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By 1916, conflict on the western front A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver with few major battles. B) had resulted in the surrender of France and the establishment of the Vichy government. C) had resulted in victory for the British and French troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to the borders of Germany. D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for a few feet of trench. E) caused the Germans to open a second front in Italy. 2. Which of the following was NOT a feature of war on the home front between 1914 and 1919? A) Governments organized the major sectors of the economy to ration resources and production. B) Executive branches of government increasingly took over from parliaments. C) Governments controlled public opinion through manipulation of mass media such as newspapers. D) Strict government regulation prevented material shortages and famine. E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war. 3. Which of the following statements concerning the global aspects of World War I is most accurate? A) The British dominionsCanada, Australia, and New Zealandremained aloof and virtually untouched by the war. B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the scramble for colonial possessions. C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by selling goods to both sides and by taking advantage of European distractions to seize new world markets. D) The United States aggressively entered the war in 1914 to demonstrate its new position as a world power. E) The world economic system was mostly unaffected. 4. A. B. C. Which of the following was NOT included in the final set of treaties that ended World War I? A League of Nations was formed, but the United States refused to join. Russia was rewarded for its service to the Allies by the grant of substantial territories in Poland and the Baltic republics. Germany was forced to accept blame for the war and to pay huge reparations to the victorious Allies.

D.

Austria-Hungary was divided up into a Germanic Austria as well as the independent states of Hungary.

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Which of the following statements concerning the leadership of the decolonization movement in India just prior to World War I is most correct? A) Tilak's removal and the repression campaigns against terrorists, along with British reforms, strengthened the hands of the Western-educated moderates in the Congress Party. B) It is difficult, if not impossible, to identify leadership in the fragmented Congress Party of 1914. C) The Congress party lost its leadership role to the Socialist Party, which was more willing to court the masses of the Indian peasantry. D) The assassination of Gandhi led to a split between Muslim moderates and more extreme Congress Party leaders. E) Leadership was assumed by more radical members of the Congress Party such as Tilak just before 1914. 6. Which of the following statements concerning the early nationalist movements of Africa is most accurate? A) The early leadership of pan-African organizations was more often American and West Indian than African. B) By the mid-1920s, racist views of African society were becoming more strident, and most Europeans refused to countenance the concept of a progressive African culture. C) Most African nationalist movements were split between Muslim and Christian ideals. D) French-speaking west Africans tended to concentrate their efforts at political representation within their colonies. E) Pan-Africanism, linking all Africans in a single national movement for independence, was the most successful apparatus for achieving decolonization. 7. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the state of Mexican political organization after the revolution? A) Mexico was immediately dominated by labor parties who originated in the northern parts of Mexico. B) Two major parties developed, creating a bi-party system between left and right. C) The revolutionary leadership institutionalized the regime by creating a one-party system under PRI. D) A multitude of political parties so confused the electoral scene that no meaningful

political compromise could be achieved. E) Presidents ruled much as the caudillos before them without limitation of powers or term of office. 8. Which of the following was NOT a cause of the failure of the initial revolutionary government? A) It wanted to continue Russian participation in World War I. B) The leaders hesitated to enact massive land reforms. C) Liberalism was not deeply rooted in Russia due to the lack of a substantial middle class. D) It did not wish to establish parliamentary government. E) The alliance with Britain and France 9. The initial goal of ihe May Fourth movement was A) the creation of a liberal democracy along Western lines. B)ridding China of all Confucian ideas and practices. C)ridding China of all Western influences. D) Communist insurrection. E)Chinese subjection to Japan. 10. How did early Chinese Marxist philosophy differ from Lenin's? A) Chinese philosophers emphasized the role of the proletariat in the revolution. B) Chinese thinkers stressed the gradualist approach to political change. C) Sun Yat-sen taught that the revolution could only occur after the complete industrialization of China. D) The study circle at the University of Beijing saw the peasants as the vanguard of revolution. E) Chinese philosophers thought that imperialism was the last stage of capitalism. 11. The Nationalist Party's greatest failure was its inability to A) create a military wing of the party. B) deal with the social and economic crisis of the Chinese peasantry . C) industrialize China. D) rid itself of its ties to the Qing dynasty. E) isolate the Communists. 12. Which of the following actions did governments take in 1929 with the onset of the depression? A) National tariffs were raised to keep out the goods of other countries. B) A new spirit of cooperation led to the formation of international trade agreements between nations.

C) Governments successfully reduced unemployment through the creation of public service jobs. D) Wars broke out between various European countries over the struggle for reduced resources. E) Governments increased spending to provide an economic stimulus to their threatened economies. 13. Which of the following was NOT a factor leading to the development of fascism in Germany? A) Treaty arrangements that forced Germany to accept the blame for World War I B) The impact of the depression C) The rise of leaders such as Hitler D) The division of Germany into zones of occupation by the victorious Allies in World War I E) The recent and shaky tradition of parliamentary government 14. Which of the following statements best describes the Japanese government during the 1920s and early 1930s? A) Japan was ruled exclusively by a strong liberal party that dominated the lower house of parliament. B) Japanese politics were fully democratic leading to the growth of communism in Japan. C) Japans oligarchic political structure allowed elite groups to negotiate with each other for appropriate policy and allowed military leaders to take a growing role. D) Labor unions began to exert increasing control over economic policy in the aftermath of the governments failure to take direct action during the depression. E) Japan had a thoroughly democratic parliamentary government. 15. Which of the following resulted from Stalin's agricultural policies? A) Peasants were presented with real market incentives for increased production. B) Agricultural planning was non- existent, as small farmers continued to control most of Russian productivity. C) Agricultural production remained a major weakness in the Soviet economy, demanding a higher percentage of the work force than was common under industrialization. D) The Soviets had to import grain from their western neighbors and China. E) Kulaks were able to achieve control over most of the agricultural lands of Russia. 16. Hitler came to power in Germany A) as a result of entirely legal and constitutional means. B) with the support of socialists.

C) after a lengthy civil war between forces of conservatives and communists. D) with the support of the upper and lower classes but financed by the Soviets. E) after a short, but violent, overthrow of the constitutional government. 17. Which of the following statements concerning warfare in the European theater during World War II is most accurate? A France mounted a fanatic defense of its home territories, only succumbing to the Nazi advance in 1944. B By the summer of 1940, most of France lay in German hands, while a semi - fascist collaborative regime ruled in Vichy. C British resistance crumbled before the air assaults of Germany, and an amphibious assault knocked the British from the war. D From 1939 on, the chief resistance to the German advance was provided by American forces. E The war quickly turned into a trench warfare stalemate with both sides working to gain additional allies. 18. Japan's surrender in the Pacific was precipitated by A) the use of atomic weapons on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the U.S. B) the British advance through Malaya into China. C) the loss of the Philippines to the U.S. D) a massive land and sea assault on the Japanese home islands. E) the loss of China to combined British and American forces. 19. Which of the following was NOT a result of the peace treaties signed following World War II? A The United States occupied Japan. B Germany was divided into four zones of occupation. C The Soviet Union took much of eastern Poland, while the Poles were compensated by receiving part of eastern Germany. D German industrial power was destroyed. E The Korean pennisula was divided between the Soviet Union (north) and the United States (south). 20. How did the Indian Congress Party and Nationalist leaders respond to British participation in WWII? Congress opposed the war effort and its leaders were jailed, but the Muslim leauge rallied to the British cause 21. What phrase did Winston Churchill coin to describe the division between free and repressed societies after World War II?

A) The red menace B) The cold war C) The red scare D) The iron curtain E) The Berlin wall 22. A program of loans that was designed to aid western European nations rebuild from WWII's devastation was the A) McArthur Plan. B) Marshall Plan. C) Dreyfus Plan. D) Churchill Plan. E) Dawes Plan 23. Which of the following statements concerning western European nations in NATO is most accurate? A) Europeans ultimately became rather comfortable with the concept of relying on U.S. protection. B) Increasingly western European nations withdrew from NATO and established self-sufficient military defensive systems. C) Western European nations rapidly lost their fear of Soviet aggression leading to weakening of NATO. D) Western European nations rapidly expanded their military expenditures to equal and exceed those of the U.S. E) West Germany took the lead in establishing a new anti-Soviet coalition and withdrawing from NATO. 24. Which of the following paralleled the development of the welfare state? A) Increased political conservatism B) Decreased spending on technology and research C) Increased government role in economic policy D) Increased military spending E) Decreased government spending overall 25. The European Economic Community is a good example of A) Europe's continued national strife. B) the continued economic dependence of the European nations on the capital derived from the U.S. C) the need for Europe to develop a single foreign policy independent of the U.S. D) the continued economic dependence of the European nations on the influence of Marxist ideas and the power of the Soviet Union. E) cooperation between European nations and a willingness to create a single

European economy. 26. Despite the loosening of Soviet control over eastern Europe following Stalin's death, what aspects of Soviet domination continued to be enforced? A) Single-party dominance and military alignment with the Soviet Union B) Agricultural collectivization C) Total rejection of Catholicism D) Centralized economic planning E) Exporting large amounts of natural resources to the U.S.S.R. 27. Which of the following statements is NOT true about Latin America in the 20th century? A) A growing middle class linked to commerce, industries, and an expanding state bureaucracies began to play a role in the political process. B) Workers' organizations emerged as a political force. C) Latin America has maintained its 19th-century emphasis on agriculture and mineral production. D) There has been a marked decline in urban growth. E) An industrial sector has developed in some places. 28. Which of the following statements concerning the revolution in Guatemala in 1954 is most accurate? A) The communist Arbenz government that ruled Guatemala was overthrown by liberal reformers under Arevalo. B) Communist revolutionaries overthrew the conservative military government despite active U.S. support. C) The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency aided conservative dissidents in overthrowing the nationalistic Arbenz government. D) The U.S.-supported regime that replaced the Arbenz government introduced significant land reform and limited foreign ownership of Guatemalan industry. E) The regime of Arevalo was overthrown by a U.S.-backed group of military dissidents. 29. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the outcome of the Cuban revolution? A) After a brief sojourn in the U.S., Batista was able to return to power with the support of the U.S. military. B) Despite the successful overthrow of Batista, the revolutionary government failed to enact significant reforms in the plantation economy. C) Castro and the United States agreed to a cease-fire and resumed normal relations

by 1970. D) The revolutionary government eventually announced its adoption of Marxist-Leninist leanings, broke off relations with the U.S., and introduced sweeping socialist reforms. E) The largely liberal government that resulted from the revolution returned to the constitution of 1940 and closer relationships with the U.S.

30. The common thread running through all of the military regimes of Latin America was A) they were all supported by the working populations. B) they were all supported by the United States. C) they were all reform-minded. D) they were all supported by the USSR. E) they were all nationalistic. 31. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the progress of democratization in Latin America during the 1980s? (A) Despite the return to democratic government in many Latin American countries, problems with populist movements, threats from military leaders, inflation, and the drug trade weakened the new regimes. (B) Once democratic governments were restored in much of Latin America, the influence of the U.S. in the region began to wane. (C) The return of democracy to Latin America was so universal that military governments ceased to exist. (D) Democratic governments in the 1980s ceased to be troubled by the existence of leftist, guerrilla movements. (E) The U.S. has been consistently opposed to all dictatorships and authoritarian governments that engage in political repression whether they are right wing or left wing. 32. Iran, unlike other areas of the Third World, A) was heavily industrialized and not dependent on the export of cash crops or mineral wealth. B) had few local traditions to overcome in achieving nationhood. C)did not have problems with inequitable land distribution. D) had not been formally colonized by European powers, but had been reduced to an informal sphere of influence. E) possessed a substantial Western-educated middle class.

33. Perhaps more than any other third-world nation, India has been successful at A) controlling population growth. B) preserving civil rights and democracy. C) raising living standards. D) minimizing religious conflict. E) equitable land redistribution. 34. In which of the following ways was India similar to Egypt following decolonization A) level of industrialization B) emphasis on socialism and state intervention C) military takeover of government D) size of the middle class E) minimal influence of religious issues 35. Which of the following reasons was NOT a factor in explaining the frequency of military takeover in Third World nations? Military forces in Third World nations often received support from the Soviet bloc. Which of the following reasons was NOT a factor in explaining the frequency of military takeover in third world nations? A) Regimentation rendered soldiers more resistant to division by religious and ethnic rivalries. B) Isolation from Western and Soviet countries prompted a desire to demonstrate power to foreign governments. C) The military possessed a monopoly of force essential in restoring order during political crisis. D) Military personnel possessed some technical training that was often lacking among civilian nationalist leaders. E) Most of the people in the upper classes favored strong military rule. 36. One of the most common elements of African and Asian governments since decolonization is A) military takeovers. B) effective industrialization. C) stable economic systems. D) the creation of liberal democracies. E) communism. 37. Which of the following methods was NOT used by the South African government to suppress dissent among the black population?

A) favoritism shown to some leaders in order to divide opponents of apartheid B) creation of a police state C) use of state programs to improve the conditions of the black townships D) use of spies and police informers E) arrest of opposition leaders 38. Americans introduced all of the following reforms to Japan during their occupation EXCEPT: A) giving women the vote. B) abolishing Shintoism as a state religion. C) outlawing labor unions. D) making the emperor a symbolic figurehead. E) parliamentary democracy. 39. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the situation in Korea following the Korean War? A) Southern Korea was defeated after a surprise sea invasion and the defeat of its navy. B) Northern and southern Korea were rapidly reunited under a single, authoritarian government controlled by the Soviet Union. C) Korea remained divided with relatively authoritarian governments in both halves of the divided nation. D) Northern Korea threw off its ties with China and the Soviet Union and sought a closer relationship with the U.S. E) Southern Korea became fully democratic, but moved closer to political neutrality during the cold war. In what way was the restoration of an independent Korea complicated? A. Korea had become a colony of China, which refused to restore independence. B. Korea was divided into zones controlled by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. C. Koreas government was claimed by surviving members of the old monarchy. D. Korea had no prior experience as an independent government. 40. Which of the following was NOT a factor in the amazing economic growth of Japan following the 1950s? A) cheap loans for technological innovation B) educational expansion C) a growing population and a reduction in the agricultural labor force D) a rapidly growing military-industrial complex E) a productive labor force

41. In what way was the Chinese Communist takeover of China different than the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia? A) China was already more industrialized than Russia at the time of the communist success. B) The Russian seizure of power was accomplished without ridding the country of the ruling dynasty. C) The Chinese Communists claimed a unified country and did not experience years of civil war and foreign intervention. D) The Chinese Communist leadership was unable to move directly to the tasks of social reform and economic development. E) The Chinese Communists had the full assistance of another Communist power. 42. Which of the following statements concerning Chinese domestic policies during the 1950s and 1960s is most accurate? A) Despite pledges made during the civil war, the Communist Party ailed to undertake substantial land redistribution programs. B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953, the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry. C) Increasingly Mao came to embrace the old Confucian concept of a bureaucratic elite as the means of government. D) Mao's primary trust came to rest in a group of intellectuals associated with the University of Beijing. E) Many steps were taken to improve the lives of small farmers 43. In part, the defeat of the United States in Vietnam in the 1970s resulted from A) Vietnamese belief that the communists were fighting for independence. B) the greater loss of American than Vietnamese lives. C) an insufficient commitment by the U.S. government to win the war. D) the general superiority of the Viet Cong as soldiers. E) inadequate air power resulting in the use of chemical weapons. 44. Which of the following factors did NOT play a role in the demise of communism? A) The steadfastness of Chinese policy B) Soviet leadership C) Western Europe's thriving Economy D) Economic costs of the cold war E) Reassertion of eastern European initiative 45. The term perestroika refers to

A) an attempt by the Soviet leadership to allow non-communists to manage the economy. B) a new freedom to comment and criticize the Soviet government. C) economic restructuring and more leeway for private ownership. D) the establishment of a liberal democracy. E) the Soviet space program. 46. The end of the cold war was associated with what large trend in the world at the end of the 20th century? A) the spread of multiparty democracy B) the ending of world hunger C) the rapid industrialization of the Third World D) the dismantling of Western armed forces 47. A. B. C. D. E. A growing opponent of the ideals of globalization has been terrorism. communism. racism. political fundamentalism conservatives.

48. Which of the following is NOT a new development regarding the globalization of the Earth? A. Advances in creating a prototype universal language B. The end of the cold war led to new opportunities for global communication C. Advanced technical developments D. The adjustment of peoples everywhere to the notion of global communications 49. Which of the following is NOT a trend running counter to globalization? Nationalism A. Religious differences B. Ethnic competition C. The Internet D. Competition over economic resources 50. A. B. C. D. E. Which of the following is NOT an issue raised against economic globalization? Damage to labor conditions through use of cheap workers Damage to the environment Its pace is too slow. Rampant consumerism Its pace is too fast.