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Chapter I INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the foundations of the study. It aims to lay down the problem, what is being asked, the objectives of this study, and the definition of terms. Most importantly, it provides the limitations of this study, the theoretical and conceptual framework and the methodology that the researchers followed.
Rationale Ideologies are set of aims and ideas, comprehensive line of thinking that seek to offer change through normative thinking process. Essentially, ideology permeates every aspect of a course of action. Implicitly, every political action entails an ideology with it. Since ideologies pervade the aspects of a political action, ergo ideologies contribute in shaping the attitudes and beliefs of the society as a whole. Non-government organizations (NGO’s), as representatives of the different sectors of society play an important role in development. NGO’s aim to forward the varied causes of the different sectors of society is carried through initiating programs and services that would cater to the needs of society. Looking into the Labor, Urban Poor and Women’s sectors, the ideologies adhered by the different sectors of civil society affect the kind of programs and services provided by their respective NGO’s. The actions taken by these non-government organizations are in conformity with the set of principles followed by the organizations. Ideologies and/or principles provide the structure of the programs that are initiated by the non-government organizations. The research aims to establish the role of ideology adhered by the three non-government organizations representing the different sectors of society (VIHDA – Labor, Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. – Urban Poor, and Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. – Women) in the promotion of development. The ideologies and/or principles followed by the organizations serve as guiding standards in the programs and services provided by the NGO’s. Moreover, the development goals of the organizations are enshrined in the vision, mission and goals of the NGO’s. The researchers chose the study since the researchers saw the necessity of establishing the relationship on the role of ideology in development. The study also aims to understand the different ideologies and/or principles of the selected NGO’s, determine the views of the selected NGO’s regarding development, and to present the programs initiated by the selected NGO’s.
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Statement of the Problem The main concern of this research is to identify the different ideologies and/or principles adhered to by selected non-government organizations (NGOs) representing the Labor, Urban Poor and Women sectors. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. What is/are the ideologies being adhered to by: a. Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA of Labor Sector); b. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) and; c. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women)? 2. What are the views regarding Philippine development of: a. Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA of Labor Sector); b. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) and; c. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women)? 3. What are the programs initiated by: a. Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA of Labor Sector); b. Pagtambayayong Mutual Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) and; c. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women)? 4. What is role of ideology in promoting development in the Philippines of: a. Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA of Labor Sector); b. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) and; c. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women)?
Objectives This research paper aims to establish a connection between an NGOs ideology and/or principles and its plight for development. This paper concretizes this connection by presenting a case study of three (3) selected NGOs representative of three (3) chosen sectors in the civil society, namely: Labor, Urban Poor and Women. Specifically, it aims: To understand the different ideologies and/or principles being adhered to by the selected NGOs. To determine each organizations’ views on development. To discuss the programs of each NGO in line with their aim of development. To establish the role of ideology in development.
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Significance of the Study The following will benefit from this study: Cebu City Government and Residents The Cebu City Government may benefit from this study. The City Government, through this study, would be aware of the importance of non government organizations (NGOs). The awareness and recognition of this importance would translate into support for these organizations. Consequently, the City Government would find partner in its aim of development in the person of these NGOs. The residents would also recognize the presence of these organizations and eventually, they would be able to highlight the importance of these cause-oriented organizations especially in the light of a State’s continuous aim of development. The residents would then take part in the programs advocated by the organizations, either as contributor or recipient. Non Government Organizations Nongovernment organizations would also benefit from this study. Other organizations may replicate the strategies of the NGOs subjected in this seminar paper. Aside from this, the same organizations may also see the importance of ideologies and principles in their aim of development. Students and the Researchers Through this seminar paper, the students, not only the researchers would be aware of the existence and significance of the cause-oriented NGOs. Political science students and students of development will also be aware of the importance of ideology or set of principles in an action or advocacy, especially that related to development. Also, the knowledge of these organizations would be tantamount to support and participation by the students.
Scope and Limitations This seminar paper is only limited to three sectors of the civil society, namely: Urban Poor, Labor and Women. The researchers chose the three sectors because on the issue of development, these three sectors are three of the most susceptible to any adverse or beneficial changes. Specifically, this seminar paper is limited to one NGO per sector, namely: Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA) for Labor, Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. for the Urban Poor and Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. for Women.
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The researchers referred to books for theorizing. However, the researchers opted to conduct interviews and referred to brochures, tarpaulins and other materials to gather data about the NGOs provided for by the researchers’ contact person for each organization.
Theoretical Framework John D. Montgomery, in his book Approaches to Development: Politics, Administration and Change, presented that ideology is an important sector in administration of development. More so, ideology is a means through which attitudes and efforts of a group or a community are greatly affected. This statement aided the researchers as to regarding the NGOs as groups whose attitudes and efforts in the society are greatly affected by its ideological bases. On NGOs whose no clear ideological base exist, its principles on the society and development are considered as basis through which its decisions and actions are made. Charles Funderburk and Robert W. Thobaben, in the book Political Ideologies, tackled on the core values, programs, and leadership as dimensions of ideologies. Core Values constitute of the belief system, that is, a view on how the world works politically, economically and socially. These core values that work as belief system have programs that serve as guide for action. The goals of an ideology sprang from the worldviews and are, most of the time, Utopian or ideal. Strategies are the programs and actions that are taken to achieve goals. These programs and actions are limited by the core values of the ideology. Goals are set and strategies are made to attain these goals. On the other hand, the leadership aspect of ideologies suggests the implementation of the programs. Funderburk and Thobaben’s Dimensions of Ideologies aided the researchers on the concept that programs and actions are made in attaining a goal. Andrew Heywood, from his book Politics, defines ideology as “a more or less coherent set of ideas that provides a basis for organized political action.” (Heywood, 2002: 43) From this, one can concur that an ideology defines the actions to be undertaken by an individual or an organization. Further, Heywood emphasizes three (3) features of an ideology, namely: “(a) offer an account of the existing order, usually in the form of a ‘world view’, (b) provide a model of a desired future, a vision of the Good Society, and (c) outline how political change can and should be brought about.” (ibid) In a shallow analysis of the role of ideologies, they turn out to be political philosophies. However, in its active form, ideologies become phases of social and political movements all aimed at changing the
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status quo. This helped the researchers in providing basis as to measures undertaken by groups and organizations with conformity to its ideology.
Conceptual Framework The subjects of the study are the non-government organizations specifically the Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA), Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc., and the Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc.. Each NGO has different ideology and/or principle that are being adhered to. These ideologies and/or principle are the belief systems and values that the NGO follow. Each NGO also has its view on development. As NGOs took measures on attaining a goal, the actions taken runs in coherent with the belief systems that they held. More so, each also has measures and actions that would entail achieving development. As these NGOs necessitate a belief system or core value, they also provide programs and actions on achieving a goal, in this case, development. These NGOs carry along with them ideologies and principles that guide the programs and actions that are to be done.
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Methodology This paper is a case study on the role of ideologies of the NGOs. The researchers relied on secondary sources to establish a connection between ideology and development. To support such connection, the researchers conducted interviews with the representatives of the NGOs. Brochures, PowerPoint Presentations and tarpaulins of NGOs were indispensable in providing relevant information for this study.
Subjects The study revolves around three sectors of civil society, namely: Labor, Urban Poor and Women. The researchers considered one non government organization (NGO) for every sector. For the Labor Sector, the researchers contacted Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA), Pagtambayayong Mutual Foundation, Inc. for the Urban Poor sector and Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. for the Women sector. Each NGO provided reliable representatives for the researchers to interview.
Definition of Terms Ideology - “a pattern of ideas which simultaneously provides for its adherents: self-definition, description of the current situation, its background and what is likely to follow and the various imperatives which are deduced from the foregoing.” (Finkle & Gable, 1971: 114) Principles - “an important underlying law or assumption required in a system of thought and the basic way in which something works”
(encarta.msn.com) Non Government Organization - “is an association which (a) is based on the common interests of its members, individuals, or institutions, (b) has no governmental status or function, and (c) is not created by a government, nor is its agenda set or implemented by a government.” (www.sil.org)
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Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The information gathered by the researchers serve as guide to the research study since they provided necessary facts and reasons needed for the study. The following related literature focus on the definition of ideology and the role of ideology in promoting development.
Review of Related Literature Dr. Bo-Yung Kim, on his study about Political Ideology and Policy Development, found out that the role of ideology in development of policies for social care is self-evident and is significant in the process of developing measures for policies, most especially in Great Britain, between the Conservative and Labour Parties. On the Government side, ideology is central to the social services as it promotes freedom and New Right. The set of choices in the policy development for social services, as Kim found out, showed the visible influence of ideology in the government. He also found out that the structure of approach in development of policies is very much affected by the ideology the organization is adhering to, in Kim’s case study, the Conservatives of United Kingdom. This further emphasizes the role of ideology in the creation of policies that the government will be taking. Stephan Haggard, on his book on Institutions and Economic Development, presented that interest groups whose actions are misleading will never be understood unless careful analysis on the institutional setting in which these groups operate is done. Interest groups have their respective concerns, and that these concerns are upheld through policies and actions. The differences of democratic institutions affect the organization of the interests, and most especially of the policy-making process. Haggard also stressed the importance of interest groups in public policies. As interest groups want to gain a larger share of the pie—political, economic and social pie—they tend to influence sectors that would later be of their supporters: exporters, agricultural producers, labor-intensive manufacturers and social workers. Interest groups whose concerns are fixed and are further upheld have great impacts on the different processes of the society. Harry G. Johnson (Finkle & Gable, 1971: 101-112) asserted a strong case regarding the role of ideology in the economic policies of new states. Johnson mentioned about the three common influences that affect development of new states. These would include “political nationalism, which has its counterpart in economic nationalism; economic ideas and experiences inherited from the interwar period (especially in the 1930s) which have provided a common body of interpretation, thought, and policy
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prescription, a sort of international language of economic development; and the dual role of the advanced countries as advisers and sources of foreign aid”. (Finkle & Gable, 1971: 70) Johnson further stressed the relevance of nationalism in the building of a national base industry, owned and performed by nationals. Nationalism involves an ideological preference in economic policies to achieve selfsufficiency, public ownership and public enterprise, domestic participation and control of foreign businesses. The assertion of the development of a national industry is regarded as a sine qua non of economic development. John D. Montgomery, in his book Approaches to Development: Politics, Administration and Change, discussed on three modes of action that are essential to the administration of development. These are programs, promotion and ideology. He also viewed development as aspect of change that is desirable, broadly predicted or planned, and administered by government action. To dig dipper, government actions, whose direct forms are its programs, affects other groups and agents. On the other hand, ideology influences law, and it can even change institutions of different sectors. Ideology, when translated into doctrine, turns into propaganda and will further become means for encouraging different attitudes and behaviors. Also, on the government side, pride of service, often linked with an almost ideological belief, helps the government in attaining a humane end. Mary Matossian defines ideology as “a pattern of ideas which simultaneously provides for its adherents: self-definition, description of the current situation, its background and what is likely to follow and the various imperatives which are deduced from the foregoing.” (Finkle & Gable, 1971: 114) Matossian further mentioned that ideologies adhered by delayed industrialized nations are revolutionary. Robert Eccleshall, et.al, explains that ideologies express relation of accounts of social and political reality and how reality could be improved. Also, “ideologies embody a set of political ideals aimed at detailing the best possible form of social organization”. (Eccleshall, et.al., 2003: 2) Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism, Nationalism, Fascism, Ecologism, and Feminism were some ideologies explained by the authors. Nationalism is described as doctrine that functions as a primary driving force of political movements and considered as a general framework that helps make sense of the world. Feminism is the ideology that operates for the liberation of women, giving them greater recognition and equality with men.
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Chapter III PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter presents the background of the study. It aims to answer the queries mentioned on the preceding section of this paper. Further, this part discusses the findings of the researchers, its implications and its significant contribution to the main aim of this study.
Presentation of Data The civil society refers to the “intermediary institutions” which link the different sectors of society and encourage participation in governance. A prominent part of the civil society is played by non-government organizations which ensure that the grievances of the different sectors of society are represented and addressed through initiating programs organizing mass mobilization.
Relationship between Ideologies and Development Bo Yung-Kim contends that ideologies provide steps for policies and advocacies for political action. In the definition cited by our researchers in the preceding sections of the seminar paper, ideologies provide a view of the existing social order, a view on an expected social order, and a way to achieve the envisaged social order. Marginalized groups have a criticism on the existing social order. Development for them would have to be a change in this social order favoring the sector that they represent. Non government organizations become active participants in promoting political action to advance their sectoral concerns. Their existing ideologies provide a distinct program of action. In the road to development, organizations, parties and groups follow what is being espoused by their respective ideologies. Development is being achieved through mobilizations and the promotion of programs that aim to, in the short run, elevate the status of the sector that they represent, and in the long run, try to alter the existing social order. This claim of the researchers will be expounded through the case studies of three (3) different non government organizations. VIHDA represents the Labor sector, Pagtambayayong promotes housing programs for the Urban Poor, and Lihok Pilipina forwards advocacies for women. The case studies of these organizations will strengthen the established role of ideology in the process geared at achieving development.
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Case no. 1: VISAYAS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY, INC. (VIHDA OF LABOR) “for the organization of workers, and the support of the Labor sector” Visayas Human Development Agency, Incorporated, or VIHDA, existed along with manifestation of problems on the business sector. This became the major concern in Cebu as it became a major business trade in the country. In the late 70’s, VIHDA existed as the Cebu Labor Research Center and by then started conducting research for the organization of workers, as well as the massive support on the labor sector. VIHDA’s main mission is “to go with and enhance the efforts of the labor sector in Cebu, to strengthen their capability to work together and to bring around all sectors in society to support their struggle for just wages, job security, fair working condition and genuine industrialization.” The vision of VIHDA is to attain a “just, humane and sovereign society.” This is further expanded to as “a society wherein all sectors equally play a role in the authentic development of our country and can freely determine and chart their own perspective.” Authentic development is a goal set by the organization, and actions and programs are made in attaining this goal. VIHDA believes that the key factors to development are: (1) National industrialization, that is, establishment of the national industries in the Philippines, (2) Genuine Agrarian reform where there is development in agriculture for raw materials and that there is support services from the government regarding inputs and policy implementations, and lastly and most importantly (3) development of the labor sector where genuine trade unionism is existent and that workers are conscious or their role. VIHDA’s basic principle and ideology is on Genuine Trade Unionism. Divina Gracia Mangikay of VIHDA presented two kinds of Unionism: (1) the yellow unionism which does not genuinely serve the interest of the workers and (2) militant unionism where workers are nit limited as to inside processes but they also involve themselves on the problems of the society as a whole. The Genuine Trade Unionism that the organization is adhering to follows a Nationalist Union, that is: following the principles of the militant unionism. Workers are not limited inside the company but they are also active of the concerns of the country. Workers are politicized to enable them gain a broad analysis on the problems of the society. VIHDA, as it follows Genuine Trade Unionism in accordance Nationalist Union principle, also believe on the unified concerted actions. This is a measure taken when negotiations between workers and companies and/or government fail. Unified concerted actions are the highest form of strike, and are a means for the workers to uphold their interests.
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VIHDA also clamors for the establishment of linkages between the labor sector and other sectors that would support the workers actions for humane existence. They also call for facility of technical assistance and training of workers, most especially the marginalized ones. As the organization believes on these set of ideologies, they take necessary measures on supporting services for the workers and, especially, making empowerment programs. First off is the education on workers’ rights. This focused on the awareness on workers’ and trade unions’ democratic rights, made possible through a series of symposia and fora. VIHDA also managed workers’ organizations and conducted paralegal trainings in line with the Labor Code. VIHDA also conducted researches on the situation of workers in Cebu, and further, as results are derived, take necessary measures as to the attainment of the goals they set. This aims to strengthen workers’ status on the promotion of genuine trade unionism through a bi-annual publication that focuses on the workers’ condition in Cebu and position papers that affect the workers’ initiative as a whole. VIHDA also provides assistance on the trade unions, especially on the research and financial status. This responded to the workers’ need of legal counsel. This also trained the workers on the intricacies of the Labor code, and further enabled the workers defend themselves and promoted self-reliance. The organization also has radio programs that serve as important means of information dissemination. In here, workers receive legal advice and workers and other concerned individuals discuss on workers’ issues and problems. Lastly, VIHDA advocated for the workers’ rights. This is upheld through sponsoring meetings and symposia with the beneficiaries and allied organizations aimed for gathering support from the different parts of the society. Development is a goal by which the organization aims to attain. An important avenue for development, as the organization believes and its ideology adheres to, is the development of the workers and the trade unions. VIHDA believes on the ideology or principle of Genuine Trade Unionism, a principle that celebrates the involvement of the unions and workers in the societal concerns and the activism of the workers regarding the matters that have a bearing on their existence and importance as workers and as humans. VIHDA viewed development as the result of equal interplay of the different sectors of the society by which national industrialization, genuine agrarian reform and worker’s development are existent. Programs and actions are taken to attain the view of development that the organization adheres to. Symposia and fora are in existence for the massive participation of different sectors in upholding the workers’ rights. As an organization who upholds the labor sector of the society, and as a group who
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adheres to the ideology of genuine trade unionism, VIHDA takes measures as to the promotion of these concepts, that is, the advocacy for the workers’ rights and welfare. It is a step-by-step process. Advocacy of any given matter is not possible if not by, first, education training and, second, information dissemination. Also, to further promote the advocacy, actions are taken regarding the legal assistance of the workers for them to defend themselves and for them to have self-reliance. On the case of VIHDA, ideology and principle have a bearing on the actions that the organization is making. The programs and actions are in line with the core values and belief systems that the organization has. On VIHDA’s case, the principle on Genuine Trade Unionism, which promotes mainly the workers’ rights and welfare, dictated the measures as to the attainment of the goal, which is, again, primarily of the development of the workers and unions.
Case no. 2: PAGTAMBAYAYONG MUTUAL FOUNDATION, INC. (URBAN POOR)
“Pagtambayayong, with you, in our journey towards justice, peace and development.”
Pagtambayayong is a non-government organization (NGO) that has been around and made impact in Cebu City and the country, as a whole, since 1982. As an organization, it looks at the problems of the urban poor in Cebu City and the country. It forwards pro-poor policies like decent housing, employment and technology education. Its main mission is "to help organize and support the organization of grassroots communities especially through self-help housing, decent employment and appropriate technology." (www.anzorenaselavip.net) The short sight vision of Pagtambayayong is to “help raise the quality of life of a number of urban poor through the delivery of housing and other related services.” In the general view, it aims to “help restructure Philippine society by providing alternative models and through alliances with other groups and sectors.” With this, it is safe to say that the organization would view a development in the Philippine setting if there would be the presence of extensive restructuring of the society. The organization believes on the importance of security of tenure. According to Paola Fernandez, Technical Assistant of the organization, if security of tenure is guaranteed to the poor, livelihood, values formation within the family, eventually, development, would follow. On the same line of thinking, she posed that a secured abode for the poor would assure fewer problems for them in the future. It is, as the researchers see it, a springboard for the development of the poor in any possible way that they can and they wish to do it.
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Pagtambayayong celebrates collective action, organization and the initiative of the poor. It caters to organized communities of informal settlers or squatters. Aside from that, the organization is optimistic of the paying powers of the poor. The organization claims that as long as something is beneficial for a poor family (i.e. secured abode), that family is always willing to pay. The organization has always been positive that the poor do not leave everything to the government and other forceful organizations. For Pagtambayayong, they (the poor) never were ‘free-riders’. For years, Pagtambayayong has reached out to help organized communities to avail decent housing. According to Fernandez, Barrio Luz has been the ‘pet project’ of the organization. The organization initiated a socialized housing program and a community mortgage program, together with the Local Government. Both projects aim to provide decent housing for the urban poor. Through grants from foreign donors and the local government, the organization makes negotiations with private land owners to let the informal settlers own the lot by paying a subsidized amount. Through Pagtambayayong, the informal settlers can own lands for their abode with a reasonably low price. More often that not, the poor families initiate the contact with Pagtambayayong. The families threatened with demolition and rehabilitation asks for help from the organization. In response, the NGO conducts ocular inspection of the place, conducts Socio-Economic Survey, and most importantly, checks whether or not the will-be beneficiaries are not ‘professional squatters’ (read: those squatters who have been moved yet given just compensation but did not use it to their advantage). Pagtambayayong conducts negotiations with the private owner of the lands the settlers occupy. Fernandez quipped that relocation has always been considered the last resort. In their negotiations with owners, the organization tries to forward a “as is, where is” policy. In the context of development, Pagtambayayong sees security of tenure as a springboard to this objective. One may logically infer that security of tenure does contribute to a wider opportunity to develop. Normally, a secured abode would encourage confidence in making big decisions. This might be true; however, putting everything into consideration it may not entirely guarantee total development of an individual and a family. Other programs being promoted by the organization are Employment Generation / Construction Cooperative, Building Materials Production Research and Training and NGO/LGU Capability Building. Development for Pagtambayayong is based on the quality of life a family or individual experiences. The lack of livelihood that provides adequate income, financial burdens and an unsecured
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tenure adds up to an underdeveloped situation. With the basic concept that security of tenure is a prerequisite in the development that the organization wants to achieve, it has employed socialized housing programs and community mortgage programs that would make it easier for the poor to secure themselves a healthy abode. In the case of Pagtambayayong, the role of its principle is not limited only to its mission but extends to the programs it pursues to achieve such mission. In a nutshell, the researchers are able to concur that the principle/s of the organization acted as a guide as to what programs of action it will be pursuing in order to achieve its objectives. From the case of Pagtambayayong, the role of ideology in its goal of development is that of a guide and provider of pattern for actions, policies and programs that they will be pursuing.
Case no. 3: LIHOK PILIPINA FOUNDATION, INC. (Women) “A foundation, of, by, for women and their concerns.” The women sector in civil society plays a significant role in advancing the interests of the women and addressing issues concerning the welfare of women. Organizations in the women sector represent the marginalized sector of women in society. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. is a non-government organization established to help and promote women’s rights and further their cause for gender equality. It started as a project of PilipinaCebu Chapter in 1985 from a personal experience of a community organizer (present Executive Director of the Foundation) who organized a group of women that tackled about gender sensitivity, primary health care and income generating programs. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. grounds on gender equality as the main principle of their cause. It envisions dynamic and non-violent communities where the dignity of women, children and men are upheld. Further, its mission aims to organize women and families into sustainable self-help groups capable of directing their own initiatives (e.g. health, security, livelihood, housing, etc.) and the acceptance of the significance of women in governance in the Philippine society. The goals of the organization are to: “(1) develop viable and visible organizations that will enable women and their families to participate in the planning, decision making and action affecting their lives; (2) enhance their capacity to earn income, access and control of resources to improve their quality of life; (3) be secure in their person and homes from all forms of abuse and violence; (4) relate and advocate with government agencies and the private sector for more responsive program, policy and budget.”
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Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. believes on the principle of gender equality i.e. recognition of the role of women in governance and in the national struggle for social transformation. The organization struggles for the recognition of women’s rights and to mainstream the issue of women in governance. The foundation also believes in good governance through facilitating in monitoring the performance of government agencies and community organizing which is the foundation’s core program. According to Liza Tumulak, project officer of the Bantay Banay Program, the organization views development in the Philippines in accordance with the Philippine Development Plan for Women (19891992) which was adopted through Executive No. 348 on February 17, 1989. The Philippine Development Plan for Women is a comprehensive plan which served as the framework for the institutionalization of Gender and Development in Philippine governance thus recognizing the role of the government in the advancement of women’s rights. According to the Philippine Development Plan for Women, “individual personal development and consciousness-raising are necessary so that women, especially poor women, will stop viewing themselves as less important than men.” (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. initiates programs and services for the development of women. These programs and services include: (1) Women’s Savings and Credit Center (WSCC) which offers loans for livelihood to urban and rural women; (2) Bantay Banay (BB) which is a comprehensive family/community watch program that seeks to eliminate domestic and other forms of violence against women and children; (3) Bantay Banay Youth (BBY), a program that offers trainings and enhancement activities for youth in the barangays and schools on issues of gender sensitivity, leadership trainings and community activities; (4) Kabataan sa Paglaum (KSP) or Children of Hope which is a support program for street/working children in depressed communities, extending assistance through values formation, school supplies and tutorials; (5) Women’s Integrated Support and Crisis Center (WISCC), a comprehensive program that offers direct intervention (temporary shelter, counseling, legal assistance) to victims of domestic violence, sexual abuse and other forms of abuse on women; (6) Katilingbanong Pagdumala sa Biya (KPB) or Community Waste Management, a project that aims for the implementation of sustainable waste management in the different communities in Cebu through the local government units. The foundation is also active in the realization of women’s participation in governance in coordination with the local government units (LGU’s) through the establishment of Gender and Development offices in the different communities. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. also observes advocacies of a number of networks which would include Visayas Urban Poor Colloquim (VUPC), Cebu Women’s Coalition and Konsumo sa Sugbo.
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Liza Tumulak explains that the principles adhered by the organization serve as guiding principles in the delivery of services and projects so as to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the foundation. The recognition of women’s role in nation building is a key factor in achieving development in the Philippines. The programs and services provided by the organization are grounded on their main principles of gender equality, good governance and community organizing. The researchers concur that the programs and services initiated by Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. are coherent with the principles adhered by the organization since their principles serve as blueprint of the programs of the organization for women’s development.
“The political goal for women is full participation in political processes and structures.” (Executive Order No. 348, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) The programs of Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. are in line with the advocacy for women’s participation in governance which is the foundation’s aim for development. This is reflected through their programs on community waste management vis-à-vis local governments in the barangays and establishment of Gender and Development offices in the different communities.
“Development is usually conceived as an aspect of change that is desirable, broadly predicted or planned, and administered or at least influenced by governmental action”. (Montgomery, 1966: 259)
The organization recognizes the role of the government in the advancement of women’s rights though the implementation of policies inclined to women’s development. Laws were passed to protect the rights of the women i.e. the passage of RA 9262 (Anti-Violence against Women and Children Act) and RA 9206 (Anti-Trafficking Person Act). The recognition of March as Women’s Month and the creation of Gender and Development offices in the local government units (LGU’s) also highlight the participation of the government in the promotion of women’s rights. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. takes part in promoting the guiding principles of the Philippine Development Plan for Women through their programs such as Women’s Savings and Credit Center (WSCC), Bantay Banay, Bantay Banay Youth, Kabataan sa Paglaum (KSP) or Children of Hope and Women’s Integrated Support and Crisis Center (WISCC). In these programs, the organization helps
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promote the advocacy of the PDPW of “individual personal development and consciousness-raising are necessary so that women, especially poor women, will stop viewing themselves as less important than men.” (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) From the case of Lihok Pilipina, the role of ideology in its goal of development is that of a blueprint. It entirely serves as a guiding principle and a framework for programs and advocacies that aim to achieve the development of women and the society as a whole.
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Chapter IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS After much discussion, the researchers were able to arrive at a conclusion and recommendation. This chapter presents the summary of data collated, the conclusions and recommendations of the researchers.
Summary of Findings
1. The ideologies being adhered to by the following sectors are the following: Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA of Labor Sector) The organization celebrates the attainment of genuine trade unionism, which mainly upholds the workers’ rights and welfare. It also believes on a national union where workers and unions are not passive and are not limited to the company’s internal matters, but workers and unions also concern themselves on the societal matters. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) The foundation espouses pro-poor policies. It believes that security of tenure is essential to achieve development. The organization puts a big importance to collective action, organization and initiative from the poor. In their housing programs, the organization puts forward a “as is, where is” policy. This implies that relocations are the last resort when the problem of rehabilitation occurs. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women) The organization promotes women’s rights and gender equality. The main principle espoused by the organization is gender equality manifested by the enhanced participation of women’s role in governance. Moreover, in the programs and services of the foundation, it advocates the principles of good governance and community organizing.
2. The views of each NGO on development are as follows: Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA) The organization sees development as a result of the interplay between the different sectors of the society. It also sees development as the industrialization where key forces of National Industrialization, Genuine Agrarian Reform and, most importantly the force that contributes on achieving development, the development of the labor, are existent. Development of labor, as it is plays
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a big role on the development as a whole, suggests a genuine trade unionism and consciousness of the workers regarding their rights and the issues they are mainly concerned with. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) The organization sees development in security of tenure, decent housing, employment, and education for appropriate technology for the urban poor. In its vision, it saw the need for a restructuring of the Philippine society. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women) The foundation views development in accordance with the Philippine Development Plan for Women (1989-1992). This development plan served as the framework for the recognition of the role of women in governance through the creation of Gender and Development in Philippine governance. Development is spelled out through the acknowledgment of women’s roles in nation building.
3. The organizations promote the following programs to achieve their objectives: Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA) VIHDA initiated programs on education and trainings on workers and unions regarding their rights, and it also made radio programs for an efficient information dissemination regarding the concerns and issues of the workers. Researches and documentations are also done regarding the workers situation. They also encouraged the different sectors to support them for their cause on the welfare of the workers. More so, they provided legal assistance for workers to defend their rights and to enhance their self-reliance. VIHDA also initiated on the creation of unions for the airing of concerns by the labor sector. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) The organization initiated programs that promoted security of tenure like their socialized housing program and community mortgage program. Other programs being promoted by the organization are Employment Generation / Construction Cooperative, Building Materials Production Research and Training and NGO/LGU Capability Building. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women) The programs initiated by the organization are those that go with the realization of gender equality towards development. The programs and services include(1) Women’s Savings and Credit Center (WSCC), (2) Bantay Banay (BB), (3) Bantay Banay Youth (BBY), (4) Kabataan sa Paglaum (KSP) or Children of Hope, (5) Women’s Integrated Support and Crisis Center (WISCC), and (6) Katilingbanong
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Pagdumala sa Biya (KPB) or Community Waste Management. The foundation is also active in the realization of women’s participation in governance in coordination with the local government units (LGU’s) through the establishment of Gender and Development offices in the different communities. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. also observes advocacies of a number of networks which would include Visayas Urban Poor Colloquim (VUPC), Cebu Women’s Coalition and Konsumo sa Sugbo.
4. As for every organization, the role that ideology has on development is as follows: Visayas Human Development Agency, Inc. (VIHDA) For the case of VIHDA, the role of ideology is that it dictates the actions that are taken in achieving an end. The belief systems and principles being adhered to suggested programs that are in line with the ideology that the organization adheres to, in this case, the genuine trade unionism for the development of the labor sector, and further for the development as a whole. Pagtambayayong Foundation, Inc. (Urban Poor) For the case of Pagtambayayong, the role of ideology in its goal of development is that of a guide and provider of pattern for actions, policies and programs that they will be pursuing. Lihok Pilipina Foundation, Inc. (Women) For the case of Lihok Pilipina, the role of ideology in its goal of development is that of a blueprint. It entirely serves as a guiding principle and a framework for programs and advocacies that aim to achieve the development of women and the society as a whole.
Conclusion Ideologies are set of actively motivating principles. These provide a view of the existing social order, presents a plan for the future or a preferred social order and programs of action on how to achieve the desired social order. Simply, ideologies define actions for the organization to adhere to and follow. As for the three NGOs being considered in this study, the researchers were able to see that, in practice, their ideologies and principles acted as guiding principles in their actions in their struggle for their own perception of development. At the end of this seminar paper, the researchers were able to identify the role of ideologies in development, that is: guide and provider of pattern for actions, policies and programs that they will be pursuing, and a blueprint for their programs and advocacies.
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Based on the case studies of the three NGOs, the researchers have concluded that the programs of the following NGO’s are coherent with the ideologies and/or principles adhered by the NGO’s.
Recommendations The researchers recommend to the future researchers of the same topic to put the following into consideration: a) The gathering of more empirical data to back up the cases. Using one resource person may not do the entire job that is needed to be accomplished especially with the type of topic that was chosen. b) Enlarge the scope or include more NGOs to use as subjects. To come up with a more conclusive generalization, the researchers need more back up cases. One can get these cases and a conclusive generalization if they enlarge the scope and increase the number of organizations to be interviewed. c) Explore other interest groups and political parties. As ideologies are put into the spotlight, it would be better for the future researchers to include other organizations (i.e. interest groups, and political parties) in the study. These organizations are known to be stricter in following ideologies and they do have equally altruistic developmental goals. d) The need to quantify development. The researchers may have established the role of ideologies in development in this study; however, the level of development achieved will also strengthen the case of the researchers. Emphasizing on the level of development achieved would trickle down to how good the ideology has done its part as a guiding principle.