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TNG QUAN V MPLS

1.1 Gii thiu Internet ra i m mn cho k nguyn tin b vt bc ca nhn loi, n khng ngng pht trin v phm vi cng nh cht lng. Do p ng vi nhng nhu cu ngy cng cao ca con ngi c bit l v cht lng dch v v v vn bo mt th MPLS ra i. Nh chng ta bit, nn tng ca internet da trn m hnh TCP/IP s dng k thut chuyn mch gi IP truyn thng vi khng t nhc im. Nhng nhc im chnh c th ni n nh sau: - Tc v tr: chuyn mch IP truyn thng th cn chm do phi nh tuyn v chuyn tip gi IP da trn phn tiu vi a ch ch lm nng ct. Tuy c mt s phng php ci tin nh s dng bng nh tuyn nhanh cho cc gi tin quan trng nhng s gi tin n nt mng vn ln hn so vi kh nng x l ca nt mng nn dn n tnh trng mt gi, mt kt ni... - Kh nng m rng mng: do nhu cu ngy cng cao nn vn m rng l tt yu, m nu s dng mng IP truyn thng th vic m rng mng li l ht sc kh khn. - Vic tch hp cc k thut cc lp trong m hnh OSI hay ni cch khc l lm trong sut gia cc lp l ht sc kh khn. MPLS c xem l gii php cho nhng vn ny. Vi kh nng chuyn tip nhanh, n gin, nh tuyn linh hot, tn dng ti nguyn, v c bit cung cp dch v VPN bo mt cao s gip cho MPLS c nhiu t dng v hin ti cng nh trong tng lai. 1.2 MPLS l g ? MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) l phng php ci tin cho vic chuyn tip cc gi tin IP trn mng bng cch thm vo nhn (label). Nhn c chn vo gia tiu lp 2 (layer 2) v lp 3 (layer 3) trong trng hp cc k thut lp 2 da trn khung (frame) nh Ethernet, frame relay... i vi cc k thut lp 2 da trn t bo (cell) nh ATM th nhn c xem l cc VPI , VCI. MPLS kt hp cc u im ca k thut chuyn mch (switching) ca lp 2 v k thut nh tuyn (routing) lp 3. Do s dng nhn quyt nh chng tip theo trong mng nn router t lm vic hn v hot ng gn ging nh switch. Nhn c th c dng thit lp chnh sch cho qu trnh x l lu lng trong mng yu t quan trng m bo cht lng dch v. 1.3 Cc khi nim chnh trong MPLS 1.3.1 Nhn (Label) Nhn l mt khung nhn dng ngn, chiu di c nh v khng c cu trc. Nhn khng tc tip m ha thng tin ca header nh a ch lp mng. Nhn c gi vo mt gi tin c th s i din cho mt FEC m gi tin c n nh.

1.3.2 Chng nhn (Stack Label) Mt tp hp c th t cc nhn gn theo cc gi tin chuyn ti thng tin v nhiu FEC v v cc LSP tng ng m gi s i qua. Ngn xp nhn cho php MPLS h tr nh tuyn phn cp (Mt nhn cho EGP v mt nhn cho IGP) v t chc a LSP trong mt trung k LSP. 1.3.3 Lp chuyn tip tng ng FEC (Forward Equivalence Class) FEC m t s kt hp cc gi tin c cng a ch ch ca ngi nhn cui thnh cc lp c nhng chnh sch x l tng ng. Gi tr FEC trong gi tin c th thit lp mc u tin cho vic iu khin gi nhm h tr hiu qu hot ng ca QoS (Quality of Service). i vi cc dch v khc nhau th cc FEC khc nhau vi cc thng s nh x khc nhau. Vic nh x mt gi

vo mt FEC c th t c nh vo mt s thng s sau: - a ch IP ngun, ch - Cng ngun, ch - Nhn dng giao thc (PID) - Lung - FEC c n nh ngay t u vo ca mng MPLS v ph thuc vo hot ng ca LSR ng vo, ra. Do thng th cc LSR ng vo v ra l cc router c kh nng x l mnh. 1.3.4 ng chuyn mch nhn LSP (Label Swtiching Path) ng chuyn mch nhn c thit lp t ingress LSR (ingress Label Switching Router d liu u vo l gi IP truyn thng, ingress LSR s n nh nhn cho gi thng tin ny) n egress LSR (egress Label Switching Router g b nhn cho gi d liu khi ra khi mng li MPLS). LSP c xy dng bng cc giao thc nh LDP (Label Distributed Protocol), RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol), Mt LSP ni t u cui n u cui gi l ng hm LSP (LSP tunnel) lin kt cc on LSP gia cc node. 1.3.5 C s thng tin nhn LIB (Label Information Base) Mi LSR phi xy dng mt bng thng tin (information table) s dng cho vic inh tuyn v chuyn tip cc gi tin trong mng. Trong bng s cha nhng thng tin lin quan n nhn, a ch, trm k, xc nh r rng cch thc chuyn tip ca gi d liu nh th no. Bng ny gm nhng trng sau [Hnh 3]:

1.3.6 LSR (Label Switching Router) v LER (Label Edge Router) - LSR l router chuyn mch nhn nm trong mng li MPLS (khng phi l cc router bin) c nhim v l nhn gi tin chuyn i nhn (label swapping), ri sau chuyn tip (forwarding) gi tin ny n trm k tip. - LER l cc router bin trong min MPLS (MPLS domain). Nu gi nhn vo l gi tin IP truyn thng th LER s gn nhn vo gi tin v chuyn tip vo mng li MPLS. Nu gi nhn c nhn th LER s g nhn ra v a gi tin vo mng IP truyn thng. 1.4 S pht trin ca MPLS Mc ch ban u ca chuyn mch nhn l mun a tc ca chuyn mch lp 2 vo lp 3. L l ban u cho cc k thut nh MPLS khng lu sau c nhn thy l c u im, bi v cc chuyn mch lp 3 mi c s dng cng ngh ASIC ( Application-specific integrated circuit), k thut nn tng c th thi hnh chc nng tm kim vi tc va h tr cho hu ht cc loi giao tip (interface). Chun ca chuyn mch nhn c nhm nghin cu ca IETF v MPLS xut nm 1997 v c nghin cu rng ri. MPLS c pht trin t nhiu k thut chnh, bao gm cc phin bn c quyn v chuyn mch nhn nh chuyn mch nhn ca Cisco (Ciscos Tag Switching), Chuyn mch IP da trn nn nh tuyn tng hp ca IBM (IBMs Aggregate Route-Based IP Switching ARIS), B nh tuyn chuyn mch t bo ca Toshiba (Toshibas Cell-Switched Router CSR), Chuyn mch IP ca Ipsilon (Ipsilons IP Switching) v b nh v IP ca Lucent (Lucents IP Navigator). Chuyn mch th (Tag Switching), c pht minh bi Cisco, v a n ngi dng ln u tin vo nm 1998. T khi bt u trin khai chuyn mch th, Cisco lm vic chung vi IETF pht trin v thng qua cc chun ca MPLS, hp nht cc c tnh v u im ca Chuyn

mch th. 1.5 u v nhc im ca MPLS - Tc v tr: Chuyn mch nhn c cung cp gii quyt vn v tc v tr mt cch hiu qu. Chuyn mch nhn nhanh hn nhiu chuyn mch IP c in bi v gi tr nhn c thit k n gin, c s dng qun l bng nh tuyn theo cch nhn s c s dng l ch mc trong bng. Vic tm kim ny yu cu ch mt ln l tm ra, ngc li nh tuyn c in c th phi tm trong bng vi nghn ln. Kt qu, trn lung vn chuyn, cc gi c gi thng qua mng nhanh hn thng thng, gim thi gian tr, v p ng thi gian cho ngi dng. - Kh nng m rng: D nhin tc l mt mt quan trng ca chuyn mch nhn, nhng dch v nhanh khng phi l tt c m chuyn mch nhn c th cung cp. N cng c th cung cp kh nng m rng, tc l iu tit mt s lng ln v ngy cng tng nhanh chng cc user trn mng Internet. Chuyn mch nhn ngh mt cch gii quyt cho vn pht trin mng mt cch nhanh chng nh vy bng cch cho php mt s lng ln cc a ch IP c lin kt vi nhau trn mt hay mt vi nhn. Cch tip cn ny s ct gim bt bng nh tuyn v cho php mt router phc v nhiu ngi dng hn ti mt thi im v cng khng cn i hi kh nng x l cao ca cc router. - n gin: Mt u im na ca chuyn mch nhn l v c bn n ch l tp hp ca cc giao thc nh tuyn. N rt n gin, chuyn tip mt gi da trn nhn ca gi . Lm th no mt nhn n mt ng dn ca ngi dng m khng cn quan tm n vic chuyn tip thc s ca ng dn . Tt c c ch iu khin trn c th phc tp, nhng chng khng lm nh hng n hiu qu ca ng dn. Tc l s c rt nhiu cc phng php khc nhau phn phi cc nhn cho ng truyn, tuy nhin sau khi cc nhn c phn phi xong, hat ng chuyn mch nhn s c thc hin mt cch rt nhanh chng. Chuyn mch nhn c th c thc hin trong mt phn mm, trong cc mch in t tch hp hay trong mt vi x l c bit. - Mc s dng ti nguyn: C ch iu khin thit lp mt nhn phi khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn. N khng c lm mt nhiu ti nguyn v chuyn mch nhn th hon ton khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn thc thi vic thnh lp mt con ng chuyn mch nhn cho ng dn. 1.6 MPLS v kin trc internet T khi ARPNET c trin khai, thi i ca Internet bt u, kin trc ca Internet cng c thay i. N m ra cc p ng v s tin b ca k thut, pht trin v h tr cho nhiu dch v mi. Hu ht cc s thay i gn y ca kin trc Internet l do s thm vo ca MPLS. Nhng cn ch rng k thut chuyn tip ca Internet l da vo vic nh tuyn a ch ch, v n khng h thay i t khi ARPANET xut hin. S thay i chnh l s thay th ca giao thc nh tuyn cng bin gii phin bn 4 (Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 BGP4) t giao thc nh tuyn cng bn ngoi (Exterior Gateway Protocol EGP), s b sung ca nh tuyn min trong khng phn lp (Classless Interdomain Routing CIDR), cc nng cp c nh ca bng thng v cc thit b u cui nh c thm nhiu cc b nh tuyn mnh. MPLS tc ng n c k thut chuyn tip gi tin IP v vic xc nh ng i (ng i ca cc gi tin c chuyn tip trn mng Internet). V kt qu l s ra i cc cu trc mng ca Internet. MPLS c th h tr cho IP phin bn 6 (IP version 6) bi v thut ton chuyn tip ca MPLS cho IP phin bn 4 cng c th p dng cho IP phin bn 6 vi vic s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn h tr cho a ch IP phin bn 6. MPLS c trin khai bi v n c u im gn gi v trc tip n Internet. Hu ht u im gn gi ca MPLS vi cc chi tit c th cho mng ng trc ca nh cung cp dch v Internet l kh nng trin khai k thut lu lng (Traffic

Engineering). K thut lu lng cho php cc nh cung cp dch v loi b ti ca cc tuyn (link) b tc nghn v iu khin cc ti chia x sang cc tuyn khc cha c s dng ng mc. Kt qu ca cng vic trn l tn dng ti nguyn s cp cao hn v cng c ngha l s hiu qu v chi ph s c tit kim hn. 1.7 Tnh cht bo mt ca MPLS c ci nhn ton cnh v cc vn bo mt ca MPLS, th chng ta s im qua b khung (framework) ca MPLS. B khung c 2 mt phng chnh l mt phng iu khin (control plane) v mt phng d liu (data plane). [Hnh 4]

ng vi 2 mt phng ny th c cc kiu tn cng sau nhm vo mng MPLS lm cho nh cung cp cng nh ngi s dng mng MPLS phi quan tm. Nhng cch thc tn cng vo mng MPLS c th hin qua bng 1

Nhng kiu tn cng trn nhm vo nhng im yu ca MPLS. Qua , cc t chc nghin cu v MPLS a ra kin trc bo mt cho MPLS. Chng 2 s tp trung phn tch kin trc bo mt ca MPLS vi dch c th l mng ring o VPN (Virtual Private Network). Nhiu doanh nghip ang thay th dn nhng cng ngh VPN truyn thng nh ATM hay Frame Relay (FR) bng nhng dch v da trn MPLS. MPLS l cng ngh ang ngy cng tr nn ph bin vi vic cung cp dch v VPN hiu qu v an ton. Bo mt kin trc MPLS th ang c s quan tm ngy cng nhiu ca nh cung cp dch v cng nh khch hng s dng MPLS. Bi nghin cu ny cho ta mt ci nhn tng quan v bo mt kin trc v so snh n vi cc cng ngh lp 2 truyn thng t vin cnh bo mt. Bi ny khuyn ngh cch lm an ton h tng MPLS. Tp trung c th vo kin trc MPLS VPN.