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CHNG 3

TRAO I NHIT I LU
3.1. CNG THC NEWTON V H S TA NHIT 3.1.1. nh ngha v phn loi ta nhit Trao i nhit i lu hay to nhit, l hin tng trao i nhit gia mt lp cht lu (cht lng hoc cht kh) chuyn ng vi b mt ca 1 vch tip xc. Hin tng cht lu chuyn ng theo dng tun hon gi l i lu. Theo nguyn nhn gy chuyn ng i lu, ngi ta phn to nhit ra 2 loi: 1) To nhit t nhin l hin tng to nhit khi i lu c sinh ra mt cch t nhin, do trng lc to ra trong cht lu khng ng nht v nhit . 2) To nhit cng bc l hin tng to nhit khi i lu c to ra do mt ngoi lc, v d do bm qut. 3.1.2. Cng thc Newton v h s to nhit Xt m hnh to nhit gm mt b mt vch nhit tW tip xc mt lp cht lu chuyn ng c nhit gim dn t tW st vch n tf xa vch, nh hnh Hnh 3.1. Lng nhit to ra cht lu qua mt vch c tnh theo cng thc qui c, F gi l cng thc Newton, c dng: q=(tW - tf), [W/m2] v Q = F(tW - tf), [W] trong tW l nhit mt vch, tf l nhit cht lu xa vch, F l din tch mt tip xc v
= Q q , [W/m2K] gi l h s to nhit . = t Ft
x

tw

Hnh 3.1 Phn b t(x) trong cht lu khi ta nhit

H s to nhit c trng cho cng to nhit, l n s chnh ca mi bi ton to nhit.

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3.2. PHNG TRNH TNGG QUT CA H S TO NHIT 3.2.1. cc thng s nh hng n H s ta nhit ph thuc vo cc yu t gy ra i lu v dn nhit trong cht lu, bao gm cc thng s chnh sau y: 1) Cc thng s hnh hc ca mt to nhit . Hnh dng, kch thc v v tr ca mt to nhit nh hng ti dng chuyn ng ca cht lu, do s nh hng ti . c trng hnh hc ca b mt to nhit c th gm nhiu kch thc khc nhau, nhng kh tnh thng chn mt kch thc duy nht, gi l kch thc nh tnh lt. Kch thc nh tnh lt do ngi lp cng thc tnh la chn, theo qui tc nh sau
chiu cao h cua mt phng hoc tru thng ng lt = ng knh tng ng cua ng nm ngang hoc b mt ngoai vt hu han ng nm ngang vi din tch v chu vi ca tit din cha cht lng l f v u,

s c ng knh tng ng d td =

4f . Vt hu hn vi th tch V, din tch xung u


F

quanh F s c dt = GV , [m].

ddt=4f/u ddt=6V/F
u f F V
Hnh 3.2 dtd ca vch phng v V hnh tr 2) Cc thng s vt l ca cht lu Cc thng s vt l trc tip nh hng n bao gm: - Cc thng s nh hng n chuyn ng l: khi lng ring [kg/m3], h s n nhit =
V , [K 1 ] , nhp ng hc = [m2/s] VT

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- Cc thng s nh hng ti dn nhit l: h s dn nhit [W/mK], h s khuch tn nhit a =


[m2/s]. C p

Cc thng s vt l ni trn u thay i theo nhit cht lu . xc nh gi tr cc thng s vt l khi tnh , ngi lp cng thc qui nh 1 tr s no ca nhit cht lu, gi l nhit nh tnh. Nhit nh tnh [t] c th ly mt trong cc gi tr sau:
t f la nhit cht lu xa vach [ t ] = t W la nhit cht lu sat vach 1 t m = ( t W + t f ) la nhit cht lu gia lp bin nhit 2

3) Cc thng s c trng cho cng i lu - i lu t nhin l dng i lu t pht sinh trong cht lu khi c chnh trng lng ring gia cc lp cht lu. chnh trng lng ring t l thun vi gia tc trng lc g[m/s2], vi h s n nhit [K-1] v vi chnh nhit t = tW = tf giac cht lu gn v xa vch. Do , cng i lu t nhin c trng bng tch s gt, [m/s] ca cht lu. -i lu cng bc gy ra bi lc cng bc ca bm, qut c c trng bng tc (m/s) ca cht lu. Khi i lu cng bc, nu trong cht lu c g0 v t 0 th lun km theo i lu t nhin. 4) Cc thng s c tr ng cho ch chuyn ng ca cht lu . Khi chy tng, cc phn t cht lu chuyn ng song song vch nn h s khng cao. Khi tng vn tc ln dng chy ri s xut hin. Lc ny cc phn t cht lu xut hin cc thnh phn chuyn ng ri lon theo phng ngang, tng c hi va p ln vch, khin cho h s tng cao. Ch chuyn ng cht lu c phn ra 3 dng, c trng bi cc thng s , l, , thng qua gi tr ca vn tc khng th nguyn hay s Reynolds nh sau:

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Re 2300 dong chay tng l Re = = Re (2300 10 4 ) - dong qua 4 Re 10 - dong chay ri

3.2.2. phng trnh tng qut ca h s ta nhit Phng trnh tng qut ca l phng trnh cha tt c cc thng s nh hng ti gi tr , nh phn tch trn y, c dng: = f(l, , , a, , g, (tW- tf), ), (1) y l phng trnh tnh dng tch phn tng qut, ph thuc vo 10 bin s, m dng c th ca n s c tm ch yu bng thc nghim. 3.3. H PHNG TRNH VI PHN TA NHIT

3.3.1.cc phng trnh cn bng nhitng lc hc cht lu


Qu trnh trao i nhit i lu ca phn t cht lu dV c cc thng s , Cp, a, , qv, p, t, , vi mt tip xc W c th m t bng 1 h cc phng trnh, gm phng trnh cn bng nhit, phng trnh cn bng ng lc hc v phng trnh cn bng lng cht lu nh sau.
x Hnh 3.3 lp h phng nh lut bo ton nng lng cho dV c ni dung trinh trnh vi phn ta nhit W

tw

a g p qv

dV
q t
f

1) Phng trnh cn bng nhit

l: tng entanpi ca dV = hiu s dng nhit(vo ra )dV + lng nhit t pht sinh trong dV hay:
dVC p t = divqdV + q v dV vi

divq = div(C p t gr adt ) = C p (.gr adt + tdiv) 2 t

y .gr adt l tch v hng ca 2 vectow v gr adt Do , nu k hiu a =


v C

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t x t y t z t dt t = + , [K/s] l o hm ton phn ca nhit + + + .gr adt = x y z d

theo thi gian th phng trnh cn bng nhit c dng:


q dt = a 2 t tdiv + v d C p

Nu dV khng chuyn ng, = 0, th c dn nhit nh nu chng 2

q t = a 2 t + v l phng trnh vi phn C p

2) Phng trnh can bng ng lc h cho dV c ni dung l: Lc qun tnh ca dV = trng lc ca dV + hiu s p lc ln dV + lc ma st quanh dV, hay phng trnh c dng:
d = g gr adp + 2 vi 2 = ( i 2 x + j 2 y + k 2 z ) [N/m3] l d

tng cc lc ni ma st ng vi 1m3 ca dV. Phng trnh trn cn c gi l phng trnh Naver Stockes, l phng trnh c bn ca ng lc hc cht lu 3) Phng trnh lin tc Khi trong phn t cht lu dV khng c in r hoc im ngun, th hiu s lu lung (vo - ra)dV bng tng khi lng ring ca dV, hay:
= div() = gr ad. div
Suy ra

d + .gr ad = =- div d

Vi cht lng khng chu nn nh nc hoc du, = const, th phng trnh lin tc c dng div = 0 3.3.2. M hnh ton hc ca bi ton ta nhit Pht biu ton hc ca bi ton to nhit l tm cc hm phn b vn tc , nhit t v h s to nhit tho mn h phng trnh vi phn, gm 3 phng trnh cn bng nhit - ng lc hc cht lu v 4 loi iu kin n tr nh sau:

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dt 2 d = a t tdiv + q v d = pg gr adp + 2 d = div(), vi cac KT : hnh hoc : hnh dang, kch thc l cua W - vt ly : lut xac nh (, C p , , a, , q v ) = f(t) - ban u : t(M, = 0) = t(x, y, z) - bin W3 : - gradt(M W3 ) = [t(M W3 ) - t f ]

y l bi ton rt phc tp, hin nay cha c li gii tng qut. Vic tnh ch yu da vo cc s liu v cng thc thc nghim, nh s trnh by bi sau. 3.4. L THUYT NG DNG L thuyt ng dng l mn hc nghin cu tnh cht ca cc hin tng vt l ng dng nhau, l mt l thuyt ch o cho cng tc thc nghim. 3.4.1. Cc khi nim ng dng Cc khi nim ng dng c m rng t ng dng hnh hc. 1) ng dng hnh hc: Hai vt th hnh hc c gi l ng dng nu t s 2 kch thc
z' z l y x l' x' y'

tng ng bt k l khng i. V d: Hai hnh hp s ng dng khi


x ' y' z ' l ' = = = = C l = const. x y z l

Hnh 3.4 ng dng hnh hc

Khi 2 vt th ng dng vi t s c l th t s cc din tch hoc th tch tng ng l


f' 2 = Cl f V' = C3 l V

2) ng dng ca 2 trng vt l

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Hai trng ca mt i lng vt l = (M( x, y, z), ) c gi l ng dng nhau nu t s 2 gi tr ca ti 2 im tng ng bt k trong khng gian, thi gian l khng i:
' ' ( M ' (C l x , C l y, C l z), C ) = C = const , (M, ) = (M ( x , y, z), )

2 trng vt l ng dng, cn c 3 hng s C l , C , C . 3) ng dng 2 hin tng vt l: Hai hin tng vt l cng c m t bi phng trnh F(1, 1,i,n)=0 c gi l ng dng nhau, nu 2 trng ca mi i lng vt l cng tn ng dng nhau:
i' ' (M ' (C l x , C l y, C l z), C l ) =Ci, ( M, ) v i = (1 n). = i (M ( x , y, z), )

Hai hin tng vt l ch ng dng trong khng gian ng dng v hnh hc, v cn (n+2) hng s ng dng, l Cl , C v n l hng s Ci 3.4.2. Tiu chun ng dng v phng trnh tiu chun. 1) nh ngha: Tiu chun ng dng l 1 bin s khng th nguyn cha mt s i lng vt l, c suy ra t tnh ng nht(hay tng ng) ca phng trnh m t 2 hin tng ng dng. 2) V d: khi 2 hin tng to nhit ng dng, th phng trnh
t = t t v ' t ' = ' l ng nhau thay cc thng s i' = C i i vo n n '

phng trnh th 2 c C C t t = C C t t /(C l n ) Do phng trnh ny tng ng vi phng trnh u , nn c


' l' ' C C t = C C t / C l C C l / C = 1 = Suy ra l ' l ' l l = = idem (nh nhau) t hp khng th nguyn Nu = c gi tr nh nhau '

cho 2 hin tng ng dng, c gi l tiu chun Nusselt. Xt tng t vi cc phng trnh khc trong h phng trnh vi phn to nhit, c th dn ra cc tiu chun :
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