: A "u!!er 5one around vector polylines.see Illustrations ?72 @8 elow-. In a GIS Application. %uffer 5ones are always represented as vector pol"!ons enclosing other polygon. noise protection Hones around airports. *he %uffer distance or uffer siHe can var" according to numerical values provided in the vector layer attri ute ta le for each feature. line or point features .Illustration *+: $he "order "etween the =nited States o! America and Aexico is separated "y a "u!!er 5one. For e0ample."=S. 1. the width of a uffer Hone along the an. or pollution protection Hones along rivers. For intensive cultivation @@ .s of a river can vary depending on the intensity of the ad+acent land use.

see Illustration @5 elow and *a le 7 elow-. thus forming multiple rings around the plant as part of an evacuation plan . A nuclear power plant may e uffered with distances of 86. $hey can "e on either the le!t side or the right side o! the line !eature.metersIntensive vegeta le cultivation Intensive cotton cultivation Organic farming Organic farming 866 8<6 <6 <6 $a"le -: Attri"ute ta"le with di!!erent "u!!er distances to rivers "ased on in!ormation a"out the ad:acent land use. 5< and :6 . In these cases the le!t or right side is determined "y the direction !rom the starting point to the end point o! line during digitising. . Ad+acent land use Buffer distance .m.the uffer distance may e igger than for organic farming .see Illustration @: elow-. do not have to "e on "oth sides o! the lines. =iver Breede =iver Bomati Oran+e *elle river Illustration +2: . 8<.u!!ers around polyline !eatures.u!!ering rivers with di!!erent "u!!er distances. @7 . Multiple %uffer 5ones: A feature can also have more than one uffer Hone. such as rivers or roads.

u!!er 5ones with dissolved 1le!t2 and with intact "oundaries 1right2 showing overlapping areas.u!!ering a point !eature with distances o! 1/. 1'. 76 . Illustration +(: . so that each uffer Hone is a separate polygon and you can identify the overlapping areas . 2ufferin! with intact or dissolved %oundaries Buffer Hones often have dissolved oundaries so that there are no overlapping areas etween the uffer Hones.see Illustration @.Illustration +#: . In some cases though. 2' and #/ m. elow-. it may also e useful for oundaries of uffer Hones to remain intact.

Say. the #epartment of *ourism wants to plan a new road around =o en Island and environmental laws reGuire that the road is at least 566 meters inward from the coast line. for e0ample.2ufferin! outward and inward Buffer Hones around polygon features are usually e0tended outward from a polygon oundary ut it is also possi le to create a uffer Hone inward from a polygon oundary. *hey could use an inward uffer to find the 566m line inland and then plan their road not to go eyond that line.intersect-. Difference! *he output layer contains all areas of the first input layer that do not overlap ."=S. not all GIS Applications allow you to uffer on either the left side or the right side of a line feature. *his value is defined in map units . :nion! the output layer contains all areas of the two input layers com ined.see Illustration @< elow -. *ypical spatial overlay e0amples are! ● ● ● ● Intersection! *he output layer contains all areas where oth layers overlap . #ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: (ost GIS Applications offer uffer creation as an analysis tool.floatin! point value*. feet. S"mmetrical difference! *he output layer contains all areas of the input layers e0cept those areas where the two layers overlap .or a decimal num er . For e0ample.meters.inte!er. A uffer distance always has to e defined as a whole num er . *he output vector layer is a com ination of the input features information . ut the options for creating uffers can vary. More spatial anal"sis tools Buffering is a an important and often used spatial analysis tool ut there are many others that can e used in a GIS and e0plored y the user.of the vector layer. to dissolve the oundaries of uffer Hones or to uffer inward from a polygon oundary.with the second input layer. Spatial overla" is a process that allows you to identify the relationships etween two polygon features that share all or part of the same area.intersect.according to the "oordinate =eference System . decimal degrees.intersect-. 78 .

Buffer Hones are always vector pol"!ons. a GIS usually provides a variety of vector analysis tools to solve spatial tas. . *he siHe of a uffer Hone is defined y a %uffer distance. $he resulting vector layer is displayed green. A feature can have multiple uffer Hones. *he siting criteria stipulate that a potential site must e within 8 . For controlling protesting groups. "reate a uffer around a uilding and colour it so that event planners can see where the uffer area is.s.m uffer around your school and then go and see if there would e any ottle stores too close to your school. A uffer distance has to e an inte!er or floatin! point value. factory plans to e0pand.Illustration +': Spatial overlay with two input vector layers 1aIinput H rectangle.sheet! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 2uffer 5ones descri e areas around real world features. "Iinput H circle2. &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor. Buffer Hones can e created with intact or dissolved oundaries. the police want to esta lish a neutral Hone to . "reate a 8. Imagine that the city wants to introduce a law stipulating that no ottle stores may e within a 8666 meter uffer Hone of a school or a church. the town planners want to widen the main road and add a second lane. Besides uffering. "reate a uffer around the road to find properties that fall within the uffer Hone .ow "ou tr"/ /ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● ● ● Because of dramatic traffic increase.see Illustration @> elow-. $olygons can e uffered inward or outward from the polygon oundary.eep protesters at least 866 meters from a uilding. A uffer distance can e different for each feature within a vector layer. "reate a uffer along a main road so that you can see where potential sites are. 75 .m of a heavy2duty road. A truc.

.manifold. :rd 'dition.u!!er 5one 1green2 around a roads map 1"rown2.e a closer loo. (ichael A. Artech /ouse Inc. (cGraw /ill.htm *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on analysing vector data in QGIS. .566>-! Geographic Information Systems #emystified. :rd 'dition. .s at eGual distance all along your feature using the compass.ISBA 7@8.s using a ruler4 1urther readin!: 2oo0s: ● ● ● Galati.85>87<- &e%sites: ● http!FFwww. (a. .Illustration +): . you can use a toposheet and a compass to create uffer Hones around uildings. Stephen =. 7: . 8ou can see which houses !all within the "u!!er 5one. &hat s ne3t( In the section that follows we will ta. .e small pencil mar.ISBA 8<@6<:<::I"hang.ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.netFdocFtransformN orderN uffers. 1iley. then connect the mar.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. Bang2*sung . at interpolation as an e0ample of spatial analysis you can do with raster data. so now you could contact the owner and tal to him a"out the situation. Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le.

*riangulated Irregular Aetwor. they do. Spatial interpolation is the process of using points with . A GIS usually provides spatial analysis tools for calculating feature statistics and carrying out geoprocessing activities as data interpolation. users will li.GIS for 'ducators Topic 1F: Spatial Analysis (Interpolation! O +ectives! Beywords! )nderstanding of interpolation as part of spatial analysis $oint data.e a precipitation . users are interested in analytical functions dealing with wildlife point locations and their relationship to the environment.modelling the movement of water over and in the earth-. you will not find enough evenly spread weather stations to cover the entire region.map for your country. Overview: Spatial anal"sis is the process of manipulating spatial information to e0tract new information and meaning from the original data.nown values to estimate values at other un. For e0ample. to ma.rainfall. Spatial interpolation can estimate the 7.ind of wor. .nown points. Spatial interpolation in detail: Illustration +*: $emperature map interpolated !rom South A!rican <eather Stations. )sually spatial analysis is carried out with a Geographic Information System .GIS-.ely emphasiHe the importance of terrain analysis and hydrological modelling . Inverse #istance 1eighted. In wildlife management. interpolation method. 'ach user will have different things they are interested in depending on the . In hydrology.

en. a digital elevation map from elevation points measured with a G$S device.*IA-. Inverse Distance &ei!hted )ID&* In the I#1 interpolation method. please refer to the further reading section at the end of this topic. spatial interpolation of these points can e applied to create a raster surface with estimates made for all raster cells. In order to generate a continuous map. data collection is usually conducted only in a limited num er of selected point locations. In GIS. the sample points are weighted during interpolation such that the influence of one point relative to another declines with distance from the un. *here are many interpolation methods. a suita le interpolation method has to e used to optimally estimate the values at those locations where no samples or measurements were ta. 'levation data.ing for additional interpolation methods.etwor0s .temperatures at locations without recorded data y using . precipitation. water ta le and population density are other types of data that can e computed using interpolation.nown point you want to create . *his type of interpolated surface is often called a statistical surface. If you are loo. for e0ample.see Illustration @@ elow-. snow accumulation.nown temperature readings at near y weather stations . 7< . Because of high cost and limited resources.I#1and Trian!ulated Irre!ular .see Illustration @? a ove-. *he results of the interpolation analysis can then e used for analyses that cover the whole area and for modelling. In this introduction we will present two widely used interpolation methods called Inverse Distance &ei!htin! .

the less the effect points will have if they are far from the un. *his often results in small pea. 7> .. Interpolated IB< sur!ace !rom elevation vector points 1right2. *he greater the weighting coefficient. 11---22.Illustration ++: Inverse Bistance <eighted interpolation "ased on weighted sample point distance 1le!t2. 1eighting is assigned to sample points through the use of a weighting coefficient that controls how the weighting influence will drop off as the distance from new point increases. Aitasova. Furthermore.s and pits around the sample data points as shown in Illustration @@ a ove.nown point during the interpolation process. &. As the coefficient increases. Image Source: Aitas. 6. It is important to notice that the I#1 interpolation method also has some disadvantages! *he Guality of the interpolation result can decrease. the value of the un.nown point approaches the value of the nearest o servational point. if the distri ution of sample data points is uneven. ma0imum and minimum values in the interpolated surface can only occur at sample data points.

A common *IA algorithm is called Delauna" triangulation. circumcircles around selected sample points are created and their intersections are connected to a networ. you can see a typical I#1 interpolation result.In GIS. Illustration +-: IB< interpolation result !rom irregularly collected elevation sample points 1shown as "lac crosses2. *o do this. of non overlapping and as compact as possi le triangles . interpolation results are usually shown as a 5 dimensional raster layer. ased on elevation sample points collected in the field with a G$S device.see Illustration 76 elow-.* *IA interpolation is another popular tool in GIS. It tries to create a surface formed y triangles of nearest neigh our points. 7? .etwor0 )TI. Trian!ulated Irre!ular . In Illustration @7 elow.

In addition. Image Source: Aitas. 11---22.see Illustration 78 elow-. 7@ . &.. Aitasova. $he resulting interpolated $IC sur!ace created !rom elevation vector points is shown on the right.Illustration -/: Belaunay triangulation with circumcircles around the red sample data. *he main disadvantage of the *IA interpolation is that the surfaces are not smooth and may give a +agged appearance. *his is caused y discontinuous slopes at the triangle edges and sample data points. Illustration -1: Belaunay $IC interpolation result !rom irregularly collected rain!all sample points 1"lue circles2. 6. triangulation is generally not suita le for e0trapolation eyond the area with collected sample data points .

such as =egulariHed Splines with *ension .=S*-.sheet. In practice.sheet! ● ● ● ● ● Interpolation uses vector points with . See the additional reading section elow for a we lin.e longer to calculate. 5.nowledge of different interpolation methods. ID& interpolation gives weights to sample points. there are more spatial interpolation methods provided in GIS. :. Briging or *rend Surface interpolation. interpolation uses sample points to create a surface formed y triangles ased on nearest neigh our point information. selection of a particular interpolation method should depend upon the sample data. a three step procedure is recommended! 8.#ommon pro%lems ' thin!s to %e aware of: It is important to remem er that there is no single interpolation method that can e applied to all situations.nown values to estimate values at un.. 1hen you are in dou t. try several methods. the time reGuired for generating the most suita le surface will e greatly reduced. . Apply an interpolation method which is most suita le to oth the sample data and the study o +ectives. *he interpolation result is typically a raster layer.e a time consuming process at the eginning. Some are more e0act and useful than others ut ta. #o this to get an idea on how data are distri uted in the area. the type of surfaces to e generated and tolerance of estimation errors. Generally. as this may provide hints on which interpolation method to use. Other interpolation methods Although we concentrated on I#1 and *IA interpolation methods in this wor.nown locations. *hey all have advantages and disadvantages. such that the influence of one point on another declines with distance from the new point eing estimated. if availa le. 'valuate the sample data.ow "ou tr"/ 77 . TI. *his may loo. It is important to find a suita%le interpolation method to optimally estimate values for un. /owever. "ompare the results and find the est result and the most suita le method. as you gain e0perience and . li.nown locations to create a raster surface covering an entire area. &hat have we learned( &etEs wrap up what we covered in this wor.

they want to .ipedia. :rd 'dition. you can use a toposheet and a ruler to estimate elevation values etween contour lines or rainfall values etween fictional weather stations. rainfall and wind strength data and as. 1urther readin!: 2oo0s: ● ● ● "hang.ipedia. (anagement and Applications.&ongley. .8777-! Spatial Interpolation. &e%sites: ● ● ● http!FFen. &. .orgFwi.-. *he tourist office wants to pu lish information a out the weather conditions in Canuary and Fe ruary.ely to receive the highest rainfall.huFpu licNeFfuncintFfuncint.wi.F. you can estimate. Bang2*sung .. All the information they have availa le comes from a few weather stations around the area. if rainfall at weather station A is <6 mm per month and at weather station B it is 76 mm. #.'ds. that the rainfall at half the distance etween weather station A and B is ?6 mm. Goodchild. In! $. me./ere are some ideas for you to try with your learners! ● ● *he #epartment of Agriculture plans to cultivate new land in your area ut apart from the character of the soils. Geographical Information Systems! $rinciples. 1iley.wi. *echniGues. (aguire.85>87<(itas.566>-! Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. (cGraw /ill. (itasova. .1. /.C.iF#elaunayNtriangulation http!FFwww. (. . #. (ichael A.ISBA 66?6><@7@>#e(ers.566<-! Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems. &hat s ne3t( 866 .ISBA 7@8. :rd 'dition.iFInterpolation http!FFen.html *he QGIS )ser Guide also has more detailed information on interpolation tools provided in QGIS. For e0ample. no rainfall and little wind strength. "an you identify the areas in your region that meet these criteriaJ Somethin! to thin0 a%out: If you donEt have a computer availa le. *hey have temperature. "reate an interpolated surface with your learners that shows which areas are li. you to interpolate their data to estimate places where tourists will pro a ly have optimal weather conditions with mild temperatures.orgFwi. 1iley.agt.now if the rainfall is sufficient for a good harvest.=hind .

*his is the final wor. 1e encourage you to e0plore QGIS and use the accompanying QGIS manual to discover all the other things you can do with GIS software4 868 .sheet in this series.

Otto has considera le e0perience in using and training people to use Free and Open Source GIS software.com 9mail: marcelleIlinfiniti. &e%: http:''linfiniti.dassauI!m3.de 9mail: otto. &e%: http:''linfiniti. /e is passionate a out seeing GIS eing Freely availa le to everyone.com 9mail: timIlinfiniti.nature+consult. &e%: http:''www. (arcelle is also a founding mem er of &infiniti "onsulting "". 2 a small usiness set up with the goal of helping people to learn and use open source GIS software. 2 a small usiness set up with the goal of helping people to learn and use open source GIS software.com Otto Dassau + Assistant Author Otto #assau is the documentation maintainer and pro+ect steering committee mem er of the Quantum GIS pro+ect.de Marcelle Sutton + 7ro@ect Mana!er (arcelle Sutton studied english and drama and is a Gualified teacher.About t"e aut"ors # contributors$ Tim Sutton + 9ditor H 8ead Author *im Sutton is a developer and pro+ect steering committee mem er of the Quantum GIS pro+ect. *im is also a founding mem er of &infiniti "onsulting "".com 865 .

ideo 7resenter Si ongile lives near Cohannes urg with her young daughter.8erato . 86: . &erato learns Geography at school and has en+oyed learning GIS with us4 Si%on!ile Mthom%eni J .ideo 7resenter &erato is a grade 85 scholar living in $retoria. /er goal is to continue her studies and ecome a nurse.si%ande J . 1or.ing on this pro+ect was the first time Si ongile used a computer.

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ord! a! a 3ac40Co-er 1e2t. and add to it an item !tating at lea!t the title.# '# Pre!er-e in that licen!e notice the f%ll li!t! of In-ariant Section! and re?%ired Co-er 1e2t! gi-en in the Doc%ment@! licen!e notice# C# Incl%de an %naltered copy of thi! Licen!e# I# Pre!er-e the !ection "ntitled 5Ci!tory5. add their title! to the li!t of In-ariant Section! in the 7odified +er!ion@! licen!e notice# 1he!e title! m%!t $e di!tinct from any other !ection title!# =o% may add a !ection "ntitled 5"ndor!ement!5.a! p%$li!hed at lea!t fo%r year! $efore the Doc%ment it!elf. and p%$li!her of the 7odified +er!ion a! gi-en on the 1itle Page# If there i! no !ection "ntitled 5Ci!tory5 in the Doc%ment.n in the ddend%m $elo.or4 location! gi-en in the Doc%ment for pre-io%! -er!ion! it .ord! a! a *ront0Co-er 1e2t. gi-en in the Doc%ment for p%$lic acce!! to a 1ran!parent copy of the Doc%ment. year. yo% may not add another/ $%t yo% may replace the old one. Pre!er-e the 1itle of the !ection. %naltered in their te2t and in their title!# Section n%m$er! or the e?%i-alent are not con!idered part of the !ection title!# 7# Delete any !ection "ntitled 5"ndor!ement!5# S%ch a !ection may not $e incl%ded in the 7odified +er!ion# (# Do not retitle any e2i!ting !ection to $e "ntitled 5"ndor!ement!5 or to conflict in title . if any.arranty Di!claimer!# If the 7odified +er!ion incl%de! ne.a! $a!ed on# 1he!e may $e placed in the 5Ci!tory5 !ection# =o% may omit a net. and pre!er-e in the !ection all the !%$!tance and tone of each of the contri$%tor ac4no. a licen!e notice gi-ing the p%$lic permi!!ion to %!e the 7odified +er!ion %nder the term! of thi! Licen!e. year. create one !tating the title. !tatement! of peer re-ie. front0matter !ection! or appendice! that ?%alify a! Secondary Section! and contain no material copied from the Doc%ment.ledgement! and&or dedication! gi-en therein# L# Pre!er-e all the In-ariant Section! of the Doc%ment. in the form !ho. or if the original p%$li!her of the -er!ion it refer! to gi-e! permi!!ion# G# *or any !ection "ntitled 5 c4no. and p%$li!her of the Doc%ment a! gi-en on it! 1itle Page. immediately after the copyright notice!. Pre!er-e it! 1itle. then add an item de!cri$ing the 7odified +er!ion a! !tated in the pre-io%! !entence# D# Pre!er-e the net. and a pa!!age of %p to 28 . yo% may at yo%r option de!ignate !ome or all of the!e !ection! a! in-ariant# 1o do thi!.or4 location for a . pre-io%!ly added $y yo% or $y arrangement made $y the !ame entity yo% are acting on $ehalf of. and li4e.or4 that . on e2plicit permi!!ion from the pre-io%! p%$li!her that added the old one# 1he a%thor(!) and p%$li!her(!) of the Doc%ment do not $y thi! Licen!e gi-e permi!!ion to %!e their name! for p%$licity for or to a!!ert or imply 86? . pro-ided it contain! nothing $%t endor!ement! of yo%r 7odified +er!ion $y -ario%! partie!00for e2ample.i!e the net. or that the te2t ha! $een appro-ed $y an organiAation a! the a%thoritati-e definition of a !tandard# =o% may add a pa!!age of %p to fi-e .7odified +er!ion. ne.ledgement!5 or 5Dedication!5. a! the p%$li!her# D# Pre!er-e all the copyright notice! of the Doc%ment# "# dd an appropriate copyright notice for yo%r modification! ad<acent to the other copyright notice!# *# Incl%de.ith any In-ariant Section# ># Pre!er-e any . a%thor!. a%thor!. to the end of the li!t of Co-er 1e2t! in the 7odified +er!ion# >nly one pa!!age of *ront0Co-er 1e2t and one of 3ac40 Co-er 1e2t may $e added $y (or thro%gh arrangement! made $y) any one entity# If the Doc%ment already incl%de! a co-er te2t for the !ame co-er.or4 location.

or the electronic e?%i-alent of co-er! if the Doc%ment i! in electronic form# >ther. thi! Licen!e doe! not apply to the other . !o yo% may di!tri$%te 86@ .or4 in it! licen!e notice. thi! Licen!e in all other re!pect! regarding -er$atim copying of that doc%ment# I# '':"' 1I>( .i!e com$ine any !ection! "ntitled 5 c4no. in or on a -ol%me of a !torage or di!tri$%tion medi%m.endor!ement of any 7odified +er!ion# 8# C>73I(I(' D>C)7"(1S =o% may com$ine the Doc%ment .ith other doc%ment! relea!ed %nder thi! Licen!e.ith the !ame name $%t different content!.hole aggregate# J# 1: (SL 1I>( 1ran!lation i! con!idered a 4ind of modification.or4 need only contain one copy of thi! Licen!e. pro-ided yo% in!ert a copy of thi! Licen!e into the e2tracted doc%ment. and m%ltiple identical In-ariant Section! may $e replaced . forming one !ection "ntitled 5Ci!tory5/ li4e. then if the Doc%ment i! le!! than one half of the entire aggregate.or4! of the Doc%ment# If the Co-er 1e2t re?%irement of !ection 9 i! applica$le to the!e copie! of the Doc%ment.or4! permit# . in parenthe!e!.ith a !ingle copy# If there are m%ltiple In-ariant Section! . i! called an 5aggregate5 if the copyright re!%lting from the compilation i! not %!ed to limit the legal right! of the compilation@! %!er! $eyond .I1C I(D"P"(D"(1 . %nder the term! defined in !ection F a$o-e for modified -er!ion!. yo% m%!t com$ine any !ection! "ntitled 5Ci!tory5 in the -ario%! original doc%ment!.ith a !ingle copy that i! incl%ded in the collection.or4# In the com$ination. and follo.or4! in the aggregate . the Doc%ment@! Co-er 1e2t! may $e placed on co-er! that $rac4et the Doc%ment . or el!e a %ni?%e n%m$er# 7a4e the !ame ad<%!tment to the !ection title! in the li!t of In-ariant Section! in the licen!e notice of the com$ined .>:GS compilation of the Doc%ment or it! deri-ati-e! .n. the r%le! of thi! Licen!e for -er$atim copying of each of the doc%ment! in all other re!pect!# =o% may e2tract a !ingle doc%ment from !%ch a collection.or4!. pro-ided that yo% incl%de in the com$ination all of the In-ariant Section! of all of the original doc%ment!. and any !ection! "ntitled 5Dedication!5# =o% m%!t delete all !ection! "ntitled 5"ndor!ement!5# H# C>LL"C1I>(S >* D>C)7"(1S =o% may ma4e a collection con!i!ting of the Doc%ment and other doc%ment! relea!ed %nder thi! Licen!e. ma4e the title of each !%ch !ection %ni?%e $y adding at the end of it.ledgement!5. and that yo% pre!er-e all their .arranty Di!claimer!# 1he com$ined .ith other !eparate and independent doc%ment! or . %nmodified. and di!tri$%te it indi-id%ally %nder thi! Licen!e.ithin the aggregate.hich are not them!el-e! deri-ati-e .i!e they m%!t appear on printed co-er! that $rac4et the . pro-ided that yo% follo.hat the indi-id%al . and li!t them all a! In-ariant Section! of yo%r com$ined .hen the Doc%ment i! incl%ded in an aggregate. and replace the indi-id%al copie! of thi! Licen!e in the -ario%! doc%ment! . the name of the original a%thor or p%$li!her of that !ection if 4no.

or 5Ci!tory5.e-er.ith tran!lation! re?%ire! !pecial permi!!ion from their copyright holder!. incl%de a copy of the Licen!e in the doc%ment and p%t the follo.are *o%ndation# DD"(D)7: Co. . the original -er!ion . replace the 5. 5Dedication!5. +er!ion .ledgement!5. modify.ing copyright and licen!e notice! <%!t after the title page: Copyright (c) =" : =>): ( 7"# Permi!!ion i! granted to copy.ith thi!: . -er!ion! .tran!lation! of the Doc%ment %nder the term! of !ection F# :eplacing In-ariant Section! . and any .) .ritten.are *o%ndation may p%$li!h ne. yo% ha-e the option of follo.are *o%ndation/ . !%$licen!e. and . $%t may differ in detail to addre!! ne. or di!tri$%te the Doc%ment e2cept a! e2pre!!ly pro-ided for %nder thi! Licen!e# ny other attempt to copy. pro$lem! or concern!# See http:&&. partie! .ho ha-e recei-ed copie!.ing the term! and condition! either of that !pecified -er!ion or of any later -er!ion that ha! $een p%$li!hed (not a! a draft) $y the *ree Soft. from yo% %nder thi! Licen!e .ith the *ront0Co-er 867 .een the tran!lation and the original -er!ion of thi! Licen!e or a notice or di!claimer. and all the licen!e notice! in the Doc%ment.ill not ha-e their licen!e! terminated !o long a! !%ch partie! remain in f%ll compliance# . $%t yo% may incl%de tran!lation! of !ome or all In-ariant Section! in addition to the original -er!ion! of the!e In-ariant Section!# =o% may incl%de a tran!lation of thi! Licen!e.. no *ront0Co-er 1e2t!. !%$licen!e or di!tri$%te the Doc%ment i! -oid. yo% may choo!e any -er!ion e-er p%$li!hed (not a! a draft) $y the *ree Soft. or right!. *ront0Co-er 1e2t! and 3ac40Co-er 1e2t!.ill $e !imilar in !pirit to the pre!ent -er!ion. di!tri$%te and&or modify thi! doc%ment %nder the term! of the '() *ree Doc%mentation Licen!e.ill pre-ail# If a !ection in the Doc%ment i! "ntitled 5 c4no.ith no In-ariant Section!.. the re?%irement (!ection F) to Pre!er-e it! 1itle (!ection . and no 3ac40Co-er 1e2t!# copy of the licen!e i! incl%ded in the !ection entitled 5'() *ree Doc%mentation Licen!e5# If yo% ha-e In-ariant Section!.. modify. re-i!ed -er!ion! of the '() *ree Doc%mentation Licen!e from time to time# S%ch ne. pro-ided that yo% al!o incl%de the original "ngli!h -er!ion of thi! Licen!e and the original -er!ion! of tho!e notice! and di!claimer!# In ca!e of a di!agreement $et.are *o%ndation# If the Doc%ment doe! not !pecify a -er!ion n%m$er of thi! Licen!e.ith the In-ariant Section! $eing LIS1 1C"I: 1I1L"S.ill a%tomatically terminate yo%r right! %nder thi! Licen!e# Co.0# *)1):" :"+ISI>(S >* 1CIS LIC"(S" 1he *ree Soft.ith###1e2t!#5 line .ill typically re?%ire changing the act%al title# 9# 1":7I( 1I>( =o% may not copy. to %!e thi! Licen!e for yo%r doc%ment! 1o %!e thi! Licen!e in a doc%ment yo% ha-e .arranty Di!claimer!.#gn%#org&copyleft&# "ach -er!ion of the Licen!e i! gi-en a di!ting%i!hing -er!ion n%m$er# If the Doc%ment !pecifie! that a partic%lar n%m$ered -er!ion of thi! Licen!e 5or any later -er!ion5 applie! to it.#2 or any later -er!ion p%$li!hed $y the *ree Soft.

are licen!e.o alternati-e! to !%it the !it%ation# If yo%r doc%ment contain! nontri-ial e2ample! of program code.1e2t! $eing LIS1.itho%t Co-er 1e2t!. and . !%ch a! the '() 'eneral P%$lic Licen!e. merge tho!e t.are# 886 . or !ome other com$ination of the three.e recommend relea!ing the!e e2ample! in parallel %nder yo%r choice of free !oft.ith the 3ac40Co-er 1e2t! $eing LIS1# If yo% ha-e In-ariant Section! . to permit their %!e in free !oft. .

)GIS &ser Manual 888 .

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