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is a 548-page, lavishly illustrated, comprehensive introduction to reading the Bible from the heart of the Church. The hope is this book will find its way into the hands of every Catholic, especially high school students for whom it was principally written Each chapter guides readers through the Bible book-by-book, explaining key events, characters and difficult passages. He shows how each book "fits" into the grand story of salvation that is being unfolded in the pages of Scripture. Author Dr. Scott Hahn presents a Catholic approach to Scripture, highlighting the theme of Along the way, he identifies how the biblical covenant. texts are used and interpreted in the Church's magisterial teachings and liturgy. Tracing a path through salvation history, the book explains the various books of the Bible and the The book also provides a detailed importance of each event in salvation history. introduction to authentic Catholic teaching Understanding the Scriptures will provide an on such questions: understanding of Sacred Scripture so critical to the Catholic Faith. How was the Bible written? There are many maps, sidebars, and charts of How does the Church interpret the Bible? information, each chapter ends with supplementary What is salvation history? reading, definitions of key vocabulary, study questions, practical exercises. Why are "covenants" so important to the biblical story? The style of the book is very much in the style of a typical high school or college text book. It is a hard Each of the book's 30 chapters concludes with cover and quite large, displaying both its scholarship and thorough treatment of the subject a study section, that suggests additional matter. The beauty of the many art selections in the readings, and important vocabulary terms, book is also very, very impressive. This is one book study and review questions, practical exercises, and references to relevant selections conveys an orthodox presentation of Sacred Scripture that is for anyone who wishes to learn from the Catechism of the Catholic Church. more about God and the Catholic Church.

I strongly recommend this book for anyone who wants to teach a bible study, or for personal enrichment. The material is arranged for easy use with a Bible, and the study guides are excellent. Having been a catechist for several years I have always been looking for excellent reference materials. The course is complete and has wonderful references. The additional readings include many well written books on sacred scriptures and thought provoking questions for students of young adult and adult ages. Add this one to your personal library and enjoy for years to come.

Honestly, this is the single most incredible Scripture textbook for High School aged students that I have ever seen in my life. I was first made aware of this series about a month ago, when I learned that a local Catholic High School had chosen to use one of the titles. One of my closest friends, the theology teacher at my son's High School, then ordered the entire series. As a professional theologian -- and as a professional educator -- I can only sit back and be amazed. This is simply the BEST one-volume introduction to Scripture that I have ever seen. It is faithful to the text, without denying the contributions of higher criticism. It is faithful to the Teaching of the Church. It is brilliantly illustrated and laid out. As someone who examines texts for a living -- it simply blew me away. I will be ordering a copy for my parish library.

What matters most to you?

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Contents
x Abbreviations used for the Books of the Bible xi Forward 6 Chapter 1: What is the Bible? 7 What Catholics Believe About The Bible 8 Sidebar: What does it mean to say the Bible is divinely inspired? 9 Chart: Periods Of Bible History 10 How The Bible Was Written 11 The Bible Is Sacred Literature 12 The Bible Is Religious 12 Sidebar: Does the Bible contain any errors? Is everything in the Bible true? 13 Chart: Archaelogical Periods And Biblical Events 14 What “Salvation History” Is 15 Chart: Covenant History 16 The Church Will Be Our Guide 16 Sidebar: What is the Canon of the Bible? 17 How The Canon Came To Be 18 The Canon Of Scripture 19 Supplementary Reading 20 Vocabulary 21 Study Questions 21 Practical Exercises 22 From The Catechism 23 26 26 27 28 30 30 31 32 33 34 38 39 40 40 41 41 43 45 46 48 Chapter 2: The Old Testament The Books Of The Old Testament The Law Sidebar: J, E, D, and P History Wisdom Sidebar: What is Wisdom Literature? Prophecy Sidebar: What is Prophetic Literature? Sidebar: Finding The Date Quick Outline Of Old Testament History What Typology Is And How It Works Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 3: The Creation Of The World Days 1-3: Creating Form Days 4-6: Filling The Void Seventh Day: The Sabbath Covenant With Creation 49 50 50 51 52 52 54 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 81 82 83 83 84 85 86 88 89 89 90 91 93 95 98 99 102 Creation: A Covenant With The Universe Understanding Time As Part Of Creation Creation Is Good Sidebar: Is it True? The Creation Of Human Beings In The Image Of God The Marriage Covenant God Our Father The Fall Spiritual Death “ Where Are You?” The First Gospel The Curse Evil Sidebar: Creation And Evolution Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 4: The Early World The Evil Line Of Cain The Righteous Line Of Seth The Sons Of God And The Daughters Of Men The Flood Sidebar: Did the Flood Really Happen? The Covenant With Noah Sidebar: Another Story Of The Flood The Curse On Canaan Chart: Table Of Nations The Arrogance Of The Children Of Ham Sidebar: The Real Tower Of Babel Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 5: Abraham, Our Father The Life Of A Nomad The Promises To Abram Map: Abraham’s Migration In The Near East Sidebar: From Abram To Abraham Map: The Journeys Of Abraham In Canaan 1. God’s Oath: Land And A Nation 2. God’s Oath: Kingship And A Name Sodom And Gomorrah Map: The Story Of Lot 3. The Binding Of Isaac And God’s Third Oath Supplementary Reading

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Contents
103 104 105 106 107 107 110 112 113 114 115 116 116 117 119 121 122 124 125 125 126 126 127 128 129 130 131 133 134 136 137 138 139 140 142 144 145 146 147 147 148 Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 6: The Patriarchs Finding A Wife For Isaac Jacob And Esau Map: The Journeys Of Isaac And Rebekah Jacob’s Ladder Jacob And Laban Map: The Journeys Of Jacob And Rachel Twelve Sons Sidebar: The Twelve Tribes Of Israel Wrestling With God: Jacob Named Israel Joseph’s Brothers Sell Him As A Slave Map: The Sale Of Joseph God Turns Evil Into An Instrument Of Salvation Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 7: The Exodus The Birth And Rescue Of Moses Moses Rebels Sidebar: The Date Of The Exodus The Burning Bush: God Reveals His Name To Moses The Message To Pharaoh The Plagues The Passover The Passover Lamb As A Type Of Christ Map: The Route Of The Exodus Escape From Egypt Spiritual Food In The Wilderness The Covenant At Sinai The Temple In Heaven And On Earth Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism 157 159 160 161 161 162 163 164 165 165 166 167 169 171 172 172 173 174 174 175 175 176 177 178 180 180 181 182 184 185 186 187 188 189 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 201 202 203 204 205 205 206 In The Wilderness The Constitution Of Israel Sidebar: Israel And America A Close Look At Deuteronomy Outline Of Deuteronomy Sidebar: The Tabernacle In The Wilderness Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 9: The Rise Of The Kingdom The Conquest Begins Map: Canaan At The Time Of The Conquest Sidebar: Jericho Map: The Route Of The Spies Joshua’s Covenant with Israel Sidebar: The Right Time to Attack Map: The Invasion Of Canaan Chart: Early Israel And Her Neighbors Map: The Capture Of The Ark The Judges Chart: The Judges Of Israel Samuel the King-Maker Saul, the Anointed One Saul’s First Big Mistake Map: The Kingdom Of Saul Saul’s Second Big Mistake The Man after God’s own Heart Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises Chapter 10: The Kingdom Of David Jerusalem, David’s New Capital Map: David’s Kingdom Bringing The Ark To Jerusalem Sidebar: The Liturgy Of The Ark The Covenant With David Beyond Sinai To Zion The Davidic Covenant: Seven Primary Features Sidebar: The Davidic Covenant In Psalm 89 The Davidic Covenant: Three Secondary Features Summary: The Main Features Of The Davidic Covenant Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises

149 Chapter 8: The Law 151 The Golden Calf Changes Israel’s Relationship With God 152 The Institution Of The Priesthood 154 After The Fall 155 Heaven On Earth 156 The Law

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Contents
207 Chapter 11: Wise King Solomon 209 Map: Jerusalem In The Time Of David And Solomon 210 Imperial Israel 211 Map: Solomon’s United Kingdom 212 The Wisdom Of Solomon 213 Solomon Builds The Temple 215 Sidebar: Building Materials For Solomon’s Temple 216 Solomon’s Pride And Apostasy 217 Sidebar: The Idol Gods Of Solomon’s Wives 218 Supplementary Reading 219 Vocabulary 219 Study Questions 220 Practical Exercises 221 Chapter 12: The Divided Kingdom 222 The Torn Kingdom 224 Map: The Divided Kingdoms Of Israel And Judah 225 Back To The Golden Calf 226 Good And Bad Kings 226 Jonah 228 Elijah And Jezebel 230 Elijah At Sinai 231 Map: The Journeys Of Elijah And Elisha 232 Elijah And Elisha 233 The Assyrian Threat 234 The End Of Israel 234 Map: The Downfall Of Israel 235 Supplementary Reading 236 Vocabulary 237 Study Questions 238 Practical Exercises 239 241 244 245 246 247 249 250 252 253 254 256 258 259 260 260 Chapter 13: Conquest And Exile The Great Prophet Isaiah Sidebar: Hezekiah Defends Jerusalem The Wicked King Manasseh The Great Reform Jeremiah Sees The End Of The World Map: The Fall Of Judah The Impossible Promise The Exodus Reversed Map: The Babylonian Empire The Babylonian Exile Daniel: Heroic Stories Of The Exile Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises 261 262 264 264 265 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 271 272 272 273 275 276 277 277 278 279 280 281 283 284 285 286 286 Chapter 14: A Remnant Returns Belshazzar ’s Feast Cyrus The Messiah Sidebar: Rulers Of The Persian Empire Beginning The New Jerusalem Map: The Return Of The Exiles Trouble With The Samaritans Ezra The Scribe What God Really Wants The Promise Unfulfilled Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 15: Revolt Of The Maccabees Only One World To Conquer Map: Conquests Of Alexander The Great Jerusalem In The Middle The Final Desecration Amazing Success Of The Maccabees Map: The Hasmonean Kingdom Chart: Maccabees Family Tree What The Jews Believed Sidebar: The Story Of Hanukkah Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises

287 Chapter 16: The World Of The New Testament 288 The Prophecies Fulfilled? 289 The Pharisees 290 Sidebar: Judaism In New Testament Times 291 The Sadducees 291 After The Maccabees 292 Herod The Great 293 Chart: The Herods’ Family Tree 294 When The Time Had Fully Come 294 Religion In The Roman Empire 295 Map: Herod’s Sons Inherit His Kingdom 296 The Spread Of The Jewish Religion 297 Map: The Roman Empire 298 Proselytes Of The Gate 298 Judea And Galilee 300 The Samaritans 301 Supplementary Reading 302 Vocabulary

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Contents
303 Study Questions 303 Practical Exercises 304 From The Catechism 305 307 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 317 318 319 322 323 324 327 329 330 331 332 333 335 336 337 337 338 339 341 343 345 347 348 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 356 357 358 Chapter 17: The New Testament How The New Testament Is Organized The New Law: The Four Gospels Matthew Mark Luke John History: The Acts Of The Apostles Wisdom: The Epistles Prophecy: The Revelation Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 18: The Incarnation The Son Of David Chart: Family Of David Hail Mary The Birth Of Jesus Map: The Journeys Of Jesus Nunc Dimittis The Epiphany The Holy Innocents Teaching The Teachers Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 19: What Jesus Did John The Baptist Makes Straight The Way Jesus Baptized The Temptation In The Wilderness Water Into Wine Cleansing The Temple The Land Of Zebulun And Naphtali Map: Jesus’ Galilean Ministry Healing The Sick Who Sinned? Casting Out Demons Eating With Sinners Women And Samaritans The Twelve Map: Jesus’ Journey To Jerusalem Hosanna To The Son Of David 359 360 361 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 370 371 372 373 374 374 376 377 377 378 378 379 380 382 384 385 386 387 388 388 390 394 394 397 398 400 401 402 403 403 404 Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 20: What Jesus Taught Teaching With Authority Parables The Kingdom Of God Is At Hand Born From Above The Letter Of The Law Is Not Enough The Last Shall Be First The First Shall Be Last Love Your Enemies God’s Grace Is Undeserved Pray Without Ceasing Jesus Is The Bread Of Life Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 21: The Cup Of Consummation The Missing Cup In Gethsemane Jesus Arrested In Gethsemane Peter ’s Denial Blasphemy! Judas Repents Pilate Examines Jesus Crucify Him! Jesus Crucified Behold Your Mother The Last Cup Sidebar: Pontius Pilate Sidebar: The Crucifixion Psalm Sidebar: The Jews Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism

405 Chapter 22: The Resurrection 408 The Women Who Met The Risen Lord 409 The Road To Emmaus: Jesus Revealed In The Eucharist 411 The Power To Forgive And Retain Sins 411 Doubting Thomas

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Contents
411 Back To Galilee 412 Peter ’s Redemption 413 Map: The Resurrection And Ascension Of Jesus 414 Supplementary Reading 415 Vocabulary 415 Study Questions 416 Practical Exercises 416 From The Catechism 417 Chapter 23: Jesus Fulfills The Old Testament 419 Fulfilling The Law And The Prophets 420 The Church Before Jesus 421 1. Jesus Fulfills The Covenant With Adam 422 2. Jesus Fulfills The Covenant With Noah 423 3. Jesus Fulfills The Covenant With Abraham 424 4. Jesus Fulfills The Covenant With Moses 424 The New Exodus 425 Jesus The Passover Lamb 425 5. Jesus Fulfills The Covenant With David 427 Supplementary Reading 428 Vocabulary 428 Study Questions 429 Practical Exercises 429 From The Catechism 431 433 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 442 443 445 446 448 449 450 451 451 453 454 Chapter 24: The Birth Of The Church Restoring The Kingdom Map: Judaism At The Time Of Christ The Election Of Matthias Sidebar: The Upper Room Pentecost Peter ’s Authority The Martyrdom Of Stephen What The Early Christian Community Was Like Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 25: Reaching Out To All Nations Philip Baptizes The Ethiopian Map: Early Spread Of “ The Good News” Saul The Persecutor Saul’s Conversion Are Christians Jews? The Council Of Jerusalem Supplementary Reading Vocabulary 455 Study Questions 455 Practical Exercises 456 From The Catechism 457 459 460 461 462 463 465 466 466 467 468 469 470 471 471 472 Chapter 26: Paul, An Apostle Peter And Paul In Acts Apostle To The Gentiles The Law Was Our Custodian Sin Brings Death Through The Law St. Paul’s Doctrine Of Justification Map: Paul’s First Journey St. Paul’s Travels Map: Paul’s Second Journey Map: Paul’s Third Journey Map: Paul’s Journey To Rome Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism

473 Chapter 27: The New Kingdom 475 The Son Of David 477 The Riddle: How Can David’s Son Be David’s Lord? 480 The Church Perfectly Fulfills The Davidic Covenant 480 The Davidic Covenant: Seven Primary Features 482 The Davidic Covenant: Three Secondary Features 484 Supplementary Reading 485 Vocabulary 485 Study Questions 486 Practical Exercises 486 From The Catechism 487 Chapter 28: The Catholic Church in Scripture 488 Organization Of The Church 489 The Primacy Of Peter 490 Councils Of The Whole Church 491 Sacraments 492 Baptism 492 Confirmation 493 Eucharist 494 Penance 495 Annointing Of The Sick 496 Holy Orders 497 Matrimony

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Contents
498 499 500 500 501 503 504 505 507 508 509 512 514 516 516 519 520 521 Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism Chapter 29: The End Of History What Jesus Taught About The End Of History The End Of The Old Covenant Map: The Siege Of Jerusalem The Vision Of The Heavenly Liturgy The Liturgy Of The Word The Heavenly Eucharist The Beasts The New Jerusalem The Warning And The Promise Map: Christian Churches And Communities Supplementary Reading Vocabulary 521 Study Questions 522 Practical Exercises 522 From The Catechism 523 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 531 531 532 Chapter 30: How To Read The Bible The Bible Is Literature Spiritual Senses Look To The Church For Guidance What To Read First Pray Supplementary Reading Vocabulary Study Questions Practical Exercises From The Catechism

533 Art and Photo Credits ? Index

ABBREVIATIONS USED FOR THE BOOKS OF THE BIBLE Old Testament
Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Gn Ex Lv Nm Dt Jos Jgs Ru 1 Sm 2 Sm 1 Kgs 2 Kgs 1 Chr 2 Chr Ezr Neh Tobit Judith Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs Wisdom Sirach Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Baruch Ezekiel Daniel Tb Jdt Est Jb Ps(s) Prv Eccl Sg (Song) Wis Sir Is Jer Lam Bar Ez Dn Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees Hos Jl Am Ob Jon Mi Na Hb Zep Hg Zec Mal 1 Mc 2 Mc

New Testament
Matthew Mt Mark Mk Luke Lk John Jn Acts of the Apostles Acts Romans Rom 1 Corinthians 1 Cor 2 Corinthians 2 Cor Galatians Gal Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Eph Phil Col 1 Thes 2 Thes 1 Tm 2 Tm Ti Phlm Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation Heb Jas 1 Pt 2 Pt 1 Jn 2 Jn 3 Jn Jude Rv

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In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep...
Genesis 1: 1-2

And God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness.
Genesis 1: 3-4

God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.
Genesis 1: 10

Then God said,

“Let us make man in our image, after our likeness...”
Genesis 1: 26

Understanding The Scriptures

Chapter 1

Read
2 Timothy 3: 10 - 4: 5 1 Peter 1: 12 - 2: 22

he revelation of God in Jesus Christ is transmitted through Scripture and Tradition as one common source. The Tradition includes the Scriptures which are a privileged expression of the Tradition. “Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit. And Tradition transmits in its entirety the Word of God which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit ” ( Dei Verbum 9). The Word of God in written or oral form is interpreted authentically by the magisterium of the Church. Scripture—the Bible—has to be read and explained in the Church. The Bible is the inspired and inerrant Word of God. In seventy-three books, it gives us the history of God’s plan for our salvation, beginning with the creation of the world and ending with the beginnings of the Christian Church. Together with the teaching of the Church, the Bible tells us what we need to know in order to be saved. Although the Bible is made up of many books, together those books tell one story. God created us perfect in the beginning, but our first parents, through their free will, sinned and brought death upon themselves and their descendants. The rest of the Bible tells how God gave human beings the means to salvation. We learn how God chose the people of Israel to lead all people back to himself, and how God the Father completed that work in his only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ, and his sacrifice on the Cross. Finally, we learn the truth about the end of history: good triumphs, evil fails, and the People of God live forever in paradise. That is the story of our faith. Sacred Scripture is not the only authority for our faith, as Scripture itself tells us. The Church was founded by Jesus Christ to keep the living Tradition of the faith alive. As Catholics, we believe that the Church is not simply a religious institution that preserves tradition. At Pentecost, after the death and resurrection of Christ, God poured out the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, and because of that gift, the Holy Spirit continues to dwell in and guide the Church. The teaching of the Church opens up all the riches of the Bible to us. Because we have the living truth of the Church, we can read Scripture with more confidence, more understanding, and more freedom.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

What Catholics Believe About The Bible
• The inspired Word of God comes to us through Sacred Scripture. • The living Word of God also comes to us equally through the living
Tradition of the Church.

• The infallible Word of God as transmitted by Scripture and Tradition has
been entrusted solely to the living Magisterium of the Church which exercises its authority in the name of Jesus Christ. acred Scripture is inspired and inerrant. “Inspired”— from a word meaning “breathed in”— means that God himself guided the authors who wrote the books of the Bible. The writers’ intellects were enlightened directly by the action of the Holy Spirit to write what God wanted and nothing more. This process took place over several thousand years. The Spirit moved them to write without in any way impairing their freedom to write what was in their intellects. Though God is the principal author of scripture, the human authors are also true authors because they acted as free, subordinate, intelligent instruments of the Holy Spirit. “Inerrant ” means that it does not err: properly understood, Scripture always teaches truth, never error. “Since, therefore, all that the inspired authors, or sacred writers, affirm should be regarded as affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error, teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, wished to see confided to the Sacred Scriptures” (Vatican II, Dei Verbum 11). Reading Sacred Scripture is, in a way, like receiving the Eucharist. In both cases, the Word of God comes directly to us. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (103) tells us that “the Church has always venerated the Scriptures as she venerates the Lord’s Body. She never ceases to present to the faithful the bread of life, taken from the one table of God’s Word and Christ ’s Body.” For the Catholic believer the Word of God alone is supreme. But the Scriptures are not the only source for God’s Word, as the Scriptures themselves will tell you. In 2 Thessalonians 2: 15, St. Paul reminds the Thessalonian believers that they must hold fast to the traditions that the apostles have passed down either in writing or by word of mouth. “So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us, either by word of mouth or by letter.” Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition form one source from which the Word of God comes to us, as the New Testament itself tells us. The true interpretation of both Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition is expressed in the infallible teaching of the Church, the Magisterium. “Infallible” means that, because of the divine help of Christ himself, the Church cannot teach error in matters of faith.
The Great Qumran Isaiah Scroll, ca. 100 B.C., is the oldest complete manuscript of any book of the Bible. Remarkably similar to the standard Hebrew text, it provides overwhelming proof of the accuracy of the Book of Isaiah we read today.

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Understanding The Scriptures

In order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. By a “supernatural sense of faith” the People of God, under the guidance of the Church’s living Magisterium, “unfailingly adheres to this faith.” (CCC 889) The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium’s task to preserve God’s people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. To fulfill this service, Christ endowed the Church’s shepherds with the charism of infallibility in matters of faith and morals. The exercise of this charism takes several forms: (CCC 890) “ The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful — who confirms his brethren in the faith — he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals. . . .The infallibility promised to the Church is also present in the body of bishops when, together with Peter ’s successor, they exercise the supreme Magisterium,” above all in an Ecumenical Council. When the Church through its supreme Magisterium proposes a doctrine “for belief as being divinely revealed,” and as the teaching of Christ, the definitions “must be adhered to with the obedience of faith.” This infallibility extends as far as the deposit of divine Revelation itself. (CCC 891) Divine assistance is also given to the successors of the apostles, teaching in communion with the successor of Peter, and, in a particular way, to the bishop of Rome, pastor of the whole Church, when, without arriving at an infallible definition and without pronouncing in a “definitive manner,” they propose in the exercise of the ordinary Magisterium a teaching that leads to better understanding of Revelation in matters of faith and morals. To this ordinary teaching the faithful “are to adhere to it with religious assent ” which, though distinct from the assent of faith, is nonetheless an extension of it. (CCC 892)

What does it mean to say the Bible is divinely inspired?

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he Holy Spirit enlightened the intellects of many different specific authors over thousands of years so they could conceive all that which God wanted them to write and nothing more. Divine inspiration infallibly moved the will of each sacred author — without impairing his freedom in any way— to write what was in his intellect. Divine inspiration assisted the human author to use the correct language and expressions to describe what was being infallibly written. This means God is the principal author of Scripture; the human authors are also true authors. These sacred authors were free, intelligent, subordinate instruments of the Holy Spirit. Because of this, each book of the Bible is inspired and can at the same time be called the work of God and of the human author. There is nothing in Scripture not inspired by God. “All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness” (2 Tm 3: 16). The Holy Spirit, principal author of the Bible, can guide human authors in the choice of expressions in such a way that the latter will express a truth the fullest depths of which the authors themselves do not perceive. This deeper truth will be more fully revealed in the course of time and discerned in the Church under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

Periods Of Bible History
The Old Testament Period - 4000 B.C. to 400 B.C. The Inter-Testamental Period - 400 B.C. to 4 B.C. The New Testament Period - The A.D. Period
4000 B.C. to 2120 B.C. . . . . . . The Primeval Period 2120 B.C. to 1900 B.C. . . . . . . The Patriarchal Period 1900 B.C. to 1400 B.C. . . . . . . The Egyptian Period 1400 B.C. to 1050 B.C. . . . . . . The Tribal Period 1050 B.C. to 900 B.C. . . . . . . . The Davidic Period 900 B.C. to 600 B.C. . . . . . . . . The Assyrian Period 600 B.C. to 540 B.C. . . . . . . . . The Babylonian Period 540 B.C. to 330 B.C. . . . . . . . . . The Persian Period 330 B.C. to 170 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . The Greek Period 170 B.C. to 70 B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . The Maccabean Period 70 B.C. to 100 A.D. . . . . . . . . . . The Roman Period
The Gezer Calendar, a limestone tablet listing the agricultural year, is one of the oldest Hebrew inscriptions dating to the time of Solomon, late 11th to early 10th century B.C. The city of Gezer was given to Solomon by the Pharoah of Egypt as part of the dowry for Solomon’s marriage to an Egyptian princess. David had left Gezer unconquered out of respect for Egypt’s claim to the city.

Because we have both Scripture and Tradition, interpreted for us by the Magisterium, the Catechism tells us (108), “ The Christian faith is not a ‘religion of the book.’ ” Instead, Christianity is a religion of the Word of God, and the Word of God — Jesus Christ — is still living today and will live forever. But Scripture is the way we come to know who Jesus is. As St. Jerome declared, “Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ.” If you want to feel at home in the Kingdom of God, then the Bible is your map. If you want to understand whom you receive in Holy Communion, then you need to understand how God was preparing his people for centuries before he finally gave us the Bread of Life in the Eucharistic Liturgy.
All sacred Scripture is but one book, and this one book is Christ, “because all divine Scripture speaks of Christ, and all divine Scripture is fulfilled in Christ ” (Hugh of St. Victor, De arca Noe 2, 8: Patrologia Latina 176, 642: cf. ibid. 2, 9: Patrologia Latina 176, 642-643). (CCC 134)

“For the Word of God is living and active,” says Hebrews 4: 12, “sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and spirit, of joints and marrow, discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart.” To live in a way that truly pleases Jesus Christ, we need to study— and meditate on — the Bible. That is the only way to get to know what Jesus Christ is like.

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Understanding The Scriptures

How The Bible Was Written
• The Bible was written by inspired human writers in their own styles. • The human writers of the Bible wrote only what God wanted them to write. • The whole Bible, properly interpreted by the Church, is true and completely
without error. he Bible is a collection of many works written by different authors at different times and in different languages. Those different authors had different ways of thinking and writing. Some of them wrote beautiful poetry, as in the Psalms. Others, like St. Luke, wrote detailed history based on accurate research. Some, like Ezekiel, had symbolic visions that they wrote down. Some simply recorded facts, like the catalog of the tribes of Israel recorded in Numbers. Some books are written in a very simple style; others, like Ecclesiastes, are philosophical and intellectual. Just as with writers of other books, the personalities of the authors come through in what they wrote. The works which make up the Bible are different from other writings. Even though they were written by human authors, the ultimate author of the whole Bible is God. The human authors wrote in their own styles, but they wrote what God wanted them to write. So, unlike any human book, the Bible is completely free from error. Of course, we need to remember that the Bible is teaching us the way to salvation. The sacred authors presented their message in ways the people of their own time could understand, so sometimes their ideas of physics or astronomy seem outdated to us. But the real truth that God wanted us to learn is presented without error. Everything in it is true.
The inspired books teach the truth. “Since therefore all that the inspired authors or sacred writers affirm should be regarded as affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, wished to see confided to the Sacred Scriptures.” (CCC 107)

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That doesn’t mean everything in Scripture is easy to understand. But the Church, guided by the Holy Spirit, helps us understand how to find the truth in the books of the Bible in light of the living Tradition. How did that inspiration work? Inspiration is one of the great mysteries of our faith — a mystery very much like the mystery of the Incarnation of God in Jesus Christ. Like Christ himself, the inspired books of the Bible are fully human and fully divine. The two natures are inseparably united but still distinct. Jesus Christ, the Word of God incarnate, took on the weakness of human flesh, becoming a true man. In the same way, the Bible, the Word of God inspired, takes on the weakness of human language, becoming a book that humans can understand.
King David, the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse, is credited with the authorship of the Psalms. His story is told in 1 Samuel 16 through 1 Kings 2:12. King David reigned ca. 1000-960 B.C.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

The Bible Is Sacred Literature
• The sacred authors used literary techniques to express their meaning. • We cannot understand the whole meaning of Scripture without
understanding those literary techniques. he Bible is sacred literature because God is its author. Because Sacred Scripture is written in human language, it is possible for humans to understand it. Understanding it correctly, however, sometimes requires some preparation. The first thing to remember about Scripture is that it is literature. That means it uses literary forms and techniques to convey its meaning. Unless we understand how those forms and techniques work, we cannot understand the meaning the inspired authors wanted to convey to us. For a good example of how the sacred authors convey meaning with literary techniques, turn to the very beginning of Genesis. When creation begins, the earth is “without form and void”; then the first thing God creates is light. Now turn to Jeremiah 4: 23, and see how Jeremiah describes the destruction brought on by God’s judgment against Judah:
I looked on the earth, and lo, it was waste and void; And to the heavens, and they had no light.

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Reading only the verse in Jeremiah gives us some of the meaning. Reading it with the beginning of Genesis in mind, however, brings out much more of the meaning. Jeremiah uses the same words as in Genesis. The destruction is so terrible, Jeremiah is saying, that it completely undoes the work of creation! There are many different kinds of literature (stories, poems, dialogue, figurative language, and others) in the Bible, and the sacred writers used many different literary techniques. Because they lived at different times and had different personalities, they used those techniques differently. Those differences make reading Scripture endlessly fascinating.

Prophet Jeremiah lamenting the destruction of Jerusalem.

We also need to remember that the Bible is ancient literature. Even the most recent books of the New Testament were written almost two thousand years ago. The authors of Scripture did not write the same way modern authors write. To understand what they meant to say, we have to understand the way they saw the world.
In Sacred Scripture, God speaks to man in a human way. To interpret Scripture correctly, the reader must be attentive to what the human authors truly wanted to affirm and to what God wanted to reveal to us by their words. (CCC 109) In order to discover the sacred authors’ intention, the reader must take into account the conditions of their time and culture, the literary genres in use at that time, and the modes of feeling, speaking, and narrating then current. “For the fact is that truth is differently presented and expressed in the various types of historical writing, and in other forms of literary expression.” (CCC 110)

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Understanding The Scriptures

The Bible Is Religious
• The sacred authors see everything in the light of religion. • Because God sees the whole truth, Bible history is the only truly
objective history.

• All Bible history is really salvation history.
e also need to remember that the Bible has a different purpose from other human literature. The Bible is religious. Although the sacred writers told great stories and wrote great poetry, all that literary technique was in the service of the religious purpose of the Bible. In discerning the meaning of inspired Scripture it is traditional to distinguish two senses, the literal and the spiritual (CCC 115-119). The literal sense is that which the authors intended to express; historical and linguistic analysis, by shedding light upon the processes which gave rise to the biblical texts help to determine this sense which is also intended by God as principal author of the Scriptures and to determine the direction of thought expressed by the text. The spiritual sense is the meaning expressed by the biblical texts when read under the influence of the Holy Spirit in light of the mystery of Christ. There should be no contradiction between the two senses of Scripture; they belong together because scholarship together with faith is needed to enable us to grasp the religious meaning of Scripture. People today usually think of religion in terms of personal experience. But that isn’t how the authors of the Bible — or other ancient peoples — saw it. The word “religion” comes from a Latin word meaning “binding.” To the ancients, religion was what held everything together. Their view of history, culture, politics, and everything else was a religious view. Because of that view, the Bible writers don’t write history the way we write history. We see history as a list of important events —wars, treaties, inventions, and so on. The main characters in our history are kings, presidents, and generals. Although we pretend to write “objective” history— history that tells just the facts — all our history is biased. Even by deciding which facts are important, we make biased decisions. There’s no getting around that personal bias in ordinary history, because every history has to be written from some point of view.

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Does the Bible contain any errors? Is everything in the Bible true?
Since He is perfect, God can neither deceive nor be deceived. Scripture is affirmed as true by God. Because both the human author and the Holy Spirit are true authors of Scripture, the inspiration of the Holy Spirit guarantees Scripture is free from error. Scripture is true and contains no errors because God Himself is the true author of all its parts by divine inspiration given to the human writers. The word “inspiration” is chosen to indicate the Holy Spirit “breathed” into the writers what he wished them to write.

But there is one point of view that ’s completely unbiased. God sees everything exactly the way it is. The Bible writers tell history from God’s point of view. To the Bible writers, the important thing about history is what it tells us about God’s relationship with his people. Many of the most important characters in Bible history seem to be just ordinary people — not emperors, not kings, not even governors or mayors. Jesus himself, the Son of God, looked like an ordinary carpenter ’s son to the people around him. But those ordinary people carried God’s message, and that made them more important than all the mighty emperors who fill our history books. Because God sees history objectively, the Bible often ignores the emperors and concentrates on the people who were really important. In fact, all the history in the Bible is really “salvation history”— the history of how God’s plan to save us unfolded through the ages.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

Archaelogical Periods And Biblical Events
Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) Neolithic (New Stone Age) Pre-Pottery Neolithic Pottery Neolithic Chalcolithic (Bronze/Stone Age) Bronze (or Canaanite) Early Bronze I II III IV Middle Bronze I IIA IIB Late Bronze I IIA IIB Iron (or Israelite) Early Iron IA IB Middle Iron IIA IIB IIC Before 10,000 B.C. 10,000-8000 B.C. 8000-4500 B.C. 8000- 6000 B.C. 6000-4500 B.C. 4500-3150 B.C. 3150-1200 B.C. 3150-2200 B.C. 3150-2850 B.C. 2850-2650 B.C. 2650-2350 B.C. 2350-2200 B.C. 2200-1550 B.C. 2200-1950 B.C. 1950-1750 B.C. 1750-1550 B.C. 1550-1200 B.C. 1550-1400 B.C. 1400-1300 B.C. 1300-1200 B.C. 1200-586 B.C. 1200-1000 B.C. 1200-1150 B.C. 1150-1000 B.C. 1000-800 B.C. 1000-900 B.C. 900-800 B.C. 800-586 B.C. Genesis 1-11 Genesis 1-11 Genesis 1-11

Genesis 1-11 Genesis 1-11

Abraham Jacob enters Egypt The Exodus and Conquest

David becomes King

Israel and Judah Fall (722 and 586 B.C.)

Babylonian (Persian) (or Late Iron)

586-332 B.C.

Babylonian Captivity (586-539 B.C.)

Hellenistic (Greek) I II (or Hasmonean/Maccabean) Roman I (or Herodian) II (or Middle Roman) III (or Late Roman) Byzantine (Early Church Age of Roman Empire)

332-37 B.C. 332-152 B.C. 152-37 B.C. 37 B.C.-324 A.D. 37 B.C.-70 A.D. 70-180 A.D. 180-324 A.D. 324- 640 A.D.

Jesus Christ

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Understanding The Scriptures

What “Salvation History” Is
• God has always had a plan to save us. • Salvation history is the story of how that plan works in history. • We can look at all salvation history as a series of seven covenants between
God and his people.

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rom before the beginning of time, God had a plan to save us all from our sin. The Bible, taken as a whole, tells us the history of that plan of salvation. That ’s what we mean when we say “salvation history”: the story of how God’s plan to save us was worked out over thousands of years. But salvation history is different from other kinds of history; it deals not only with the past but also with the future. Because God’s Word has been revealed to us, we know how the plan of salvation will keep working until the end of time.

One good way of looking at salvation history is to see it as a series of covenants between God and us. In the Old Testament, a covenant was an agreement between God and mankind made through individual persons. A covenant is similar to a conThe third covenant is with Abraham and his whole tribe. Abraham tract, but it is much more than merely a contract. A is the Ancestor of Israel and a model of one who has faith. covenant establishes bonds of sacred kinship: it unites the participants in a family relation. A contract is a temporary business agreement, meant to last as long as current circumstances make it necessary. God’s covenant unites persons in a union that is meant to last. A corporation is a contract; a marriage is a covenant. Salvation history is the story of how we, sinful humans that we are, have been brought into God’s covenant family. We can see seven covenants between God and us in salvation history. (The number seven is a symbol of covenant completeness in Scripture, so it is especially appropriate here.) Each covenant is made through a covenant mediator, and although each covenant reflects a promise God makes to all humanity, each covenant takes the form of a wider social relationship.

1. The first covenant we read about in the Bible is the covenant with Adam. In Hebrew,
the name “Adam” is also used to refer to the whole human race. So this first covenant is really the one from which all the other covenants spring.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The second covenant is with Noah and his household after the flood. The third covenant is with Abraham and his whole tribe. The fourth covenant is with the whole nation of Israel through Moses. The fifth covenant is with all the nations through David and Solomon. The sixth covenant is the New Covenant with all humanity through Jesus Christ. Finally, at the end of time, there will be a seventh covenant for all eternity.

When you learn to see salvation history this way, it will be easy to make sense of the Bible as a whole. That ’s what this book is about. You’ll learn to see how every part of the Bible fits as part of God’s plan for our salvation.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

Covenant History

The first covenant we read about in the Bible is the covenant with Adam. In Hebrew, the name “Adam” is also used to refer to the whole human race. So this first covenant is really the one from which all the other covenants spring.

With Each Additional Covenant, The Relationship Between God and Humanity Is Manifested Through A Wider Form Of Human Relationship.
Covenant Mediator Covenant Role Covenant Form Covenant Sign


Jesus
Royal High Priest Catholic Church

Adam

Noah

Abraham
Tribal Chief

Moses

David

Husband

Father

Judge

King

Marriage

Household

Tribe

Nation

National Kingdom

Sabbath

Rainbow

Circumcision

Passover

Throne

Eucharist

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Understanding The Scriptures

The Church Will Be Our Guide
• The Bible can be hard for us to understand. • The Church was created by God to teach us what we need to know.
he Bible is a large and sometimes difficult book. All of it was written over several thousand years, by writers who lived in times very different from ours. Without help, we might misunderstand what some of the Bible writers are trying to tell us. But we are not left without help. The Church, founded by Jesus Christ himself, and guided by the Holy Spirit interprets the Bible without falling into error. Just as Christ promised, the Catholic Church is always here to teach us how to understand the Bible in light of the living Tradition. Without that help, we would be lost. If we had no divinely guided teacher to help us, we would be left with human interpretations of the Bible. And those human interpretations disagree. If we want to follow the Word of God and understand Sacred Scripture, then we must learn what our Mother the Church teaches.

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In 382 A.D. the Pope commissioned scholar and churchman Jerome (St. Jerome) to make a new translation of the Bible into Latin from the Greek and Hebrew. This translation is known as the Vulgate, from the Latin vulgata editio, roughly translated “edition for common circulation.”

What is the Canon of the Bible?
The books of the Bible are inerrant under the guidance of divine inspiration. Therefore, only God can reveal which books He has inspired. The list of inspired books is called the canon from the Greek for “measuring rod.” In order for a book to be included in the canon, it must be divinely inspired. The Church has answered the question of the inspiration of a book by turning to Sacred Tradition. The Magisterium interprets Tradition with the assistance of the Holy Spirit. The Church, from Her beginning, has held the books of the Bible to be inspired. “By means of the same Tradition the full canon of the sacred books is known to the Church, and the Holy Scriptures themselves are more thoroughly understood and constantly actualized in the Church” (Vatican II, Dei Verbum 8). Important documentary evidence from the early Church comes from the Councils of Carthage in the fourth century and from the ordinary Magisterium afterwards, including the Council of Florence in 1441. The Council of Trent in 1546 solemnly defined the canon of Scripture.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

How The Canon Came To Be
• The “canon” of Scripture is the list of books proper for reading in the Liturgy. • The whole Church, meeting in a general council (Trent), decided on the canon. • It was by the apostolic Tradition that the Church discerned which writings
are to be included in the Canon (CCC 120). he Bible is divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is made up of books that were written before the time of Christ; the New Testament books were written after the time of Christ. Both parts are equally important. As we’ll soon learn, the New Testament does not cancel the Old Testament. On the contrary, the New Testament writers themselves constantly refer to the Old Testament as “the Scriptures.” But how the Bible was written is only half the story. Many other books were written during that time besides the ones that ended up in the Bible. How did the Church decide which books belonged in the Bible and which books didn’t? For that matter, what did it mean to say that a book was part of the Scriptures? The answer to that last question has to do with the celebration of the liturgy. The liturgy is the service of the Church, and the center of the liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist. When the early Christians met, they celebrated the liturgy in two parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Eucharist. Anyone could attend the Liturgy of the Word, but only baptized Christians could stay for the Eucharist. (We still keep the same division today, although we no longer ban non-Christians from the church when we celebrate the Eucharist.) In the Liturgy of the Word, the early Christians heard readings from the Scriptures, just as we do today. The Old Testament scriptures were the same ones Jewish congregations heard in their synagogues — in fact, many early Christians continued to go to the synagogues until the synagogue authorities banned them. But they also heard letters from the Apostles and stories from the life of Christ. Which of these new books were suitable for reading in the liturgy? That was the question the early Church had to answer. The “canon” is the answer to that question. Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the Church came up with a list, or “canon,” of approved books. The inclusion of a book in the canon meant it was divinely inspired. (“Canon” is a Greek word meaning “measuring rod” or “rule.”) Other books were rejected because they were not divinely inspired. In the Old Testament, the Church accepts some books as canonical that Jewish tradition does not regard as Scripture. These books are called “deuterocanonical,” from a Greek word meaning “second canon”:

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Tobit Judith Wisdom

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) Baruch 1 Maccabees

2 Maccabees Parts of Daniel Parts of Esther

Protestant churches usually follow later Jewish tradition, so most Protestant Bibles omit those books. But according to the Catholic Church, these deuterocanonical books have the same authority as the rest of the books of the Bible; they are part of Scripture. These books offer, quite explicitly, certain doctrines which are recognized as Catholic teaching and practice. For example, the book of 2 Maccabees shows conclusively the concept of creation and that Jewish believers prayed for the souls of the dead many years before the coming of Jesus Christ. The book of Tobit demonstrates the existence and action of guardian angels.

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Understanding The Scriptures

There was a division among the Jewish scholars between the Septuagint or Alexandrian canon, a collection of forty-six books translated into Greek by seventy Jewish scholars, and the Palestinian canon which did not contain the deuterocanonical books. Protestant churches usually follow the Palestinian tradition, thus most Protestant Bibles omit those deuterocanonical books. The Catholic Church has determined the deuterocanonical books have the same authority as the rest of the books of the Bible.

The Canon Of Scripture
This is the complete list of all the books in the Bible, as determined by the Catholic Church.

The Old Testament
Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Tobit Judith Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon Wisdom Sirach Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Baruch Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees

Many Bibles put the two books of Maccabees after Esther. With that arrangement, all the historical books of the Old Testament are grouped together. On the other hand, the books of Maccabees make a good historical introduction to the New Testament, so there are good reasons for both arrangements.

The New Testament
Matthew Mark Luke John Acts of the Apostles Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

SUPPLEMENTARY READING
John Paul II, Fides et Ratio 10. Contemplating Jesus as revealer, the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council stressed the salvific character of God’s Revelation in history, describing it in these terms: “In this Revelation, the invisible God (cf. Col 1: 15; 1 Tm 1: 17), out of the abundance of his love speaks to men and women as friends (cf. Ex 33: 11; Jn 15: 14-15) and lives among them (cf. Bar 3: 38), so that he may invite and take them into communion with himself. This plan of Revelation is realized by deeds and words having an inner unity: the deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them. By this Revelation, then, the deepest truth about God and human salvation is made clear to us in Christ, who is the mediator and at the same time the fullness of all Revelation.” 11. God’s Revelation is therefore immersed in time and history. Jesus Christ took flesh in the “fullness of time” (Gal 4: 4); and two thousand years later, I feel bound to restate forcefully that “ in Christianity time has a fundamental importance.” It is within time that the whole work of creation and salvation comes to light; and it emerges clearly above all that, with the Incarnation of the Son of God, our life is even now a foretaste of the fulfillment of time which is to come (cf. Heb 1: 2). The truth about himself and his life which God has entrusted to humanity is immersed therefore in time and history; and it was declared once and for all in the mystery of Jesus of Nazareth. The Constitution Dei Verbum puts it eloquently: “After speaking in many places and varied ways through the prophets, God ‘ last of all in these days has spoken to us by his Son’ (Heb 1: 1-2). For he sent his Son, the eternal Word who enlightens all people, so that he might dwell among them and tell them the innermost realities about God (cf. Jn 1: 1-18). Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh, sent as ‘a human being to human beings’, ‘speaks the words of God’ (Jn 3: 34), and completes the work of salvation which his Father gave him to do (cf. Jn 5: 36; 17: 4). To see Jesus is to see his Father (Jn 14: 9). For this reason, Jesus perfected Revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making himself present and manifesting himself: through his words and deeds, his signs and wonders, but especially though his death and glorious Resurrection from the dead and finally his sending of the Spirit of truth.”

This page is from a parchment codex, ca. 1505. A codex (Latin for “book”) is a handwritten book from late Antiquity or the Middle Ages. The codex was an improvement over the scroll. Because it was single pages stitched together with leather, it could be opened flat at any page, allowing easier reading, and both sides could be written on. Parchment and vellum were made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. Parchment is named after the city Pergamon where it was first invented. In the Middle Ages, calf and sheep skin were the preferred materials for making parchment in England and France, goat skin was more common in Italy.

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Understanding The Scriptures

VOCABULARY
BIBLE Scripture. The collection of all the canonical books. The Bible is divided into two parts: the Old Testament, made up of books written before the coming of Jesus Christ, and the New Testament, made up of books written after the coming of Jesus Christ. CANON The list of inspired books. Greek for “measuring rod.” CATHOLIC Universal. Catholic can describe the Church or one of her members. CHURCH The faithful. This can refer to the Roman Catholic Church or an individual diocese. COVENANT An agreement that establishes a sacred family bond between persons. A covenant is more than a contract; a contract establishes a temporary relationship beneficial to both parties, whereas a covenant is intended to bind both persons in kinship forever. INERRANT Making no mistakes or errors. Scripture is inerrant; that is, it always teaches truth, never falsehood. INFALLIBLE Incapable of failing. The Bible and the teaching of the Church are infallible because of a special protection by God. INSPIRED Guided by God. From a word meaning “breathed in.” The human writers of Scripture wrote in their own language, but through God’s inspiration they wrote what God intended them to write and nothing more. MAGISTERIUM The teaching authority of the Church which, guided by the Holy Spirit, interprets Scripture and Tradition. PROTESTANT A Christian not in communion with the Church. A Protestant owes allegiance to one of the reform movements, most of which began in the 1500s. SALVATION HISTORY The story of God’s plan to save humanity from the consequences of sin. This plan begins with Creation, is unfolding now, and will continue until the end of time. SCRIPTURE. See Bible. TRADITION The living transmission of the message of the Gospel in the Church.

Before the printing press was invented in 1455, the Bible was copied by hand on stone, clay, leather, papyrus and vellum. Special scribes developed intricate methods of counting words and letters to insure that no errors could be made.

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Chapter 1: What is the Bible?

STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Name the two original sources for
Catholic teaching.

13. How did the authors of the Bible differ
from many people today in their view of religion?

2. What is the Bible? 3. What is Tradition? 4. What does “ inerrant ” mean? 5. What does “ inspired” mean? 6. What is the divinely chosen interpreter
of Scripture?

14. Why do we say the Bible is “objective
history”?

15. What is “salvation history”? 16. How does salvation history differ from
all other history?

17. What is a “covenant ”? 18. How many covenants has God made
with his people?

7. What does “ infallibility” mean? 8. What is the purpose of the Magisterium? 9. Who exercises the supreme Magisterium? 10. What does the phrase “ in a particular
way” mean in reference to the teaching authority of the pope?

19. What does the word “canon” mean? 20. List the three sources used to
determine canonicity.

21. List the five rules for determining
correct scriptural interpretation.

11. Who is the author of the Bible? 12. Explain the meaning of number 107
of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

22. What are “deuterocanonical” books? 23. In what covenant period are we living?

PRACTICAL EXERCISES
1. Numbers 75 to 78 of the Catechism of the
Catholic Church explain how divine revelation has been passed on to us from the very beginnings of the Church in two distinct but not separate ways; Sacred Scripture and Tradition are the one common source making present the revelation in the Church. How does the Catechism distinguish between these two sources of Revelation? How does the “continuous line of succession” from the Apostles to our present day bishops assure us that we are receiving the same truths which were received by the Church two thousand years ago?

2. There are many passages in the Bible
which may be interpreted differently by different people. One such passage is Luke 12: 51-53. Try to come up with two possible interpretations for the meaning of Jesus’ words: “Do you think I came to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division; for henceforth in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three; they will be divided, father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against her mother. . . .” How can we be sure of what Jesus was trying to tell us? What special quality does the Magisterium of the Church have which allows it to aid us?

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Understanding The Scriptures

FROM THE CATECHISM
80 “Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture,
then, are bound closely together, and communicate one with the other. For both of them, flowing out from the same divine well-spring, come together in some fashion to form one thing, and move towards the same goal.” Each of them makes present and fruitful in the Church the mystery of Christ, who promised to remain with his own “always, to the close of the age.”

132 “ Therefore, the study of the sacred
page should be the very soul of sacred theology. The ministry of the Word, too — pastoral preaching, catechetics and all forms of Christian instruction, among which the liturgical homily should hold pride of place — is healthily nourished and thrives in holiness through the Word of Scripture.”

135 “ The Sacred Scriptures contain the Word
of God and, because they are inspired, they are truly the Word of God” (Dei Verbum 24).

82 As a result the Church, to whom the
transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, “does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honoured with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence” (Dei Verbum 9).

2653 The Church “forcefully and specially
exhorts all the Christian faithful . . . to learn ‘the surpassing knowledge of Jesus Christ ’ (Phil 3: 8) by frequent reading of the divine Scriptures. . . . Let them remember, however, that prayer should accompany the reading of Sacred Scripture, so that a dialogue takes place between God and man. For ‘we speak to him when we pray; we listen to him when we read the divine oracles.’ ”

85 “ The task of giving an authentic interpretation of the Word of God, whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition, has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone. Its authority in this matter is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ ” (Dei Verbum 10 § 2). This means that the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome. 104 In Sacred Scripture, the Church
constantly finds her nourishment and her strength, for she welcomes it not as a human word, “but as what it really is, the word of God.” “In the sacred books, the Father who is in heaven comes lovingly to meet his children, and talks with them.”
A page from the Biblia Pauperum, ca. 1470. The Biblia Pauperum or Poor Man’s Bible is thought to have been used by poorer members of the clergy to prepare sermons. Each page of the Biblia Pauperum illustrates a subject from the life and Passion of Christ, two parallels from the Old Testament, and witnesses from among Biblical personages. In the woodcut illustrated here, we see the Temptation of Christ in the center panel, Jacob and Esau on the left, and the Temptation of Adam and Eve on the right.

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