Cutting Room

costs
The cutting room has a greater effect on excessive manufacturing costs than any other department concerned with the actual production of garments. • Internal costs – those incurred in the cutting room itself. • External costs – those incurred by other departments as a result of the malfunctions of the cutting room.

Internal costs
• Labour : Effective utilisation • Material : 40% to 50% of the cost price of most of the mass produced clothing and largest cost component of a garment • Efficiency

Pattern accuracy

Marker waste

Spreading waste

The factors influencing materials untilisation

External costs
• • • • • • • Coordination Defects Matching Accuracy Sewing Shading Quality

Production Process in the Cutting room
• • • • Planning Spreading Cutting Preparation for sewing

Production process in the Cutting Room Spreads Planning Markers Production Manual Spreading Machine Machine Cutting Die Press Computer Shade marking Preparation for sewing Ticketing Bundles

Cut order planning
• It translates customer orders into cutting orders. • It is the process that coordinates customer orders with all the variables of marker making, spreading, and cutting to minimize total production costs and meet customer demand for timely products. • It seeks most effective use of labor, equipment, fabric and space.

Responsibilities of Cut Order Planning
• Examining incoming orders and piece goods width and availability • Determining volume, size ratios, and sectioning procedures for marker making • Determining whether file markers are available or new ones are needed • Developing specifications for optimum marker making and fabric utilization • Determine most effective use of spreading and cutting equipment and personnel • Issuing orders for marker making, spreading and cutting

Most common considerations
• • • • • • • • • • • • Number of sizes in order Number of colors in order Max/min number of sizes allowed in marker Maximum spread length Maximum ply height Percentage of overcut or undercut units Fabric cost per yard Usable cloth width Width variation Common lines among pattern pieces Costs of marking markers, spreading, cutting, bundling Fabric roll change time

Results of Cut Order Planning

Cutting Orders Leads to

Marker planning

Lay planning

• Marker planning is to determine the most efficient combination of sizes and shades for each order and to produce the best fabric yield and equipment utilization • Lay is a stack of fabric plies that have been prepared for cutting • Lay planning is the basis of managing cutting room labor and table space

Marker Making
• Marker is a diagram of a precise arrangement of pattern pieces for a specific style and the sizes to be cut from a single spread. • Marker Making is the process of determining the most efficient layout of pattern pieces for a specified style, fabric, and distribution of sizes (requires time, skill and concentration)

Marker Making

Manually produced

Computerized marker making

Dimentions of marker
• Markers are made to fit the cuttable widths of fabrics. • Blocked or sectioned markers contain all of the pattern pieces for one style in one or two sizes. • Continuous markers contain all the pattern pieces for all sizes included in a single cutting. Splice marks are points in marker where fabric can be cut and the next piece overlapped to maintain a continuous spread. They are planned in continuous marker.

Types of Markers
Open marker – Marker made with full pattern pieces Closed Marker – marker made with half garment parts pieces for laying along the folds of the tube (tubular knit)

Marker Modes
Is determined by the symmetry and directionality of fabric. • Nap either way (N/E/W) • Nap one way (N/O/W) • Nap up and down (N/U/D)

The term Nap is used to indicate the fabric is directional. N/E/W –with symmetric, non directional fabrics, pattern pieces can be placed on a marker with only consideration for grainline N/O/W – all the pattern pieces be placed on a marker in only one direction N/U/D – all patterns pieces of one size to be placed in one direction and another size placed in opposite direction. eg. corduroy

Requirements of marker planning
1. Nature of the fabric and the desired result in the finished garment • Pattern alignment in relation to the grain of the fabric • Symmetry and asymmetry • The design characteristic of the finished garment 2. The requirements of quality cutting 3. The requirements of production planning

Marker Efficiency
Area of patterns in the marker plan X 100% Total area of the marker plan • It is determined by fabric utilization • Minimum waste

Factors effecting marker efficiency
• Fabric characteristics • Characteristics of Pattern pieces splitting pattern pieces and creating a seam , reducing seam allowances, hemwidth, adjusting and modifying grainline, etc • Grain Orientation • Fabric utilization standards – 90 to 97% which lead to 80 -85% achievement

Plotting
The process of drawing or printing pattern pieces or markers on paper so they can be reviewed or cut.

Duplications of marker
• Carbon duplicating – small no. of copies only are made (6–8) • Spirit duplicating or hectograph carbon system – uses alcohol and it is a messy process many copies can be produced • Diazo photographic method – the master marker and light sensitive paper passes under high intensity ultra violet light and the light sensitive paper is developed using amonia

Spreading
Spreading is the processes of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process A spread or lay-up is the total amount of fabric prepared for a single marker.

Spreading mode
• Spreading mode is the manner in which fabric plies are laid out for cutting • Direction of the fabric: it may be positioned in two ways face-to-face (F/F) or with all plies facing-one-way (F/O/W) • Direction of the Fabric Nap: it may be positioned nap-one-way (N/O/W) or napup-down

Spreading modes
F/O/W N/O/W F/F N/O/W

F/F N/U/D F/O/W N/U/D

Requirements of Spreading process
• • • • • • • • Shade sorting of cloth pieces Correct ply direction and adequate lay stability Allignment of plies Correct ply tension Elimination of fabric faults Elimination of static electricity Avoidance of distortion in the spread Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting

Setup for spreading
• Verifying cutting orders • Positioning materials • Preparing cutting tables • Preparing machines • Loading machine Reloading and delay time may use upto 70% of the time required for the entire spreading operation.

Methods of spreading
• Spreading by hand • Spreading using a travelling machine (100 to 150 yards per minute)

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