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TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP.

HCM
KHOA CNG NGH HA HC

QUY NH TRNH BY

N CHUYN NGHNH V
LUN VN TT NGHIP

A.

B CC N CHUYN NGNH HAY LUN VN TT


NGHIP

1.

Ba chnh

2.

Ba ph

3.

Nhim v ti

4.

Li cm n ca tc gi

5.

Nhn xt ca gio vin hng dn hoc c quan ni tc gi thc hin

ti
6.

Mc lc: ch nu ti mc lc cp 2

7.

Danh mc bng biu

8.

Danh mc hnh

9.

Danh sch cc t vit tt (nu trong ti c qu nhiu t vit tt)

10. Danh sch k hiu (nu trong ti c qu nhiu k hiu)


11. Tng quan ti hay C s l thuyt
Trnh by ln lt ngn gn cc c s l thuyt chnh, gi thuyt khoa hc, cc
nghin cu c cng b lin quan n ti.
12.

Phng php nghin cu hay Thc nghim

Trnh by ha cht dng c, thit b, nguyn liu s dng cho nghin cu.

Cc phng php, ni dung v cc bc thc nghim c tin hnh ln


lt trong nghin cu ti.

13.

Kt qu v bn lun
i vi tng phn thc nghim ng vi phn phng php phi trnh by kt

qu thu c, phn tch, nh gi bn lun cc kt qu thu c t thc nghim.


14.

Kt lun
Trnh by ngn gn nhng kt lun thu c t kt qu nghin cu ti,

khng c li bnh.
15.

Kin ngh
Kin ngh nhng hng nghin cu tip theo t kt qu ca ti.

16.

Ti liu tham kho


Ch bao gm cc ti liu c trch dn, s dng v cp ti s dng

trong lun vn.


17.

Ph lc (nu c)
Trnh by nhng ph lc minh chng cho cc kt qu thu c t qu trnh

nghin cu ti nh cng thc, cc bng tnh ton kt qu chi tit, cc kt qu


phn tch sn phm, nhng tm tt ngn gn v nhng nh l, nh lut s dng
trong ti. Ph lc khng c di hn phn chnh ca bo co ti.

B.

TRNH BY VN BN N CHUYN NGNH HAY LUN


VN TT NGHIP

1.

Son tho vn bn
C ch phn ni dung ca ti s dng kiu ch Times New Roman c
ch 13.
Tn ca ti khng quy nh c ch c th cng nh kiu ch nhng nn
vit sao cho r rng, d c, cn i, trnh dng nhng kiu ch kh c, c
ch qu to hoc qu nh.
Dn dng: ch 1,5 lines, khi xung hng v gia cc on khng c
tha dng trng.
Canh l: l trn 3cm, l di 3cm, l tri 3,5cm, l phi 2cm.
nh s trang: trang ba chnh v ba ph khng nh s, cc trang t mc 3
10 nh s theo dng ch (i, ii, iii, ), cc trang phn ni dung t mc 11
17 nh s theo dng s (1,2,3), phn ph lc khng nh s nhng c
sp xp theo trt t ca phn ni dung, size 12, font Times New Roman.

2.

Thit k v nh s chng, mc, tiu mc trong lun vn


Cc chng phi c bt u bng u trang (nu chng c cha ht trang
th bt buc phi qua trang mi).
Tiu chng vit in hoa (Arial) c 16, in m, canh gia.

Cc mc v tiu mc ca lun vn phi c hnh thnh v nh s theo s


v nhm ch s (v d 1 ch mc 1, 1.2. ch tiu mc 2 trong mc 1).
Tng t nh vy vi cc nh hn.
Ti mi nhm tiu mc phi c t nht hai nhm tiu mc (v d nh nu
c 1.2.1 th phi c 1.2.2
nh dng ca nhng chng, mc, tiu mc ngang hng nhau phi ging
nhau, dn hng before 6pt v after 6pt.
3.

S quy trnh, hnh v v bng biu


S quy trnh phi c th hin bng phn mm chuyn dng nh Visio
khng c sdng cng c Word.
Hnh v v bng biu c t ngay trong phn n cp ti. Trong trng
hp s xut hin ca hnh v hoc bng biu lm cho xut hin mt khong
trng ln trong trang, th nn li hnh hoc bng qua trang k tip trnh to
khong trng.
Tn ca bng nm bn trn bng. Tn ca hnh nm bn di hnh. Tn ca
bng v hnh phi c nh s th t trong lun vn. Lu tn ca bng
nh s ring. Tn ca hnh v s quy trnh nh s ring. C ch vit tn
bng, s quy trnh v tn hnh bng vi font v c ch trong bi.
Tn ca bng, s quy trnh v hnh phi vit ngn gn, nhng phi d
hiu. Ngi c c th hiu c ni dung m bng, hnh ang cp ti m
khng cn phi c vn bn.
Nu bng, s quy trnh v hnh c trch dn th phi nh s ti liu
tham kho ngay sau tn bng, hnh (s ni r hn mc ti liu tham kho)
Bng c gng c trnh by trong mt trang. Nu chiu di bng qu ln,
khng th trnh by trong mt trang th trn trang th hai, khng cn phi ghi
li tn bng nhng phi ghi li tn cc ct.
Khng c trnh by bng c chiu ngang ln hn 1 trang.

Nu c s quy trnh, hnh v trnh by theo chiu ngang kh giy th u


bng l l tri ca trang, nn hn ch trnh by theo cch ny.
Cc hnh v, s quy trnh phi c th hin r rng, sch s v phi c
th sao chp li
Khi cp ti s quy trnh bng biu hoc hnh v bn trong ni dung
lun vn, bt buc phi vit r s th t ca n (khng cn phi vit tn)
4.

Phng trnh ton hc, ha hc v k hiu s dng trong lun vn


Cc phng trnh ton hc v ha hc c trnh by thng nht mt nh
dng trong ton lun vn, khng c s dng cng c word m phi s dng
cc phn mm chuyn bit. Cng thc ha hc bt buc phi s dng phn
mm Chemoffice. Phng trnh ton hc phi s dng chc nng Equation
hoc phn mm tng ng khc.
Cc phng trnh ton hc v ha hc nn c nh s, s trong ngoc
n, t bn phi phng trnh. Phng trnh ton hc v ha hc nh s
chung vi nhau
Nu c k hiu mi ln u xut hin th phi ghi ch r rng tn k hiu,
n v. Nu s k hiu s dng trong lun vn qu nhiu th phi c bng k
hiu u lun vn (xem phn A, b cc lun vn)

5.

Ti liu tham kho


Tt c cc hnh, bng biu, kin, gi , s liu, nh ngha, c s dng
t nhng ngun khc phi c ghi r rng ngun gc xut x ca chng
trong mc ti liu tham kho
th hin mt c tham kho t ti liu khc, ng sau ta thm k
hiu [] vi l s th t ca ti liu tham kho. S th t ny nh
theo s rp t b ti ln.
Khng trch dn ti liu tham kho ca nhng kin thc qu ph bin, mi
ngi (trong chuyn ngnh) u bit, nhm trnh lm nng n phn tham
kho trch dn.

6.

Cch trch dn ti liu trong ti liu tham kho

6.1. Sch
Cc tc gi, Ta sch, Tn nh xut bn, a im xut bn, s trang s trang,
nm.
V d:
[1]. L Th Thanh Hng, Nguyn Hong Minh,Gio trnh ha hc i cng, Nh
xut bn i hc Cng nghip Thnh ph H Ch Minh, 15 24, 2009.
6.2. Chng ca sch
Cc tc gi, Tiu chng, trong Ta sch, s cun (nu c), Tn nh xut bn,
a im xut bn, s trang s trang, nm.
V d:
[1]. L Th Thanh Hng, Nguyn Hong Minh, Chng 9: Dung dch, trong
Gio trnh ha hc i cng, Nh xut bn i hc Cng nghip Thnh ph
H Ch Minh, 15 24, 2009.
6.3. Bi bo trong tp ch, k yu hi ngh
Cc tc gi, Tiu bi bo, Tiu tp ch hay k yu hi ngh, cun s, trang s
- trang s, nm.
V d:
G. Pevere et al, Infrared Nation, The International Journal of Infrared

[1].

Design, 33, 56-99, 1979.


6.4. Trang web
Cc tc gi, Tiu , Internet: http://www.(url), ngy thng nm cp nht.
V d:
[2]. Anne Marie Helmenstine, How to Grow Great Crystals. Internet:
http://chemistry.about.com/cs/growingcrystals/a/aa012604.htm, 16/10/2011.

6.5. Bo ch
Cc tc gi, Tiu bi bo, Tn bo, cun s, s trang s trang, nm.
V d:
[3]. B.Bart, Going Fater, Globe and Mail, 2(3), 1 4, 32002
6.6. Lun n, lun vn tt nghip
Tc gi, Tiu , Cp bng cp, trng, a im, nm.
V d:
[4]. L Qu Dng, Bin tnh TiO2 bng F ci thin hot tnh xc tc quang
ha, Lun vn tt nghip, i hc Khoa hc t nhin, Thnh ph H Ch
Minh, 2010.
7.

Ba bo co thc tp, n chuyn ngnh hay kha lun tt nghip

7.1.

Kha lun tt nghip: Ba cng mu xanh in ch nh mu vng.

7.2.

Bo co thc tp, n chuyn ngnh: Ba giy trng khng c hnh nh, bc


nilon, gy mu xanh.

8.

Np bo co thc tp, n chuyn ngnh hay kha lun tt nghip


Sinh vin np 02 cun v 01 a CD c in nhn tn ti, gio vin hng

dn, h v tn sinh vin v m s, lp ngnh hc ca sinh vin v cho gio v ng


vi tn ti c giao. Nhng trng hp t chuyn i tn ti so vi quyt
nh giao ti s b tr v.

C.

CC TRANG MU

TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP. HCM


KHOA CNG NGH HA HC

N CHUYN NGNH

TM HIU V PHN NG ALKYL HA


V NG DNG

Ging vin hng dn: Th.S TRN TH LAN ANH


Sinh vin thc hin: V TH BO TRN
MSSV: 08257751
Lp: CDHC10
Kho: 2008-2011

Tp. H Ch Minh, thng

nm

TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP. HCM


KHOA CNG NGH HA HC

N CHUYN NGNH

TM HIU V PHN NG ALKYL HA


V NG DNG

Ging vin hng dn: Th.S TRN TH LAN ANH


Sinh vin thc hin: V TH BO TRN
MSSV: 08257751
Lp: CDHC10
Kho: 2008-2011

Tp. H Ch Minh, thng

nm

i
TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP.HCM

CNG HO X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

KHOA CNG NGH HA HC

c lp T do - Hnh phc

NHIM V N CHUYN NGNH


(KHA LUN TT NGHIP)
H v tn sinh vin: Nguyn Thanh Tun
MSSV: 08265301
Lp: CDHC10
Chuyn ngnh: Cng ngh Ha hu c
Tn kha lun tt nghip:
Nhim v ca kha lun:
1.
2.
3.
Ngy giao kha lun:
Ngy hon thnh kha lun:
H tn gio vin hng dn:
Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy thng nm
Ch nhim b mn

Gio vin hng dn

ii

LI CM N
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TP. H Ch Minh, ngy thng nm


H tn sinh vin

ii

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN


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Phn nh gi:
thc thc hin: ................................................................................................
Ni dung thc hin: ............................................................................................
Hnh thc trnh by:............................................................................................
Tng hp kt qu: ...............................................................................................
im bng s: .................................... im bng ch: .......................................
Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy ..... thng ..... nm
Gio vin hng dn

iii

NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN


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Phn nh gi:
thc thc hin:........................................................................................
Ni dung thc hin: ...................................................................................
Hnh thc trnh by: ...................................................................................
Tng hp kt qu: ......................................................................................
im bng s:...............................im bng ch:....................................
Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy ..... thng ..... nm 2010
Gio vin phn bin

iv

MC LC

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V PHN NG ALKYL HA ................................. 1


1.1. nh ngha phn ng alkyl ha ............................................................................... 2
1.2. S lc v qu trnh pht trin ca phn ng alkyl ha .......................................... 4
1.3. Vai tr v v tr ca phn ng alkyl ha trong lc v ha du ... Error! Bookmark
not defined.
1.4. Tnh hnh sn xut Ethylbenzene .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.5. Phn loi cc phn ng alkyl ha .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.5.1. Phn loi theo lin kt c hnh thnh ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.5.2. Phn loi theo cu to ca nhm alkyl sau phn ng ........ Error! Bookmark not
defined.
1.6. Cc tc nhn alkyl ha ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6.1. Cc hp cht khng no (olefin v axetylen) ....... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6.2. Dn xut halogen ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6.3. Ancol, ete, este, oxit olefin ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6.4. Cc hp cht mui bc 4 ca amin ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.6.5. Cc tc nhn alkyl ha khc ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7. Xc tc ca qu trnh alkyl ha ............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7.1. Axit phi proton ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7.2. Axit proton .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.7.3. Xc tc zeolit ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.8. Nng lng ca mt s phn ng alkyl ha thng dng ...... Error! Bookmark not
defined.
1.9. C ch phn ng chnh .......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.9.1. C ch th i nhn SN2 ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.9.2. C ch th i in t SE2 ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.9.3. C ch gc Alkyl ha bng olefin nhit cao .......... Error! Bookmark not
defined.
1.10. C ch phn ng ph ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

1.10.1. Phn ng alkyl ha ni tip .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.


1.10.2. Phn ng nha ha ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.10.3. Phn ng phn hy cc nhm alkyl .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.10.4. Phn ng polyme ha olefin ............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh alkyl ha .... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11.1. Tc nhn alkyl ha............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11.2. Nng cc cht tham gia phn ng ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11.3. Nhit ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11.4. p sut .............................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.11.5. S khuy trn.................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.12. Mt s v d cng ngh ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.12.1. Cng ngh C-alkyl ha C-alkyl hacc hydrocacbon thmError! Bookmark
not defined.
1.12.2. Cng ngh O-alkyl ha O-alkyl ha olefin ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.12.3. Cng ngh S-alkyl ha Tng hp mercaptan t olefin v hydro sulfua Error!
Bookmark not defined.
1.12.4. N-alkyl ha Tng hp metylamin t metanol Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.13. Gii thiu v nerolin (-naphtyl metyl ete) ......... Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.13.1. S lc v nerolin............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.13.2. Tnh cht vt l v tnh cht ha hc................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.13.3. Phng php iu ch ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHNG 2: THC NGHIM..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.1. Mc tiu v ni dung nghin cu .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.2. Nguyn liu ha cht v thit b ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3. Thc nghim iu ch nerolin t naphthol v metanol ........ Error! Bookmark not
defined.
2.3.1. Phng php tin hnh ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3.2. Kho st nh hng ca t l mol ...................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3.3. Kho st nh hng ca nhit phn ng ....... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3.4. Kho st nh hng ca thi gian phn ng ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.3.5. Phn tch ch tiu thng s ha l ca nerolin sn phm .. Error! Bookmark not
defined.

vi

CHNG 3: KT QU V BN LUN.................... Error! Bookmark not defined.


3.1. Kt qu kho st cc yu t nh hng n hiu sut to nerolin..................Error!
Bookmark not defined.
3.1.1. Kt qu kho st nh hng ca t l mol metanol:naphthol . Error! Bookmark
not defined.
3.1.2. Kt qu kho st nh hng ca nhit ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.1.3. Kt qu kho st nh hng ca thi gian ......... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2. Kho st thnh phn nerolin bng phng php XRD, IR v SEM...............Error!
Bookmark not defined.
3.2.1. Phng php nhiu x tia X (XRD) ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.2. Phng php ph hng ngoi (IR) ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.2.3. Phng php hin vi in t qut (SEM) ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CHNG 4: KT LUN V KIN NGH ................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.1. Cc kt qu t c......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.1.1. iu ch nerolin t -naphthol ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.1.2. Xc nh thnh phn nerolin qua thc nghim... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.2. Nhng ni dung cha thc hin c ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
4.3. Kin ngh ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
TI LIU THAM KHO.............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
PH LC ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

vii

DANH MC BNG BIU


Bng 1. 1. S phn b nh my FCC v alkyl ho trn th gii nm 1992 ......... Error!
Bookmark not defined.
Bng 1. 2. So snh tng th khi chn axit ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Bng 1. 3. Nhng thun li v kh khn khi s dng HF v H2SO4Error! Bookmark
not defined.
Bng 1. 4. Hiu ng nhit ca mt s phn ng alkyl ha quan trng ........................... 1
Bng 3. 1. nh hng ca t l mol metano:naphthol n hiu sutError! Bookmark
not defined.
Bng 3. 2. nh hng ca nhit n hiu sut ........................................................... 4
Bng 3. 3. nh hng ca thi gian n hiu sut ....... Error! Bookmark not defined.

viii

DANH MC HNH NH
Hnh 1. 1. S biu din mc tng trng ca qu trnh alkyl hoError! Bookmark
not defined.
Hnh 1. 2. Biu lng tiu th EB trn th gii nm 2008Error!

Bookmark

not

defined.
Hnh 1. 3. Xc tc H2SO4 .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 1. 4. Biu tng quan trong vic s dng 2 loi axit t nm 1990 n nay
....................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 1. 5. Cc loi thit b phn ng s dng alkyl ha cc hydrocacbon thm vi
xc tc AlCl3 .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 1. 6. S cng ngh sn xut etyl- v izopropylbenzen ...................................... 2
Hnh 1. 7. S cng ngh sn xut ter-butylmetylete Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 1. 8. S cng ngh sn xut metylamin ........... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 1. 9. Cu to ca nerolin ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 2. 1. Phng trnh phn ng iu ch nerolin ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 2. 2. S iu ch nerolin .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 3. 1. Hiu sut nerolin theo nhit phn ng....................................................... 4
Hnh 3. 2. Hiu sut ca nerolin theo thi gian ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 3. 3. Ph XRD ca nerolin...................................................................................... 8
Hnh 3. 4. Ph IR ca nerolin ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 3. 5. Hnh SEM nerolin........................................................................................... 9

ix

LI NI U
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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V PHN NG ALKYL HA


1.1. nh ngha phn ng alkyl ha
Bng 1. 1. Hiu ng nhit ca mt s phn ng alkyl ha quan trng
Tc nhn alkyl ha

RCH=CH2

RCl

Lin kt b ph v

kJ/mol

Calph H

84 100

Car H

96 104

OH

50 63

Car H

34 42

OH

NH

0 25

2
Dn xut Clo
Polyalkylbenzen
AlCl3

Polyalkylbenzen

Hi nc

13

14

HCl

10

NaOH

11
5
H2O

12

18

15
17

Olefin

16

2
8

1
Benzen

Benzen thu hi

Hnh 1. 1. S cng ngh sn xut etyl- v izopropylbenzen

CHNG 2: PHNG PHP NGHIN CU


2. 1.

Nguyn liu

2. 2.

Ha cht, dng c v thit b

2. 3.

Phng php nghin cu

CHNG 3: KT QU V BN LUN
Kt qu kho st nh hng ca nhit

3. 1.

Bng 3. 1. nh hng ca nhit n hiu sut


Hiu sut
Nhit
phn ng

S TN

Hiu sut
Khi lng (g)
%

TB

2.9385

46.44

3.0481

48.17

4.6351

73.25

4.3865

69.32

4.9810

78.72

4.8124

76.05

4.9912

78.88

5.0129

79.22

75

47.31

2
3
80

71.29

4
5
85

77.39

6
7
90

79.05

Hiu sut (%)

100
80
60
40
20
70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Nhit phn ng (0C)


Hnh 3. 1 nh hng ca nhit phn ng n hiu sut nerolin

KT LUN

KIN NGH

TI LIU THAM KHO

PH LC

Ph lc 3. 2. Nhiu x XRD ca nerolin

Ph lc 3. 3. Hnh SEM ca nerolin