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# 4. A man pushes very hard to move a heavy refrigerator up a steep ramp. It takes energy to move the refrigerator up.

6. Kira and Latonya are going to have a watermelon-rolling contest. Each girl has to push her watermelon 8 meters to the finish line. Kira's watermelon has a mass of 4 kg. Latonya's watermelon has a mass of 3 kg.

Predict what would happen if the man suddenly stopped pushing the refrigerator. The refrigerator would keep going up the A. ramp. B. The refrigerator's motion would not change. C. The refrigerator would stay where it is. D. The refrigerator would slide or fall down. 5. Tom designed a way to measure speed by timing his friends as they walked a distance of 15 meters. Tom's data is shown in the table.
Name Time (in seconds) 23 28 21 31 27

If each girl pushes her melon with the same amount of force, which girl will cross the finish line first? A. Kira will cross the finish line first. B. There is not enough information to tell who will win. Both girls will cross the finish line at the same time.

## Adrian Nate Opal Daisy Tony

7. Peter and Janet each have a remote controlled toy car. They want to do an investigation to determine which toy car is faster. How can Peter and Janet best perform their investigation? They can use a meter stick to measure the A. distance between the tires of each car. They can use a stopwatch to measure the B. time it takes for each car to run out of batteries. They can use a meter stick to measure the C. distance that each car travels in 30 meters. They can use a stopwatch to measure the D. time that it takes for each car to travel 30 meters.

Why did it take Daisy longer than it took Opal to walk the 15 meters? A. Daisy walked faster than Opal. B. Daisy is younger than Opal. C. Opal is shorter than Daisy. D. Opal walked faster than Daisy.

8 Brett, Clay, Frank, and Patricia each run away from Joe as fast as they can. Each of their positions relative to Joe changes through time, as shown in the graph below.

Which question would be best for Holly to answer with her design? A. How can I measure Jill's speed? How fast can Daniel ride to school on his B. bike? C. What kind of shoes is Jill wearing? D. Do dogs walk faster than people?

Who has run at the greatest speed? A. Brett B. Patricia C. Clay D. Frank

9. A ball is thrown in the air. The ball goes up, then changes direction and falls down. Why does the ball fall down? A. Gravity stops working. B. Gravity pulls it down. C. Gravity pushes the Earth up. D. Gravity makes the ball lighter.

10. Holly wants to design a test to find out how fast her friend Jill can walk from one end of the playground to the other.

## Study Island Forces and Motion Answers

1. C 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. B 10. A

the same row to the left, which, in this case, is 4 meters. 4. As the man pushes the refrigerator up the ramp, he is transferring some of the energy he uses to the refrigerator. When he stops pushing, gravity takes over. The energy that the man gave the refrigerator as he moved it upwards becomes the energy of motion when the refrigerator slides or falls down. 5. It took Daisy longer to walk 15 meters because Opal walked faster than Daisy. Speed is a measure of how far something can travel in a certain amount of time. If one person travels 15 meters in 21 seconds and another person travels 15 meters in 31 seconds, the person who took less time was traveling faster. 6. If two similar objects experience unbalanced forces of the same strength, the object with less mass will move faster. Since Latonya's watermelon has less mass, it will roll faster than Kira's, as long as the girls push with the same force. Therefore, Latonya will cross the finish line first. 7. Speed is a measure of how far something can travel in a certain

Explanations
1. The less mass an object has, the more effect a force will have on its motion. Even if the lighter wagon were pulled with the same force as the heavier wagon, the lighter wagon would move faster. In this case, the lighter wagon not only has less mass, but also a greater force. 2. Force must be applied to change the position or motion of an object. Friction is a force that acts against motion. It is caused by two surfaces rubbing against each other. The friction of the ball rubbing on the grass causes the ball to stop. 3. Looking at the right side of the chart, find the entry for 48 seconds. Then, look for the distance value on

amount of time. Peter and Janet want to measure the relative speed of their toy cars. Therefore, they could use a stopwatch to measure the time that it takes for each car to travel 30 meters. The car that travels 30 meters in the shortest amount of time is the faster car. 8. Patricia has run at the greatest speed. From the graph, with each passing second, everyone's position relative to Joe is increasing. The line showing Patricia's position is at the steepest angle. This means that she is covering more ground than anyone else with each passing second and is moving away from Joe at the greatest speed. As a result, Patricia is the person farthest from Joe. 9. The ball goes up because the force that the ball is thrown with is greater than the force of gravity. As the ball moves up, its force is reduced. The force of gravity becomes greater than the force making the ball move upwards and so it falls down again. 10. With her design, Holly should try to answer the question, "How can I measure Jill's speed?" Since Holly wants to find out how fast Jill can walk across the playground, Holly's design should answer a question about Jill.

Also, Holly should answer a question about measuring speed, since speed is the distance something travels in a particular amount of time.