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By 1916, conflict on the western front A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver with few major battles. B) had resulted in the surrender of France and the establishment of the Vichy government. C) had resulted in victory for the British and French troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to the borders of Germany. D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench. E) caused the Germans to open a second front in Italy. 2. Which of the following was NOT a feature of war on the home front between 1914 and 1919? A) Governments organized the major sectors of the economy to ration resources and production. B) Executive branches of government increasingly took over from parliaments. C) Governments controlled public opinion through manipulation of mass media such as newspapers. D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine. E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war. 3. Which of the following statements concerning the global aspects of World War I is most accurate? A) The British dominions—Canada, Australia, and New Zealand—remained aloof and virtually untouched by the war. B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the scramble for colonial possessions. C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets. D) The United States aggressively entered the war in 1914 to demonstrate its new position as a world power. E) The world economic system was mostly unaffected. 4. A. B. C. Which of the following was NOT included in the final set of treaties that ended World War I? A League of Nations was formed, but the United States refused to join. Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics. Germany was forced to accept blame for the war and to pay huge reparations to the victorious Allies.
B) By the mid-1920s. which was more willing to court the masses of the Indian peasantry. E) Leadership was assumed by more radical members of the Congress Party such as Tilak just before 1914. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the state of Mexican political organization after the revolution? A) Mexico was immediately dominated by labor parties who originated in the northern parts of Mexico. D) French-speaking west Africans tended to concentrate their efforts at political representation within their colonies. 5. and most Europeans refused to countenance the concept of a progressive African culture. strengthened the hands of the Western-educated moderates in the Congress Party. Austria-Hungary was divided up into a Germanic Austria as well as the independent states of Hungary. D) The assassination of Gandhi led to a split between Muslim moderates and more extreme Congress Party leaders. 6. 7. Which of the following statements concerning the leadership of the decolonization movement in India just prior to World War I is most correct? A) Tilak's removal and the repression campaigns against terrorists. D) A multitude of political parties so confused the electoral scene that no meaningful . Which of the following statements concerning the early nationalist movements of Africa is most accurate? A) The early leadership of pan-African organizations was more often American and West Indian than African. was the most successful apparatus for achieving decolonization. racist views of African society were becoming more strident. if not impossible. B) Two major parties developed.D. linking all Africans in a single national movement for independence. creating a bi-party system between left and right. B) It is difficult. C) The revolutionary leadership institutionalized the regime by creating a one-party system under PRI. to identify leadership in the fragmented Congress Party of 1914. C) Most African nationalist movements were split between Muslim and Christian ideals. along with British reforms. C) The Congress party lost its leadership role to the Socialist Party. E) Pan-Africanism.
Which of the following was NOT a cause of the failure of the initial revolutionary government? A) It wanted to continue Russian participation in World War I. E)Chinese subjection to Japan. B) A new spirit of cooperation led to the formation of international trade agreements between nations. The initial goal of ihe May Fourth movement was A) the creation of a liberal democracy along Western lines. B) deal with the social and economic crisis of the Chinese peasantry . E) Chinese philosophers thought that imperialism was the last stage of capitalism. C) industrialize China. B)ridding China of all Confucian ideas and practices. D) Communist insurrection. . D) It did not wish to establish parliamentary government. D) rid itself of its ties to the Qing dynasty. Which of the following actions did governments take in 1929 with the onset of the depression? A) National tariffs were raised to keep out the goods of other countries. E) isolate the Communists. C) Liberalism was not deeply rooted in Russia due to the lack of a substantial middle class.political compromise could be achieved. 11. B) Chinese thinkers stressed the gradualist approach to political change. C) Sun Yat-sen taught that the revolution could only occur after the complete industrialization of China. B) The leaders hesitated to enact massive land reforms. 8. How did early Chinese Marxist philosophy differ from Lenin's? A) Chinese philosophers emphasized the role of the proletariat in the revolution. E) The alliance with Britain and France 9. 10. 12. E) Presidents ruled much as the caudillos before them without limitation of powers or term of office. C)ridding China of all Western influences. D) The study circle at the University of Beijing saw the peasants as the vanguard of revolution. The Nationalist Party's greatest failure was its inability to A) create a military wing of the party.
B) Japanese politics were fully democratic leading to the growth of communism in Japan. E) Kulaks were able to achieve control over most of the agricultural lands of Russia. E) Governments increased spending to provide an economic stimulus to their threatened economies. C) Japan’s oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role. D) Wars broke out between various European countries over the struggle for reduced resources. demanding a higher percentage of the work force than was common under industrialization. B) Agricultural planning was non. 13. Hitler came to power in Germany A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means. Which of the following statements best describes the Japanese government during the 1920s and early 1930s? A) Japan was ruled exclusively by a strong liberal party that dominated the lower house of parliament. B) with the support of socialists. . 16. D) The Soviets had to import grain from their western neighbors and China. as small farmers continued to control most of Russian productivity. 15.existent. Which of the following was NOT a factor leading to the development of fascism in Germany? A) Treaty arrangements that forced Germany to accept the blame for World War I B) The impact of the depression C) The rise of leaders such as Hitler D) The division of Germany into zones of occupation by the victorious Allies in World War I E) The recent and shaky tradition of parliamentary government 14. D) Labor unions began to exert increasing control over economic policy in the aftermath of the government’s failure to take direct action during the depression. C) Agricultural production remained a major weakness in the Soviet economy. E) Japan had a thoroughly democratic parliamentary government.C) Governments successfully reduced unemployment through the creation of public service jobs. Which of the following resulted from Stalin's agricultural policies? A) Peasants were presented with real market incentives for increased production.
S. D) a massive land and sea assault on the Japanese home islands.fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy. Japan's surrender in the Pacific was precipitated by A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U. B) the British advance through Malaya into China.S. 20. How did the Indian Congress Party and Nationalist leaders respond to British participation in WWII? Congress opposed the war effort and its leaders were jailed. while the Poles were compensated by receiving part of eastern Germany. B Germany was divided into four zones of occupation. but violent. and an amphibious assault knocked the British from the war. B By the summer of 1940. What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to describe the division between free and repressed societies after World War II? . while a semi . 19. 17. the chief resistance to the German advance was provided by American forces. D) with the support of the upper and lower classes but financed by the Soviets. C) the loss of the Philippines to the U. only succumbing to the Nazi advance in 1944. most of France lay in German hands. but the Muslim leauge rallied to the British cause 21. 18. D From 1939 on. overthrow of the constitutional government. Which of the following statements concerning warfare in the European theater during World War II is most accurate? A France mounted a fanatic defense of its home territories.C) after a lengthy civil war between forces of conservatives and communists. C British resistance crumbled before the air assaults of Germany. E) the loss of China to combined British and American forces. E The Korean pennisula was divided between the Soviet Union (north) and the United States (south). Which of the following was NOT a result of the peace treaties signed following World War II? A The United States occupied Japan. C The Soviet Union took much of eastern Poland. D German industrial power was destroyed. E) after a short. E The war quickly turned into a trench warfare stalemate with both sides working to gain additional allies.
D) Churchill Plan. C) Western European nations rapidly lost their fear of Soviet aggression leading to weakening of NATO. The European Economic Community is a good example of A) Europe's continued national strife. C) Dreyfus Plan.S.A) The red menace B) The cold war C) The red scare D) The iron curtain E) The Berlin wall 22.S. E) Dawes Plan 23. B) Increasingly western European nations withdrew from NATO and established self-sufficient military defensive systems.S. E) West Germany took the lead in establishing a new anti-Soviet coalition and withdrawing from NATO. B) Marshall Plan.S. E) cooperation between European nations and a willingness to create a single . 24. protection. D) the continued economic dependence of the European nations on the influence of Marxist ideas and the power of the Soviet Union. Which of the following paralleled the development of the welfare state? A) Increased political conservatism B) Decreased spending on technology and research C) Increased government role in economic policy D) Increased military spending E) Decreased government spending overall 25. Which of the following statements concerning western European nations in NATO is most accurate? A) Europeans ultimately became rather comfortable with the concept of relying on U. B) the continued economic dependence of the European nations on the capital derived from the U. A program of loans that was designed to aid western European nations rebuild from WWII's devastation was the A) McArthur Plan. C) the need for Europe to develop a single foreign policy independent of the U. D) Western European nations rapidly expanded their military expenditures to equal and exceed those of the U.
C) The U.S. industries. E) The regime of Arevalo was overthrown by a U. Central Intelligence Agency aided conservative dissidents in overthrowing the nationalistic Arbenz government.S. 28. D) The U. E) An industrial sector has developed in some places. 29. C) Latin America has maintained its 19th-century emphasis on agriculture and mineral production.S.S.S. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the outcome of the Cuban revolution? A) After a brief sojourn in the U.-supported regime that replaced the Arbenz government introduced significant land reform and limited foreign ownership of Guatemalan industry. Which of the following statements concerning the revolution in Guatemala in 1954 is most accurate? A) The communist Arbenz government that ruled Guatemala was overthrown by liberal reformers under Arevalo. 26. B) Despite the successful overthrow of Batista. D) There has been a marked decline in urban growth. what aspects of Soviet domination continued to be enforced? A) Single-party dominance and military alignment with the Soviet Union B) Agricultural collectivization C) Total rejection of Catholicism D) Centralized economic planning E) Exporting large amounts of natural resources to the U.-backed group of military dissidents. Despite the loosening of Soviet control over eastern Europe following Stalin's death.S.R..S. B) Workers' organizations emerged as a political force. the revolutionary government failed to enact significant reforms in the plantation economy. and an expanding state bureaucracies began to play a role in the political process. C) Castro and the United States agreed to a cease-fire and resumed normal relations . Batista was able to return to power with the support of the U.S. 27. support.European economy. Which of the following statements is NOT true about Latin America in the 20th century? A) A growing middle class linked to commerce. military. B) Communist revolutionaries overthrew the conservative military government despite active U.
(C) The return of democracy to Latin America was so universal that military governments ceased to exist. 32.by 1970. The common thread running through all of the military regimes of Latin America was A) they were all supported by the working populations.. C) they were all reform-minded. 31. broke off relations with the U. B) they were all supported by the United States. E) they were all nationalistic.S.S. guerrilla movements. in the region began to wane. and introduced sweeping socialist reforms. and the drug trade weakened the new regimes. D) had not been formally colonized by European powers. B) had few local traditions to overcome in achieving nationhood. problems with populist movements. D) The revolutionary government eventually announced its adoption of Marxist-Leninist leanings. 30. (B) Once democratic governments were restored in much of Latin America. (D) Democratic governments in the 1980s ceased to be troubled by the existence of leftist. A) was heavily industrialized and not dependent on the export of cash crops or mineral wealth. the influence of the U. (E) The U. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the progress of democratization in Latin America during the 1980s? (A) Despite the return to democratic government in many Latin American countries. unlike other areas of the Third World.S. E) The largely liberal government that resulted from the revolution returned to the constitution of 1940 and closer relationships with the U. E) possessed a substantial Western-educated middle class.S. . threats from military leaders. C)did not have problems with inequitable land distribution. has been consistently opposed to all dictatorships and authoritarian governments that engage in political repression whether they are right wing or left wing. D) they were all supported by the USSR. inflation. Iran. but had been reduced to an informal sphere of influence.
India has been successful at A) controlling population growth. One of the most common elements of African and Asian governments since decolonization is A) military takeovers. Perhaps more than any other third-world nation. B) effective industrialization. C) raising living standards. B) Isolation from Western and Soviet countries prompted a desire to demonstrate power to foreign governments. 37. C) The military possessed a monopoly of force essential in restoring order during political crisis. 36. E) communism. B) preserving civil rights and democracy. In which of the following ways was India similar to Egypt following decolonization A) level of industrialization B) emphasis on socialism and state intervention C) military takeover of government D) size of the middle class E) minimal influence of religious issues 35. D) Military personnel possessed some technical training that was often lacking among civilian nationalist leaders. Which of the following reasons was NOT a factor in explaining the frequency of military takeover in Third World nations? Military forces in Third World nations often received support from the Soviet bloc. E) equitable land redistribution. 34. C) stable economic systems. Which of the following methods was NOT used by the South African government to suppress dissent among the black population? .33. D) minimizing religious conflict. D) the creation of liberal democracies. E) Most of the people in the upper classes favored strong military rule. Which of the following reasons was NOT a factor in explaining the frequency of military takeover in third world nations? A) Regimentation rendered soldiers more resistant to division by religious and ethnic rivalries.
40. B) abolishing Shintoism as a state religion.S. B. C) outlawing labor unions. which refused to restore independence. D. authoritarian government controlled by the Soviet Union. E) parliamentary democracy. C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation. Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U. C. D) Northern Korea threw off its ties with China and the Soviet Union and sought a closer relationship with the U. E) Southern Korea became fully democratic. Americans introduced all of the following reforms to Japan during their occupation EXCEPT: A) giving women the vote. Korea had become a colony of China. B) Northern and southern Korea were rapidly reunited under a single. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the amazing economic growth of Japan following the 1950s? A) cheap loans for technological innovation B) educational expansion C) a growing population and a reduction in the agricultural labor force D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex E) a productive labor force . Korea’s government was claimed by surviving members of the old monarchy. In what way was the restoration of an independent Korea complicated? A. D) making the emperor a symbolic figurehead.S. and the Soviet Union. 39. Korea had no prior experience as an independent government.A) favoritism shown to some leaders in order to divide opponents of apartheid B) creation of a police state C) use of state programs to improve the conditions of the black townships D) use of spies and police informers E) arrest of opposition leaders 38. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the situation in Korea following the Korean War? A) Southern Korea was defeated after a surprise sea invasion and the defeat of its navy. but moved closer to political neutrality during the cold war.
B) The Russian seizure of power was accomplished without ridding the country of the ruling dynasty. D) the general superiority of the Viet Cong as soldiers. Which of the following statements concerning Chinese domestic policies during the 1950s and 1960s is most accurate? A) Despite pledges made during the civil war. the Communist Party £ailed to undertake substantial land redistribution programs.41. the defeat of the United States in Vietnam in the 1970s resulted from A) Vietnamese belief that the communists were fighting for independence. B) the greater loss of American than Vietnamese lives. 42. E) Many steps were taken to improve the lives of small farmers 43. B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953. In part. the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry. In what way was the Chinese Communist takeover of China different than the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia? A) China was already more industrialized than Russia at the time of the communist success. The term perestroika refers to . 44. E) inadequate air power resulting in the use of chemical weapons. E) The Chinese Communists had the full assistance of another Communist power. C) Increasingly Mao came to embrace the old Confucian concept of a bureaucratic elite as the means of government. C) The Chinese Communists claimed a unified country and did not experience years of civil war and foreign intervention. D) Mao's primary trust came to rest in a group of intellectuals associated with the University of Beijing.S. government to win the war. C) an insufficient commitment by the U. Which of the following factors did NOT play a role in the demise of communism? A) The steadfastness of Chinese policy B) Soviet leadership C) Western Europe's thriving Economy D) Economic costs of the cold war E) Reassertion of eastern European initiative 45. D) The Chinese Communist leadership was unable to move directly to the tasks of social reform and economic development.
. A. Advanced technical developments D.A) an attempt by the Soviet leadership to allow non-communists to manage the economy. A growing opponent of the ideals of globalization has been terrorism. The adjustment of peoples everywhere to the notion of global communications 49. The Internet D. Which of the following is NOT a trend running counter to globalization? Nationalism A. B. B) a new freedom to comment and criticize the Soviet government. E. D. communism. D) the establishment of a liberal democracy. C. Advances in creating a prototype universal language B. racism. E) the Soviet space program. C. Which of the following is NOT a new development regarding the globalization of the Earth? A. D. A. 48. C) economic restructuring and more leeway for private ownership. Competition over economic resources 50. B. Ethnic competition C. Religious differences B. 46. political fundamentalism conservatives. The end of the cold war led to new opportunities for global communication C. Which of the following is NOT an issue raised against economic globalization? Damage to labor conditions through use of cheap workers Damage to the environment Its pace is too slow. Rampant consumerism Its pace is too fast. E. The end of the cold war was associated with what large trend in the world at the end of the 20th century? A) the spread of multiparty democracy B) the ending of world hunger C) the rapid industrialization of the Third World D) the dismantling of Western armed forces 47.
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