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Quick Study 2 (p. 8)

2. Q: List each benefit a company might obtain from the globalization of
A: Globalization of markets refers to convergence in buyer preferences in
markets around the world. Potential benefits for companies include: (1)
reduced costs by standardizing marketing activities, (2) market opportunities
abroad if home market is small or saturated, and (3) levels an income stream
by letting international sales offset domestic sales for a company selling a
global seasonal product.

3. Q: How might a company benefit from the globalization of production?

A: Globalization of production refers to the dispersal of production activities
to locations that help a company minimize costs or maximize quality of a
good or service. Potential benefits for companies include: (1) access lower-
cost labor to cut production costs, (2) access technical know-how, and (3)
access resources unavailable or costly at home.

Quick Study 6 (p. 23)

3. Q: Summarize the claims of each side in the debate over globalization’s
influence on cultures.
A: (1) Globalization critics fear it is homogenizing the world and destroying
its rich diversity of cultures. In some drab, new world we all will wear the
same clothes bought at the same brand-name shops, eat the same foods at the
same brand-name restaurants, and watch the same movies made by the same
production companies. (2) It is also feared that cultural diversity will be
reduced through universal products, as local businesses cannot compete with
large MNCs.
(1) Globalization supporters counter that it allows each nation to
profit from differing circumstances and skills. Trade allows a country to
specialize in producing those goods and services in which it is most
efficient. It can then trade those products to other nations in exchange for
goods and services it desires but does not produce. (2) Focusing only on
consumer goods examines only the most superficial aspects of culture. (3)
Throughout the past century, the music, art, and literature of developing
countries has thrived and gained international attention through

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Quick Study 2 (p. 54)
3. Q: Compare and contrast values and attitudes. How do cultures differ in their attitudes toward
time, work, and cultural change?
A: Values are ideas, beliefs, and customs to which people are emotionally attached whereas
Attitudes are positive or negative evaluations, feelings, and tendencies that individuals harbor
toward objects or concepts. People hold as values only those ideas, beliefs, and customs
extremely important to them. Conversely, people harbor attitudes toward things that are important
and unimportant to them.
Attitudes toward time in certain cultures are more relaxed while attitudes toward time in
others are more rigid. For example, Latin American and Mediterranean cultures tend to be relaxed
toward the use of time whereas Northern Europe and the United States tend to keep far tighter
Attitudes toward work also vary across cultures. Some cultures see work strictly as a
means to an end whereas others see work as an end in itself. Attitudes toward work influence
people’s attitudes toward time. For example, in France where people tend to take a relaxed
attitude toward work, attitudes toward time are quite flexible. The opposite is true in Japan.
Attitudes toward cultural change also vary from one culture to another. Some cultures
readily accept the cultural traits of other nations, whereas others are far more wary. However,
globalization and technological advancements are increasing the pace of cultural change for many
cultures around the world.

Quick Study 3 (p. 57)

1. Q: How do manners and customs differ? Give examples of each.

A: Manners are appropriate ways of behaving, speaking, and dressing in a culture. Customs are
habits or ways of behaving in specific circumstances that are passed down through generations in
a culture. The two differ from each other in that manners apply generally in a culture whereas
customs apply to specific situations.
An example of good manners is behaving in a modest manner and dressing
conservatively in Japan. An example of a custom is the practice of arranging marriages on the
behalf of children in India—just as it was a widespread custom across Europe several or more
generations ago. Another custom is the playing of cricket in Britain and its former colonies
including India and Australia.

2. Q: List several manners that managers should keep in mind when doing business abroad.
A: Several tips include (See Global Manager’s Briefcase box): don’t rush familiarity, adapt to
personal space, respect religious values, give and receive business cards respectfully, use comedy
sparingly, and maintain good posture.

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