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The President and Fellows of Harvard College Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology

An Archaeology of Yoga Author(s): Thomas McEvilley Source: RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, No. 1 (Spring, 1981), pp. 44-77 Published by: The President and Fellows of Harvard College acting through the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Stable URL: Accessed: 11/01/2010 14:44
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An archaeology

of yoga

I models have been offered for the early this of yoga: paper will deal with two. The history that yogic practices derived primitivist model proposes somehow from shamanism and agricultural magic. This has the Indus Valley to its enlisted hypothesis naturally in certain seal cause, finding impressions and sculptures evidences of proto-yoga. The chief problems of this it has approach have been the vagueness with which been presented, and the definition of the changes it entered the which this Ur-yoga underwent when its Aryan community, particularly ideological to this model iswhat Filliozat reinterpretation. Opposed has called the "scientific" which rejects hypothesis, that yoga was worked out pre-Aryan input and proposes and as itwere "scientifically" deliberately by members of the Aryan community who were consciously Those who adopt searching for mystical techniques.1 this position are forced to reject the alleged evidences in the Indus Valley remains.2 of yoga, or proto-yoga, in some This paper will reexamine these questions on the primitivist hypothesis, detail, concentrating by which the other also stands or falls, and introducing new both into the arguments and new evidence that will emerge The model is composite, discussion. affirming both pre-Aryan input and "scientific" and the Aryan community, investigation within to make the boundary between them clear. I attempting hope to give a more definitive and reliable answer than was previously to the question, Was there possible in the Indus Valley? My answer yoga, or proto-yoga, will be affirmative, but with many qualifications, which new I content to semi-intuitive the will, hope, give weakness of past authors. Believing that the great has been its lack of the primitivist hypothesis I will attempt to formulate its argument of specificity, more precisely. In areas where evidence is insufficient I shall try to show at least for detailed connections, are. what the possible types of relationships
1. Jean Filliozat, "Les origines Revue Philosophique indienne," d'une 136 technique mystique pp. 208-220:


Though my emphasis will be on the primitivist its discussion should also help to clarify model, the Aryan developments. For concerning questions instance: Why did the Indo-Aryans borrow yogic from the non-Aryan communities? Which techniques ones did they borrow? What did they reinterpretations on How and has the motives? from what them, place in survived the later Aryan/non-Aryan dichotomy history of yoga? The controlling ?mage of this investigation will be the famous Indus Valley seal impression shown in figure 1. On and the question of yoga in the Indus Valley, in fact, as we will see when we let this expressive ?con speak, it has a good deal to say about the other

it hinges


It will be useful at first to specify our use of some common terms in the history of Indian religions. The word "yoga" will be applied to anything that has traditionally
been rnudra The no most in the called that in India, without prejudice, from asvinl to nirvikalpa sam?dhi. is more term "shamanism" that are shamanic known and

guarantee of them nineteenth

There problematic. are Ur-phenomena; complexes as they were and thus recorded have centuries


to us only twentieth


longer history than the yogic texts with which they will be compared. It is possible that both yoga and shamanism as
known presently I attribute When from a common substrate. developed content "shamanic" of redefined vestiges to refer to this to a yogic it must be understood practice, and not to involve the substrate, preshamanic) (possibly we as know them that shamanic assumption complexes have remained unchanged for thousands of years.


The locutions "fertility magic," "fertility rite," and the likewill be used to refer to the whole complex of religious
practice in archaic agricultural societies, where more of

course was at issue than the fertility of the soil alone. They will signify a circular (rather than linear-causal)
interweaving connection and abundance In Indian of of aims, above of including and below, in general, these three unusual renewal cohesion including categories On of world-lease, of social the crops. are the one hand, units,




. . une


religions to an


bien plut?t chamanique" (220). origine scientifique 2. Various ist models diffusion that propose that yoga was into India from elsewhere will be excluded from this paper; imported in particular I bracket the question influence for full of Mesopotamian treatment elsewhere.

India is known to have participated peripherally, by way of Tibetan and other influences, in the Central and North
Asian many shamanic vestiges of zone. this The classical and influence, religions in some of cases India the show


tribal religions have exhibited

the shamanic

McEvilley: An archaeology

of yoga





less complete.3 to Siberia, Even


of course



to the arc of nomadic,
from Africa

herding cultures that
and its religion and Lamaist in the pre

Bon period "belonged
type of shamanism."4 the shamanic preserved somewhat

to the North and Central Asiatic
the Bon religions complex complete, though Tibetan shamanic have practices in modern times have

begins with the Indus Valley and continues through the Yatis of the Rg Veda and the Vratyas of Atharva Veda XV to historical yogic movements. He recognized, in a variety of the Indus Valley, elements that foreshadow later religious movements, including Jainism. His unfocused perspective was perhaps the best relatively one. In 1931, however, Sir John Marshall reduced this a more to closed approach open-ended proto-Saiva
model. "There appears at Mohenjo-daro," he wrote, "a



India for untold centuries by way of Nepal, Sikkim,
where still magicians


fulfilled the specifically shamanic role of psychopomp.6 Similarly, the Indus Valley culture, lying under the Khyber
Pass, culture has always peripherally zone and been exposed touched to the Central its influence. Asian

is recognizable male god who the historical Siva."8

at once

as a prototype


But India, unlike Tibet, was dominated
from a very early from

by agriculture

and there the shamanic period, practices that entered the North (and were, presumably, on top of an already stratified present layer of Proto or primitive to Australoid tended shamanism, magic)

commingle with agricultural magic and to be redefined within its horizon. It would appear that it is from this rich stratum of mingled shamanism and fertility magic that the
proto-yoga arose.


The connection between yoga and the Indus Valley first broached Indian the scholar Ramaprasad by who that the Chanda, proposed sculpted figure that as a Marshall would identify priest had its eyes "neither wide open nor totally shut," as the Jaina ?dipur?na was its gaze fixed for meditation, with (XXI.62) recommends on the tip of its nose, as recommended in the Bhagavad Cita (6.13) and commonly in yogic elsewhere literature.7 Chanda proposed a lineage for yoga that
in alten Indien," Acta 3. See, e.g., Walter Ruben, "Schamanismus Verrier Elwin, The Orientalia (Leiden) 17 (1939), pp. 164-205; of an Indian Tribe (London, 1955); Edward B. Harper, Religion "Shamanism 13 (1957), Phenomena in South pp. 267-87; in Northen Journal of Anthropology India," Southwestern and Related "Shamanistic Rudolf Rahmann, 54 (1959), and Middle India," Anthropos Figure (National 1. Impression Museum, of New seal 420, Mohenjo-daro, 1.4" x 1.4"


in Ethno Studies Tibet's Terrifying Deities, Museum 1966), p. 63. Series, vol. 1 (The Hague, Aesthetics, zur Geschichte 5. Helmut Hoffman, Bon der tibetische Quellen und der der Akademie der Wissenschaften Abhandlungen Religion, Literatur in Mainz, 1950), (Wiesbaden, and Demons Oracles Tibetan Protective 6. Matthias Klasse 4 sozialwissenschaftlichen geistes-und Ren? de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, pp. 197-210; of the of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography Erl?ser Civilization of India, no. and the of

pp. 681-760. 4. F. Sierksma,

based this identification of the person represented on the seal in figure 1 primarily on the following points: (1) the figure on the seal is a god, it is horned, and inMesopotamian because the horned headdress indicates deity; (2) iconography the god on the seal is three-faced (though he may have a fourth face behind), and in historical times Siva was sometimes portrayed that way (e.g., the famous Trim?rti of Elephanta); (3) the figure on the seals is in a "typical attitude of yoga," and Siva was known in historical times as the Mah?yogin, the god of yoga; (4) there are four animals grouped around the figure on the seal, and as Pasupati, the Lord of Siva was later worshiped
8. Ibid., I:52.


Deities (The Hague, 1956), p. 129. Schamanen?Pseudoschamanen, Hermanns, 3 vols. (Wiesbaden, l:54. und Heilbringer, 1970), 7. Ramaprasad "Survival of the Prehistoric Chanda, the 41 Indus Valley," Memoirs of the Archeological Survey

1929), p. 25; Sir John Marshall, (Calcutta, Mohenjo-daro 3 vols. (London, Indus Civilization, 1931), 1:54, llhpl. XCVIII.

20 as in the iconography of the Jaina signs directions they in the Buddhist pillars of the As?kan period. head that of the even a tiger. including Siva's of Ellura. Mesopotamia of the of the Religion "A Re-examination P. Kail?san?th enemy Temple Jaina occurs the also contains iconography in sculptures of tfrthankaras As we will see. including Buddhism. cit.g. 21. For examples.46 RES 1 SPRING 81 Beasts. . 1979). (Delhi. pt. as the upright member in question may be the tassel Siva evidence of a waistband. History of Sakta e. the right one missing. Sullivan with till the is not agreed."17 Furthermore. argues that the evidence of other Indus objects indicates that the person in figure 1 ismore likely Indus objects Ibid. K. Indian Asceticism of God: (Delhi." pp. in the is portrayed figure act of meditating and concentration"). which may be reviewed briefly. 1962)."11 "What are supposed to be three faces together look more or perhaps even the like the head of a Br?hmani bull . The shell inlay of the left eye is present (see Marshall. Even in Hinduism. places the grounds that uncritically.15 associations meditation This from fact the either removes eyes the or as forces to the us half-shut example. connected indicates. 120. 1976). 356): "the holy Oriental Religion 13. 1948). or is threefour-faced. the Dev? is characteristically using it against the Buffalo Demon. 2:13. 115-25. Ibid. 16.14 The pi pal tree. New Light on the Indus Civilization. yogic the camp. p. perhaps The Masks 170. pp. M."10 and Campbell speaks blithely of "the meditating divine yogi. (6)Marshall that the person in figure 1 may not be acknowledged ithyphallic. Many other figures Brahma three.. (London. 1965). In addition. the origin of yoga the person in figure Eliade. accepted. which to begin many uncertainties and signifies "the same tTrthankara preaching directions. And (New York. and see also 1:19. is sacred in virtually all Indian cults. op. into the wrong In fact. in the Indus Valley 1 is "represented in the specifically Marshall's third yogic posture. or gazing Bhagat. Eliade Mythology (Yoga.21 Sullivan. 1955). p. practising ekagrata."13 of pipal The claim rising is supported between by horns examples leaves that Marshall interpreted as lingas have been interpreted differently by others. Series vol. Ancient Bollingen Series vol. Bollingen 18. Sastri. N. Narendra 19. (1) The tripartite headdress: Siva himself is not presented horned in Indian iconography. 15. Ibid. two and generations somewhat Marshall's analysis has been for on on Harapp?n burial urns. 53. For widely. cit. 10. Bhagat. and Siva is in later times the god of the erect phallus. ("mental discipline and this view also has passed into the literature.. there is little justification for such statements.c. to be sure where the gaze is missing" it is impossible eyes out correctly was that it is directed. 82. Marshall Indus Valley." In fact. on the R?vana. 16. (7) the god on the seal may be ?thyphallic. point. of course. and especially (London. portrayed Sastri. meditation. Saivism. 2 vols. e. Yoga. material There it does has are. 1974). 355. (Leiden. last century and as b." Sumerian cities with which the Indus people were definitely meditation in contact. for example... not been indicate thrown with. p. See. motif. Early Indus Civilizations of see Seton Lloyd. who is often called the "bull of the S?kyas. See. out pointed far as present and that symbol of Siva. pi. from both the shell-inlay that "since has noted hypothesis. Fischer. claims that the seal and the bust "certainly indicate the practice of meditation [in] those times. 12.. 56 (New York. He is connected with the bull. p. op. Sullivan. XCVIII). 12. Joseph Campbell.or four-faced. . Ernest Mackay. Sullivan. (3) "the peculiar half shut eyes" of the bust that Marshall called the priest have "been noticed in very early clay figures from Kish and Ur. (5) the tripartite headdress of the figure is similar to the later tris?la or trident of Siva: (6) deer or ibexes appear beneath the "throne" and are also sometimes found on Siva's throne in medieval Indian art. 20. .19 (5) Beasts arranged of the four around a yogic in all four figure occur are a Marshall's analysis of the "Siva" figure. 211. G. 2:57.9 postures. Jyotindra Jain and Eberhard The TTrthankara 1978).. "priest" one to the of few the proto-Saiva question tip. 39 (New York. but so are many other figures. 99. the tr?s?la is not exclusively a standard element tTrthankara. (Delhi. in his most radical thought.18 four-faced Furthermore. The Art of Indian Asia. the Buddha. (2) The deer throne also is associated Mackay has as much with pointed out that the Buddha as with Siva. The Archeology p. Sullivan. p. figures 15.. Heinrich Zimmer. widely assumed that is commonly traced that the "Siva" back to the at his nose is cross-eyed. 1: 9. and Vaisnavism. in Indus unambiguously times presented and. 120-21. 1:357 and pi. the tripartite headdress is paralleled by the Buddhist tr?s?las at Sanchi much earlier than by any Saiva examples. History 14. man Eliade. one of that many the Harapp?n excavators. Jainism. figure at if itwere this would established not point are at its being Siva." Nath Bhattacarya. 45 top. Mircea 1958). for example. p.. Jain Iconograpy. of Religions Indus Civilization. 11.16 (4) Sullivan pointed far from certain that the figure is either threeor four-faced: to hypothesize claim that the in Sumer. While the evidence does indeed indicate "yogic practices" of a certain kind in the Indus Valley milieu.12 Indeed. Herbert 4 (1964-65). . the phallus. proposed an entirely different identification of the headdress: "The fan-shaped crest rising from the centre of the buffalo's horns on the god's head is itself a symbolic representation of the fan-shaped foliage of the conventionalized pipai tree emerging from a seed vessel numerous resting on an altar.g.. 17." echoing But it is not only or yogic the practice of ?sanas. cf.

op. 2 vols."28 not "cross-legged. Those from Harapp? seen in in good Madho be may They reproductions. Gordon Childe." Sullivan. 2 vols. is. Delhi). p. figures are not It is female cit. the one feature without which an not fit into the group. 24. LXXXVII. multiplied. [une] ". n. CXVI.. 17: "seated cross-legged. The hypothesized connection of yoga with the Indus Valley. 212. p. But of course the figure proves nothing. 1965). wrote. seal is printed in Ancient Fritz Staal."23 We will to many have plagued not merely religion. cit. and 11 . of yogic misconceptions in their scholars (posture) and about this posture the whole to neglect have the "Certainly. op. 76: "sitting cross-legged. (2) there is no space between the joined heels and the trunk of the body. 1974). the significance has not yet been fully appreciated. 23: "seated with crossed (Leiden.3" x 0. Excavations and ll:pl. 76. p. cit. Dan V. others that who and described itmanifestly regarded the figure simply as "sitting cross-legged." W. cit. XII. is Asia eating. all over when South talking. 29. and singing. although Marshall chose to construct his case primarily on the basis of figure 1. also rejects the ?sana view and with origin people of yoga: . the posture enclosure. Sullivan. op. have chosen altogether. amulet New from Mohenjo-daro." in Staal's backwards 120. n. have not ll:pl. p.). chap."26 posture is an important it rests the for on one.. p. The Persistence of Religion: An Essay on Tantrism and Sri in the History of Religion. There are in fact six and two from of these icons. The four from Mohenjo-daro reproduced See Marshall.25 Marshall the position have of as an ?sana. 235. 184: "sitting cross-legged. of which posture on the "Siva" seals. Sitting cross-legged. . and in is the other. that l'Inde position en these seals des show a "posture du Staal tout ? dehors famili?re exercises et commode.d. 68: "mit untergeschlagenen identically in all six is the posture. the sitting posture which Marshall enough question Figure (National 2. Staal. though itmay be partially supported with a bolster from behind. New East. conjoined with the motif of the contest with a bull. the platform in figure 4. . example would Several persistent but of yoga. cit. p." is not. . (Delhi. 4: Exploring Mysticism (Berkeley." 1975)." the points. 1959). the are present flanking worshipers/serpents heraldically only in figure 2. p. four from Mohenjo-daro Harapp?. and CXVIII. 17... Bolle. 1. at Harapp?.. op.6" as an ?sana seems to us a natural interpreted one not be a yogic and need at all. vol. 303. Filliozat. cit. but male! 23." And the feeling that the posture is "natural enough" would down on the floor and probably be rectified by getting trying it. 1973). Sarup Vats.22 Siva of into these but the another seals the figure in question form of the great goddess tree and with "there is not a who tiger little is the the horns or serpents or beasts?that this?not essence of the icon. op. 1:129-30." Haripada Asceticism Chakraborti. p. 27. 118. other words. ed. for example. p. India (Calcutta. (Benares..McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 47 to be female than male. 222. (It should also be noted that the figure 10a. been published llbpls. Stamped Museum. the claim dans . teaching. have neglected the question of which ?sana itmight be. sit cross-legged it the Indus Valley and Southeast shaving. in turn has argued that these III. 4th Light on the Most Ancient Heinz Mode."27 Ill in my opinion. Sullivan. 2. 26. Many ?sana the literature on the Indus Valley ramifications. in reading. history question indeed. is the The key piece of evidence. p. The examples from Harapp? involve other motifs of the "fertility" religion: in one case the "yogic" figure is flanked by the tree-with-deity-and-tiger icon on its on a its left by ceremonial goat in an right. the attendant beasts only in figure 1. (New York.24 Each of the six differs from the others in some particular: the horns are missing in figure 2. are Kees Beinen. (3) the knees appear to be thrust outward at right angles to the eyes' forward line of vision (though this may be the 25. cit. I:pl. 28. at Mohen'jo-daro.. as one which the special positions of yoga. and proposes an alternative model for Indus religion inwhich appears "proto-Siva" on symbols. 125. A third group has specifically demurred from this view. are clear on the following points: (1) All examples are the heels pressed together. in figures 1 to 4. XCII." Fr?he Indien (Stuttgart. 310. Filliozat rejected the Indus Valley origin of yoga with precisely fait banale Yoga . "As for the yoga aspect of the figure. Indus in conjunction he concludes. But Sastri Op. Ernest Mackay. The only element that is present 22. which is resting itsweight on the heels. Further Excavations 1938). is really return basis for reading back the laterVedic and post-Vedic god civilization. op.) Instances could be Sullivan. Aurobindo's VIII Studies Philosophy. "seated cross-legged. legs.

cit. Clearly ritual posture or. New It is important to make clear that this is not the everyday squatting-on-the-heels not position and that is comfortable to many ground. Impression of seal 222. considering that he was a divine yogi. New Delhi). 1971). inwhich one knee is flat on the ground. Series. p. p. op. (National Museum.. that the and figure itbhadr?sana he was himself in some it a sufficient.34 but vague seemed the way by calling no one idea noticed. respects in commenting on Pata?jali. 127.2" x ? chairs. 1:10. 34.48 RES 1 SPRING 81 result of the artist's avoiding a difficult foreshortening (4) the knees are very low. 35. 17 (Delhi. others. 1977. pressed forcefully into the crotch by the body's weight. Mohenjo-daro. This seating [sic] pose 29. These details do not appear to be casual. The former are vertically pressed down under the haunches with heels pointing upwards and the latter bent at right angles to the feet. the platform (magnification of figure 1 suggests the presence of a support beneath the one extant knee). are not joined." it is true that V?caspati Misra in some similar to this one. Years Ago. identification of the ?sana. Indians. enough.33 a posture a dozen II. the priest-artist probably deemed it necessary miracle. The Yoga-System of Pata?jali with the Yoga-Bhasya of Veda-Vyasa and the Tattva-Vaicradi of Vachaspati Harvard Oriental Miera. its difficulty: "He is shown seated on a dais hardly touching it with his upturned toes. inwhich the heels are against the buttocks. See ibid. 94." "Sind Five Thousand Ramaprasad Chanda. and the hands are raised to about eye level. of 1914 ed. It is shown in conjunction with the most highly charged symbols of the Indus iconography. Amar?vati. Add to this the contorted form of the feet and the toes. are: (1) the posture of kneeling adoration. to as a Yet remarkably little attention has been paid to the none whatever its yogic context. p. 97. and elsewhere. 30." scholars. the seals. "typical meditation mentions along Yoga which Figure 1.46. Even the arms have exactly the same in all examples. Sastri. but. Mohenjo-daro. Siva. and the two heels. 31. repr.29 Other relatively simple positions found commonly in Indian sculpture. as Marshall said. by Swami Sivananda. cit. vol. which must be carefully distinguished from the posture on the seals. and either significance. in the none of calls Bhagat is. 60."31 to represent him as though As we will see.30 All these are. for example.05" x with S?tras that posture. Art of 95. 1. an ?sana. the posture a performing is not a miracle. though it is not comfortable and natural. . is another is aware altogether. Yoga (Sivanandanagar.05" 3. et commode. 32. Bh?rhut. pi. relatively easy positions "natural But Sastri. 158. Kundalini The traditional list is given. the trunk is leaning forward with the knees forward on the ground supporting much of the weight. Delhi). and (2) the posture exemplified by Visnu on Sesa at Badami. op. pi. either. Indian Asia. 106. References will be to the edition of James Haughton Woods. almost touching problem). precisely joined. correctness. a typical postures commonly on appears Mah?vTra. are portrayed (National Museum. Chanda pointed ("blessed said way posture"). For an example.32 The "meditating" Dhyana-yoga posture. In that position the heels are flat on the raised.).. Ordinary position sitting postures are not so perfectly identical. never Buddha. 36a. Now. this is not one of the Nevertheless. all examples as with a certain ritual show them meticulously.c. Modern 33. Review (Calcutta) (August 1932). although close together. no more. Impression of seal 235. Bhagat. and other figures in Indian iconography who are commonly posture on depicted meditating. recommended the Indus seals. found at Sanchi. 11a." the posture unlike Western "famili?re on the seals that could rightly be called and matter of so forth. and in one case is actually being it has a special worshiped.35 for meditation. is evidently an impossible physical feat. the other raised slightly. or both. see Zimmer.. to Indians raised without Figure 4. 1. while the rest of the body is balanced in the air above the seat.

Brahmachari.K. 1966). Woods. figure 3 implies in foreshortening Brahmachari's. The numeration differences.." Figure 7 shows in utkat?sana.. II."42 The description posture on precisely of the seals. (New York. trans. Yogasana Vijnana Light on 1970). is that A related ?sana that must be considered Samhit? (11. Yoga Pradipika. B. K. pis. anymore it is cross-legged."37 insistent "the too but of the vague. 38. .41 Swami Brahmachan "Sit on the instructions for Goraks?sana: ground and bring the soles of the feet into contact. even to the detail of the lowered knees. S. in uses the term shakti-chalini ("energy-awakener") "siddha employed following addition The to bhadr?sana and Goraks?sana. 116-19. in utkat?sana the heels are heels are flat on the ground. move forward and squat on the feet so that the knees touch the ground on either side. these scholars and the world of implications that it brings with complex. 1976.43 names will various of these emerge significance as we the feet. see B. The Hathayogapradipika 1972).36 than and Eliade's the figure as (the latter it of course common. pis. For this and several variants. p.. Samhit? 38. two: The Hatha or one of the following be either from this translation Sinh (Delhi. This posture is Swami Brahmachari like the but is more related to m?labandh?sana in that the posture. Pancham 1980. and adds the comment ("posture yogis call this Goraks?sana" gives the by Goraksa"). cit. The Complete p. than it. cit.. 355. there are no major of India The Art and Architecture Rowland. 37." The are question that we simply the Indus the ?sana seals. Swami (New York. The Hathapradipika 1970). place the anus on the heels: this is known as the Utkat?sana. p. Yoga. Hinduism (Woodbury. cit. Then the hands should be are kept placed on the knees. Figure 6 shows Dhirendra shows which what he calls Goraks?sana. New York. of 1914 ed. M?labandh?sana Schocken Books. pi. 43. 36. believe. position" which More beyond doubt. squatting-on-the-heels everyday knees are not spread fully to the sides but take a natural position about a foot apart. but ed. 29. p. more important. is the simple designation of "yoga posture" (Rowland).). K. See. recognized.53-54). and the heels be raised in the air. Citations will and Pt. another exponent of the kundalim hatha yoga tradition. representing different traditions in the yogic literature. Figures 1 and 2 imply lyengar's position with support from behind.). 1960). being is not. 29. posture. Illustrated terms Book see of (Bombay. (from 1979). Vishnudevananda. an extremely significant point. repr. This ?sana but along the same lines. demonstrating the That the heels turned back under the crotch. p. uses the name bhadr?sana that Chanda was aware). 42. Gheranda are to the edition of Sris Chanda Vasu. figures 459-62 Dhirendra Brahmachari. The Hatha Yoga Pradfpik? (1. lyengar demonstrating If his buttocks were he calls m?labandh?sana. Yoga op. 27. Samhita op. For still other lyengar. Eliade. as we will see. it does nature of yogic specifically is an ?sana There not and appear purpose and on of this is much Again called "yoga posture.39 in such a way that he could rest his crotch supported the ?sana be precisely upon his joined heels. Still itmust be stressed that inwhich the this is not the everyday squatting position. and 101-3. ismore have proceed. (London. p.S. 46. Figure Yoga. trans. 61 and pi. (Baltimore.27) which the hatha yoga text Gheranda calls utkat?sana: "Let the toes touch the ground. 5. While holding the feet together with the hands.g. Radha Burnier (Adyar.38 considering. a classic (as text of hatha yoga.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 49 So uncritically on a low accepted stool is the "meditation" interpretation that one author described "seated in a half-lotus a well-known meditation posture). The Gheranda references 39. Benjamin 1967). lyengar. S. 41.40 I posture on the seals is a variant of these is. Swami Vishnudevananda. with some problems in several variations with different appears titles. Light on what Figure 5 shows B. and should remove all doubt that this is in fact a specific traditional yogic ?sana. of Svatmarama. lyengar. to be raised from the ground and pressed against the anus. Swami Digambarji of Svatmarama. 101-3. 191.44?45 for "yoga posture". varies slightly. of 1895 ed. The spine and the neck is the erect. Yoga 40. op. this would Brahmachari on the seals. e. 1974). repr. Troy Wilson Organ. Raghunathashastri Kikaje (Poona.

or a forerunner of one. furthermore. that the specific yogic context of this ?sana is very revealing for the history of Indian religions. as utkat?sana and have much the same yogic context m?labandh?sana and purpose. and that it can be clearly and specifically identified in the historical yogic tradition. Goraks?sana (from Swami Brahmachari. such a possibility for our interpretation. Yogasana Vijnana. Asia Publishing House.) conclude that the posture on the seals a is definitely yogic ?sana. is significant to us. However.50 RES 1 SPRING 81 Figure 6. . We may 1970). We will find. as the Indus artists may (This posture have avoided a difficult foreshortening problem by when they intended drawing m?labandh?sana is not crucial utkat?sana. albeit under several names.

1. sarabhas. where in the it The implication of a great antiquity to Jainism is supported represented by other in the evidence. elephants... is infinite. of course. but Jacobi has shown that itwas more the other way round. antelopes.46 Schubring sorcery. the tTrthankara before Mah?v?ra. Art of Indian Asia." near to primitive is closer and other points stresses The its Jain IV conceptions in the taboo seems ahims? doctrine. in the second month of the summer . supreme. and that is. birds. 1:7. in a assessing than more of ethics. 1929). should composite on the Celtic Cernunnos. The phrase is repeated in the passage of the ?k?r?nga S?tra." Yet or postures parallels. Buddha This proto-Jain far from squatting position with joined heels. but as the reformer of one that had existed for a very long time before him. Both the ?k?r?hga works. the Indus one seals. 398ff. offer Mesopotamian. p. Nikaya 49. (London. being engaged in deep meditation. and intuition. in other members cultures course. not in a northeastern a Sal tree. parallels in Celtic. from other gains credibility hypothesis possible examples of the theme in the Indus Valley is P?r'sva. cit. in one of the forms with position joined heels. Indian Philosophy. in short. iconography. American Egyptian. account has never yet been yogic given. Majhima 48. this is an unvarying feature of the an alleged cites in addition lacks the key element of the a train of couples of Vidyaharas. (AS 21) parallel. 47. pp. monkeys. 45. Mode. See S?trakrtanga 56. That figure is horned. of 1922 ed. Jain canon Mah?v?ra. of unimpeded. elements of discontinuity will emerge as in the field of a householder direction from an old temple.. II. op. times the world?unique in the Indus to seals India. it has surfaced in a series of related foreground instances. SBE 22 (Oxford. A History of 46. as the course. center around the iconic moment of Mah?v?ra. world's especially art. Sarvepalli 1:287. which corresponding also provides us with a description of the platform on which the Venerable One was carried about: [This palankin] was adorned with pictures of wolves. Radhakrishnan.. pp. of (a Bildtypus).44 that sometimes taken figure. The Jain parallel offers not only what seems to be the same ?sana?and one inwhich Siva is never portrayed?but also the platform with surrounding animal images. lions. 1884). 1:59.g.48 primitive its disregard of the actor's intention debt. in Egyptian in Central Mexican. Itsessential feature?the joining of the heels in contact with the crotch?is (as far as Ican tell) actually unique appears in all six repeatedly no way to account tradition. traditions have felt that postures the "scribes. 1975. to think of figure 1 in If terms of later Indian religion. Chronologically. Samagra. of In these than karmic Buddhism.4 (SBE xlv.).. of m?labandh?sana. 169. 15. posture of misapprehensions Heinz Mode on the of too seals is not in the and scholarly others have the is one but culture-specific. . which his enlightenment. etc. 1962).McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 51 But literature argued first a must that last class be mentioned. of founder is not precisely seals. he reached the highest knowledge kevala. Gaina Sutras. Others statuary. There for is. yogic this posture outside the yogic and an accurate account. 44. and see Surendranath Dasgupta. and tigers. (KS 120)45 op. dolphins. like the Buddha. on the northern bank of the river Rigupalik?. Ibid. intro. xxxiii. with I will call group (which for convenience to have be existed m?labandh?sana) may presumed in India from the Indus Valley period to continuously This ?sana in the publicized day. 2 vols. Siva of course may be depicted with serpents on his person. which also seal figures. p. repr.. See.49 serpents at the moment when he passed The seal in figure 2 may represent the prototype of this scene. is not and Mode that on is similar. exposing himself to the heat of the sun."47 to a system ways Jainism the seals He to Jainism's "primitive "coming of and animism. after fasting two and a half days without drinking which water. yaks. Hermann Jacobi. 66-69. horses." namely. pt. Walter Schubring. The Doctrine Jacobi. as Marshall did. men. The Kalpa S?tra says (my italics): the present During the thirteenth year. called unobstructed. seals. of a tradition. the Jainas (Delhi. Indian Philosophy. as the mysterious God a type and unique has recognizable He cites. said to have been protected on both sides by upright into kevala. the first appearances after in two of the oldest Jain the Indus Valley seals occur S?tra and the Kalpa S?tra. and has his legs in a position the not the Although note that heels posture Sumerian are on like vaguely the overall composition posture joined. bulls. e.). Zimmer. because the figure's equivalent. Hiuen Tsang felt that Jainism was an offshoot of Buddhism. trans.. complete and full. the Gundestrup Cauldron. creeping plants. 5 vols. nothing or indeed any the posture on of the the we choose. Clearly not suggest some degree of continuity between the Indus Valley religion and the Jainism of Mah?v?ra?though greater possibly we proceed. cit. and cf. is "in a squatting The key phrase for us. contain traditional lives of the last tTrthankara. (Delhi. Though of yoga. surrounded by beasts. we might better regard it as the prototype of this Jain scene than as a prototype of Siva Pasupati. Visnu reclining on a serpent.

op. The Majhima Nik?ya These identifications may be strengthened by the fact that Rishabha.55 this as a pious the Jains: the evidence suggests that itwas Gos?la who was the master and Mah?v?ra the disciple who broke away.299: Dh.I. The best 51. Furthermore... "Origins of I (1952). Sinclair p. until the thighs rest on the calves. The Pali Text Society dictionary defines ukkutika as "a special manner of squatting. and Mah?v?ra. /. T. with the Indus 54. For its occurrence in Jainism."54 The crucial raising of the heels again indicates that this is not the everyday squatting-on-the heels position. including "goblin in connection point was mentioned in inaccurate albeit terms. 1955).56 The Jain tradition conversion P?rsva. of which the Gheranda Samhit? (11. Stevenson. IV. the postures them.52 RES 1 SPRING 81 by one. or "exerting in the squatting posture. some and his memory later in of Mah?v?ra's defection. p. the man sinks down. The implication joined Gos?la's group. P?rsva. A History and "The ?j?vikas.50 The k?y?tsarga sheltered hanging somewhat stiffly and held slightly away from in sculpture the arms the sides of the body. "dismissing inwhich Rishabha. The ?jfvikas were an ascetic group headed in the Buddha's time by one Makkhali Gos?la. . pp." The raising of the heels so that they join under the anus is and the importance of this seemingly clear as we proceed. Rhys-Davids and William Stede. in will be discussed (and Jainism53 appears later). the heels slightly raising as he does so. but that it is the yogic posture of utkat?sana. and ukkutikappadhana. adopting is that Mah?v?ra are in its customs. whose two however.. "Notes (vagguli-vata) and Queries. This Years Ago. 159-69. They were very closely connected with Jainism. The Heart of Jainism (Oxford. and due to the loss of all ?j?vika scriptures." down. twenty-four is an upright posture with arms kevala. "Sind Five Thousand in this respect.27) says: "Let the heels be raised in the air. allowed of clothing. (1.W. 167. Phillosophy Dept.51 the ground. For the bat-penance see Richard Morris." The penance of standing up is found in Jainism. see Schubring. inwhich the heels are flat on the ground. practice next example will permit us to define more some memories may be have of religious and that our closely. XII. p." )OI (Baroda) Jain and Fischer. 60. that is. Pali-English Dictionary 1915).515) agrees by implication.. M.235. for six years. hands reaching about to the knees. See Chanda. the bat-penance also k?y?tsarga. Gos?la after completely him. 314. 55. One identifies of the J?taka to utkat?sana references (/. a point of doctrine." op. whose stories would contain of actual facts. the penance of standing upright for long periods or "exerting oneself of time.493. but these practices were adopted by the Jains from the ?j?vikas. 14. III. 56. we are dependent on the highly sectarian Jain account of the relationship (mostly in the BhagavatTS?tra). II. 141.1. 300.78. The third of these "false penances" seems to relate to the posture on the seals. Mah?v?ra's Jainism seems to among out of (and away from) a stream developed that flowed from the Indus Valley. the body posture/' the first of the is said to have passed into tlrthankaras. place the anus on the heels. 95. D. saying that utkat?sana practiced by one who is naked and shaven. 18-20. essential. op. sealings." oneself is the same activity on Indus the portrayed seals. sometimes are shown unusually long. pp. and Mah?v?ra are the only tirthankaras whom scholars widely regard as historical?those. p. Benimadhab (Delhi. to Gos?la's tTrthankara prior went meeting to Mah?v?ra.296. but only P?rsva is traditionally as flanked by upright serpents. Mrs. then. cit. who. 52. The soles of the feet are firmly on the ground. The type is shown by Jaina Practices.206. cit." Journal of the P?lit Text Society. and who is "plucks out the hairs of his head and beard. over to the Jain view. Barua and According broke Jacobi. and denounce. and it is probably the latter to whom all the Pali passages refer. 1884. llrXXIX. the adopted There articles rule of nakedness also. away regard after following him Both fiction of however. 1. pi.52 Three "false austerities" are or hanging upside mentioned: the "bat-penance. repeatedly the "false aust?rit?s" of certain ascetics of whom the Buddha disapproved. Indian Journal Jacobi. of Letters (Univ." Both Jains and ?j?vikas went naked and shaved or plucked their head and beards. p. XXVIII.493) its practitioners as Aj?vikas. V ismentioned in a formula used Utkat?sana in the Pali canon to describe. by Adris Banerjee. insignificant detail will become The practice of ukkutikappadhan a. (Delhi. and the hams are about six inches or more from 50. 318. cit. 53. of Calcutta). described are there several Indus Valley seal impressions that may represent the Jain posture called k?y?tsarga. religion Mah?v?ra was born. his followers naked. A. cit. I. Gos?la was an "unruly disciple" of Mah?v?ra. are Marshall. 19. 1. of the op. in the squatting posture. of Pre-Buddhistic Barua. pi. the itself seems to preserve sect. except that the figure on the seals was portrayed with its knees fully to the sides. seals. addition many points that suggest the greater antiquity of ?j?vikism over Mah?v?ra's Jainism." II (1920). 1921).

p. seated on the planks. 476. etc. 100. 104-6. a "heated (from Swami Brahmachari."58 As Barua said. of the ?j?vikas (London. of op. 111-18. ?j?vikism context 58. a repulsive tantric type" rites. Roheim. rites of blood piece of the rib of a half-leaf. pp.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 53 Figure 7. 454. see also 1969). "the lump. History and Doctrines 164." (as Basham "secret calls magical them). fire and rebirth symbolism involving The Eternal Ones of the Dream (New York. 315. Yogasana Vijnana."57 boy was placed in a pit on which planks were set and the ?j?vikas. Asia Publishing House. 85-6. Geza pp. 1951). see Eliade. involving Bol linge n Series vol. Shamanism. 76 (Princeton. L. Utkat?sana worship. Basham.. For the primitive initiations the grasping of hot coals. pp. cit.. 112-13. initiation involving a symbolic the grasping of rebirth from adult males and In the initiation. 1964). 1958). Chakraborti. Rites and Symbols (New York. pulled out his hair with a 57. and a shamanic-style 1970).. . A. For primitive initiations etc. pp. of Initiation etc.

is said to have behind the names is the same: Goraksa in a cowpen. 39. were the founders of the two surviving branches of Jainism.62 . isGoraksa The chief figure in the N?th mythology a doublet for Barua considers ("Cowherd"). was who Barua Mah?v?ra. sexuality. IX and X. hand. Goraksa and the N?th tradition exhibit a wide range of Central Asian shamanic traits. Dying in Euripides' it. withdrawal. 36. if that in the medieval period. Ibid. Shamanism. stream from which breaking away with the Buddha and Mah?v?ra were their reforms. by as Tammuz did by his death. which has (66) Makhala and (67) Mankhala. one may Barua trace argues the that recrudescence 63. of which celibacy. 67. 160-65. 21. ?j?vikism. espoused are right. Eliade. . 200. he is mythological with credited with producing magical pregnancies. yoga.. 62. In a myth echoing into and he descends God the earth opens type. Weston Briggs. Gos?la this guru place him in the concerning category of the fertility god or hero. the other cultic contexts where has been found. fertility laying waste. . A N?th legend records m?labandh?sana that the two sons of the first N?th-guru. Dasgupta. p. the mythologem Gos?la ("Cowpen"). cit. p. 312. p. N?thism and Digambara." that is. and Basham.37-56) out their hair and beards plucked on heels. than the covered period and by the and continuity of the doctrines of the ?j?vikas. shape-changing. .400. 1969). Obscure Religious "The ?jivikas. cit. in this older tradition. 61. and (again like Tammuz) legends the being a cattle or herd god.78-79) adds that the Buddha himself once practiced this s?dhana. with But commingled with this stratum of "fertility" motifs. p. of an earlier ascetic that emphasized tradition and physical rather than karma.. prior to his the ancient way. 191-200. Basham. Gos?la.. pp. to be connected with both Jainism and ?j?vikism. worked into births. Ibid. the ?j?vikas gradually merged with various sects including both Digambara a Jains and the more radical Saiva sects.65 Many been born of a cow. Ibid.64 Both ?j?vikism and N?thism (and no other Indian sect known) believed that the soul must reincarnate and 8. in short. and m?labandh?sana list of eighty-four the Tibetan version. . 187. and which may go back to the Indus Valley. Gos?la N?th gurus. was part of the more ancient yogic clear stream to which the ?j?vikas belonged."67 A stick that he stuck into the ground grew into a tree. 385. . 60. 66. that early release. Such parallels indicate either ?j?vika input into the N?th cult or that the N?ths of the into documentary history another represent same primitive surfacing religious The Majhima Nik?ya (1. Matsyendran?th. (Calcutta. Many Sanskrit yogic texts are either attributed directly to the N?th gurus. both the motive of superpowers. whom In any case."59 by The Buddha and Mah?v?ra both seem to represent reforms magic. foregrounded Furthermore. op. stage of thought-evolution . has at been least in that Makkhali was and while Rejecting magical it seems the participated ascetics "Standers k?y?tsarga insights attainment beneath describes and were practiced the Bodhi tree. George op..000 unattainable. they up or squatters or utkat?sana.. p.. including initiation by tigers. a series of through or moksa. Ibid. 389. 68. especially or associated with them (including the Goraksa-n?th. Svet?mbara ."63 Although the point cannot be established with certainty. austerity. furthermore. Ibid. (Calcutta. Cults. pp. the "in 59. until about 1400.68 In terms of cult." and feels that it had great influence on in Nepal and Tibet as well as on the tantric Buddhism Saiva tantrism of India. his the of the land. had encountered the ancient in Gos?la's But the Buddha also had group. Shashibusan Dasqupta. 187-90. pp. the ability to descend and reascend. and the gift of lifesaving missions restoring the dead from their bones. and the lakes Bacchae) "everything were filled with water." p. 64.66 Where he walked (like Dionysus became green. . 1938). on the other and meditation. conservative Jacobi ways once the N?th Siddhas are often counted one. of moksa. there is much in its favor.. journeys out of the to the underworld on body. 3rd ed. Basham and others have demonstrated early history of Jainism and Buddhism as expounded Buddha. Yoga Pradfpik? and the Gheranda traces the sect back "to a period prior to Pata?jali.. he was himself either an ?j?vika or something closely related to it. 191. Gorakhn?th the K?npha? YogTs Obscure Religious Cults. that is. chaps. and Hatha Dasgupta Samhit?).61 This sect seems. p. VI the sexo-yogic aspects of yoga?specifically of the kundalinT tradition?reached their practices in florescence of the N?th the Siddhas. greatest religion a melange that "enjoyed of yogic and magical practices Certain It is here is still enjoying immense popularity/'60 in a fourth cultic context the posture that we encounter on the Indus seals. The DTgha Nik?ya who (111. discipline and an earlier .. p. p. 65. 195.54 RES 1 SPRING 81 "represents religious Mah?v?ra . He had control of serpents.

Jochelson. the whole echoes recorded Siberia "In Skulls to be restoration of the that have been practices shamanic India to from range. Robert Bleichsteiner. pp. at a later period. Monograph 73. Hans Findeisen. bone ceremonies shamanic = essence. sacrifice last three also Historically.71 the N?th tradition belongs tantrics and the but the Saiva Aghor?s.75 The worship of skulls relates to the skeleton meditation of Tibetan Buddhism. pp. working selling magical spells. .2-3 76. 138-39." (1888). The K?p?lika cult of skulls. which The in turn skeleton has close of costume in Eskimo shamanism. So far were they from the ahirns? orientation of the polished Br?hmanical yogins in all manner of blood rites that they participated including the early P?'supatas. M. century religions shamanic in fact. phenomena tradition."73 that appear phase of Tibet. 31-43. and probably portrays the for a sexual ritual involving use of alcohol. the American Oriental beyond. Briggs.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 55 clearly represents a religious substrate that he was historical sectarian boundaries: preceded in identified Jains worshiped by Saivas as by Bombay. Schamanengeschichten Friedrich and Georg Buddruss 1955).69 His Goraksa in cult absorbed K?p?lika and P?supata sects which turn had connections In short. The Tungus. considered own right. quite unlike the context of Br?hmanical yoga. David and Kal?mukhas. 151. am Beispiel der Besessentheitspriester Schamanentum. Lorenzen. 1938). in such a setting." were vestiges prominent of Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized 2 vols. 300. which this that we or of the will The ?j?vika review substrate initiation and other vestiges magic" same also tradition is a vestige. Eskimos. See U. Report of the Fifth Thule Expedition. referred should "On of as headhunters. practiced The of which cannibalism. . op. 7 (Copenhagen. 12 (Delhi. Australian See Briggs. has a third element the horns. handling snakes. Proceedings Berthold xxiv-xxxi. 77. Series vol. see HYP 140-41. Her vulva is m?labandh?sana His phallus seems not to be. probably a deity. N. if not a with ?j?vikism. pp.. L'Eglise ?aune (Paris. His left rising between hand is raised over the couple. W. pp. cit. are recorded in inscriptions of the tenth This entire the that was group of Indian conspicuously fertility magic of interp?n?tration to above. Use of Natural History in all Asia. cit. Beside each of them is a vessel. as among the ?j?vikas.74 In North Asia. Memoirs (New York.. 1924-26). dargestellt noreur asi atischer V?lker (Stuttgart. 61.79 A man and woman are protrayed seated in variants of on a platform or bed. 51 ff. A. XXVI. aus Sibirien. Visnu. Brahmachari. See Ajit Mookerjee. p.78 sorcerers. It is hardly insignificant that he was connected with the of the ?j?vikas and above all with "bat-penance" in the N?th tradition was which m?labandh?sana. human sacrifice. trans. 71-72. and tattooing. 67. who used to sit in this ?sana. op. Indian Primitive Art (Calcutta. 114. pp. not only Tibetan culture. 1923). Waldemar I. yoga.. by like K?p?lika seem of to be "primitive dismemberment involved cannibalism. of this of and Tibetan skull-bone-skeleton shamanic which also initiation at times. 197. pi.54. Our last example of m?labandh?sana is from a It is a funerary stele related milieu. clearly is impossible given the condition of the stone certainty and reproduction. in Lamaist pure ". cit. the Lord of Cattle. 1959). Die religi?sen (Holmberg) Vorstellungen der altaischen V?lker (Helsinki. His followers claim that Brahma. Sirksma. O.. Harva. (M?nchen.. Yukaghir shamans divined from the skulls of dead shamans. Ceremonies. pp. Buddhist and human in the sphere of sects of K?palikas. dated to c.D. 228^29. 79. above and beside him a solar disk. 13. resuscitation. Two Lost Saivite Sects. stream to which that "unruly" teacher belonged. 24. Knud Rasmussen. p. Centre of Oriental Studies Oriental University 1972). 1:165. 80. 78. head. 8) from Madhya which clearly expresses the milieu of village tantrism. cit. and Siva were his first disciples. Pradesh. 71. p.. p. Briggs. called Goraks?sana. 85-86. 1957). yoga occurred in a distinctly archaic setting. The Intellectual Culture of the Iglulik vol. from Russian 171ff. 224-26. 72."70 In this sect. 1914).. op. The K?palikas National Eliade. American Museum of Natural History. Laufer. 72. 1. by 1929). in Lamaist 40 Society Skulls and Bones Anthropological Rockhill. like Goraksa's dead from their over and bones. "after the great yogi Gorakhn?th. Field Museum Publications 10 (Chicago. preparation It will become clear as we proceed why m?labandh?sana 74. Czaplicka. . op. 70. 494.76 parallels is worn the Siberian shaman in Tibetan Buddhist continuum through related of Siberian to the legend by Padmasambhava. and 57-59. This is of course an icon of left-hand tantrism. Ibid. These yogins were often low caste. 179. pp. K?palikas.. 125-29.72 exhibits and be practiced the Use of Skulls of Human (Chicago). 1800 A. Between is a horned the sun and moon like the person in figure 1. 205. (fig. in countless village cults a deity in his Siva. 63. though delineated. he represents the same primitive doublet for Gos?la. says Sierksma. 1937).. They performed black magic for money. were so much seekers after moksa as not They They made (and still make) their living by charms (as did the ?jFvikas). Siberia: A Study in Social Anthropology Aboriginal (Oxford. 296. cit. 75.. a Above her is lunar crescent. who. pp. op. p. Adolph 79. W. p. the earlier 69.77 This motifs to Indian from cultures Eskimo seems and practice.

Ehrenfels. the N?tha his Mahamudr?. etc. likely discouraged begetting matrilineal system inwhich a child grows up in the care of its mother's is family. 80. Bhattacarya. this safeguard a seems to in have Such unnecessary. judging pre-Aryan prominence Indian primitive groups. Barsur. belonged for by the mother's clan. a child without patrilineality. 1941).D. Narendra 1975). comprising and those itself.56 RES 1 SPRING 81 is a to In be from them. system prevailed the of from India. may have been concomitant the displacement of non-Aryan matrilineality by Aryan a In a patrilineal system. yogin it entered the Aryan community. non-Aryan and yogic sexuality. this overlay of 1800 patrilineality on matrilineality may be the source of the whole Indian range attitude that makes of qualities Koestler say that "the to sex more is perhaps and ambivalent we than any other and of which nation's. or official pious has Aryan tradition. on marital is probably emphasis chastity to anxiety about and paternity-and-inheritance. and which Rajak?. The Caros 1909). was celibacy not highly successful outside "alternative of the Aryan community India. the yoga remained in force. tradition. Tantric Funerary Stele. of Indian Erotic History R. 81. example. 80ff."81 examples as we proceed. Very likely. 13. pp. Candal?. Since a monk or ascetic is usually not a man who will support and endow children. The Indo-Aryans into the gradually father to provide him with an inheritance can be a burden to society. Hindu and or "non-Aryan. A. Madhya Pradesh. Perhaps that although sexo-yogic that. The Lotus and the Robot (New York. the Sahaji? his Uttaras?dhika. one completely less-Aryanized. and for centuries the central struggled to conceal (indeed. spread during the period of to buddha and Mah?v?ra.82 denounced The non-Aryan to reform the Aryan commentator worshipers S?yana rightly as unchaste. (Delhi. the Vaisnava his Manjar?. 82. pp. and in effect. Literature in India . (London. paradoxical see some will But this attempt by the Aryan ruling class to enforce patrilineality on the very throughout populous tradition" its realm. The s?dra. to and were cared and all children mother. Indeed.). In the non Aryan village cultures where abundant traces of mother-right sexual Ehrenfels found such the s?dra sub-castes. only be position single maintained by those who argue that yoga developed view that the within the Aryan community?a entirely on ?sana identification of the the seals renders precise in in if my opinion. A. Arthur Koestler.80 The Kh?s? of Assam (which is the tantric country par excellence) have a pure matrilineal system. O. seem to be a secondary would celibacy of the same anxiety. untenable. Playfair. c.. still are known by feminine names (Qomb?. the Tantrika his Sakti. The institution of monastic enormous its and celibacy. yoga existed some form in pre-Aryan it extensive underwent India. etc. at least two brands of yoga. inwhich from mother to daughter. Nath 3-5. millennia) its practices through the celibate establishment or. changes when there resulted. failing fictions. VII It is time to return to my earlier statement that the Indus Valley material has been thrown into the wrong inMarshall's yogic camp. The most serious weakness its that is yoga is a hypothesis implicit assumption can That coherent tradition. among modern "mother-right" India in the nineteenth Among the Garos of eastern was only through the for inheritance century. (London. ascetic groups and of to enforce India. or and one non-Aryanized Aryanized the two difference between a is celibate yoga primarily involved with yoga is deeply is yogin? working not apart but together: the K?p?lika yogin had his Bhairavi." caste. Mother-right 1966). p. 136. he inheritance passes strictly enforced a patrilineal system on those aboriginal groups that they conquered absorbed extreme connected monastic ramification Figure 8.

86.1.65. IV. op. p. to the a the stress of this have Gos?la. to give of them an appearance of universality. "tantra" that Saiva where tantric."91 or simply mention this subject. 100. The hatha yogins seem deadly serious about siddhis. Yoga PradTpik? I. unlikely ones as bodily Hatha 111. a and a range of sexual powers: one will become or him and all all will love k?ma-deva. certainly from the religious power goal of sexual observed His reform the of the religion of law of where celibacy overall the most of his time. S?kta been "the is said In this to a tantric Pata?jali. to the or even screeching from or the other oriented Weltanschauung (purusa-pradh?na). does of yoga. Gheranda E. processes physical For Sv?tm?r?ma. Vedic. including the right-hand or revised tantras by and the kundalinT renaissance." Pata?jali even such he does says. Aryans. and about two r?ja yogin.54-55. on the of Hinduism. halha yoga is anti-Vedic. schism between to have was the other and had non-Aryan on Mah?vira. 88. 91." important.49. yoginis sex-god. The Gheranda Samhit? and Goraksa central Sataka topic ratios.35. of the great religious He was teachers Under his rules. a female one (prakrti-pradh?na). pp. devotes only about five sutras to explicitly exhibit is the similar awakening not even mental topics hatha (including kundalinT) yoga. Sv?tm?r?ma. mental processes." in India. Bharati.. he repeatedly on the other insists is the whole hand.88 The one teaches a male to that of ethical P?rsva earlier anti-sexual was celibacy. 11. Yoga Pradipik? 111. to enforce precisely it had not been in effect. converted in many The are record. tradition as censored the Hindu Pata?jali the whole in the mind of yoga is the cessation of fluctuations Sv?tm?r?ma and the (citta-vrtti-nirodha). loosely called cults. For includes which is not yogic at all but ritualistic.g." form Veda. 40... 42.7). screaming or singing or laughing or giggling or crying of women.g.43-44. 89. Uttara S?tra XVI. Hatha Yoga PradTpik? 111. op. yogin goal for the non-Aryan hatha yogin it is siddhi.90 other hatha yogins mention certain purposes. the heavily Aryanized r?ja yoga tradition (which claims to be based on the Vedas). s?tras (of two hundred and fifteen) to the physical side of yoga. 55-59. and indeed all yogic traditions that have come under the influence of idealist philosophy. 111. "is anathema opposition fact and by Goraksa. etc. include the S?rfikhya (or proto-S?mkhya) schools in the "tantric the most orthodox circle. Hatha 90.86 karmic responsibility The Aryanized yoga emphasizes and preaches ethical rules (the yamas and niyamas) as for yogic progress.. or the obtaining of magical powers including bodily "vital spirit") into susumn? n?dT (the central channel in the spine) for the awakening of kundalinT is the only important yogic futile practice: for "all other Yet practices. Sv?tm?r?ma's authors wpuld and other Lok?yata hand. or release from reincarnation. Samhit? E. Some and about three hundred to physical. The by Chakraborti. etc. and Hatha Yoga is most r?ja PradJpik? revealing.64] for those that is. Farther may and not hand. the proto tantrism of the ?j?vikas. beautiful women will be irresistibly attracted to him. terminology wide range circle. The one is for twice born (higher caste) Hindus.27. back in the contributed Gos?la was family life. celibacy. the N?ths. Samhit? 83. Pretext 84. 87. process of forcing The series of differences that separate the r?ja yoga of Pata?jali's Yoga S?tras from the hatha yoga of the Goraksa Sataka. the other (as Sv?tm?r?ma notes in the Hatha Yoga Prad?pik? [IV. Gheranda IV.116. a Jainmonk was woman. practice religious and composite. cit. not "are even the yogi. 373. cited Light at the Center: Context (Santa Barbara. "behind to sit where a screen a woman [to] was listen or wall forbidden to speak to a sitting. which Pata?jali. 85. superpowers. though for official purposes they claim to be celibate."85 The texts of both traditions have undergone editing balance different. The non-Aryan yoga prerequisites stresses magical overleaping of the consequences of one's actions and makes no moral preachment whatever. and 111. low-caste invulnerability (k?ya-siddhi) or immortality (deva-deha). yoga Sutras Hatha Yoga PradTpik? .McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 57 "Tantrism and criminal This between founded practised literally. of kundalinT.84 opposition Mah?v?ra who seems tradition." is used has and to refer of phenomena various including traditional the traditional "author" of the Hatha Yoga PradTpik?. etc.2. remain only arguments the and the emphases devotes syncretic but entirely about six the This general distinction between Aryanized and non Aryan ized forms of yoga seems to be referred to in the Bh?gavata to be of Pur?na three kinds: the word (XI. For the Aryanized is the moksa. discrepancies twelve "orders" clans with full-scale for example.87 R?ja yoga claims to be derived from the Vedas and thus to belong to the Hindu establishment. and much village magical practice that does not fit any formal sectarian category. etc. Gheranda Samhit?.20. cit. a twice-born almost Aryan.89 mention it. for lower-caste non lacking Vedic education. 1976). p. 10. certain hundred to a close on inspection the other of hand. the physical that only as a byproduct of that have other meditation primary is not very pr?na ("breath."83 has official resulted says Bharati. Agehananda of Modern Mysticism Briggs.

Chattopadhyaya. with the P?supatas. increasingly under Ved?ntic is seen as a influence so that the entire yogic process the Ved?nta: the the of mentalism for pure preparation a cause is is of world sensory illusory. 230. with the letter M. The most Aryanized tantrics only visualized the substitutes mentally. texts has been Usually the analysis from considerations E. op.17) advocacy celibacy alongside certain of sexual intercourse (lll. such as Sv?tm?r?ma's (1. History of Saiva Cults in Northern (Benares.2) refers to the skull bowl that was the K?p?likas's trademark. in the Brhaspati S?tra (11. Pathak.58 RES 1 SPRING 81 invulnerability. excised overlay of for example. pleasure to illusion. methodologies. Hatha Yoga PradTpik? A much longer philological this paper of a Hindu horizon from 95. is encouraged to fulfill his caste duty (V. cit. 26-28. Dasgupta. op. Bolle. Lok?yatas.17). 74-76. R?ja yoga meanwhile. or materialistic. . the concern of Pata?jali and his commentators grounds. and does is philosophically not reject sensory undefined experience it often sees and pleasure. and became 92.95 tribal The first four ingredients were Aryan to be aphrodisiacs. the two traditions exhibit inherently different and irreconcilable axiologies. (XXI11."99 The Sahaji? agrees that "the supreme process of Samputik?. 52. V. York. "knowledge creeping 93. 252. yoga . 185). for example. or kaula. New on the underlying non-Aryan as basic is very obvious. K?palikas. there are allusions and the yoga dominant. not merely extinction of the cycle of rebirth. 90-91. and sexual intercourse.1-2) speaks of maithuna The Cullavagga (V. 47-48. A Study in Ancient p. parched beans or grain. IV. Aryanized . originates from our sex-passions. belief See. in the inconsistencies remain intentionality of texts. pp. 99.92 is to rationalize these on philosophical has To sum up: the Hindu renaissance fiction millennia ago by pious (originated that these two yogas are successive stages that hatha yoga is a process?specifically the sponsored r?ja yogins) of a single not). the custom arose of using substitutes for the physical ingredients. and the mind is the means to bondage escape. the intensification of which as its goal. the editoral overlay of r?ja is actually to Pata?jali. hand way." of the human process contagion reproductive Indian Lok?yata. 96.. treatment of the siddhi of Misra's V?caspati of all living beings. of these of space. Aghor?s. Obscure Religious Cults. Bharati. as Dharma. Agehananda 1970). but because they were the ingredients of pre rites. those that used substitutes. namely. 49. and taught..g. tame and wild animals. preparation having started out S?mkya in its centers on body practice. p. 1960). is physicalist. 97. These five seem to be prescribed not because is they are taboo to ordinary Hindus (grain text. of gurus and he is in the tradition the N?th source in the "Tantrism had its ultimate Cf. wine. in most dramatic contrast to described that "final salvation Hinduism. 100. This at attitude and practice had received religious definition least as early as the age of the Buddhist Nik?yas. 94. pp.4. and the rest" (on yoga S?tras 111. cit. 1959]. and It has historical connections Saiva practice.10.98 These were the sects most shunned by respectable are Aryan society. The K?palikas. 88-89.g. 68.94 VIM A dichotomy parallel to that between Veda and tantra exists within the category of tantra itself.6) as purveyors of or sexual yoga.93 Beneath the superficial syncretic editing of their texts. is practiced by low caste sects and overlaps with kundalinT. the cries birds things. and his occasional techniques of fealty to r?ja yoga alongside his acknowledgment that expressions the K?palikas (1. The left-hand tantra. [Delhi. Hatha yoga.84ff. . with a strong element of Ved?ntized has come superstructure. as the in the nik?ya refers to people who believe Majhima and the attainment of nirvana through sense-pleasure. . namely. (Debiprasad Materialism . and intentionalities. the use of five the panca-mak?ra in Sanskrit. samaya).97 sexual involving fertility sects fell under celibate and tantric or proto-tantric idealist influence. (mukti) [is] perpetual orgasm.96 Very likely this a or Bronze Age in is survival of Neolithic part practice But as rites intercourse. that is.30. Siva Samhit?. pp. The Tantric Tradition (Garden City. 36. Chattopadhyaya: that the the early agricultural magic. Those sects that used the came to be called Five Ms physically left-hand (v?m?c?ra or kaula). ingredients that begin.157-58. They practiced the left k?ma-s?dhana. between the right-hand and the left-hand practitioners. right hand (daksin?c?ra."100 for r?ja yoga. fish. The tantras in general teach the ritual practice or s?dhana of or Five Ms. p. See. 18. S. 80. and N?ths.. Lorenzen. abandoned the kaula practice and the skull bowl for which the sect is named.). Katth?vattu R?m?nuja describes a group of K?palikas who became partially Aryanized. on the other hand. e. meat. 54-55. S?kta. underlying of nature is induced or enhanced by the imitation or the productivity or aspects thereof. . In the late hatha yoga text.) India 98. This yogin should hardly be regarded as a genuine hatha yoga text. 8).. to prepare the participant believed for the last and crucial ingredient.

VIII. opposed yogins likely are to the official disgusted by to be the substrate The K?p?lika in bhagasana. p. recoil from its physicalism and hide itbeneath a so that the Siva allegorical readings.e. Bharati seems to feel that in the last five centuries this official opposition occurred (after only Muslim but there are signs of it as early as the Atharva influence). of 1913 ed. 451-52. SrT-bh?sya. in the samaya similarity and school of tantra conceptualizations This higher in fact. not at all from which developed under the influence of idealist philosophy. recommending (See The Tantra of the Great ingredients (e. op. . Its occurrence in the Indus valley is of course a warrant of that. p.107 This attitude has become standard popular and kundalin? and "higher" form of tantra. as is the intimate link of the ?sana with the N?th siddha in the left-hand tantric tradition. Siddha realization tradition Yoga is attained when awareness shows of this tantric-Ved?ntic hostility between R?m?nuja a K?p?lika magician referred and to the rightly to the Vedas. may be said with some certainty to have the pre-Aryan of India. oneself visualizing joy that based on another hands or embracing?is type of touch?holding used in the path. II. pp. [London. . etc. "Tantric climate. the down 107. m?labandh?sana belongs.) Muktananda. Veda. ed. Its historical occurrences. New York. probably sex. p. sexual spiritual is not raised above this lowest center of energy.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 59 of Veda and varna supporters now to meditate on instructed in the vagina. cit. becomes of spiritual a pratitioner transcendence. p. says.) is overlaid stratum of celibatized visualized substitutes for the allegorization. says Ved?nta: perfect united. Swami Praj?ananda. The ?j?vika connection is another. at the time of his enlightenment he had not yet laid the rule of celibacy. 131.101 himself method Respectable yoga their own was that Indeed. kundalini. 1972. 1977]. 102. clearly editing."105 The kaula in the modern tantra.1 70-74). "This kaula is considered to be the most inferior. to celibatizing II."110 in its legend of a combat the Advaitin sexo-yogic Samkara. 1974). celibacy between the left.." of Secret (Tantra in Tibet: The Great Exposition is "opposed IX ed. (Swami Ajaya. ibid. of the two yogic Having drawn the boundaries to it is to time consider which of them camps.102 For as Bharati put is. Pranabananda Jash. Their practice but focuses on worldly Black magic kaula concerns and the satisfaction of to gratify one's may be practiced is considered to be the most group inferior. cit. whose is as great as Patafijali's hatha among authority yogins that m?labandh?sana should among r?ja yogins. jash. "Lok?yatas and of IHQ 7 (1931).35-38. 109. p. a quotation. 110. 1978). The kaula group uses external rituals. Its occurrence in the context of Mahav?ran Jainism might seem to put it in the celibate camp.104 Swami of an Ajaya. (San ku (earth). 1979]. Bharati. p. Srl-bh?sya even "in bhag?sana"] is inappropriate. p.109 tradition as R. Shastri. 104.2. 108. high-caste subjected 101. 63. contradict the principles of Ved?nta. In Swami op. Kundalini. Jeffrey Hopkins Mantra. itmay be awakened and release though considerable consciousness. physical Francisco. 42.g. [New York.]. both iconographie and documentary. but the author's or translator's. [Garden in City. This selfish desires. and its occurrence environment that produced the stele of figure 8. trans. cit. complements the two are for example.. Tantric Tradition. in contact when with to have been Hinduism. The whole passage says: The word kaula comes from the Sanskrit 105.. censorship.) 106. History K?palikas. to have population remained the religion of the non-Aryanized primarily and. Sometimes rites are used to awaken is not kundalini. says in be called Goraks?sana. 103. op. does form of tantra. pp. one of the chief kaula texts. it the strongest placing possible way in the tradition of low-caste kundalin? seem to point the that would yoga. The one occurrence is its mention other way by V?caspati Mi'sra.35.. in "Kundalini and the Tantric Tradition... xxi. Lorenzen.20. Sv?tm?r?ma.and is not the only point of contention right-hand ways. repub. like the yoga of Goraksa and the k?mas?dhana of the K?palikas. 104. even the siddha tradition has been taken over by Ved?ntic idealism. 290. 48.g. . 101. The Mah?nirv?na this revisionist exhibits Tantra. right-hand on a union of the organs in Yoga Tantras even meditating "Since [i. Play of Consciousness 35-38. On a basal stratum of pure kaula a right-handed tantra (e. In White. 16.106 D.. and cf. suggest strongly that it pertains to the non-Aryan stream of sexo-yoga. Even this is too raw for a Tibetan text that says. is little Swami Ajaya between the says: tantra as practiced that abound. . Arthur Avalon [Sir John Woodroffe] Liberation." and Enlightenment Evolution John White. This refers to at the muladhara the practitioner's of kundalini chakra at worship is related to the earth tattva (element).) by Tsong-ka-pa."103 the low-caste is radically Hindu that seems yoga swamis disapprove of the fact that kaula tantra (like hatha yoga) has resisted Ved?ntic monism and illusionism and continued to emphasize the individual physical existence as the locus There of dharma. the inserted words are never mine.. arisen from celibatized and syncretized yoga. which In this group. the Br?hmanical it. superstructure of Aryanized group they I'mga. p. the base of the spine. IV.2.) (When curved brackets appear sensory pleasures. 162." Saivism (Calcutta. as a substitute for physical (caste)."108 K?p?lika "In fact. Sri Chinmoy. but can be taken as a survival of Mah?v?ra's earlier ?j?vika-related practice. a symbol for example.

the perineum. or upper body energy. When the Ap?na rises up and reaches the sphere of the fire (the navel region). The name Shakti-chalini applied to m?labandh?sana points to its function of nerve sensation. (111. says. "Stigmata Shirokogoroff. White. Gheranda between similarly specifies that the heels should be raised against the anus. 111. M. with maithuna. (heat) cit.52). body energy. This is known as . The Complete Book of Yoga 1978). perineum in in to is and it m?labandha be performed 111.60. the Ap?na reach the Pr?na. . The continuity between the oldest known magical technique and tantric yoga is. m?labandha may be practiced or yogically guided sexual intercourse. in this particular. one heel at the anal aperture keep the other heel on the root of the generative organ" (11. . In siddh?sana. The connection of the activity of pressing the heels on the perineum with sexual stimulation is a fact recognized by modern sexologists." increasing the heat of the body and 'mastering' fire to the point of not feeling the heat of burning coals. The other ?sanas that are recommended for m?labandha as inm?labandh?sana. With the increase of nerve activating sensation magical says: so far is that the figures on limited conclusion or the Indus seals are less likely to be meditating seeking union with god than they are to be seeking of inner heat. Comfort goes or m?l?dh?ra the kundalin? on very to according "In men. share this feature. undeniable. of the Tungus Psychomental Complex Eliade. though he lays no emphasis 113. The combination of contraction of the perineum/anus muscles and pressure of the heels against them creates a flow of nerve sensation upward from the base of the as the upward flow of is conceptualized spine. 292." cakra. 62). 1935). Even Pata?jali mentions on it. m?labandh?sana name implies. handbook of yoga says. "this can the "inner practices so important in archaic is said to increase also. p.53-54). cit. The body temperature at 125? Padre Pio broke thermometers stigmatic See Geoffrey and Kundalini."113 in conjunction tradition. shamans.82). S. ." also echoes shamanic noted that the techniques. on says. (111. .. 106. are two marvels attested among medicine men. but right the heels press on the sides of the perineum. which is complex and seems related to the Ajfvika This activity. specifies The contraction m?labandh?sana the heels should be forcefully pressed the against perineum. magical power through the generation They are less the forerunners of Pata?jali than of Goraksa and Sv?tm?r?ma. one or at heels of with both the pressure conjunction in Sv?tm?r?ma that the anus and/or perineum.g. should repeatedly contract the perineum with force . the fire (warmth) of the body extremely intensified. James Hewitt. Alex Comfort. the op." Dr. In simh?sana.111 Was this ?sana prominent in the r?ja schools. the anus is to be contracted. slumbers. fanned by the V?yu (Ap?na). Sam. .. (London.60 RES 1 SPRING 81 on Pata?jali. of the muscles of the anus and is asvinl mudr? called (e. so as to press or squeeze them (1. ." (111. or did it drrift intrusively into from the hatha tradition? The commentary V?caspati's can be question only clearly and finally decided?and a study of the it a number of other questions?by with commentator yogic extensive. the heel and raising the Ap?na. (New York. the flames of the fire blaze forth. Sv?tm?r?ma. p. Yoga. "Magically phenomenon. which or lower toward union with the ap?na. as the level. left it heel on the left side. p. just before orgasm") just in front of the anus.66) is function of the ?sana. "Pressing the perineum with yoga. when discussing "Most that But the stimulation what he calls "postillionage" your firm partner's finger pressure ("putting a finger in or on prefer is." and performance a general that "this feeling of heat is seemingly As Eliade says. 111. of the Capuchin Fahrenheit. . Shirokogoroff "much hotter during the Tungus shamans became (before their swift moving dance). Gher. which iswarm by nature. inner heat (YS See Woods. "having placed . 378. Our X and accumulation of inner heat not is m?labandha the whole function of through A modern m?labandh?sana. Sv?tm?r?ma heat" significantly 112. which initiation rite of grasping a "heated lump.41). Then. and 191. pr?na. serpent where. as the fire op. p. . Pressing the anus with the heel. anus Dr. universally and fakirs. one m?labandha."112 At the simplest is. 364.. one of the traditional ?sanas for the of m?labandha. .7)." in Nicoletti. the "root-seal" of hatha performance Sv?tm?r?ma says. p. right heel on the right side. as a stimulant to sexual energy. for us. inwhich "Those postures the perineum (khanda) is the feet have connections with the arousal and against In the sexo-yogic control of the sexual energies. heel on the left side and left heel on the right (HYP as Gheranda 1. .65).

p. Stutley. another is beside him.. Schubring. Tantric Tradition. and it is probably anxiety (Obscure in Indian culture. . the preparatory practice of m?labandh?sana will be important at a later stage of the ritual also. op. . semen during the sexual act. The raised kaula of the probably practitioners identifies them as left-hand hand above them explicitly itmay also indicate that we see them practitioners. Either she is of the protoyogin's in profile from behind by a pillow. The possibility ithyphallic cannot be doubt about the to the ornamental that the figure may disregarded. p. Margaret Indian Magic and Folklore 1980)." the s?dhana consists Cults. Alex The Joy of Sex or "enlightenment renaming of semen as bodhicitta Mah?v?ra's fourth mind-stuff. p."122 Sullivan increased pointing figure's ithyphallicism. on some Indus figurines. other are the genital. And cf. but of seminal emission. A Buddhist tantra advocates use of sexual intercourse when it says. 1972). cit. Ibid. cit. 250-65..123 What evidence in the literature is the has not yet been mentioned fact that two testicles seem to be clearly and obvious separately waistbands represented beneath shows a comparable be the phallus. The woman's feet. op. is a pervasive 121. p. 244. 1:52. and the Mah?-rasa. cit. and arraying waistbands that the figure may even be female. 123. Bharati says the tantrikas at this stage sit in either lotus posture (padm?sana) of the ceremony or heroic posture (vTr?sana). 209. Bharati: "Loss of semen and ancient fear in the core of the most powerful Indian lore.115 involves. It is not mentioned in the Atharva Veda." (Tantric Tradition. 30.. however." cit. of sexual intercourse. they are primitive village tantra. Dasgupta: are associated in the N?th cult with the process of retaining processes . p. celibacy. Tantric Tradition. syndrome 122. For m?labandh?sana-w\th-m?labandha increase sexual energy. deliberate "Inserting the lihga (penis) in the bhaga (vulva). engaged Staal. in preparation In the man's case.124 But ithyphallic removes tradition this is to disregard the left-hand or sexo-yogic altogether. that is a certain the goal. in the ceremony of the Five Ms..) Comfort. 115. Marshall. pp. He is performing a mudr? (a ritual hand position) near his heart. precisely appopriate for a person .. or "sexual-energy-stimulating" m?labandh?sana incense for the ritual of sexual union. though he acknowledged that the phallus might be "in reality the end of the Here waistband. 119. 294.116 instead. 77: "This is hardly p. 6. And as Bharati says. Bharati. along of hand gesture. the exercise of semen. "All these op. None of the design. suggested 1 Marshall. In a grosser sense Mah?-rasa means the seed. practice by and mudr? with Five the ?sana. It is possible that the artist meant one heel presses inwhich the perineum while the related siddh?sana. Sullivan. commandment. 'divine' not is it is This not 'hero'. 124. 118." retaining a memory was not it of sexual when avoidance period puritanical semen in but retention of the power-generating pleasure the act that was the point. Bharati. . figure that the figure is ithyphallic. in yoga. (New York. The man who . p."120 The implication practice entered the Aryan community from the non rests in Ayran. She is either engaging or in for just reaching just putting down a vessel which unreformed kaula tantra could only contain wine. both Hindu and Buddhist. (Boulder.119 This goal probably went in very far back in Indian history. Dr."114 At this point we will return our attention briefly to in figure 8. p. But the stele of figure 8 seems to show a couple performing the shakti-chalini.") Similarly in fact prohibits "the that of celibacy. Ms. in saving the same from any kind of discharge. it specifically does not merely increases the ability of seminal retention. mantra-japa. briefly. trace of the delivery of sperm. let him not discharge bodhicitta. but appears as an an non of expression regarded "early widely is that the Aryan stratum of belief. feet that are in the difficult position 117. op. prevents the ejaculation is recommended for the same by modern sexologists purpose. Cf. Italics added. 179. to portray the man in the 116."us (The mentalist overlay on seen the primitive sexo-yoga is in the allegorical 114. Living in the semi the tantric couple area of Madhya Pradesh. These are recognizable as which described Bharati." erection used produce a heel the scrotum with behind works as well in some And finally: or between "Firm anus pressure and vulva postures. possibly holding an elements of the stick. presses above in the position in figure 1. .."117 avoidance vira. to turn our attention back to it is advisable as we have seen. and a retains it during maithuna is divya. which is the Rg Veda. The idea that religion must be practiced an erection has no validity in terms of the without 119. "The central rule behind the left-handed is the retention of rites.121 The great importance of m?labandha of the anal and part on the fact that the contraction literally chokes off the urethra and perineal muscles In fact. that the idea that the figure is Staal believes it from the sphere of yoga.) Religious 120. . or the artist has shown supported of our figure 6.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 61 alone.

197. 1 are in fact portrayed."129 Speaking of utkat?sana. the practices and of shamans (e. Narayanasvami 131. p. 126. Obscure Dasgupta.133 in a rudimentary form is already The ult?-s?dhana in certain Upanisadic (of which more present passages Cults. pr?na ("breath. of censorship of The famous "intentional language" (sandhy?-bh?s?) on one level at least. pp. there is a fourth stage to the process also. op. about in time Swami between Muktananda and the midway on the of Indian ascetics figure seals. with impressive 125. See Bhagat. . . therefore. But the motive drawn upward with automatically seems to be the backgrounding of the this syncretism of the level of yoga and the foregrounding physical to mental level that has consistently attempted replace it by a combination and allegorization." upward through the spinal n?df (channel) to the lotus in the skull. 99." indicating that it is not only known but expected. Indian of Ancient Aspects cit. R. XI in a threefold then. But process of stimulation. its is believed to be obtained. p. Three citta (mind-stuff)."130 Of he says. "This ?sana unifies pr?n? and m?labandh?sana to flow in ap?na. which the deva-deha. it reaches the high seat (of the head . 119. of 1914 ed. of which. and retention.). trans. us show may ancient in all texts of yoga that he who has been able declared to give an upward flow to the fluid is a god and not a man. energy) and bindu (semen) are to be arrested by the or channeled retention process and then "regressed. says. The "official" are occultly is that the three substances linked doctrine so closely as to behave as one: when any one of them is "raised" or "regressed" the other two are to it. 132.. the Dhy?nabindu Most ulta-s?dhana." nerve substances. the Yogatattva Upanisad that of mind-stuff.. induces the semen to course upwards. 207. Oklahoma.. cit. 64). Evolutionary Energy in Man 151-52. In recorded cases of kundalinT are there instances of awakening and persistent erection occurring during spontaneous Swami Muktananda's career is practice of the bandhas. interpretations featuring thereby to new purposes that their earlier expounders the myths converting would probably not have understood. pp."131 On the third level of upwardization. 133. also Chakraborti. K. and the weight of his body (even if partly supported by a bolster from behind) will forcefully press the heels against the perineum. process. This is the "regression practice. . 130. 61.. Aiyar. as the tantric texts has functioned. that is. p. means m?labandha of m?l?dh?ra Contraction (with asvinl mudr?)." an "agitated condition of the hitherto quiescent area. and he calls the "a experience part of the process of Siddha Maha Yoga. precisely as directed between the scrotum and the anus. and D. 1940). which may be derived from Indian.125 Gopi Krishna also records "a feverish movement in the sexual region. Through this "upwardization" or god-body. (body k?ya-s?dhana citta-s?dhana practice) becomes (mind-practice). the "Sorcerer" of Trois representations Fr?res). p. op. Culture (Madras. is employed M?labandh?sana. 129." for example. 127. 63. .. op. 1980. "This ?sana . pp. "It has been emphatically Muktananda. then his heels are placed in the hatha yoga manuals. "When one's chitta enters Sushumna along with pr?na. op. 39-44. which primitive middle Platonist idealist abstractions. likely layers from different ages of psychology. Upanishads (El array of powers. 128. p. accumulation. op."128 hatha yoga techniques exist for the sake of this Sv?tm?r?ma says. n. language. Relligious Aiyar. says. "Through contractions the normally downward of the m?l?dh?ra flowing current of ap?na is guided upward" (HYP III. cit. statement that pressure on the perineum can by itself If the testicles of the person in figure produce erection. Swami Brahmachari says. Some 7-9. 1971). The Kundalini. and the realm of proto-tantric yoga.62 RES 1 SPRING 81 fertility religions. 3." or ult? is the center of the hatha/kundalim s?dhana. groups practiced the penis in tumescent condition without "keeping and The Indus seals feeling showing any excitement. the accumulation of inner heat through retention is said to be much increased It isworth remembering the sexologist's during erection." which persisted throughout the period of rousing the kundalini.. Bhandarkar. cit. )"132 is But this three-leveled doctrine of upwardization a an to be accumulation of stratification. is read as a the primitive "regression of semen" regression of thought processes. the Pr?na is directed sushumna ?ad?. repr.^26 In Taoist sexual yoga. cit. a method whereby educated spiritual seekers could "tame" or "civilize" the raw physicality of primitive In tantric "intentional Ur-yoga. "One becomes young even when old Upanisad m?labandha through performing always. Ibid. a prime example of this. Thirty Minor Reno.. . Gopi Krishna. (Boulder. 246."127 an earlier stage of this tradition.g. One might compare. p. Brahmachari.. Philo's allegorical overlaid with elements readings of Greek myths. p. There is some reason to believe that. for example.

the blood-red menstrual fluid.with the help of khecarT mudr?.. intercourse the woman's having the through a mysterious duct called the "tenth door" 134. as the Yogatattva Upanisad says. is conceived absolute essence or foundation of the body (Gor. in the "hollow above secreted. Arthur 1974. and the technique known as vajroli mudr?. the bindu remains in the body. Avalon repr. of (Sir John 1919 ed. one of the central technique. in the Hevajra. is the accumulation and their the spinal channel. 137." This a "nectar of or is the bindu. and. as Briggs said.some of the "blood-red bindu" of the female. op. part of it being burned up at the ca/cra-fires as it descends. a position throat from most is "sealed" dripping venerated locked spinal so as inwhich the to prevent the bindu or n?dTs. in this context. is khecarT mudr?: the tongue is progressively cut loose at the base and stretched till it can reach back and up into the hollow above the throat and close off the tenth door. Eliade. according their of these two substances. For the attainment of immortality. the throat. forces it up susumn? (the central n?d?) by m?labandha and unites it. behind the tenth door. Woodroffe). 136. consequently the body ages. pp.). does not fall. Sat. but the earliest full version that we possess of the Goraksa Sataka. op. p. and so on. (3) a level inwhich as Siva and as purely mental essences. bindu. this fluid must either be prevented from descending to the lower if it has already or. pp. Three levels can be perceived: (1) an archaic into his the male took level inwhich literally own body the menstrual blood of his sex-partner.134 (dasamadv?ra). the body ages and dies. to Tantric Buddhism 107. is deva-deha. 135. from ejaculation and returned upward and related methods. (69-70) It is in the definition The "descent" of the bindu. Yoga. for traces of the same in the Buddhist An tantras. and the union of the two bindus within the yogin's body does not involve a female the two bindus are partner. which is directly over the opening of the spinal channel. lll. But bindu does not only mean semen virile. his bindu even (though he be) embraced by a women.. either through ejaculation through burning away in the fires of the lower cakras. (Delhi. (72) to the ult?-s?dhana. descended. (amrita) Secreted is being stored in the testicles until ejaculation. of the Guhyasam?jatantra 1958 yogin draws into the body. This part of the practice requires maithuna during menstruation. so long the bindu does not go down.. cit.137 sexual The technique during has two uses: first.82ff. understood The physiology of the process according to Goraksa is as follows. yoga 1974. See Hatha cit. but the uniting of it. "the The essence union of bindu and rajas is the aim of the yoga. bindu is also known as rajas. Briggs. cit. Sakti. and Alex Wayman. "He who day drinks of the nectar thus is rendered immortal by day. and 73-75). which on so Sat. 1970). As Goraksa says: equated with menstrual The bindu is of two kinds. The female (Gor."135 of the bindu and the rajas (or and the blood-red bindu) that the the pale-white stratification appears. which is prevented by the backward-turned tongue blocking the drip-space. with the "pale-white bindu" at the Introduction ed. immortality. another centerpiece of hatha yoga: by lengthy training at controlling the usually involuntary muscles of the bladder and urinary tract. Various techniques or into the are intended it must through to prevent be restrained m?labandha its descent. chap. The bindu or nectar is then said to be drunk by the yogin and. 201. p. and in the S?dhanam?la. Goraksa doctrine It is also known. Then. the latter being blood. repub. p. and techniques of hatha yoga. 232-33. including j?landhara bandha.). of yoga. the yogin develops the ability to draw fluids into the urethra by exerting suction from the bladder. p. with the rajas. . cakras. Aiyar. through vajroli mudr?. this being accomplished. itmeans the descent through the n?dfs. 264-65.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 63 is that later). M bindu is lost. overlaid by a with a sexual version of ult?-s?dhana celibate version. the yoga has reached its goal. there is no fear As long as the khecar?mudra is continued. Heruka. Sataka see Briggs. pale-white and blood-red. op. As the top of the n?dT system. does not mean ejaculation. or 68). But the channels. but not fully expounded. in other words. for the goal in this basal level of the technique is not merely the sublimation of semen virile. 14. of (Berkeley. absolute and relative. (2) an level occult or subtle or (as Bharati calls it) "imaginary" as a female substance on which the rajas is conceived produced within the subtle body of the male himself (in the navel cakra). and Guhya-sam?ja For the Tantras. Shashi Bhusan Dasgupta. or blood-red bindu of the female. immortality" semen virile. it signifies the sexual fluids of both the male and the female. which again shows stratification. Yoga PradTpik? The Serpent Power (New York. through upwardization union in the lotus of the skull. while menstruation. 318. as Goraksa says: By whom the hollow in the top of the throat is sealed by khecarT. While of death. The pale-white they call semen virile."136 But this is only half of the ult?-s?dhana. or semen. the rest as the To begin with. the bindu drips down that channel.. 200.

cit. This again as Saiva has yoga shamanic "became" "through" "becomes" and also is a matter not or of "becoming" faraway: goddess Siberian imitating parallels the god The ancestor. The revision. 141. I will here venture no guess as to where the bisexed first being initiates time by dividing itself into male and female halves: the merging of these halves into a unity reconstitutes the condition before the beginning of time. some centuries later. to bring it up. menstrual fluid.138 Elements of the ult?-s?dhana primitive horizons. in the vicinity of Benares. KhecarT mudr? seem to belong within suggests the various body alterations and symbolic wounds (elongated ears. it seems to be forced through that channel to the brain. may have originated in S?kta cults in ritual imitation of the lolling tongue that expresses the goddess's thirst for blood. expressions. the person of the subincised male. pp. finally. the "constellation" of the higher male and female archetypes. Proto-Australoid See Roheim. has forgotten it altogether. Cults. Goraksa already has this overlay: Rajas (menstrual fluid) secreted in the place of the sun. rajas was redefined not as the woman's but as a subtle substance produced within the yogin's own body (in the area of the navel cakra). Nebesky-Wojkowitz. The stretching of the tongue till it reaches the spot between the eyebrows. 243:2 and Erich Neumann. along with the blood-red bindu of his partner. totem is at the top of the hollow The "place of the moon" the throat (that is. XII At some point in the process of celibatization. "The Jean-Fran?ois Jarrige and Richard H.." of Civilization Antecedents Scientific American. subincised penises. and in Gujarat" (Eliade. R. though he does imply it here and there (e.g. and the bindu secreted in the place of the moon?the mingling of these two is very difficult to accomplish.. op. The basic theme of upwardization suggests Jungian Freud's doctrine of of sublimation the "higher that recent "constellation" of sexual fluids and male even and more female the archetypes. History 42 (Princeton. 122-37. "uniting" male and female powers in confused about it. The S?kta worshiper attempted to "become" the goddess through female imitation Siva. Indian physiologists did not dissect corpses. these practices force the semen into the bladder. F. pp. in the Indus Valley. is the next event in sequence. specifically. vol. 73) doctrines of the spinal channel and the upwardization of semen came from. . Sv?tm?r?ma. The vajroli practice of capturing within the male's body some of the female fluids may be related to the Australian practice of subincision whereby an imitation vulva is created on the penis. (Gor. oracle-shamans speaking times them. second. C Hull. If this reading is correct. yoga. Meadow. p. Introduction p. respectively. The still later Siva Samhit?. 1972). he can draw it back into himself through vajroli mudr?. Along with the censoring of sexual intercourse and the female partner. 107. Sat. Dasgupta. trans. resembling vermilion.141 of the process. and so were free to fantasize about the inner workings of the body. then sexual intercourse is no longer necessary for the union of the lunar and above this celibate model. the "tenth door"). Goraksa is very explicit on this point. and the manipulation them is a matter of pr?n?y?mas (special breathings) and bandhas that operate within the contractions) (muscular own is version This the "official" yogin's physiology. Tibetan who was at practices. which he must then raise through susumn? and unite with bindu at the tenth door. for example. But to the hatha yogins.139 the shaman its voice. and so on) practiced among modern primitives in India and elsewhere. cit. (August 1980). population indentical with Australian have been found "Petroglyphs petroglyphs in has survived The use of the boomerang India. this practice of maithuna with vajroli underwent deep the yogini was edited out. 164-66. enlarged lips. e. There is of course a op. who believe that the urethra is connected to susumn? n?df." It is interesting archaeological evidence suggests that the Indus Valley culture was at the point of communal psychological development which the Jungians associate with this event: the emergence of the male god as a figure of importance beside the mother goddess indicates in Jungian terms the emergence of the ego from the Uroboros. Obscure See. filed teeth. and most modern scholars seem either unaware of itor disinclined 140. which is preparatory for khecarT mudr?. On version tantras and the later hatha yoga texts. pp. 409-54. in Southeastern Celebes. which join of with susumn? at the cakras.51). stratum in the non-Aryan of India.64 RES 1 SPRING 81 tenth door. p. III. 139. and it can be found in the Buddhist solar fluids. they flow through the lunar and the solar n?dfs. 138. 237: Religious to Tantric Buddhism.140 The belief that immortality is to be gained by this method may be a later overlay pertaining to a cosmogony in which an unsexed or will In the view of Western physiologists. Bollingen Series. Origins of Consciousness. and the identified as the navel "place of the sun" is usually cakra. the identity of the lunar "nectar" with semen also drops off the page. 430). with its attendant shift of life center from genitals to head..g. with here and there discernible beneath the older the surface.. is somewhat movements. if his own "pale-white bindu" has been ejaculated. etc.

J. on the literalness of the yogi's belief that Cults. his Obscure not on the by the man of the seminal to draw intercourse." Obscure says Briggs. Hauer. In other mention intercourse of sexual repeated are Yet modern Hindu the process. pp. nor would to this passage. point. 105. with its emphasis on sexual fluids.87) seminal fluid) and (thus) preserve be drawn into the genital . 237. W. 150-51. in describing at especially The official line is that vajroli mudr? not or. organ of the (of the vajroli mudr?).10. whereby were out to Goraksa either edited of the ordinary. Both Muktananda and Gopi Krishna."148 perversion practice scholar of indulged in by low caste has called The Siva Samhit? shows a later stage of this revision. for whom the goal of yoga is the stoppage not of seminal emission but of thought-fluctuation arose found as a device useful by of (citta-vrtti). (s?ksma sarTra). p. Gopi n.85) physiology was 142. Goraksa as practitioners yogins. trans. 271. has Of course the hatha yoga texts leave no doubt that vajroli mudr? is to be practiced in conjunction with physical woman makes sexual who will intercourse. he should draw up his own semen it. 1958). who is thoroughly r?ja yogin in his attitudes (and who does not mention the amrta-bindu indentity in his treatment of hatha yoga physiology). of 1914 ed.142 insists repeatedly a 'subtle that "the body'. or progressively through into an 146. while erection describing during their ?sana. novice's This of or hatha who have made up the great In the N?th tradition. Religious 143. which appropriate intercourse and practice of sexual produced At in a state of sexual the time of practise that (the emission slowly is about heat it be that Goraksa's is frankly devoted both to the to the magical use of the fluids and woman involved: fluid during) sexual (it) up."149 shifted from breath to mind: it is neither bindu at the tenth door nor breath at the windpipe that khecarT mudr? stops.114). mechanical connection of the sphincter around features the central revisionism. Vasu 145. susumn? of majority one technique interpreted above used khecari mudr? in an explicitly mechanical way to block the drip-space between the tenth door and the upper opening is revised longer has of susumn?. involve any says. up by this practice (and the fallen. Twice-born even it. behave Sv?tm?r?ma as desired" specifies is necessary. on. 150. Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra (Delhi. p.. There is no hint of the celibate morality. op. insists that the k?ya-siddhi process visualization "imaginary body" ismerely a mental with n?dis. was spirtualizing them."144 indications there are many body through "a 148. "Great powers this practice. though the passage is unclear. He Sataka but on the heavily Bharati. a'svinT mudr? (the clenching virtually the whole celibate sexual practice beneath a veil of yogins. thus immobilizing the breath. But with the loss involved the guru inserting a lead wire deep urethra. p.150 authors to rationalize this pains practice puritanically. cit. Relligious his body could be rendered transformed immortal. op. tendency that the are supposed to arise Briggs. breath. 164-66. those who declare the urethra) being called for instead. and Dasgupta. at any the doctrine of the triple linkage?mind. 334. (This may be the meaning of BU VI. Muktananda. activity.) that "it is an obscene Tantrists. of the system.. Very few do: literally believed among the low-caste Briggs. Very likely the doctrine of the linkage of and of semen was the celibate been no more strengthened version. type of body p. Krishna. woman If already woman's should Light at the Center. as doctrine itwere. interpretation Siva Samhit?. 192-93. it Brahmacharya" As a part of the general mentalizing Ved?nta. Yoga. 51n. (III. the their fealty to the siddha tradition. p. p. Ved?ntic yoga as seeking known to open into the n??//~145 of the doctrine of the identity of amrta and bindu. or at most physiology regarded taught in the Goraksa Sataka has come to be as merely symbolic as a "subtle body. pp. (III. but the fluctuations of thought (V. semen bases Ved?ntized pp. in parallel. sexual "This example. up perfect is a celibate practice that does words. spontaneous purvey of experiences a totally the breath stops preventing at this in ejaculation. use for keeping is of immense Kriya (celibacy)?a thought that. and the "imaginary" perfecting ofthat method Yet of creative imagination. mind. 1979. And compare Dasgupta. rate. At this point the revisionist doctrine developed: khecarT mudr? closes off the windpipe. above all. stoppage breath support may since and of the semen syncretic are. from maithuna that Several their has of the ancient k?ma itself. encouraged. that element come under the heaviest fire is vajroli Hindu of hatha translators yoga texts omit actually on the grounds it "sexual it have fact modern practicing a'svinT mudr? to prevent renderings A modern in the to hold the breath. The Siva Samhit?. op. immortal Bharati. The than greatly original the observed ejaculation. 149. editors. also. cit.4. that and "a been brought into the camp of the mentalist Pata?jali. connection that one in tends celibate version of ult?-s?dhana from which the blood-red bindu and the yogini herself have long disappeared. and so 147. in which the emphasis among. who their on experiments is alert for disguises. p.147 After s?dhana mudr?. for example. have buried is not at all out reinterpreted. See Light at the Center. Der Yoga (Stuttart.). and Ved?ntized-Sarhkhya. the holds wired semen that breath.. seem to have forgotten this level of practice altogether. Eliade. 103 supra. cit. Goraksa 144. 233." Eliade. semen?either Swami for Sivananda. repr. the descent khecarT with of the bindu no to mean any mudr? and ejaculation. 29. The physicalist hatha yoga of Goraksa."143 of an yogins performed Even Bharati.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 65 This in turn leads to other modifications such as the revised function of khecarl mudr?. the three substances has service 'salvation'. radically subversion"146 "Five centuries of puritanical ethics. The and well to fall Cults.

are interrelated elements of a yogic grammar.101) in the all siddhis. to that due distortion considerable undergone khecarT mudr?. But the dynamism ambrosia of physical the fertility still clings to the substance continues. of the ult?-s?dhana a certain penance drawn for upward. could not have been farther from the mind of the author(s) of the Hatha Yoga PradTpik?. "For he can draw for any it back through this sexual earth and became lives. present. Similarly. the early Upanisads show knowledge of the n?dT system which is necessary for the ult?-s?dhana. says the Ch?ndogya Upanisad (VIII. He goes on: "Even a drop of semen cannot come out of the Yogi who practises Mudr?"."151 though the Hatha Yoga PradTpik? specifically says that a cooperative woman is a necessity.. the rest. This sexual black magic has a distinctly primitive air to it and again is paralleled among Australian tribal groups studied by Roheim. (He should) whom he has After preserve intercourse. (III. its partly ascetic. p. entered the Aryan community periods. . the of parts body (with burnt cow dung (III. course cannot were. the excellent besmear ashes and water). their activity in a happy frame of mind. in the Vajroli. . (3) union with the limitless in the crown of the head. thousand after he already form..4-5). retention. translation. necessity this mudr?. p.93) herself expert through sufficient practice. in vajroli mudr?. as well as the N?ths are known to and Tantrics. the breath or soul (pr?na) ascends through a channel to the on the sun-door solar rays.) passage (VI. is pre-Pata?jalian. while sitting the man and woman. The Brhad?ranyaka Upanisad retention to reclaim of semen semen for "vigor after sexual and has the doctrines of the lustre" and the attempt (BU VI. intercourse Though the method is not specified.3) the sexo-yogic Another passage of the Brhad?ranyaka shows the somewhat vampirical aspect of tradition (present also in Taoist sexual yoga). in the skull. but the yoga of an earlier and more primitive age. ante quos for the elements of ult?-s?dhana and Sv?tm?r?ma says). custom. this activity Interestingly." And finally he gets to the point: "there is no was changed . three celibatized that. had aware tells.99) she also becomes of) Vajroli.4. through Indian literature. cit." which may be khecarT mudr?. though not in the earliest stratum. must have arisen before (or anyway that yogic practices and that have the custom of monastic outside) celibacy. Lorenzen. They show us not the yoga of the Hindu renaissance or of Pata?jali." practicing or at all for a woman concludes. and M?labandh?sana. Sivananda. K?palikas.152 have the of Like seminal practiced reclaiming seem to be a non-Aryan itwould which custom. that But that all of as our to must next be work Our way backward.. If a woman. At the moment of death. The yoga of Pata?jali has no more to do with the activity on the seals than of the Orphies and celibate Dionysus the spiritualized The confusion had to do with maenadic ecstasies. be assumed.5-6). but not in the earlier hymns of the Rg. in the middle or late Vedic (BU VI. united and remaining (111. celestial years. vajroli mudr?.91) semen and that of the woman with of semen.8." is already this. and preserves a YoginT. whence Upanisad. making her own through draws up the semen of the man. step some as we far can. of soma with in a kind of the moon has by pious syncretizing engendered icons from of the Indus Valley clouded perception which we began. cit. semen. cit. at her to himself" and is warned if the man while against "draws engaging her in sexual to the same doing women's the rajas up" too does as with vajroli mudr?. one as term who is the the useful plants on which ?rdhvaretas performed image-complex the equation ("one whose the ult?-s?dhana) the world goes up. the only one known author The says is that XIII then.21) which. At least. which shorthand. semen intercourse. describes (1) the ascent of pr?na through susumn? n?df. iswhether the conception of the limitless was a part of the pre-Aryan doctrine. Since one element of the grammar. "Some drops of lunar in this passage. to a group of sexo belongs. itwas present already by the epic period.. or whether itwas part of the ideological overlav 152. is not known the Upanisadic to many Br?hmans. op.4. The man is advised on a method (unclear) to "turn the good deeds of the woman intercourse him. A tantalizing question. 142. . op." (Salya into ambrosia and sprang forth from his eyes Parvan 36).66 RES 1 SPRING 81 seems. . becoming confer of Vajroli. M?labandh?sana and they make much more sense together than apart." that The is. implies the ult?-s?dhana of Goraksa In fact. which we cannot answer. m?labandh?sana. (the practice That bindu body by and the practice that rajas. it is possible was present already in the Indus Valley. In addition to the practices of retention and reclamation concerning severe practiced "His semen. (2) a "turning back of the tongue. it proceeds in a upward The MaitrT intercourse should being ended. lustre" expense he has increased his own "vigor and (unless she so. appears in the late hymns of the Rg Veda and in the Atharva Veda. which fell upon "Even if it is discharged. The Mah?bh?rata. (Quoted 151. moon-soma-bindu-amrta. his own (111. The implication is that this complex entered the Aryan community at the beginning of the middle Vedic period. seeking t?rminos k?ma-s?dhana. 91. that these methods received from the Adyar op.

The ascent of the pr?na through Kesi [of the Rg Veda] alludes to Rishabha. 153.136). which prescribed an adjective the Muni hymn. of the Mah?vTran also (precelibate) connects him with The Muni's nakedness period. cit. 1848). and of the ascent of pr?na through the n?dTs. Mass. For the "magico-religious value" of long hair. called Stevenson the Muni. which may be present on the Indus seals. e. For this translation of the second sloka. 29. Keith. Jeanine in J. a typical designation The rshis of the early Upanisadic of retention and reclamation period. but is implied by the "grammatical" cohesion of these We earlier elements may than as a group. p. 1974). (Oxford. 95.. cit. p." also believe he explains. to.g. Digambara. vols. Bhagat. p.. contexts. The Muni is also widely or regarded as a shamanic figure. obvious their gurus less in than a belief. the leader to have been of the been P?rsvaite named community "Kesi. cit. smearing of the body with dust or ashes. of for a Jain ascetic susumn? is brought about. S.5d) affirms both modes."160 The tendency in the tradition who as of to be overlooked by eyes that see only Saivism in Ur-yoga. many This ecstatic he siddhis.. e." Jain ones. The attitude. 1914]. "Homage wearer of braids and to him of shaven hair. invulnerability same phenomenon The Ostyak immortality is commonly shamans. The ascent of bindu through the n?dTs is not specifically mentioned." p."153 or naked silence or who (v?tarasana) iswidely and is long should remind us of the nonsectarian character of yogic techniques. is also as Mrs. 156. Hauer. 1972). in the text later means "poison.159 quite that Kroeber generally is common notes that that convinced the Indusmaterial was hymn. Quoted by Bhagat. 159.g. curious handle fire. in historical hatha yoga. 145. since yogins. doctrines but may very well have been the same. to Yogi Bhajan. an "The earlier date. "Exploring in of Kundalini. yellow (unmadita austerity" and possessed of dust. The yogins' claim of bodily invulnerability is implied in the Muni's ability to digest quality for example. (Chicago. perfect. 158. 436.2..McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 67 in the Aryan community. p. S. The Vedic "Forerunners Miller. with Rudra. Feurerstein. Further. to the saying. L. op. a period of Ur-yoga several centuries glimpse the Upanisadic in the famous Muni passages as (more than?) the Saiva. to one sect of Jains and same religious value to go till Mah?vira "sky-clad. the first tTrthankara.154 as and he may provide a link between his Yet in tradition of siddhis. 154. and This it must when tradition have one represents been of were found for example. then." yoga and Beyond: Essays p. p.. Xl." (Trans. of and so on. and Marshall's proto-Saiva interpretation claimed bodily among "field even shamans ethnographers shamans invulnerability. see Eliade. has as many it does ?jivika indeed have Saiva and hymn of the Rg Veda (X. to be with non-Aryan. The means is not specified in the MaitrT passage. Kroeber.g. The Nature of Culture 1952)." their plucked and this seems to revert to some ecstatic The practice. Itdescribes what regarded haired" "maddened mauneya). repression toward a pious fraud. of Yoga: The Kesin Hymn.158 as much the ?jFvika-Jain tradition n?dTs. In any case. The word itwas 1977). 29. 1 55."157 Indeed." White. applied the expresses In short. op. who were within the "tantric circle. The ?jFvika as much as the Saiva smeared himself with ashes and vowed silence and in fact is known to have done pointed AV so from out. 157. who may have had no prior cult to hinder such innovation. 6. "wind-girt" or ecstatic with smeared with magician. completely for Jains also. the long hair. which can be fitted as well to one ideology as another. 11. was called Kesi. e."156 Jaina monk Pata?jali to rationalize the belief in siddhis may represent and the name Kesi (which is sometimes applied to Rudra [e. although connections.. by m?labandha." length and coiled over fontenelle for women the anterior it draws fontenelle energy for men into the Rishabha.) Harvard Oriental Series. and Jain ?jivika not to continue which ought they add fraud nevertheless in their powers. "the hair was Shamanism.who became enlightened in the k?y?tsarga position. Travels See. 311. as v?tarasana. Gurucharan Singh Khalsa. Jain scholars claim that "this pranic the (Cited by M. Saiva and vow of silence are all characteristic of later of yogins. that his died. p." in Mah?v?ra's day may the pre seems have like Muni. 72. op. shamanic The poison.) Myths and Misconceptions Yet the ?j?vikas. is associated. sacrifice.Miller and in Indian Philosophy For the view that a drug.155 The connection with Rudra were that pre-Aryan ascetic assimilated practices into the Vedic community by way of the cult of Rudra. in Siberia. 2 vols. 160. knew the of semen. "wind-girt.g. There connections are. which.. previously a very minor god (three hymns in the Rg Veda). According to raise the kundalini the first technique the hair is at energy. Adolph ll:45. Kailash Chand and His Times Jain. The TaittTriya Samhit? of significance the Yajur Veda (IV. of the distinction is not clear. Experience (Berkeley. in the hymn in part implicitly based on this numerous also. 152 and n. with whom either suggests he is said to drink a drug. p." sometimes the only order nakedness to Siva. see. 18 and 19 [Cambridge. English Erman. A. see. Hauer. The ?jfvikas were naked. and the claim around seem know the world.5. Der Yoga. or seems to be there has been "whether not. however. Arthur Berriedale heads. the as "a pre-Aryan (ke'sin). trans. op.18]) is also very prominent in Jain tradition. When its natural full or the posterior spine.. Raimundo Pannikar. cit. . Lord MahavTra (Delhi. superpowers. p... the hatha the last line. impressive powers are seems figure not connected of assimilation. George (New York. shamanism and the which is so prominent is in the process a poison or for he in the hatha yoga texts.

like the Buddha and virtually every important with the is found Buddhist are credited in Indian figure legend. and bodily invulnerability. mountains the earth.166 described as ?rdhvamanthin S?yana occurs whose is a synonym in the same semen goes text up.. Gopi op.. Rasmussen. even things . and not mean.. cit. Another work of the middle Vedic period. chaste). pp. that is. . cit. specifically Similarly. the TaittirTya of some speaks ?ranyaka. pp. cit. p. The that through the practice of the ult?-s?dhana forced and their this.5)...7). p. op. 225-26. that since seems they that mean that to be are the The Muni's nakedness. 189."161 this primitive believe. that of "they live in chastity. it it is Czaplicka. 162. as for example Hauer and Hermanns both practice fraud. Ake Ohlmarks.6) said ascetics since and to eat they who also are are probably described or wind-girt (V. 244. this attribute ability in in a context that reduplicates. cit." semen and posture. which enables him to see in the dark. same group ke'sin.. "keeping the semen membrum above. shaman also have shamanic Altaic announces the many his perhaps related to the diffusion of Central Asian shamanism into Europe that is hypothesized for about 1000 B.. "Ein arch?eologicsher Horst Kirchner. des Schamanismus. cit. 224. and (II. 69.. orientation toward idea that means "chaste" may another sign of the overlay of a celibate interpretation on the sexo-yogic tradition. m?labandha through p. for he and can inside his head within fire." Urgeschicht Anthropos etc. for example. The Muni's ability to fly. 166.169 progress through the various regions of the sky and. who can drink poison without being harmed. Wilhelm eines Tagebuche 11:20-50. was written. that they the yogic process semen "Whose goes are "above" sex. 165. ?rdhvaretas but susumn? up" through is not makes clear. is also characteristic of the whole is attributed to the shamanic milieu from India north to Alaska. the brain.. For the term ?rdhvaretas that it is precisely Eliade.162 visits the Ostyak shamanic to complete levels The of the universe. the continuum region.c. The definition "having is the due accurate enough for the time inwhich 168. op. Monier Williams gives it in the Sanskrit-English Dictionary: ?rdhvaretas. 1976). like the Muni. 1:58-59. in chastity". 1884). 167. To sum up: the Muni is credited with most of the characteristic shamanic powers: ecstasy. (Oxford. in Lamaism. cit." marshals suggests the that term ?rdhvalinga. North Asia-Tibet v?tarasana. 31. ?rdhvaretas. is paralleled by the Lapp shamans and others who perform their "seances" entirely naked."167 means n?dTS71 celibate maithuna. the details here. 171. only air India. the knowledge of the inner thoughts of others. etc. Invulnerability to the dangers to which he is exposed?both from spirits and from rival shamans. Radioff. a term "one these The siddhi of "supervision. as the Muni. zum Problem Studien 112ff. his eyes have erections.. Beitrag zur 47 (1952). probably spent time "exerting themselves in the squatting Staal up. Findeisen. in a "shamanic ahims?.e. p. p.7). op. furthermore. (Lund. 1939).12). and his familiarity with spirits of the various parallels. both literally and now.." With was op. complex. 50-51.163 as with shamans. He ridicules the idea that they "keep their or penis But 'above' 'up'" is. p."172 ?rdhvalinga. 163. It is belief on a shaman's may be a necessary part. but it is also possible that he represents a fresh incursion of shamanic activity into India. events which the future and through of ends are hidden from others. 222. pp. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary . the flight is narrated without any mention of the a soul. 1 72. 169. 104. 77. p. who the yogins or of that "whose are penis goes ?rdhvaretas shaman suddenly feels in his body. their of the as the Muni.. the ability involving be to see the forms of all things. Aus Sibirien: lose Blatter aus dem Linguisten. (Leipzig. p. 164. who that one becomes Krishna. des Schamanismus 2 vols. like the figure on the Indus seals. case for these and earlier not surprisingly "siddhas" also. or chaste semen to "go as Sv?tm?r?ma practice. Bleichsteiner.168 that he represents the lineage of the Indus Valley priest-magicians. 245-48. Among the deities and indigenous to each Yurak-Samoyed task of guiding.164 or finding. inexplicable searchlight. Muktananda. op. op. could similar with and closed coming perceive of others."170 seems to have up" of have does neglect caused confusion yogically. Shamanism. by Kirchner. flight. pp. The belief that one had the ability. 170. the lamas. thus they look into into the secrets he reach sees to the . see lyengar." (X. it metaphorically speaking. op. Hauer. Hermanns. (II. asserts Staal. while redefining the entire shamanic terms. above living (i. cit. Rasmussen shaman's experiences an of "a mysterious a reported an Eskimo light which luminous the ascetics of the middle Vedic period were engaged in the ult?-s?dhana and that they. . cit. reisenden op. In later yogic tradition this deva-deha or immortal body is developed by the ult?-s?dhana. pp. 150-51. a tantric practice they a Extraordinarily descriptions this experience are found in yogic texts. one was engaged to digest poisons must have been reassuring when 161." which Muni.which Both they words indicate according also to of ?rdhvaretas. cit. cit. the this belief rendered increasing yogic less necessary. of course. duel. like that of the ?jfvikas and Jains of a later stage of the tradition. religious to fly. see through darkness eyes. or and long-haired are further (V. friendship with the gods of the various levels of the cosmos.68 RES 1 SPRING 81 the reform of an age of consciousness "repression" that in the could service no of longer "pious possible.. 34. Sir Monier Monier-Williams. op.165 bodies have become "immortal" like that of the Muni.

40. providing fictitious lineages for any group to be assimilated (Santi Parvan 296). repr. from descending descended. 179. is clearly shown by their into the Brahman. Kshitimohan Sen.180 "the Vr?tya" as a The Atharva Veda describes cosmicized universe in Chanda's original The Vr?tyas figured prominently derivation of yoga from the Indus Valley. "The apertures bodily yonimudr?. p. Keith." p. Bhandarkar. 174. in discussing the full-scale But Woodroffe Staal prefers "ithyphallic. this view. 31 and E. of 176. op. Br?hmans and participate they become Yet Bhandarkar was not alone in concluding: "that this was a non-Aryan cult can scarcely be doubted/'177 His Aryans without practicing ritual readmission require 173. absorption caste.. 31. They are in the Atharva Veda (XV) as Aryans who have defined or more among non been living for three generations the Vedic religion. who religious importance with them practices or teachings of value to brought their Br?hmanical allies. 181. which seem to have included sexual intercourse. yogins. as their need for readmission shows. and it has been provide statues of dancing girls may that Indus the suggested show the prototypes of their ritual hetairai.. Hermanns. dancing. vols." He it is the aperture of the penis. Harvard Oriental 1925 ed. 68. animal sacrifice. Monier-Williams in the pubic arch so that the body has the testes disappear of a woman. 180. had a technical hatha like the Muni. (op. cit. Religion op.) and others See Karl Meuli. and clans specializing traveling magician (not to say historical dance. proselytized insists that the Vedic rites which The Mah?bh?rata. The Religion Veda 32 2 and Upanishads. Hermanns.). 402.176 sages of the Taittirlya ritual style The Vr?tyas introduced a proto-tantric into the Aryan community. p.g. p. including the Ur possibly yoga of the ult?-s?dhana. op... and implies ecstatic practices. Even op. cit. op."175 whom both Hauer enigmatical and Hermanns regard as related to the wind-girt Muni We have and hence ?ranyaka to the ?rdhvamanthin also. by vajroli mudr?. appearance Serpent Power. m?labandha. as later of Again. if it has already by is relaimed.181 The connection of alcohol use..179 Their in the Rg Veda. . 121-76. may unknown snake and tree worship. 1976. 177. arose." pp. with singing and dancing should perhaps be seen in the light of shamanic performances. Hauer. p. 175. Hermes 70 (1935). of the Vr?tyas.. op. "Scythica. yoga definition gives "chaste". to where singing and dancing are the primary means state attain ecstatic the inner and heat develop for the out-of-the-body necessary journey. center. p. 28. cit. 28. if this inference be later overlays.. and they represent introduction of non^Aryan religious practices the official That they were people of into the Aryan community.. to reascend. a link Indus with the Valley. was known already to pre-Upanisadic XIV ecstatics back to the naked traced the ult?-s?dhana of the middle Vedic period and have seen also that they were both in the Central Asian shamanic stream and in the yogic stream from which ?j?vikism and Jainism. cit. They made their living as in sex. op. op. read: whose mudr?. cit. as a whole. and ult?-s?dhana. which It seems to be a fact that the Aryan community for "conversions" among the tribal groups. But Hauer ismore faithful to earlier ages of yoga when he glosses it as "dessen Samen oben bleibt oder nach ascends would oben steigt. whereupon in the sacrifice. singing. and meat eating. conversant. by khecarT I will not reproduce. meanings is correct. arguments. (Delhi. and Philosophy. and ecstatic flight is common among North Asian shamans in times often use alcohol before and in who modern 178. 1:58. rather than the s?dra. and who to Aryan society. as well as Saivism. alcohol. pp. cit. vols. cit. Arthur Berriedale and Philosophy Keith. or. But even if they had once been Aryan. Bhandarkar. Harmanns Series. 326-27. 18. closing the region of the anus and the left against right heel is pressed against the genital contracted seen. p. and forced. 43. are impressive. p. At the same period we find in the Atharva Veda "the curious and figure of the Vr?tya."173 "whose A fully semen semen either remains above or definition yogic unpacked is prevented." above.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 69 the voice of the Hindu Renaissance assimilating hatha to r?ja yoga. Hauer.. cit. p. the Vr?tyas had become non-Aryan. says that the original rshis begat children here and there.. "Some yogis can make both the penis and and of n.174 It is likely that ?rdhvaretas already brought with it the full yogic meaning in the age of to always then the proto seem since the celibate the Aranyakas. share Shirokogoroff. song.178 Ms of tantric practice are basd on the Vr?tya rituals. and in order to close into the pubic arch so that it is no longer and withdrawn adds in a note. the specific association the ?jivikas." is called all which of says. 1:60-62. Hauer.) the the phrase ?rdhvalinga may have that has been lost. in the non-Aryan milieu. cit. through the n?dTs. with the figure. were laid down "for the whole world" (Santi Parvan 65). and there is some cogency basis) for the claim of the Bauls of Bengal to be their Various scholars believe that the Five descendants. 203 (Woodroffe. Medieval of India 1974). Mysticism (Delhi.

is "the stabilization of the the least motion" in "different postures body without . when his body often remains motionless as ifdead or abandoned. loc. for the Muni of Rg Veda X. and denounced by Eliade derived meditation strictly from the interiorization of the soma sacrifice among the Vedic priesthood. 43. those who remained outside non Altaic shaman during his flight remains motionless silent long and upon the return absence. 183. pp. 189. 191. or essential duties of a monk. among among the Carib the Tungus shamans. Chakravarti. the Sakti. But this does not account for the nirguna types of meditation. 186. "Die Zeitschrift Medizinm?nner. Feather costumes (which seem to be present on Indus Valley funereal urns) are considered necessary farther equipment afield. Shirokogoroff. 368. op. which were those common among the ?jfvikas the modernizing Buddha. 318. you in our seerhood. . and Chintaharan of Tantricism. cit. The Vedic gods are presented as perplexed by this activity: For a whole year he stood erect. Chakraborti.189 then left his body and In shamanism in general the bird (or "flying creature") is the most common and ?mporant form intowhich the shaman changes for his flight to the sky. p. cit."185 The phrase suggests "leaving the body" as the shaman is believed to do on his magical journeys. (as and the education in the "bat-penance") involves and hanging as preparation for flying to the sky. Schubring. Vr?tya?" (AV XV.. common austerity of the ?jFvikas. Cited Radloff. op. sitting. It is also what the tTrthankaras Rishabha and P?rsva were was a It doing when they became enlightened. or standing upright. 371. ancestress mortals. this is called abandoning the body. 306. cit. It is possible that some forms of meditation arose in part from the deliberate practice of immobility. Himmelsreise 70 der caraibischen (1938). in the Indus seals. which may derive at some remove from shamanically 185. "beheld" flight. op. op. time. op.70 RES 1 SPRING 81 conjunction movements with the drumming and rhythmic that will induce their ecstatic condition. and so on) as his "faith" (sraddh?): by semantic those field.which benefit the soul and which are difficult to is of these positions perform. pp. That such activity was a part of the Ur-yoga is Aryanized (or re-Aryanized) sexual sublimating practices is as old as The technique interprets a rotation the Vr?tya's of the hetaira by the familiar into allegorized the Atharva (pumscalT.3) Yet this is typical of the non-Aryan stream of yoga..183 being of procedure abstractions. 188.. Bhandarkar. Friedrich Andres. cataleptic "awakens" by "mortals" Radloff says spirits were in a state that the and sexo-yogic continued Aryan world. p.. 121. Remnants of the practice survive in Jainism. 122. Bhairavi.. when in terms of the Quite as important as proto-tantrism. shamans. is the Atharva Veda's "the Vr?tya" stood upright for a year.136 says: Exulting ascended. cit. 306. And it has tentatively k?y?tsarga. 437.191 The connection suttas. cit. information that history of yoga. with m?labandh?sana again the primitiveness of of this activity.g. orientation.. seems to be a vestige of the and flight.. op. the Munis's only bodies when do their you behold. which been identified literature provides a link beween the ?jlvika-Jain tradition. p. Shirokogoroff.6) says. the who lost definite. Vr?tyas anti-Vedic were is made admitted their shamanic Vedic. among Presumably the high-caste to practice Presumably in shamanic like the Aryans in time bodies. Scholars have attributed to them both the magic of the Atharva Veda (and with itmany echoes in the At tantras) the same and time the musical the Vr?tyas settings of the Sama were Veda.182 processes also. op. Findeisen. cit. cit. Again the Vedic the Indus Valley and hung upside down and motionless. from which the Vr?tyas seem to have been among the first to into documentary emerge history. in the Pali and k?y?tsarga. 196-99.188 and indeed the phenomenon The shamanic practice is known worldwide. The Jain Uttara S?tra (XXX."184 The most common for long periods of standing motionless is probably what the Vr?tya was doing. In Jain act of flight: the yogin "bat-penance" of performance itwas "equivalent" to another transformation to an him. which of the themselves speculatively sought in shamanism. indicates practices. Jochelson. which seems to to have influenced the Aryan community deeply. Shirokogoroff.186 Similarly. flew like a bat realm. "If a monk remains motionless when lying down. . E. pp.187 The Yukaghir shaman does the same. "Antiquity 184. op.. 296. were shaman's trance. 331?42. by Chakraborti. ibid. "Why standest thou." f?r Ethnologie .. and Jains. cit. upon our the winds we have Veda. Of us. p." IHQ VI (1930). p. The gods said unto the Tungus shaman departs for the other world his body falls to the ground and lies insensible till his return. where one of the ?vasyakas. 187.190 there And is a precise parallel: the young shaman is taught in his initiation how to turn swinging into a bat.. The roots of this practice may be A whole book of the Atharva Veda is devoted to this movement. which in sufficient time will progressively immobilize mental 182. p. p. p. according and a it in the vast undocumented of his spirit as after to Shirokogoroff. cit. 190.

It seems that we are presented with a figure whose is physiology but as whose we is female. 532ff. Ihxxxi. 1904). as stated in the last quoted Sullivan's conclusion sentence. in the Kalpa S?tra were have been that Jacobi thinks that the derived from ?jfvika rules? (Jacobi.e. 195. 119-20. Findeisen. 3] is like that on some of the female direction. cit. figurines and seal representations. 196. paralleled sitting and and may compare or deer skin. All in all. . 2. cit. Marshall. the middle Vedic period and the Indus Valley Between chain of nearly a culture there is a gap in the evidential some degree of continuity thousand years. is not radically different from the activity of fasting and holding vigil in solitude for the obtaining of power visions. proto-meditative south facing We a tiger also. p. apparel And. and see unabr. are methods a horsehide his seated shaman while of sits on holding the yogin. 2nd ed. Chanda lineage however. ecstasis Eliade's and valuable distinction waistbands the development preclude the standard techniques inducing elementary Other Yakut out-of-the-body meditation shamanic not enstasis does yogic In fact. Whether of m?labandh?sana persistence in the Indus Valley we still entire ult?-s?dhana existed cannot say. 198..198 Similar phenomena are found among the Koryaks and other North Asian shamanic cultures. 193. 278. Briffault has demonstrated with a huge collection of instances that "the adoption of female dress by male shamans and priests is a worldwide phenomenon. Harapp?n Finally. 1896). to and girdles are found only on the female the males always shown nude.. op. the arm bangles and necklaces worn by the figure are the jewelry which lavishly adorns the female figure in art. of i.. 276.. cit. doing pr?n?y?ma prescribed and meditating fix" his breath. Bogoras. American Museum Natural History Memoirs 11 (New York. pp. The Mothers." or initiator. Lok?yata. cit. Yakuty 192.195 and itmust not be forgotten that in historical tantrism "female shamanesses called bhairavis and yoginls still occupy an important place.. and The "dreams" the breath. as mentioned above. p. 1000 B. since there is nothing on the waistband tassels of other claimed Indus Valley pieces to correspond to them.) proto-AjTvikas."194 suggestion the waistband Although similarity is not visually very I will nevertheless agree with parts of impressive. Petersburg. and see 232ff. Several possibilities follow. the myth of the dismemberment of the goddess locates three of her four in and around the Indus Valley area. 448. op. XV We middle merges have times to the from modern traced backward Vedic period a stream of yogic practice that at countless points with fertility ritual and Our documents can take us no farther. First of all. we will return to the possibility. once stripped of its ideological superstructure.. 199. from the other. vol."197 Some Chukchee shamans wear women's clothing and even marry other men. Wenceslas pp. appreciated in her tree itself is like that worn by the Great Goddess The waistband epiphanies. whom known "Rules Iomit of them. mention. p. but positive evidence considerable for its being female. 1952). (London.c. may be presumed throughout the period. Waldemar G. Sullivan. Sieroszewski. pp.193 shamanism. etc. Chattopadhyaya. Robert Briffault. presently see. but the clear delineation it of two round objects beneath that reduce the range of the ambiguity considerably. are anyway) very like for practices. abr. 1959). burial places But the great weakness in Sullivan's argument is the the waistband tassel of the analogy between female figures and the possible phallus of the person in figure 1. by visualizations of deliberate The practice shamanic to see the contexts spirits. 1:51.192 on figure in some facing "restrain visualization. (St. ed. It seems that the activity of meditating for realization of the brahman. its implications more fully. shows not only an upright member which is ambiguous by itself. (London."196 Furthermore. of one (as known experiences today.199 Certain Tibetan visulization practices that 194. there seems to be no for the figure's being male." a not and phallus) he feels female 326-30. shall male. 197. figurines. op." by which the have initiate's is in various "trying previously been described to him by the "father shaman. 4] is the same as that seen on the tree goddess. the pigtail worn by one of the other two 'proto-Siva' figures [fig. The seal. and the coif framing the face on the other figure [fig. that the Yatis may 1:300. so little of yoga. The Chukchee. as the the shows. because is tassel (if indeed it is that is like the ones found on "Also. clearly opening Passing over the gap. it is possible that the figure is indeed a woman. Marshall declared it to be "a highly reasonable that the Indus supposition" Valley culture was matriarchal. for Yatis" extended included I will discussion in the of the Yatis of the Rg Veda. op. Furthermore.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 71 induced between cataleptic shamanic states. and explore that the Sullivan's valuable (if ignored) suggestion a woman can now 1 in be be may person figure more He that "the head-dress argued fully. But we have located it in the non-Aryan the realm as early as c. Nevertheless. figurines. Indus material. chapter XIII. there is nothing surprising in that.

[Chicago. to males Der Nioradze. Most relevant perhaps. p. James Mellaart. it is to be in such rituals The female ismore powerful expected. "vagina-position. yogin's posture as well as of his garb may have derived the female principle. Marshall found a bearded figure with breasts at Taxila. and "girdle" of the goddess herself. 1965). the excess will or can be overflow. York. to the "power. and which belong to the tantric circle. from the program of incorporating show the male and The later Ardhan?n icons. 202. literally usually translated "left-hand way. pp. only true form of according in general. ritually transferred. in order to to and (3) refusing power. East (New 206. that a male hairstyle. pp. 16-18). Jash. pp. p. Marshall. In terms of primitive practice means of acquiring the power for the male magician that the female expresses by giving birth. wore women's clothing for several years as a a seal "on which a found at Mohenjo-daro female figure is depicted legs upside down with apart and with a plant issuing from her womb. jewelry. Chattopadhyaya. or power over."204 The like the posture of this female is in several ways on the seals. that the activity that serpents on the seals is an attempt magic to stimulate the sexuality of her yield. cit. through an Schamanismus intermediate bei den the stage of transvestitism. (Delhi. couples analogy or contagion. "The ultimate female force ?c?rabheda a woman. of the Gods genitals The retraction 1969]. that among circumpolar Nioradze peoples speculates transferred the occupation first shamans were women. the fertitity power of the females..g.205 It is possible." have been found It is possible that the practice of sexual intercourse with seminal retention (or reclaiming) arose from a combination of these two purposes. op. in the newly plowed fields in the couples copulating that will the earth's be increased hope fertility by on the other hand. the male worshiper And the goddess by thinking of himself as a woman. pis." that is. through m?labandha. due to the many connections (which will not be reviewed here) between is the fact Indus Valley and Mesopotamian religions. Earliest Civilizations op. synthesis Inmodern India both approaches in tribal contexts: on the one hand. which female in one body. and another at Vaisali was ithyphallic too. V?lkern sibirischen 1925]. Her hands are on her m?labandh?sana all the way to the knees. 83." Chattopadhyaya. op. Lok?yata. Mother the male yonimudr?. There are tensions within in agricultural arise from the dual role of sexuality Either an abundant outer expression of sex. than the male. or magic.206 a somewhat Weare approaching speculative of the various sexo-ritual activities that are in it that implied figure 1.207 like activity of this type. refraining from sex at planting time. The figure on the Indus Valley seals may represent a complex environment. Chattopadhyaya."202 ?jTvika initiation rite exhibits the structure of "rebirth from the fathers. has noted that the tantric term Chattopadhyaya v?m?c?ra. of transferring to the males. XXXIV and XXXVII. being subsequently (Georg [Stuttgart. p. mentally. 284. cit. cit.. Reflections On the Tantras . the earth's fertility. Mookerjee.2 It is altogether plausible.203 Lok?yata. a "Discard the male (purusa) in thee and become woman We that the recall again might (pra/crt/).) Chattopadhaya that tantric practice was originally (op. a Durg? practice was not purely mental: Ramakrishna. initiation. in the belief that if sexual energy they accumulate inwardly. 207. 285) speculates the sphere of women 204. then. some to tantric the texts... in other that some elements of the Indus Valley proto words. 205. A will express by magically manipulating Sahaji? song of the middle ages is explicit. similarly alone. may derive at some remove from this practice. worshiper.72 RES 1 SPRING 81 involve the appear to be vestiges of Bon shamanism the female personality of a yogin assuming. 51 ff. In fact. 1:52. style. context of Bronze is being worshiped by by sympathetic the earth and hence at." means "the woman practice" and quotes the Tantra saying. ejaculate creates in the Age religion. (2) maintaining to generate heat his penis erect.. inwomen's dressed 203. he may be: (1) dressing a woman to establish (through analogy) direct contact with. 154-55. and that is Anatolia common in Indian tribal art."200 In the is to be propitiated by becoming drew closer to the rituals of Durg?. DakinT. It is not to be wondered figure or shaman should wear the part of his s?dhana. were Great The "females" and called (Grant Showerman. it is a tantrism. e. a woman" The v?m?c?ra practice of "becoming is. inwhat may have been conventionalized a It is variation of the posture. through 200. 278. birth-giving "displayed Marshall nude at ?atal Huyuk in female" motif that is first encounered some three thousand years earlier. That is. The priests of Cy be le gelded themselves. saying. See. and that he events. of the Near p. Sudhakar 1978). cit. testified to was a part of which Woodroffe of ill. and her knees are extended as a sides. 201. that Akkadian priests of Ishtar wore female attire. an intense inner accumulation of its unspent energy. 20.

5:130. performed. cit. Geden wrote.210 They have a in sympathetic magic for the increase as is indicated by the JaiminTya spirits answers like a bird and uttering bird cries. 1905-8). in light of that evidence. 295. captured.208 and retain that power for use in ritual world are known to employ beast Tungus performances. to show the kind of account were and if. is. elements custom of the "beast-vow. loc. imitation... 1. by hopping. but even the bull with Siva. Ingalls. . that serpent is. cit. Muktananda. for example. I would zigzag hop indicates that the frog motion practice. and imitations in their acts the and speaks shaman the like a whinnies Later rears when latter of it.212 The Indus males with horns and Valley figures of thehanthropic tails may have represented persons who had taken such a vow. Jochelson.. My 214. S. are as many to some postures extent species of living begins" ?sanas worked [8].219 seances. 2. whole moving. since Ancient in that position practitioners would time. 1963). similar could. pp. History. op. p. The frog motion may be a posture very close to amulets very old indeed: Sumerian showing occur in both frog and human utkat?sana forms."211 Such a suspension of mating taboos is a common part of fertility magic. as do the Yukaghir and Koryak. The P?supata. See Beatrice Laura of Prehistoric Goff. of very like a serpent. 140. American 10 (New York. The Koryak. indiscriminately of his family as well as with others. 30ff. op. be Something said of yogic practices in general.220 The by "possessed" his a variety Similarly. History of Indian Philosophy.. 219. of Natural 220. loc. 197.214 horse "becomes" the and horse. 440. ch. op. op. the use and of motions.42-3). "I began to roar like a lion. Shirokogoroff. his summons."218 of like a snake. utkat?sana. "primitive 208. belong to a type of thought that is primitive. P?'supatas. The Gheranda you Samhit? (II. cit. op." to connect as shamans to the very all over ancient the Muktananda during his kundalinT practice he was at one time possessed by the voice of a lion. This still held up. In the Altaic wolf. on the subject. cling is closely associated with the "frog motion" was In particular. the available." practiced by a number of the sects within the tantric circle. an elephant. p. 209." 261. Czaplicka. if fuller that might emerge gratia. 309. 212. though not without So persistently does the yogic tradition retain (or vestiges) of its primitive past that in addition to shamanic and agricultural magic. cit."216 and In fact. 104. the animal moving Czaplicka shaman animal bulls. See Dasgupta. Symbols (New Haven. by sympathetic the it seems. p. 217. Chattopadhyaya.215 is "of protector one blood and flesh" with the shaman himself. the magic. so forth. a snake. spent a part of each day like a bull and in general trying to transform bellowing himself into a bull. have been a beast like a frog. Museum cit. names. shamans involved not only of the adoption animal voices. Buddhist texts mention bovine ascetics who wore tails and horns and brayed like bulls. he "becomes" and so on. which in defiance of all human should have sexual congress that with forbidden members laws. a cow. 213. "The may in a state ancestor. . the horned person in figure 1 may have a horse. op. acting will awaken the magic imitation Resonances ancient beast round the statement.. 210. p. the Saiva philosophy. done so.213 practice of would seem magic. Memoirs p. 101. Majhima Nik?ya The Mah?nidessa 145. are also known from Buddhist The substrate Muktananda siddha yoga unexpectedly.) Orgininally.. and is uncontrollably animal voices relates during that literature. originated (Consider most of which have animal beast claim are in shamanic-totemic the Goraksa [?sanas] Sataka's as there the yogic have practices." as A. pp. performances during shaman of bird Swami their in a variety of bird and animal voices. adopting power. by Bhagat. as may and at times comes animal a shaman's the ground is still a part of upon ally: the yogin "Sometimes sometimes along like a frog. Mesopotamia figures 436. "Cynics 211. Indeed. H. Shamanic beast imitation of course the wearing animal Samoyed the horns. Swami The says that "the enactor of the bull-vow Br?hmana.192. H.217 ?sanas. cit.209" . practice when may stay in this position for long periods of necessary. Dhammasangani and Cullaniddesa. cit." in my opinion. cited Lok?yata. and among primitive peoples varies little in the course of centuries. Cited by Daniel and HThR LV(1962). but and also speak Yakut so on.. primitivist hypothesis ERE xii. Vows to live like a dog. for example. and others. op. imitation that "There may Yakut of ecstasy himself this embody as most Shamans appear frequently shamans may fight as bulls. Findeisen. . Radloff. p. The shaman sacrifice. exempli evidence as a dogmatic is not presented but interpretation. totemic it. An obvious case is the magic may be seen behind exception.. cit. notes that the shaman's animal as each in his performance. 216.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 73 accumulate magic. 212.387ff. 215. adds much of interest Sieroszewski. These practices are presumed to antedate not only connection of the clearcut function of animal fertility. says that by serpent pose. is XVI "Tantrika usages. cit. Friedrich and Buddruss. 218.

like the sacrificial volunteer. the seven sprout 230. and European Russia. The Tungus shamans Samoyeds. permits the practice only to s?dras. Briggs. 364."228 initiation of the would-be shaman. In Asian and non-Aryan contexts. Being the Second of the Royal Anthropological Institute 24 p. In White. sacrificial Every victim. 229. That such practices are found among specifically yogic fact the XVII tanric circle that feature of the historical may with some certainty be traced to an age at least as of early as the Indus culture is the connection human sacrifice. aspires to. 51. "a shaggy haired [cf. The Indus signs of continuity over enormous Valley seal that shows on one side a goddess with a plant growing from her vagina seems to show on the Another side a human sacrifice. echoes The command" siddhi promised by Svatmarama of having all women available sex partners. 225. cit. p. as to summon. so much of my mouth. Jash. Eliade. with seal. 96. 227. section 1-A. Los Angeles 10 December Times. kesin] Yogi who lived in a cemetery" "slit the throats of his victims and offered their blood to a Hindu goddess during the full moon The belief in order that powers. woman was an but at a sign their of continuity. 168." History of Religions Beliefs 222. figures on the famous Tree Goddess 221. which taught that an offering of human flesh obtains Such as reward rites. cit. and even Jains. "The meriah of the Khonds buried that were strangled. 224."225 siddhis to acquire supernatural can be attained through ran helter-skelter. and people to my hut." again echo the powers attributed to the designated "god"-victim. connects them. . fear-inspiring jackals.. 73. 231. cit. op. V. pp. It is no more nor less than the power of the phallic god that the siddha yogin. your awakened begins rushed to utter sounds such methods was present already in the K?p?lika tradition. The Koryak. 63. M. ?jTvikas. pp. Jochelson. Closely magical agricultural. shamanism related is the practice of self-mutilation which is attested in shamanic." p. fertility. in the Buddhist Tantras. p...230 while shows in ecstatic a later states. presumed in historical times in the non This activity persisted known as the Aryan traditions. K?palikas in Aghoris. to 228." their ropes three children by a Hindu mystic". which arise with the obtaining of "god body. that the great goddess understand 222 come into action. dogs barked madly. birds and frogs or of a lion or like tigers. op. A news item from Reuters in 1980 reported "the ritual murder of 103-4. "initiatory" shamanic phase initiation and during of taught revealing volunteered for sacrifice claimed spouses. Indeed. 9. Muktananda. cit. p."227 which It is very to promote who common a vestige was first allies. accident.74 RES 1 SPRING 81 tongue forty-five roared came right out that minutes. in the midst of frenzied This tradition has proved remarkedly persistent. Michaelowski. stage. not dismemberment redefined for its new horizon: initiation but fertility sacrifice Cybele not only emasculated is intimated.229 pretending cut themselves The to cut Koryak himself. op. dogs. the eight siddhis of the yogic tradition. 95-96. 226. Yoga. Shirokogoroff. Hermanns.. headed Chanda op. in Siberia "Shamanism Shamanstro. cit. yogic it is related to the dismemberment for benefits. reckons an this phenomenon kundalini": "signs . The tradition was the K?lik? Pur?na."231 The practice in agricultural survives magic. 81-94."221 Swami among "when Tirtha the . op." as Hermanns has in hatha and various animal the tradition suggested. revert kundalinT yoga may of guru to the do whatever command.224 Virtually regular other them involved in the non-Aryan "substrate" worshiped atone time or another.. and siddhis. p. journal op. p. more and getting the cows nearly even of speech went I more broke on roaring for "I and frightened. cit."223 shaman by the "father in Frazer's Dying Cod. in the fields the males then cut into pieces. The priests of themselves (as an element of "female imitation") but also. The historical goddesses were with Seven Mothers M?trk?) worshiped (Sapta that are all cults the human sacrifice. was the ability in the context to fly. Sierksma. cit. are of like those of animals. approach "Totemic 1 (1961). characters woman that the goddess and were and was at could their in the had called them to be her interim "treated they The as privileged desired. Part of (1894). initiation "become. which fact resolutely non-Aryan: human sacrifice to the goddess instructions for gives with the lolling tongue... ages. p. op. . tenuously. including P?supatas. 306. The two sides may be to have a (roughly "causal") relationship." The the the fact that such experiences of hatha in which his are most yoga the may novice be those of and not KundalinT pleasing has course related to the fertility of the fields. was becoming accordingly sects that is not "every as was treated as if he had the god himself and the god's powers. to hear. Here there are goddesses. 1:53. 1980.226 of aricultural magic. p. 223. 66. as do as well as to the claim of invulnerability. For a complementary the totemic background of tantrism see Alex Wayman. initiation. the by "were Tibetan shamans considered capable of cutting open their own bellies and though taking out the entrails.

despite semiprimitive their famous obsession with ahimsa. 45. 206. .240 Book 10 belongs. and see Lorenzen. this wandering mendicancy. The word tapas is never used in books 1 of ascetic or creative heat. V. cit. 76. in Jaina Literature. then. the Rigveda We Various Literature (Delhi. "Magic and Miracle IHQ XV (1930). Frazer. op. Cf. and the citta-s?dhana forms to the Aryan. p. 234. 241. op. which used both those ways yet a stratum later of composition" "represents definitely than books 1 through 9.241We have seen abundant that in the middle Vedic period aboriginal evidence ascetics began to influence the Aryan community and to be admitted more and more freely to it.234 Within the of Neolithic religion such practice appear to have been associated with the motif of "king" sacrifice. fulfills her are a small forbidden years by all desires piece to of the in flesh But his (or anyone's) denial that the been Dravidian). as the Kum?ri Tantra remembers when it offers kingship to one who gives blood from his own body. Kumar.235 horizon The ancient this dichotomy. of Asceticism and of the Troy. affiliation of the Jains with these sects is shown by the fact that. Frazer reports a special two-handled knife for the purpose. In terms of yoga. The S?kta devotee in India did the same.88. MacDonell. recited prayers and "sponsored performed homa. 237. 1958). Knipe (In And see Geden society. that ascetic Aryan community. cit. was to not the Aryan population but tapas indigenous it from outside at a time after the composition entered of Rg Veda 1 through 9. p. G. would cut themselves and offer the blood to their goddess. Kumar. 6-10: "Tapas was a non "The word practice. The origins of yoga cannot possibly be separated from the Indus Valley material." 235. a specific series of events seems to have taken place that would have been very likely to have the effect of opening Aryan culture to the aboriginal ecstatic practices at that time. op. In fact. 11:147. A. 206-7. part III: The God p. 238. pp."236 to the pre-Aryan attributes the k?ya-s?dhana dichotomy in its various mentalist stratum. but it is an ?sana that brings with it a clearly into the identifiable yogic context that fits harmoniously Bronze Age milieu of the seals. 54. pt. pp. p. 240. and orgiastic rites ."232 in these but for one and offers thousand . 76. isolation and [and] glorified [the] life of renunciation. when pre-Aryan practices were being adopted and rationalized by the It would seem." tapas came to be used for a practice Rigvedic its with itwas assumed all basic characteristics before already existing in Rigvedic in ERE II. the Image of Fire [Delhi. The Seers of (Poona." and the pre-Aryran ascetic munis who "practised yoga austerities.. Eliade. xv. example. The Golden Bough. Asrama Staal. Rahurkar has summed in his distinction between the Vedic Aryan rshis who have touched the Indra-cult. involved with agriculture The Atharva Veda he regards . Eliade also tries to mitigate asserting that "the theory and in the Rg clearly documented physical technology has Br?hmans rites participate establishment. through 9 with the meaning in it is in book 10. being informed by the K?lik? Pur?na that his "becomes satisfied goddess own of one's blood offering six months' one time when close to his heart. they also engaged in these rites. by practice of tapas is Veda. p.237 Indus Valley material shows signs of yoga must be in figures 1 through 4 based on a denial that the person in a yogic ?sana. pp. India (Benares. and unless a radical redating of the Vedic literature should occur. though they had much to do with might have contributed much of the spiritualist the superstructure with which become known to the world. "prejudice of Dravidian origin" (though he then begs the question by noting that the Indus Valley culture may not have 232. 1964).. 17. ." Dharma. of Sanskrit cit. David M.. 239. As suggested. pp. 1935). 236. this denial Not only is the posture an ?sana.. 105-6. op. by not only also. p. Sakti Cult in Ancient Pushpendra 1974). to the same period as the Atharva Veda. the Eliade's position with 1975]) defends Dumezilian that the documents of the priestly class would argument not show attitudes and customs from the producing class that was and breeding. cit. XVIII repeatedly on the traditional scholars' dichotomy between the Aryran and non-Aryan it up aspects of Indian religion.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 75 dancing (like shamans). Dying Sir James George (New York."239 But when citing instances he does not distinguish between books 1 on one 9 Veda hand and book 10 the the of Rg through on the other. by the Br?hmanical the texts of the tantric circle. in fact. scholars have questioned this dichotomy. Kalipada Mitra. 108. Self-mutilation in the incredible and human sacrifice were combined act of offering one's own head. . for example. A." 233. "The Origin Bharati VIII. I hope I have shown that is portrayed is unreasonable. .238 the Indo-Aryans cannot have its physical aspect. for ridicules the that Yoga is Staal. J. Rahurkar. cutting off pieces of their own flesh and of throwing them into a fire233 (echoing the "cooking" the dismembered body of the shaman). Van History by Sastri. yoga. 1.

and the difficulty of new became sources. forming time a new religious establishment whose expression the middle This the end of book tribal communities. and and know nothing the original as meditation practices that of k?ya-s?dhana. the only Soma into disuse. we have surrounding Aryan ecstatics. by Ralph T. 95)."247 The spread over the Gangetic and the Deccan. completely religion deeply An emptiness had arisen at its core?and into this introduced priests still remembered what were next currently accepted stratum of Vedic literature. segments of the priesthood made specific alliances with them and began to introduce them into the Aryan community. finally." JAOS 99 (1970). the Muni still had. Trans. 69. itwas. 1896).76 RES 1 SPRING 81 Wasson and others have demonstrated rather emptiness flowed the ecstatic that the Vedic priesthood used the convincingly as a stimulant to visionary amanita muscaria mushroom feeling and religious re-identification. (Benares. Gordon Wasson. preceded to India. Yoga. See Wasson. can that Jainism and Buddhism non-Aryanism represented. H. would sufficient to remove many Aryan have been from access communities to the high places (over 8. speculates have been "questions of became supply. they would suddenly should ascetic in producer heat appear (2)Why vai'sya contents. A more radical p. of course. when a shamanic tradition on drug use. s?dras Aryan less easy to show why admit contents. to have been written those and had already as fallen of pantheistic sensibility.000 feet) where alone the mushroom can be found."246 the Br?hmanas.).10). may have been a shaping Various Near Eastern hymns of the period the macranthropy of the Purusas?kta. Divine Mushroom pp. it is in a decadence becomes dependent and has already lost the ecstasy-generating craft which. 102ff. non admitted. 5oma. religion. "when when seem. of Immortality Soma. Indian "tribal" Vedic of with Eliade. Her statement. O'Flaherty.. 244. n. 100-5. for example. Ibid.3)244 that show the emergence a turning a yogic toward to Wasson. outside tripartition) group of "specialists should this fourth group not have been non-Aryan? (p. that the apparent of Akkadian words In the presence a wave Veda suggests of Near Eastern influence that. documents rather than priestly documents? (3) The tantras that closely are later associated echo Atharvan magic not with the vai'sya but the non-Aryan non-Aryan mixing practices s?dra is almost caste. p. from the Upanishads methods through the more mechanical Dumezilian in ecstasy" (i. but why 242. which when awkward. The hypothesis has received confirmation. Wasson's Wasson. along that would by force on the input. although to have gone on in this period of extensive as a document of the vai'sya caste. Wasson (RVVlll. however. with and fertility magic. to the ancient Near East is a subject I am version of this position is suggested by that "the whole of Indian mystical collaborator. has speculated that the use of this uncultivable mushroom began during a northerly from the Indo-European homeland into the migration zone of which the circumpolar shamanism.242 If he is correct. 247. When distance southerly migration leading from the original mushroom fields. spread plain usually dated to the midle Vedic period.248 14. as consequences to some extent of the loss of the be seen at mushroom that was the warrant of legitimacy experience Upanisadic the heart of the Vedic 246. parallel relation dealing . always impossible out over the Indo-Aryans all of India. At least in Eliade's judgment. The soma. Indian religion elsewhere." of the Rigveda. 245. substitutes. p. not (pp. revision adoption mentioned Atharva with middle on this count would be acceptable read "The the Aryans of mystical Itmight be etc. on (4) This model influence any significant tacitly excludes the middle Vedic cultural literature. substitutes The talks a the genuine great deal about substitutes for original soma and also. But some problems in it are: (1) does Rg Veda 10 not show the priestly purity of 1-9? It is easy Why a reason why to propose the Brahmans in Rg Veda 10. Upanisads emphasize elements Wasson must contains in turn substitute the seeds of the yogic of such tradition. pp." practice. 243. that obviously their appearance in the Vedic predate is forced to "keep in mind" the possibility of a fourth literature. model Aryan to have and it iswell it articulated. notice of the likelihood that "the more mechanical of yoga" methods in India than their adoption existed much earlier a by the Aryans.243 And the hymns of Rg on soma for Veda 1 to 9 are clearly dependent visionary feeling and theological certainty: We have drunk Soma and become immortal. conjectural Hymns 85 of dating to 191 is in line with use of amanita speculation according original attained the light. finding overwhelming. or placebos. 338-39. certain for the early development (5) To account of ascetic intermarriage. Wasson's muscaria. 2 vols. the gods discoverd. for example.. This alternate to and the large-scale defections movement. "Soma Brought Up-to-Date.245 impressive linguistic was When. and when article. practices of the At this stage the non their mingled lore of shamanic in is Vedic view of 10. Knipe practice an attempt is merely of yoga to recapture the vision granted by the Soma plant" takes insufficient (Soma. became technique increasingly impressive to the Aryans. the ecstatic mushroom experience was the Vedic shaken. Griffith.d. were nonpsychotropic into the ritual. the literature. It is finally possible that the involving input from the non is of course possible.).48.e. R. The whole religion. (New York. "Soma Brought The Hymns Up-to-Date. lost. then it seems very unlikely that true shaman craft still survived among the Indo-Aryans. 248.

For Pata?jali. Ur-yoga complex consisting of generation in the service of a female imitation. no to shown have original. totemic ritual. Die On the stratification Indiens. exclusivist any the that the ?sana on the seals necessitates Believing more than has been primitivist hypothesis clearly to work it out in some I have attempted realized before. 1:51-52. Gonda. Hermanns. and hence no essential. (not to mention other of the second millennium 249. the influence of idealist and a long period of experimental philosophies. into meditation. we need a composite model. op. Itmust be emphasized that this mixing of elements cannot be limited by a purely the characteristic of "uneven scheme. which whether to have settled. influences). has allowed various of elements of from stages religious interplay to renew itself down to modern history to continue chronological times.c. that I have offered for The "stratigraphie analysis" a is of different of the stratification reflection yoga in Indian layers religions in cultural-psychological a stratum of shamanic composite primitive general:249 totemic magic. is It the whatever for purpose. 342. it is clear that the primitivist get us all the way to the yoga of hypothesis His of the stages of sam?dhi no doubt map Pata?jali. e. j. possible magic. shamanic journey. sexual magic variety of goals... version of the scientific model. Religionen p. and a general redefinition under the influence of idealist philosophy in the following periods. vol. of Indian religion see. constructing The decision between the primitivist scientific has of inner heat. fresh shamanic input from Central Asia at about the end b. If this paper had done no more than clearly and solidly identify the posture on the seals as a itwould already have closed the door on yogic ?sana. devotees of yoga to be offensively have not questioned the efficacy of yogic practices to and psychological induce unusual physiological states. more in be which may pronounced development. in the area of "scientific" work results from deliberate. and altern Hinduismus (Stuttgart. an detail (albeit somewhat exempli gratia). relationship to the practices that it describes." this India than anywhere else in the world. 1 :Veda cit. 1960). meditation.g. . cannot the primitive root. At the same time. superstructure axiological in the sense that it has been that has been reduced. investigation that I have presented may seem to The model including But I reductionist. and other elements. an overlay of Vedic possible outside ritualism in the middle Vedic period.McEvilley: An archaeology of yoga 77 XIX and the on the question hypotheses long pivoted I hope the Indus seals really show yoga. and agricultural magic.