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ISSN 0354-3293

ISSN 2217-8082

UNIVERSIT DE PRITINA / UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA


FACULT DE PHILOSOPHIE / FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY

RECUEIL DE TRAVAUX
DE LA FACULT DE PHILOSOPHIE

COLLECTION OF PAPERS
OF THE FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY
XLIII (1)/2013

KOSOVSKA MITROVICA
2013



XLIII (1)/2013


2013.



XLIII (1), 2013. .
ISSN 0354-3293
eISSN 2217-8082

.

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Europe at the Sorbonne (Paris IV), Paris, France; prof. dr Barbara Lomagistro, Facolt di lingue e
litterature straniere, Bari, Italia; . , , , , ; ,
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In memoriam:
. ............................................................................................. 1

.
......................................................................................... 9
. , .

............................................................................ 39
M.

............................................................................................................. 49
RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI
Le pronom indfini on en franais contemporain
et ses quivalents en serbe .................................................................................................. 67
.

. ............................................................ 91
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.............................................................................. 107
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- .......................................................... 125
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................................................................... 143

K
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................................................................................ 159
MIRJANA N. LONAR-VUJNOVI, ANA M. ANDREJEVI
National Elements in Modern Irish Drama ..................................................................... 185
v

LIII (1)/2013
.
............................................ 199
M M. J
:
........................................................................................ 223
SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI
Contribution of Jonsons Younger Contemporaries
to Development of the English Renaissance Comedy.................................................... 241
.
............................................................................................ 261
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....................................................... 285



.................................... 303
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vi


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1912. .............................................................................................. 389

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2008. 2012. ................................................................. 451
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................................... 471
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.................................................................................... 48
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......................................................................... 507

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............................................ 521

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(19752005) ......................................................... 541
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.................................................................................................. 545

vii

LIII (1)/2013
.
............................ 559
.

praxisa .................................................................................. 573
........................................................................... 589

viii

CONTENTS
In memoriam: prof. dr Mileta Bukumiri ............................................................................ 1

LANGUAGE
MILETA D. BUKUMIRI
Review of Metohija oiconyms ............................................................................................... 9
EDOMIR S. STOJMENOVI, BOJANA . STOJMENOVI
About the Use of Dual in Ancient Serbian
and Macedonian Manuscripts of the Acts of the Apostles ................................................. 39
RADMILA M. OBRADOVI
French Translations of the Prince's curse............................................................................ 49
RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI
The Indefinite Pronoun on in Contemporary French
and its Equivalents in Serbian language............................................................................ 67
GOLUB M. JAOVI
Certain Characteristics of the Serbian Dialects
from Kosovo and Metohija in Petar D. Petrovis short stories ..................................... 91
SANJA D. MIKETI, JELENA R. RATKOVI STEVOVI
Reactions of survey respondents from Kosovska Mitrovica
to ethnonyms as stimuli-words ........................................................................................ 107
SNEANA M. ZEEVI
Translational Equivalents and Composition of the Entries
in Bilingual English-Serbian Dictionaries........................................................................ 125
NIKOLA N. DANETOVI
Phrasal verbs with particle off
and their equivalents in Serbian language ..................................................................... 143

LITERATURE
DRAGOMIR J. KOSTI
An approach to Kafka's novel The Castle ......................................................................... 159
MIRJANA N. LONAR-VUJNOVI, ANA M. ANDREJEVI
National Elements in Modern Irish Drama ..................................................................... 185
NEBOJA J. LAZI
The construction of time in the the Golden Fleece by Borislav Peki ............................ 199
ix

LIII (1)/2013
MLADEN M. JAKOVLJEVI
William Gibsons Cyberpunk: from Simulation to Reality ............................................ 223
SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI
Contribution of Jonsons Younger Contemporaries
to Development of the English Renaissance Comedy.................................................... 241
SLAANA M. ALEKSI
Research in the Field of Narratology ............................................................................... 261
MARIJA D. MILJKOVI
Kraljevi Marko (record of Dena Debeljkovi, international
motive of the husband at his wifes wedding) ................................................................ 273
AZRA A. MUOVI
Through Emersonian Hermeneutics Landscapes of the Spirit
or Transcendental in Sylvia Plaths Poetry..................................................................... 285

SOCIOLOGY
VIKTOR M. URCHENKO
National identity and the formation
of Civil personality traits of students............................................................................... 303
DANILO . MARKOVI
Competence and Creativity ............................................................................................... 323
PETAR M. ANELKOVI
Educational and(or) anipulative Function of the Means
of Mass Communication in a Global Society ................................................................... 337
ALEKSANDAR V. KOSTI
Futurological Aspects of Globalisation ............................................................................ 353

HISTORY
MARKO P. ATLAGI, DALIBOR M. ELEZOVI
Subsidiary Historical Disciplines at Yugoslav and Serbian Universities
Their Development and Perspectives ........................................................................... 375
SAA S. MARKOVI
The Portrait of A Serbian Soldier in War Reports
for Serbs in Vojvodina from 1912 .................................................................................... 389

CONTENTS

PSYCHOLOGY
BLAGOJE V. NEI
The Age-Related Changes
in Figural Perceptual Abilities of Pupils .......................................................................... 413
JELENA B. GRUBAI, MILANKO D. ABARKAPA
Stress and Burnout Syndrome Among Teachers............................................................ 433
DRAGANA Z. STANOJEVI, MIROSLAV . KRSTI, BILJANA N. JAREDI
Life Satisfaction and Depression of Serbian Adolescents
in Kosovo and Metohija from 2008 to 2012 ..................................................................... 451
KRISTINA M. RANELOVI, DUAN J. RANELOVI
Self-determination theory and the welfare of employees ........................................... 471
OLIVERA B. RADOVI
Review of Approches of Studying Gender
and Gender Differences in Psychology ............................................................................ 489
TIJANA R. TODI
Influence of objects position and size
on configuration Aesthetic experience ........................................................................... 507

PEDAGOGY
PREDRAG . IVKOVI
Fragments on Teachers Reflective Practicum ............................................................... 521

SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS, POLEMICS, COMMENTS, VIEWS


DUAN IVANI
Literary Culture in Serbia:
Essays and Sociological Research (1975-2005)................................................................ 541
GLIGOR M. SAMARDI
The Florentines in the Balkans.......................................................................................... 545
RADOMIR D. OREVI
The Identity Controversies
About Albanians in Serbian Historiography ................................................................... 559
MILORAD V. TODOROVI
Academic Psychology or the Lost Meaning
of Psychology as praxis ...................................................................................................... 573
Instructions for Papers Submission ................................................................................. 589

xi

IN MEMORIAM
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(19462013)


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IN MEMORIAM .
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1979: , Oaa a Mj
() a. I, 1979, 237380 + .
1981: , Oaa a Mj () a. II, . 197338.
1982: , Oaa aa a Mj
() a. III, . 193300 + .
1984: , Oaa j a ja ja.
V, . 313409.
1997: , Oaa a.
I, 129141.
1998: , Oaa a Mj.
XIV, 157257.
2010: , , Oaa a,
aa, aa aa,
, , , , , . I, 6991.
X 1985: X, Oaa aa a. VI,
439506.

35

LIII (1)/2013
X 1987: X, Oaa a a.
VIII, . 221302 I.

Babi 1981: Stjepan Babi, Koliko ima sufiksa u imenikoj tvorbi, Jezik, asopis za
kulturu hrvatskoga knjievnoga jezika, Zagreb, 1981. sv. br 5.

1991: aa, aaa, aa aaa 1991. , 126, , 1991. .


1987: . , ,
( ), : -,
, 311362.
2005: , Mja a, , ( .
. ), . XVIII, 39
178.
1979: , Mja (aja). (), . 255.
1977: , a a, , , 1977.
Duridanov 1979: Ivan Duridanov, DER FLUSSNAME KLINA UND VERWANDTES,
, ( . . ), I . 45
49.
- 1976: , a .
, 1976, . 340.
2003: , Ta a j,
aja ja, , 2003, . 514.
1989: , Taa aja, , ( . . ), . . 132.
2003: , a
, , XI, 115.
2010: , a j (a j a a),
, , . 1,
, . 133143.
1963: , O aj a
a a a a, , , , , 1963, . XIII, . 35, . 137168.

36


1981: , j j a.
II, 1981, 192.
2003: a, Tja , ,
( . . ), . XVI, 17234.
RJAZU I-XXIII: Rjenik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika. Na svijet izdaje JAZU. Zagreb, 18801976, knj. IXXIII.
: Tefter Skadarskog sandaka iz 1485. godine. Priredio Selami Pulaha, Tirana
1974, str. 488.
Skok, Rjenik: Petar Skok Etimologijski rjenik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika. Zagreb 19711974, knj. IIV.
1975: , a a j.
aa ja a, . I (
) 1975, . + 653.
- 2003: -, , , ( . .
), . XVI, 323374.
Hadibegi i dr. 1972: Oblast Brankovia, Opirni katastarski popis iz 1455. godine.
Priredili H. Hadibegi, A Handi i E. Kovaevi. Monumenta turcica II, 2/1,
Orijentalni institut, Sarajevo, 1972, . 378 + .
kalji 1979: Abdulah kalji, Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku. Tree izdanje.
Sarajevo (Svjetlost), 1979, str. 662.

37

LIII (1)/2013
MILETA D. BUKUMIRI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

REVIEW OF METOHIJA OICONYMS


The study includes nearly 700 names of towns, villages and hamlets
in Metohija. Compared with data from medieval sources, it can be
seen that there is a significant number of settlements missing in wars
or epidemics, and, on the other hand, a considerable number of villages with their names preserved in the original form, or having their
names eventually adapted to modern standards of language.
The names are mostly formed by suffixation, a small number by
composition and suffix-prefix formation. It is noted that there is an
insignificant proportion of the Albanian-masticon, especially recognizable in the border area of the test areas: Grgoc (DJA), Jahoc (DJA),
Rakoc (DJA), Ramoc (DJA) Raskoc (DJA), Karainer (Pz).
KEY WORDS: village, hamlet, oiconym, name, base, suffix, work, motivation.

38


: 811.163.41'366.532
811.163.3'366.532
271.2-282.5"12/14"
: 199672332

. . 1

. ,
,



2
. .
,
. XIII XV . ,
.

, .

: , , , , .

1
2

boka_stoj@yahoo.com
15. 2013,
1. 2013.

39

LIII (1)/2013
; .
,
.
3 , ,

.4 (864. .),
.

: , .5 XII XIII .
- :6
, . 213 XIII
( u Biblioteci sir Chester Beaty u Dablinu, br. 62);
(), . 2 XIV ; , . 1447 XVI ( ). : XIII (
, ; . 184, . . 113437); , . 14 XIV (
); (, ;
IVd1 XIV ); (, ;
IIIb17 XIV ). -7
1324. ( , . 322).
- :8 (XII ), (XIII ; ,
, . 1), ( XIV );
-: ( XII ); (XIII ; , III 48); (XIIIXIV ).
3
4
5
6
7
8

40

O. Nedeljkovi, Problem strukturnih redakcija staroslavenskog prijevoda Apostola, 27


40.
. , , 3.
, 67.
O. Nedeljkovi, Problem strukturnih redakcija staroslovenskog prijevoda Apostola, 37
38; . , , 2122.
. , , 22.
. -, , 22; O. Nedeljkovi,
Problem strukturnih redakcija staroslovenskog prijevoda Apostola, 3738.

. , .


.
()9 , ()10
()11 ().12
.
,
.
173 ; ( ). . XIII
.13 .
.14 . .15
1979. .; 1981.16 ( )
, XV ,
.17
1324. . ,18 226 .
, 9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

[
, ,
. 2, , 1981; (XIII ), ,
, , I , . XXIX, ,
1979].
. , 1324. ,
, , 1989.
. , .
. . , () .
. . , 3-7 [ (XIII )].
Zum altkirchenslavischen Apostolus, I-III, Wien, 1919-1920.
, , 1971, 262.
. . 7.
. . , 3-7 [ (XIII )].
. , , VII ( 1324. ).

. , .

41

LIII (1)/2013
XIX , .19 1853. . ,
XIX
XX veka.20 .
1989. .
( ).21 XIII ,
.22 1900. , .
e .23 . .24
. .
-, 88 .
e XIII , .25
, XIX
XX .26
. . 1990. .
.
,27
.28
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

42

. , X-XII.
.
( 1324. , XXXVIII-XLIV).
. , , 12.
, 66.
. , ( ,
. I, . 17).
irilski rukopisi Jugoslavenske akademije, I dio, Zagreb, 1955, 143144.
. . , , X
[ () ].
. , VII-X ( ).
. , , 1733.
. . , , 63; , 197201;
, 206210; . -,
, 101106; . ,
( ), 243246; , 167169; .
, , 32; . -, . , , 63.

. , .


.29 :
glez0na (glez0n0), kolqno, noga, oko, plesna, rka, ust0na, uho.

: 10/25 srqte i
kornil0. i pad0 na nogu pokloni se 9mu. 1r2122 (na nogu 11/
25): i srqte i kornil0 i pad0 na nog ego i poklOni s em: 36/2728
(na nog 15a1920); 12/1 v0 vrqme ;e wno v0lo;i irod0 crS30
rucq wzlobiti 9ter\ i;e cr~kve. 3v1516 (rucq 13/17) : v0
vrqm ;e wno: v0zlo;i irod0 cr~0 rcq 1zlobiti i;e crk~ve: 41/
3132 (rca30 17b16); 12/7 i spadu 9mu u;a ;elqzna7 s0
ruku 4r5 (s0 ruku 13/28) : i spad em ;a ;elqzna s rk
42/1415 ( s nog i s rk 18a11) .
: 11/22 sl\[ano ;e bS3\ slovo
vi u[i9 crk~ve. su]e9 v0 9rlS3mq w nih0. 3r2122 (v0 u[i 13/
46) : sl\[Ano b\st0 slovo se: v0 [i crk~ve s] v0 erlmS3q w nih0:
41/46 (v0 [i 18b12); , v0 u[i9,
( crk~ve su]i9).

: 28/8 i pomoliv0 se
v0zlo;ii na n0 rucq iscqli i. 33v1516 (rucq 22/43); 3/14
sego radi prqklanq8 kolqnq svoi k0 wc~u. 123r2223 (kolqnq moi
63/11); 1/13 dondq;e polo;8 vrag\ tvo9 podno;i8 nogama
tvoima 156r45; 3/7 abi9 ;e utvrdasta se 9mu plesnq i glez4n7
4/23 : i abiE tvr0dista s em plesnq: i gleznq nog ego 9/22
24 (plesnq i glezni 5a2); 2/35 don4;e polo;u vrag\ tvo9
pod4no;i9 nogama tvoima 3/21 : dOnde;e polo; vrag\ tvo
podno;ie nogama tvoima: 8/13 (nogama tvoima 4a4) .

; ,
29
30

. , , 3.
cq ca,
[. . -,
, 139, . . , , XVIII ( q > , /< y/ )].

. , .

43

LIII (1)/2013
o/i, u[i.31 (
) : 13/3 i v0zlo;0[e ruk\ na n7 posla[e 7.
5r910 i v0lo;i[e na n8 ruk\ posla[e 7 13/3435) : v0zlo;0[e
rk\ i: na n0 i posla[ 7 44/1213 (v0zlo;i[ nA n0 rk: i
posla[ 19b78); 2/23 pri9m4[e rukami bezakon4nik0 2/46
47 : prem[e rkami bezakon\h0 6/2728 (em[i rka bezakonih0
3a233b1); 4/35 i polagah pri nogah0 aplS30 14/2627; 4/
37 i polo;i prqd0 nogami aplS30m0 15/45b; 19/26 nq sut0 bz~i
tvoreni rukami /l~v/sk\mi 17r1213; 16/20 b~0 ;e mira da
s0kru[it0 soton8. pod0 nogami va[imi v0 skorq. 78v2879r1
(pod/0/ nog\ va[e 36/25) .
:
4/3 v0zlo;i[e na n9 rucq 4/32: i v0zlo;[ na n0 rk\:
11/2526 : i v0zlo;i[ na n rca32 6a19.
, : 28/17 prqdan0
b\h0 v0 ruk\ riml7nom0 34r1819 : predan0 b\h0 v0 rucq riml7nom0
23/910 : prqdan0 b\h\ v0 rca33 rimlqnom0 32a/2432b1.


: 13/51 wna ;e istres0[a
prah0 nog0 sboih0 na ne. prideta v0 ikoni8. 6v1315 : wna ;e
istrs0[0[a prah0 nog0 svoih0 na n priidosta v0 ikoni: 48/21
22.
,
(u[i), (svo, svoi) : 7/57 i v0skliknv[e ;e glasom0 veliem0 zat0ko[ [i
svo: 26/2123; ;
v0skliknuv4[e ;e glas/o/m4 veli9m0 zat4ku u[i svoi. 7/3738; i
v0skliknv[e gl~som0 veliem0 zat0k[i [i svoi: 10a1415.
u[es-:34 7/51 ;estoko[ii i newbrqzan\i sr/0/
d/0/ci ni u[es\ svoimi. 7/2728; wt;n\ v\: i ne1brqzan\
srcD\: ni [es\ svoimi 26/78.
( )
o/i, u[i : 28/27 udebelq
bo srcDe l8dem0 sim0. i u[ima te;0ko sl\[a[e. i w/i svoi
31

32
33
34

44

, 18 (
: o/i, u[i ,
).
. . 13.
. .
( a oko : o/es-, uho : u[es-.).

. , .


s0mq;i[e. 34v2023 ( i u[ima te;4ko sl\[a[e. i w/i svoi
s4mq;i[e. 23/2829; i [ima t[0ko sli[a[: i w/i svoi
smq;i[ 33a36); 1 1/1 e;e bq ispr0va. 9;e sl\[ahom0. 9;e
vidqhom0 w/ima svoima 49v1314 (9;e vidqhom0 w/ima na[ima.
146/2728); 3/1 o nes0m\sl0n\ galati kto vii nau/i istinq ne
pokar7ti se. im0;e prqd0 w/ima s~0 hs~0 115r2426 .
o/i u[i,
noga rka: 4/8 o/istqte rucq grq[ni. iz0/istite srcDa
dvod~[0ni 39r45 (w/istite rucq grq[nii. 94/34); 1 5/10
ili a]e st~\m0 nozq um\. 148v89 (a]e s/ve/t\/i/m0 nozq um\.
82/28) .

dva, oba
.35 :
12/6 toi no]\ bq petr0 spe me;D8 dvqma voinoma.svezan0
;elqznqma u;ema dvqma. 3v2628 (toi no]i bq petr0 spe me;du
dvqma voinoma. svezan0 ;elqznoma u;ema dvqma. 13/2425) : toi
no]i bq sp petrW me;D dvqma voinoma svzan0 ;ema dvqma
;elqznoma: 42/810 (sp medD :v~: ma voinoma svzan0 :v~: ma ;ema
;elqznoma: 18a45).
: 1/10 i se m;a dva stasta prqd nimi 3/
1011; 9/38 posla[ dva m;a 34/3 (posla[e dva mu;a k n9mu
10/31). ( ) : 21/33 i povelq svezati i
u;ema dvqma ;elqznoma. 21v2527; 24/27 dvqma ;e lqtoma
ispl0n0[ima se. pri9 izmqnika felik0. por0ki7 fista. 27r25
28; 26/7 v0 nem;e wbq na desete kolenq na[i. 29r2728; 1/1
7kov0 bo~y i go~y sh~u rab0. dvqma na desete kolqnoma. 35r1213
(wbqma na desete kolqnoma [a91/42); 2 Kor13/1 v0 ustHq dvo8 svDqtel8
ili treh0. stanet0 vsak0 gl~0 112r1719 (v0 ustqh0 dvo8
svqdqtel8 55/22) .

,
.36
: 15/26 izbra[ m; poslati k0 vam0: s0
v0zl8ben\ma nami varnavo i s0 pavlom0: /lk~om0 prqdav[ima d[~
svo za im g~a na[ego s~ha: 50/48 (: izvoli se nam0 b\v[im0
35
36

, 69, 2431.
, 3032.

. , .

45

LIII (1)/2013
v0kupq. izbrav[e mu;a poslati k0 vam0. s0 v0zl8blenim0 nam0
varnavo8 i paulom0. /lO3vkoma prqdav[ima d[~i svoi. za ime g~a na[ego
ishS3a. 9v611). : ,
du[a svo7,
/lovqk, v0zl8ben\ma
predav[ima ;
, .
: 13/15 m;a i brata a]e koe va8 est0 slovo
utq[eni8 k0 lqdom0 gl~eta: 45/1719 : mu;a i brata a]e 9S3 ko9
slovo va8 utq[eni8 k0 l8Dem0 gl~\ta. 5v2123 (mu;a brata a]e
ko9 9s/t0/ slovo va8 utq[eni7 k0 l8dem0 g/lago/lita. 15/910).

.
, ,

;
. .37

, . (1932). . : / .

, .; , . (1990). () . : . (. .), : / .
-, . (1993). . : .
(.). : /
.
, . (1975). . : .
, . (1983). , (. 352). , . : . (.). :
/ .
37

46

. . -, , 101106; .
, ( ), 243246;
, 167169.

. , .


, . (1984). . (. 3334 5566). .
, . (1956). . : .
(XIII ). (1981). . . . (.).
. ( ). :
/ .
. . 2. (1981). : . , . (. ). ; / .
Nedeljkovi, O. (1972). Problem strukturnih redakcija starosloslovenskog prijevoda
Apostola. U: A. Nazor (ur.), Slovo (str. 2740). Zagreb: asopis staroslavenskog
instituta Svetozar Ritig.
-, . (1989). . : .
, . (2010). ( ). , . : .
, . (2011). . : .
, . (1974). . : .
, . (1983).
. XV ,
. .
-, ., , . (1988). . :
.
1324. . (1989). . . (.). :
.

. , .

47

LIII (1)/2013
.

. ,
,


. ,
. , ,
, .

48

. , .


: 821.163.41.03-19:398=133.1
:199690508

. M. 1


, ,


2
.

, . -
. -
,
-
-.

: , , , , ,
, kosovien, kosovar, , .

1
2

radmilaobradovickm@gmail.com
15. 2013,
1. 2013.

49

LIII (1)/2013

, , ,

,
.
,
.
, , .
, 3, 4,
5, , 6.
3

50

, , ,
. , ,
, (
,) [] ( 2013).
, ,
,
: oo ee oo e e.
(ILUSTROVANA ISTORIJA SRBA,
a: http://ocili.resabi.com/index.php?topic=367.25;wap2, 9. II 2013.
).
. ,
, , , , .
, , [.]
, , ( . 2013).
[] ,
:
? (, . 75).
! / (: . 691
692).
/ , /
? (, . 7678) ( . 2013).

M.


,

, ,
( s.a.).
, , , ,
, , [] - (). ,

().

,
,
[] ,
, [] , [] , , (). , ,
().

pope serbe. hants populaires hroques
( . ) ,
, ,
(Dozon, 1888, . XXXV). ,
, , (, XLIV) (pesmas) (, XLV).
,
[] ,
7.

, 8
7
8

14 : : II, 45, : II, 46.


-/ ;/ ,
!/ ,/ /
!

M.

51

LIII (1)/2013
, 9, .
, :
. , , . ,
,
. [] , , . ,
, , ,
. , , (, 1886, . 4). ,
, , , ,
, , (,
1886, . 5).

,
, , 1840.
(Dozon, 1888, . 130, . 3)10. , 15. 1803. :
, [] ,
,
, ,
, (Dozon, 1888, . 129, . 1).
11,
, 1865. ,
9

10
11

52

,/ !/
!/ / ,/ .
.
, Elena
Ghica-Kolzoff-Massalski (1828. 1888. ).

M.


12 :
.
,
(dIstria, 1865, . 336).

, , ,
. , ,
, , La bataille de
Koovo ( ).
17
,/ , (16, 17): Lorsque
la lettre menue parvient Lazare,/ il la regarde et verse des pleurs amers (Dozon, 1888, . 154155).13
La Bataille de Kossovo, rhapsodie serbe.
Tire des chants populaires ( , .
) (dAvril 1888), ,
, ,
Le sultan Mourad envoie une lettre Lazare
(dAvril 1886, . 2021) ( )
.
, ,
14
:

12

13
14

oe , : M
, . ,
. , ,
! (1865, . 336).
.
. 1976, . 224; [ ..].

M.

53

LIII (1)/2013

Il faut entendre comment Lazare alors

e : 19

A durement adjur tous les Serbes :

19

" ,

20

Celui qui est Serbe et de pre serbe,

20

21

Qui est de sang et de famille serbe

21

22

Sil ne vient pas combattre Kossovo, 22

!"

23

Que, sous sa main, il ne lui pousse rien! 23


Que le froment ne pousse dans son champ!
Sur la colline que sa vigne ne pousse! 25

: /
21,22; 76,77).

. , ,
. 21 pousser (:) , , (, 2005,
. 329), . , pousser , - , ,
. 19 tous les Serbes, : ( )
22 (), blanc . Me,
23
(sa) vigne ; (, 2005,
. 429) ,
22 (dans) son champ. 2123 que,
21,22 .
54

M.


, , (, 2009)15.
,
,
,
, , , [] ,
16. ,
, , , .
pousser que . , , ,
, , , (. , , 2013).

,
, 1859. ,
,
.
15

16

(, 2013), ,

(, 2010, . 532).
,
,
, [] ,

, , .

(dvril, 1868, . 15).

M.

55

LIII (1)/2013
(. , 2013).
:
( ) (, 1871)

, , (: ,
2011, . 27). ,
, ,
, . ,
, (. , 2013).

- .
, ,
,
-, ,
- .
, (Wikipdia, Lencyclopdie libre) - (Academic), , , 1953. , .17 (Protection) - 18
- ( . .).

19 17
18
19

56

: .
.: Entit spatiale historico-culturelle d'importance exceptionnelle.
.: Monument culturel d' importance exceptionnelle.

M.


20 ( . .),

, ,
(Monument culturel kosovar d'importance exceptionnelle) ( . .).
kosovar, , , (.: http://
fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/kosovar, 29. III 2013. ), 1999.
kosovien, kosovienne (, ), le Kosovien, la Kosovienne
(, a). kosovar, 21. ,

ksovien le Kosovien, ,
.22 (Olivier mpf), ,
(Revue Dfense Nationale), (RDN, DSI, www.egeablog.net, ) ,
, []
20
21

22

.: Le monument figure sur la liste des monuments culturels d'importance exceptionnelle de la Rpublique de Serbie).
, [], la volont de crer un Kosovo kosovar
ne correspond aucune envie de la part des populations (Nommer les lieux au
Kosovo (Gographie culturelle, : http://geographie-ville-en-guerre.fr.gd/Ge2-ographie-culturelle.htm (: 29. III 2013. ). . [],
.
Kosovars Kosoviens? , (Kosovars ou Kosoviens? Nommer les lieux, nommer
les peuples) (
: http://geographie-ville-en-guerre.blogspot.com/2009/09/kosovars-oukosoviens-nommer-les-lieux.html, 2. III 2013. ).

M.

57

LIII (1)/2013
kossovien ( kosovien) kosovar,
(mpf 2009) ( . .).
- (turc ottoman) gazi23, 24
[] ( lieu lendroit), .
, -

,
.
, Maldiction du Kosovo (
) -
:

23
24

58

.
gz gzija, ,
gazi gz. gaziluk,
- (1989, . 290),
Sarajevo, olain (, 412413), Blkan, Kalimegdan Kalemegdan (, 388) evrntija f (tur.) predio na desnoj obali Save, izmeu Sremske Mitrovice i apca (, . 173),
() , , .
evrntija tur. (evrmek
okretati, vrtjeti, vraati) vrtlog, vir, okretanje.

M.

1:

-
600- , 1989. ,
, [dmembrement] - 25.
- , .
, ,

25

(en) Gazimestan, 600th anniversary of the Kosovo polje battle[archive] sur http:/
/www.archive.org[archive]. Consult le 28 mars 2011 - Vido du discours

M.

59

LIII (1)/2013
[] 1845. :26
Quiconque est Serbe et de naissance serbe
Et de sang et de culture serbes
Sans venir la bataille du Kosovo,
Puisse-t-il ne jamais obtenir la descendance que son cur dsire!
Ni fils ni fille
Puisse rien ne pousser de ce que sme sa main!
Ni vin sombre ni bl blanc
Et puisse-t-il tre maudit de sicles en sicles!

Et de sang et de culture serbes,
.
:


,
!
,
!
,
27 !
, -
.


, . ,
,
, , som26

27

60


chansons populaires,
chants
populaires (.: , ).
Le petit Robert 1 de sicle en sicle
dge en ge (1987, . 1182, 2), de sicle en sicle,
, , (, . 35, 4).

M.


bre , , , ; [] (, 2005,
. 385) 28 , blanc .
, , , ,
,
.
,
XIX ,
, . , , -
,
600- ,
(!!!)
, - kosovar, .
(pope),
,
29 ,30
:
, [les chants piques serbes] K [le prince Marko]
[ ] (Article Larousse, pope)31 ( . .).
28

29

30
31

,
vermeil , ( 2005, . 427) (.: vin vermeil).
1190. ,
, []
(Article Larousse, pope).
.: les chansons de geste franaises.
, , ,
, , (Article Larousse, pope).

M.

61

LIII (1)/2013
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
. kosovar,
,
.
[..]: , . , -

, , , : http://www.rastko.rs/knjizevnost/nauka_knjiz/dajdacickletva_c.html (: 9. II 2013. )
dAvril 1868: dAvril, Adolphe. La Bataille de Kossovo, rhapsodie serbe, Tire des
chants populaires. Paris: Librairie du Luxembourg, M DCCC LXVIII
2009: , . , [Polonica et polono-serbica, 2001], , 2000,
IV, 244254. http://www.rastko.rs/rastko- pl/umetnost/knjizevnost/
studije/pbunj ak-gnomika.php (: 29. III 2013. ).

1976: (II), ,
, . . :
.
Dozon 1888 L'Epope serbe / chants populaires hroiques, Traduits sur les originaux avec une introduction et des notes, par Auguste Dozon, Paris: Ernest Leroux, Editeur, 1888. : http://serbica.u-bordeaux3.fr/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=382:auguste-dozon-lepopee-serbeintroduction-1888&catid=158:archives&Itemid=176 ( 9. II 2013. )
[ ..]. Kosovski ciklus srpske narodne poezije, ,
, , Kosovski ciklus narodne poezije, objavljeno pod: Antologija narodnih junakih pesama
(priredio Vojislav uri), Izdava: Srpska knjievna zadruga, Beograd.
: http://www.rastko.rs/knjizevnost/usmena/kosovski-ciklus.html#
_Toc473119797 (: 9. II 2013. ).
dIstria 1865 Istria, Dora d.La nationalit serbe daprs les chants
populaires, http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/La_Nationalit%C3%A9_serbe_d%
27apr%C3%A8s_les_Chants_populaires (29. I 2012).

62

M.


2011: , . :
- , , , 2011.
1995: , . :
( ), : , 1995 ( ), .
2010: , M.
,
, . 2, , , , ,
515535.
, 2013: , ,
. ,
21. , , 2930. III 2013. .

,
Article Larousse, pope, : http://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/lit- terature/%C3%A9pop%C3%A9e/173145# ( 09. II 2013. ).

J 2005: Savremeni francusko-srpski renik: sa gramatikom, izradio Slobodan A. Jovanovi; u saradnji sa Jovankom emeriki, Dafinom Damnjanovi i Milom orevi, Beograd, Prosveta, drugo izdanje.
Le petit Robert 1 1987: Le petit Robert 1, par Paul Robert, Dictionnaires le Robert, Paris
1989: kalji Abdulah, Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, Svjetlost,
Sarajevo.

Academic: Gazimestan, Dictionnaires et Encyclopdies sur Academic


: http://fr.academic.ru/dic.nsf/frwiki/1944807 29. 01.
2013.
Kempf 2009: Kempf, Olivier, Buzz mdiatique, papier et lectronique, franais et transalpin, tudes Gopolitiques Europennes et Atlantiques, http:/
/www.egeablog.net/dotclear/index.php?post/2009/09/25/Buzz-m%C3%A9
diatique%2C-papier-et-%C3%A9lectronique%2C-fran%C3%A7ais-et-transal
pin ( 29. III 2013. )
. 2013: , , , :
http://www.srpskilist.net/istorijski-osvrt/lazareva-kletva, (: 9. II
2013. ).
2013: , . .,
a : http://www.vidovdan.org/arhiva/print1650.html
(: 09. II 2013. ).

M.

63

LIII (1)/2013
Wikipdia, Lencyclopdie libre, Gazimestan, : http://fr.wikipe
dia.org/wiki/Gazimestan ( 29. I 2013. ).

64

M.


RADMILA M. OBRADOVI

UNIVERSIT DE PRITINA DPLACE TEMPORAIREMENT


KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULT DE PHILOSOPHIE,
DPARTEMENT DE LANGUE ET LITTRATURE FRANAISES

RSUM

LES TRADUCTIONS FRANAISES DE LA MALDICTION DU PRINCE LAZARE


Dans le chant populaire serbe du cycle du Kosovo Kneeva kletva
(Maldiction du prince), le prince serbe Lazare maudit les traitres avant
la bataille de Kosovo. Une version de sa maldiction reprise par le noble Musi Stefan et une autre reprise par le serviteur de celui-ci font
partie du chant populaire Musi Stefan. La premire de ces deux versions, qui est la plus connue, est crite sur le monument aux hros de
la bataille de Kosovo. Dans le travail ci-prsent, nous avons dabord
analys la traduction de la maldiction du prince Lazare du chant Maldiction du prince faite par Adolphe dAvril (dans son recueil La Bataille
de Kossovo, rhapsodie serbe. Tire des chants populaires, Paris, Librairie du
Luxembourg, MDCCCLXVIII). Notre analyse montre que dAvril a bien
russi non seulement traduire la maldiction du prince Lazare, mais
quil a surtout russi suggrer au lecteur francophone lattitude du
prince serbe qui, comme le dit dAvril lui-mme, incarne la splendeur de la royaut et est m par son sentiment exalt du devoir, sa
soumission Dieu, son dvouement absolu. Et le traducteur recourt aux vers de dix pieds des grandes chansons de geste franaises qui correspondent aux vers des chants piques serbes.
La premire version de la maldiction du prince Lazare du chant
populaire Musi Stefan figurant, sans le deuxime vers, sur le monument aux hros de la bataille de Kosovo rig Gazimestan, est prsente sur une photo de la partie centrale du monument par Wikipdia
(Lencyclopdie libre) et par lAcademic (Dictionnaires et Encyclopdies sur Academic) dans le cadre de deux articles aux titres identiques Gazimestan. La maldiction y est en outre accompagne de sa
traduction en franais.
Cependant, ces deux traductions, tout fait identiques sur ces deux
websites, sont faites daprs le chant Musi Stefan, c'est--dire qu'elles
comprennent le vers omis dans l'inscription, ce qui n'est pas prcis
par les auteurs ni par les traducteurs, ou plutt par le traducteur.
Pourtant, le traducteur de ces vers est soucieux d'tre fidle la
version originale, dirions-nous, mais sa traduction laisse dsirer, de
sorte que le lecteur francophone est bien loin de saisir le caractre du
chant pique serbe ainsi que le sens profond de ces vers.

M.

65

LIII (1)/2013
Au-dessous de la traduction, les rdacteurs de ces deux websites
notent que la forme de cette maldiction apparat pour la premire
[sic!] dans l'dition de 1845 du recueil de chansons populaires ralis
par Vuk Stefanovi Karadi, en utilisant le mot chansons au lieu du
terme chant accept par les spcialistes (v. Dozon, d'Avril, Article Larousse, pope), omettant le mot fois et en oubliant de prciser quil
sagit de chants populaires serbes.
Si les articles de ces deux websites ne prsentent pas Gazimestan en
tant quun monument historico-culturel d'importance exceptionnelle dans son contexte historique, les auteurs de larticle de l Academic, de surplus, le dfinissent comme un monument culturel kosovar d'importance exceptionnelle. Associer un adjectif smantiquement peu clair au monuments aux hros de la Bataille de Kossovo
tmoigne dun oubli des faits historiques mais aussi de la langue franaise.
MOTS CLS: Maldiction du prince, Maldiction du prince Lazare, Dozon,
dAvril, Dora dIstria, Gazimestan, kosovien, kosovar, pope serbe,
Bataille de Kosovo.

66

M.


: 811.133.1'367.626
811.163.41'367.626
811.133.1:811.163.41
: 199691020

PROF. DR RADMILA M. OBRADOVI1

UNIVERSIT DE PRITINA DPLACE TEMPORAIREMENT


KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULT DE PHILOSOPHIE,
DPARTEMENT DE LANGUE ET LITTRATURE FRANAISES

DR IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI


NI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS


CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS
EN SERBE2
RSUM. Dans le travail ci-prsent nous allons exposer plusieurs approches des grammairiens franais et serbes du pronom on en vue dtablir une liste de
quivalents smantiques et quivalents de traduction en serbe.

MOTS-CLS: on, pronom personnel, pronom indfini, valeur et emploi, genre, nombre,
quivalent smantique, quivalent de traduction, franais, serbe.

1
2

radmilaobradovickm@gmail.com
21. 2013,
1. 2013.

67

LIII (1)/2013

DE L'APPROCHE CLASSIQUE L'APPROCHE


STRUCTURALISTE
Selon Grevisse, on reprsente un des pronoms indfinis , qui est,
comme il le souligne, rgulirement de la troisime personne du
masculin singulier et ne semploie que comme sujet. Si ce pronom
sert dsigner, dune manire gnrale, une ou plusieurs personnes (1980, p. 644 1287), il peut dsigner galement parfois une
ou plusieurs personnes bien dtermines et prendre ainsi, par
syllepse de la personne, la valeur dun des pronoms personnels je, tu,
nous, vous, il(s), elle(s) traduisant alors la modestie, la discrtion,
lironie, le mpris, lorgueil, le reproche, etc. Par consquent, Grevisse considre que ce pronom camlon comme lappelle Jacques Cellard , tant apte remplacer nimporte quel pronom personnel, prendrait sa place dans la srie des pronoms personnels aussi bien et mieux que dans celle des pronoms indfinis (ibid., p. 645
1288). Dautre part, quand les circonstances marquent prcisment quon parle dune femme, lattribut de on se met au fminin,
par syllepse du genre. En outre, quand les circonstances marquent nettement quil sagit de plusieurs personnes, lattribut, lapposition se rapportant on se mettent au pluriel, par syllepse du
nombre mais toutefois le verbe reste au singulier (ibid.). Dans
les mmes circonstances, le participe pass des verbes pronominaux ayant pour sujet on, sil doit saccorder, se met gnralement
au pluriel, par syllepse du nombre (ibid., p. 646 1289, N.B. 1).
Lorsqu il faut exprimer un pronom personnel complment renvoyant on [], on se sert de nous (quand le locuteur se met dans la
collectivit: dautre+moi), vous (quand le locuteur sefface et ne se
met pas dans la collectivit ); le rgime rflchi est naturellement
se ou soi (ibid., p. 646 1289, N.B. 2).
Grevisse ne sexprime pas au sujet de lemploi du pronom on aprs
et, o, qui etc., mais il cite plusieurs exemples qui montrent que dans
ces cas les crivains franais aprs et, o, qui etc. utilisent la forme on
aussi bien que la forme lon. En revanche, Grevisse montre que cest
la forme lon que les crivains franais utilisent aprs certains mots
comme par exemple aussi, dj, puis, comme, mais, et en tte dune
phrase ou dun membre de phrase. En outre, Grevisse souligne que
cest pour leuphonie que lon est vit aprs dont ainsi que devant un mot commenant par l (Grevisse, 1993, p. 647 1290, N.B.)
mais que, pour leuphonie aussi, gnralement que lon est prf68

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


r quon devant un mot commenant par une syllabe prononce
kon: ce que lon conoit (plutt que ce quon conoit (ibid., p. 648
1290, N.B.).
Maurice Rat dfinit on comme le pronom indfini qui dsigne
des hommes en gnral ou un homme indtermin, est toujours du
masculin singulier, ne se dit que des personnes [] [,] ne semploie
que comme sujet et qui se rpte devant chaque verbe (Rat
1965. p. 164). Pourtant, quoique masculin et singulier par sa forme,
on peut tre accompagn dun attribut au fminin quand il dsigne
une femme et dun attribut au pluriel quand il reprsente plusieurs
personnes, mais le verbe est toujours au singulier (ibid.). Daprs
Rat cest quelquefois, par euphonie, [que l] on dit lon3 au lieu de
on, surtout aprs les mots que, qui, et, si, o, ou (ibid.). Remarques,
1). Pour cet auteur4, on peut, dans la langue familire, remplacer
les pronoms de la premire et de la seconde personne (ibid., Remarques, 3). Rat souligne galement que, pour exprimer un complment se rapportant on, lon se sert de nous, vous, soi (ibid., Remarques, 4)5 mais aussi que le on sert former quelques mots
composs dont il cite les deux suivants: des on-dit, des quen dira-ton (ibid., Remarques, 5).
Les auteurs de la Grammire Larousse du franais contemporain considrent le pronom on comme un des cas particuliers parmi les pronoms personnels, et soulignent qu'il peut garder son ancien article
l selon de subtiles rgles dharmonies prcises au XVIIe sicle (
linitiale, aprs voyelle, dans si lon, ou lon, que lon) , ce qui est
aujourdhui une lgance facile (ibid., Remarques., 2.).
3

En bas de la page lauteur explique que lon est dailleurs un archasme , qu


au XVIIe sicle lon se rencontre au commencement des phrases, comme par
exemple chez La Bruyre et que jusqu la fin XVIe sicle, on a employ lon
concurremment avec t-on aprs les verbes au sujet invers: dira-lon, cot de
dira-t-on (ibid.)
Rat souligne que le on est parfois suivi de la ngation ne qui, lidant son e, ne
se fait pas entendre dans la prononciation, mais quil faut bien se garder
domettre dans lcriture . Pour reconnaitre sil faut ou non la ngation ,
suggre-t-il, il suffit de remplacer on par un autre pronom (ibid., Remarques,
2).
Cette constatation est illustre par les exemples tirs des uvres des auteurs
classiques mais seulement pour les deux pronoms complments.
Quon hait un ennemi quand il est prs de nous (Racine).
Ce nest pas soi quon voit (La Fontaine).

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En ce qui concerne laffirmation que le pronom on peut garder
son ancien article l linitiale , nous constatons que dans six
ouvrages de trois diffrents auteurs franais cits ci-dessous la forme lon ne se trouve tout au dbut dune phrase que deux fois:
Lon voyait, lorsquon en avait atteint la partie la plus haute, par-dessus les
maisons, des palmiers; par-dessus les palmiers, le dsert (Gide, LImmoraliste, p. 21)
L'on gagne ou l'on perd sur des apparences, on marque des points misrables.
Et l'on se trouve ligot par une apparence de dfaite (Exupry, Vol de nuit,
66).

Pourtant, la forme lon se retrouve au dbut des propositions


lintrieur dune phrase:
Parlons plus bas; l'on nous coute (Gide, Les caves du Vatikan, p. 91).
Oui; quand vous avez dit mon beau-frre de se mfier, je vous demande si
vous aviez des raisons de supposer Parlez coeur ouvert: il ne vient personne ici le matin et l'on ne peut pas nous entendre. Vous souponnez quelqu'un?
(Gide, Les caves du Vatikan, p. 110)

Dans tous les autres cas cest la forme on qui est utilise au dbut
des phrases et des propositions:
On lui donnait dix sous par jour; il aidait, d'autre part, au mnage (Gide, Les
caves du Vatikan, p. 4).
On nous avait gard deux chambres (Gide, LImmoraliste, p. 18).
On rve, sous cette ombre verte (Gide, LImmoraliste, p. 48).
On ne distinguait plus celles-ci des plaines (Exupry, Vol de nuit, p. 10).
On note dabord au crayon les rcits des explorateurs. On attend, pour noter
lencre, que lexplorateur ait fourni des preuves (Exupry, Le petit prince,
p. 63).
On comprendra ce quil peut y avoir dinconfortable dans la mort, mme moderne, lorsquelle survient ainsi dans un lieu sec (Camus, La peste, p. 7).
On aurait dit dun jacassement assourdi de perruches (Camus, Ltranger, p.
6).
On gagnait le mail entre les arbres duquel apparaissait le clocher de Saint-Hilaire (Proust, Du ct de chez Swann, p. 139).
On la traversait une premire fois, dix minutes aprs avoir quitt la maison,
sur une passerelle dite le Pont-Vieux (Proust, Du ct de chez Swann, p.139)

70

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


Les Verdurin ninvitaient pas dner: on avait chez eux son couvert
mis (Proust, Un amour de Swann, p. 2)
On note dabord au crayon les rcits des explorateurs. On attend, pour noter
lencre, que lexplorateur ait fourni des preuves (Exupry, Le petit prince,
p. 63).
On comprendra ce quil peut y avoir dinconfortable dans la mort, mme moderne, lorsquelle survient ainsi dans un lieu sec (Camus, La peste, p. 7).
On agit, Madame la comtesse; on agit, n'ayez crainte. Et je suis mme autoris
vous rvler une partie de notre plan de campagne (Gide, Les caves du Vatikan, p. 48).
- Vous ne m'entendez pas: Dans la vie, on se corrige, ce qu'on dit, on s'amliore; on ne peut corriger ce qu'on a fait (Gide, Les caves du Vatikan, p. 38).
On arriva. Elle dut descendre dabord et ne vit rien. On nous avait gard deux
chambres (Gide, LImmoraliste, p. 18).

De mme que Grevisse, les auteurs de la Grammaire Larousse soulignent que le on peut remplacer toutes les trois personnes. Il dsigne
la 1re personne du singulier dans un registre soutenu et la 1re personne du pluriel dans le parler courant, parce quils constatent que
certains auteurs modernes [] recourent on indfini au lieu
de nous dit de modestie (soulign par R.M.O. et I.J.M.), tandis que
le parler courant emploie souvent on pour nous , mais ils soulignent que le mlange des on et des nous dans la mme proposition
passe pour un vulgarisme .
Tandis que Grevisse considre que le pronom on ayant la valeur de
nimporte quel des trois pronoms personnels prend une valeur stylistique, les auteurs de la Grammaire Larousse, nattribuent cette une
valeur quau pronom on dsignant la 2e personne, parce quils
constatent que lemploi de on pour une 2e personne est ironique,
familier (ibid., p. 230 352.).
Si le pronom de la 3e personne au singulier dsigne une personne
prcise, un ensemble indtermin peut tre dsign par le pluriel
ils, de mme que par nous, par vous (gnralement dans une fonction de complment) mais aussi par on (en fonction du sujet)
(ibid.).
En ce qui concerne les valeurs de on, les auteurs de la Grammaire
Larousse constatent que ce pronom peut non seulement dsigner
toutes les personnes, ensemble ou isolment , mais, quen outre,
le on peut englober un je, un tu, un nous, un vous, un il, un ils, etc., ou
les exclure , pour conclure que cest notamment cette trs grande
RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

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LIII (1)/2013
souplesse [qui] explique en partie le succs considrable du on
(ibid., p. 230 353). La constatation prcdente est illustre par les
vers de lauteur dAlcool.
Si dans le premier exemple, on exclut je dans sa premire occurrence et linclut dans la deuxime:
Il y a si longtemps quon fait croire aux gens? Quils nont aucun avenir?
Quon en a pris son parti (Apollinaire)

dans la phrase suivante le on [] dsigne un groupe par lexclusion


dun autre groupe :
Mais quand il fut clair que personne ne donnerait plus rien
On se dcide commencer la sance (Apollinaire)

Nous allons exposer lapproche structuraliste du pronom on parce


quelle est, par rapport lapproche dite traditionnelle, parfois plus
complexe et plus approfondie et mme elle en diffre sur certains
points, sans parler du fait quelle se sert dune terminologie diffrente.
Pour Jean Dubois, le pronom on est exploit comme la suppression de la personne (Dubois, 1965, p. 111). Dubois considre que
les rfrents personnels (je, tu, il, nous, vous, etc.), qui traduisent les
rapports existant entre les interlocuteurs, supposent la ngation du
systme, cest--dire un segment qui soit exploit comme la suppression de la personne. (ibid.).
Ce pronom on, qui ne porte aucune marque spcifique de personne,
se dfinit alors comme susceptible de se substituer tous les autres
pronoms personnels (mais non toutes leurs variantes combinatoires
ou toutes leurs modalits de distribution); le pronom on, qui remplit
ces fonctions, est donc un substitut de la mme classe que {je, tu, il}
(ibid., p. 111-112).

Cest pourquoi Dubois conclut que ce pronom tant rang arbitrairement parmi les indfinis, en raison de la fonction dgage
plus haut doit tre intgr aux pronoms personnels (ibid., p 112).
En outre, Dubois dmontre que les distributions de on sont celles
dun substitut personnels sujet , notamment que on recouvre les
distributions de il (ibid.)6. Autrement dit, il est suivi dun verbe qui
ne comporte pas les marques de personne (3e personne du
singulier) (ibid.).
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RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


Ce que la grammaire traditionnelle dsigne par les termes la syllepse du nombre et la syllepse du genre , les structuralistes appellent la suppression de lopposition de nombre et de genre .
Comme lcrit Dubois,
on ne comporte pas de marques de genre et de nombre; il peut en effet se substituer il ou ils, il ou elle; on se rfre donc un syntagme
masculin ou fminin, singulier ou pluriel. Cependant, il ne se substitue
quaux seuls mots de la classe des anims , qui connaissent justement lopposition de genre. Il sapparente en ce cas au segment quelquun, avec lequel il peut commuter dans certaines positions, ou personne, avec lequel il commutera dans les phrases ngatives. On constate que personne et quelquun sont des substituts danims opposs
rien et quelque chose, substituts dinanims (ibid., pp. 112-113)7.
6

(1) Dans les phrases nonciatives, il nadmet entre lui et les formes verbales que
les segments ne, en, y,
le, la, les, leur, lui, nous, vous, cumulables []:
On lui dira. /Il lui dira.
On ne les a pas vus./ Il ne les a pas vus. (1965, p. 112).
Il se comporte comme il dans la phrase interrogative, lorsque il est le seul sujet
:
Ira-t-il? Ira-t-on?
Vient-il? Djeune-t-on maintenant? (Dubois, 1965, p. 112).
(2) Comme il, le substitut on comporte le mme indice t-, qui sert de marque
redondante de linterrogation: lorsque lon use de la forme interrogative est-ce
que [], la distribution est de nouveau la mme pour il et pour on. Au contraire,
les distributions de on ne sont pas, dans ce cas, celles des autres pronoms dits
indfinis, comme aucun, chacun, quelques-uns, etc.; cela suffirait nous montrer
quil sagit de classes diffrentes.
La marque -t- de linterrogation se retrouve avec le pronom elle; elle singularise
ainsi le systme il/on/elle par rapport aux autres.
(3) Comme il, le pronom on est uni par la liaison au verbe qui suit :
Il est arriv. On est arriv. Ils taient arrivs.
Ces trois phrases sont accompagnes de leurs transcriptions phontiques
respectives, qui tmoignent de ce qui a t dit (ibid.).
Lauteur conclut que le pronom on se comporte [] comme il dans ses
rapports syntaxiques avec le syntagme verbal; autrement dit, il est suivi dun
verbe qui ne comporte pas les marques de personne (3e personne du singulier)
(ibid.).
Exemples donns par Dubois:
On a tlphon pour moi? - Quelquun a-t-il tlphon?
On nest pas venu chercher le paquet?
Personne nest venu chercher le paquet.

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LIII (1)/2013
Mais,
ces commutation ne sont possibles que lorsque le substitut est sujet,
car on ne commute pas avec les variantes combinatoires comme le, la,
les, lui, leur, etc. Cette limitation de lemploi de on permet de mettre en
vidence le rle des pronoms quelquun et personne, qui supplent le
segment on dans les autres distributions (ibid., p.113)8.

Le segment soi joue par rapport on et a le rle dune variante


combinatoire et son emploi peut tre compar celui de lui par
rapport il dans certains schmas de phrase . Ainsi la phrase on
pense dabord lui ne peut pas se substituer la phrase on pense
dabord soi, tant donn que lui se rfre non au segment on, mais
un syntagme nominal antrieur.
La limitation des distributions de soi sexplique alors, les distributions de on tant elles-mmes limites (ibid., p. 113).

Voil comment Dubois explique la suppression de lopposition


de personne :
La fonction de on est de se rfrer dabord tout ce qui nest pas je et
tu,
nous et vous, cest--dire ce qui ne sidentifie pas avec les interlocuteurs pris sparment ou en groupe:
Les gens sont mchants; on raconte sur moi les pires histoires.
On dit que tu pars bientt.
On a tlphon pour toi.
Dans les phrases prcdentes, on indique soit un pluriel, soit un singulier, et
traduit lopposition aux deux interlocuteurs (non participation la
communication directe).
Puisque on se prsente comme la ngation du systme, il pourra ventuellement se substituer aux personnels du premier groupe (je/ tu/
nous/ vous); le rendement de cet emploi est peu lev dans la langue
crite:
8

Ex. donns par Dubois:


On nest pas venu? Tu attendais quelquun?
On ta aid? - Non, jai fait tout sans laide de personne.
On est venu? Je nai vu personne.

74

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LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


On a de trs bonnes nouvelles de Georges (= nous avons) (ibid., pp. 113114).

Mais,
dans ces cas, on reste moins frquent que je, tu, nous, vous: il est donc
le cas marqu de ces pronoms; sil napporte aucune indication sur la
personne, il a cependant une quantit dinformation plus importante,
qui vient de sa frquence moins grande; aussi, le plus souvent, a-t-il
une valeur affective, pjorative, ironique, etc. qui est dautant plus accentue que la substitution est plus rare. En revanche, plus la substitution est frquente dans la langue parle et moins cette valeur est
susceptible dapparatre (ibid., p. 114).

C'est pourquoi la substitution des pronoms je et nous par on est,


daprs Dubois, sans valeur stylistique , contrairement la substitution des pronoms tu et vous par on, qui est substitution valeur
stylistique (ibid., p.114).9
Parmi les grammairiens cits dans ce travail, Dubois est le seul
parler de la quantit dinformation apporte par le pronom on:
La comparaison de phrases dans lesquelles on procde des transformations
parallles permet de mettre en vidence que la quantit dinformation apporte par le segment on est la moins grande de tout autre systme.
Ils ont construit le pont./Lentrepreneur leur a fait construire le pont.
Les ouvriers ont construit le pont. /Lentrepreneur a fait construire le
pont par des ouvriers.
On a construit le pont. /Lentrepreneur a fait construire le pont.
Dans les deux premires transformations, le substitut ou le syntagme
nominal rapparaissent selon une distribution diffrente et, pour le
substitut, sous la forme dune variante complmentaire; dans la dernire phrase, la transformation montre que la variante complmen9

Les exemples illustrant lanalyse de lauteur:


1.Substitution sans valeur stylistique (on = je, nous):
Alors, tu te presses? On arrive.
On ira aux sports dhivers, mon frre et moi.
2.Substitution valeur stylistique (on = tu, vous):
On a encore ses caprices aujourdhui? (= tu as)
On est encore en retard ce matin? (= vous tes) (ibid., p. 114).

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taire de on est en ce cas labsence de segment, cest--dire zro (ibid.,
p. 114).

Contrairement aux autres grammairiens, pour Jean Dubois la forme lon nest pas une forme euphonique mais une forme emphatique :
La forme lon, que les grammairiens classiques appellent une forme
euphonique , nest pas une variante combinatoire dont lemploi serait limit et qui se placerait en particulier aprs si et que; en effet, la
langue commune lignore totalement et on la trouve toutes les places occupes par on. Elle joue le rle demphase dans la langue crite
ou soutenue. Chaque fois que le style scarte de la norme usuelle de la
langue parle, la forme lon devient plus frquente (ibid., p. 114).

Nous allons citer ici quelques exemples tirs de six ouvrages de


trois diffrents auteurs franais qui dmontrent que les formes lon
et on peuvent tre employes dans la mme phrase et renvoyer la
mme personne, ce qui signifie que, dans nos exemples du moins, la
forme lon joue le mme le rle que on, et quelle y est, pensons-nous,
plutt une forme euphonique quune forme emphatique :
Nous tions tous tonns, mais Masson a dit quon avait mang trs tt, et que
ctait naturel parce que lheure du djeuner, ctait lheure o lon avait
faim. Je ne sais pas pourquoi cela a fait rire Marie (Camus, Ltranger, p. 42)
La btise insiste toujours, on sen apercevrait si lon ne pensait pas toujours
soi. (Camus, La peste, p. 41).
Or un baobab, si lon sy prend trop tard, on ne peut jamais plus sen dbarrasser (Exupry, Le petit prince, p. 23).
Comme si rellement on pouvait avoir le temps un jour, comme si l'on gagnait, l'extrmit de la vie, cette paix bienheureuse que l'on imagine. (Exupry, Vol de nuit, p. 14).
Il s'arrtait dans sa marche, pour soulever du bout de l'index le menton d'Arnica, comme on fait aux poupons que l'on veut amener sourire (Gide, Les
Caves du Vatikan, p. 59
Lon voyait, lorsquon en avait atteint la partie la plus haute, par-dessus les
maisons, des palmiers; par-dessus les palmiers, le dsert (Gide, LImmoraliste, p. 21).
lui, cette angoisse quil y a sentir ltre quon aime dans un lieu de plaisir o
lon nest pas, o lon ne peut pas le rejoindre, cest lamour qui la lui a fait
connatre, lamour auquel elle est en quelque sorte prdestine, par lequel elle
sera accapare, spcialise; (Proust, Du ct de chez Swann, p. 27)

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LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


et lon aurait autant de peine compter les baisers quon sest donns pendant une heure que les fleurs dun champ au mois de mai (Proust, Un amour
de Swann, p. 44).
On ne connat que les choses que lon apprivoise, dit le renard (Exupry, Le
petit prince, p. 80)
et lon aurait autant de peine compter les baisers quon sest donns pendant une heure que les fleurs dun champ au mois de mai (Proust, Un amour
de Swann, p. 44).

L'APPROCHE EXPOSE DANS LES GRAMMAIRES DU


FRANAIS LANGUE TRANGRE
Pour Annie Monnerie, lauteur dune de deux grammaires franaises
destines aux apprenants trangers que nous avons consultes, on
est un pronom indfini [] [qui] reprsente soit un ensemble vague de personnes soit la premire personne du pluriel , ce qui
est un emploi [qui] appartient plutt la langue parle (1987, p.
87, 4.1.). Monnerie souligne que dans des emplois trs affectifs , on
utilise la 2e personne du singulier ou du pluriel et que dans tous
les cas, on est employ avec un verbe la 3e personne du singulier (ibid.). Cest en expliquant les indfinis chacun , chacune , se , soi que lauteur souligne que chacun de mme que
on est toujours repris dans la mme proposition par le pronom
rflchi se (complment direct ou indirect) ou soi, aprs une prposition , ce qui est illustr par trois exemples, parmi lesquels celui-ci
(ibid., p. 87, 4.2.) :
On travaille pour soi.

Notons quen plus, nous retrouvons le pronom on dans une de


deux tournures qui marquent lintensit qui sont expliques par
lauteur (ibid., p. 192, 9.):
Il est on ne peut plus heureux (= il est trs heureux).10

titre dexemple y pourrait enfin tre cite la fameuse phrase de


La Fontaine par laquelle lauteur ouvre le chapitre consacr lEmploi de certains indfinis (ibid., p. 87, 4.):
On a toujours besoin dun plus petit que soi (La Fontaine, Le Lion et le Rat).
10

Cf. en serbe parl.

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Monique Callamand, lauteur de la seconde grammaire franaise
destine aux apprenants trangers que nous avons consultes, explique les valeurs et emplois du pronom on dans un tableau reprsentant les pronoms personnels sujets et les pronoms de renforcement correspondants - ceci comme Cas du pronom ON (Callamand 1989: 36).
Lauteur examine quatre valeurs du pronom on et ses combinaisons respectives avec des pronoms de renforcement correspondants dans deux diffrentes structures syntaxiques. Pour cette
auteur on peut avoir une des valeurs suivantes: nous (1), quelquun,
tout le monde, chacun, les gens, personne (2), je (3) et tu (4).
(1)Lorsque on a la valeur de nous (je + tu, je + vous), dans la structure pronom de renforcement + pronom sujet + verbe ( loral) cest
le pronom nous qui est utilis (ex. nous, on ira) et nous-mmes dans la
structure pronom sujet + verbe + pronom de renforcement (ex. on
ira, nous-mmes)11.
Lauteur souligne que dans ce cas le participe pass prend la
marque du pluriel , ce quil illustre par lexemple suivant:
on y est alls = nous y sommes alls

(2) Lorsque on a la valeur de quelquun, tout le monde, chacun,


les gens, personne , comme dans lexemple ici, on conduit gauche, il
ny a pas de pronom de renforcement dans la structure pronom de
renforcement + pronom sujet + verbe ( loral) tandis que cest la forme soi-mme qui est employe dans la structure pronom sujet+ verbe
+ pronom de renforcement (ex: on se sert soi-mme).
Lauteur souligne galement que dans ce cas le participe pass
ne prend pas la marque du pluriel , ce quil illustre par lexemple
suivant:
on est toujours menac par la maladie = chacun/ tout le monde est menac
par la maladie.

(3) Lorsque on a la valeur de je (ex: On fait ce quon peut, hein!), il ny


a pas de pronom de renforcement ni dans la structure pronom de
renforcement + pronom sujet + verbe ( loral) ni dans la structure
pronom sujet + verbe + pronom de renforcement.
11

78

Le pronom de renforcement est galement utilis lcrit , comme le souligne Monique Callamand, mais il se place dans ce cas [] aprs le nom ou le
groupe nom+verbe (ex: Les tudiants en mdecine, eux, ne sont pas concerns) ou
aprs le groupe pronom sujet + verbe (Il na, lui, aucune raison de sinquiter)
(ibid. p. 36).

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


(4) Lorsque on a la valeur de tu, cest l ironie, [le] reproche quil
traduit (ex: cest maintenant quon arrive!). Mais, dans ce cas non plus
il ny a pas de pronom de renforcement ni dans la structure pronom
de renforcement + pronom suje + verbe ( loral) ni dans la structure
pronom sujet + verbe + pronom de renforcement.
Comme nous pouvons constater, certains grammairiens franais
du franais considrent on comme un pronom personnel tandis que
dautres le traitent comme un pronom indfini. Mais quelques-uns
parmi ces derniers, comme nous lavons vu, soulignent que sa place
est plutt parmi les pronoms personnels.
Dautre part, les grammairiens franais ne consacrent pas la mme place ce pronom, leurs analyses respectives portent sur les diffrents aspects relatifs ce pronom et diffrent considrablement
au point de vue de leur porte.
En outre, les auteurs franais ne sont pas daccord sur lemploi du
pronom on en gnral ni sur lemploi de sa forme lon ni sur le rle et
les valeurs du pronom
Si la Grammaire vivante du franais de Callamand et la Grammaire Larousse offrent une approche, pour ainsi dire, plus pratique et plus
dynamique que les autres grammaires, cest seulement la premire
qui, parmi toutes les grammaires, offre les quivalents smantiques
de pronom on en franais savoir nous, quelquun, tout le monde, chacun, les gens, personne, je et tu.

L'APPROCHE EXPOSE DANS LES GRAMMAIRES DU


FRANAIS DES AUTEURS SERBES ET QUIVALENTS
SMANTIQUES ET QUIVALENTS DE TRADUCTION
DU PRONON ON EN SERBE
Dans sa Grammaire du franais pour les coles primaires Drakovi classifie le pronom on dans le groupe des pronoms nominaux
indfinis ( ) (1982, p. 132)12 et plus
prcisment, dans le sous-groupe des pronoms nominaux indfinis
qui sont invariables13. Pourtant, dans le groupe des pronoms nominaux indfinis le on est le seul pronom qui ne puisse accompa12

Les pronoms nominaux indfinis sont: on, quelquun, chacun, quiconque, personne, nimporte qui, nimporte quoi, rien, qui qui, autrui, quelque chose, peu de chose (ibid., p. 132 123.).

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ger une prposition (ibid., p.133), cest--dire, le seul qui soit toujours employ uniquement comme sujet.
Lauteur donne dabord les quivalents smantiques du pronom
on savoir ; , , , et ensuite montre sur les exemples comment se traduit ce pronom :
On frappe la porte. .
On est venu vous chercher. .
On vit comme on peut. .
On est mortel. 14.
On sait que la France est un beau pays. ( , ,
) .

notre avis, cet exemple pourrait galement se traduire par une


phrase passive:
.
On dit que tu travailles beaucoup. .

Daprs Vlado Drakovi, dans le franais familier on peut dsigner toutes les trois personnes
On a bien dormi. ? = ?

Lauteur remarque que cet emploi correspond la 1re personne


du pluriel , mais que de cette faon en serbe peuvent tre remplaces seulement la 2e personne du singulier et la 2e personne du pluriel (ibid., p. 133, 1.).
Drakovi, souligne quil faut faire attention la prononciation de
on dans on est, on a et on coute, accompagnant chacun des exemples
cits par la transcription phontique (ibid., p. 133, 2.).
Contrairement tous les autres auteurs, Drakovi, affirme que
bien quil ne soit pas rare que lon remplace on, dhabitude aprs les
conjonctions si, et, ou ou aprs le pronom adverbial o , ce quil illustre par lexemple suivant accompagn de traduction:
Si lon travaille bien, on doit russir.
, (ibid., p. 133)15.
13

14
15

80

Tous les pronoms nominaux indfinis sontinvariables, sauf quelquun et chacun (ibid., p. 133 124. a).
Cf. .
Cf. , () .

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


cest plus souvent, mme dans les cas pareils, que le on est utilis
(ibid., p. 133)16.

Dune manire gnrale, cest la forme on qui utilise beaucoup


plus souvent que lon.17
Un peu plus loin, dans la partie de sa grammaire consacre aux
pronoms nominaux indfinis quelquun et quelquune, Drakovi cite lexemple suivant accompagn dune traduction:
On dirait que quelquun frappe la porte.
( ) (1982, p.134).

Dans sa Grammaire du franais Marko Papi parle du pronom on


dans la partie de sa grammaire consacre aux pronoms personnels,
sans apporter aucune prcision supplmentaire, ce qui pourrait signifier quil le considre comme un pronom personnel. Lauteur met
dabord en relief que, lorsque le pronom on se trouve devant [le
verbe commenant par] une voyelle , dans la prononciation se fait
la liaison, ce quil illustre utilisant dans ses exemples un verbe commenant par une voyelle mais aussi bien un verbe commenant par
un h muet, et montre par la transcription phontique de ces deux
phrases la prononciation de on (Papi, 1984, p. 75).
Lauteur numre les caractristiques suivantes de ce pronom personnel :
Il est suivi du verbe la 3e personne du singulier.
Il fonctionne uniquement comme sujet.
Il se rapporte aux personnes, normalement la 3e personne du
singulier ou du pluriel.
Papi non plus nexplique les valeurs de ce pronom, mais donne
lui-aussi cinq exemples de son emploi et, aprs avoir constat quen
serbe, qui ne connat pas un pronom correspondant, on se traduit
de plusieurs faons , indique un ou deux quivalents de traduction
de on pour chacun de ses exemples savoir , , , .
Papi constate qu' en outre, [pour traduire on en serbe], il est possible parfois de recourir aux verbes rflchis ou bien de traduire
on (comme si c'tait ils) (ibid.).
16

17

Drakovi explique que le pronom on tire son origine de lancien substantif


lon (lhomme) (1982:134, ).
Par exemple, dans le roman Vol de nuit de dExupry nous retrouvons 96 occurrences de on et 26 occurrences de la forme lon et dans le roman Le petit prince
dExupry 48 occurrences de on et 12 occurrences de lon.

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A titre dexemple, nous avons appliqu les indications de lauteur
pour traduire ses exemples:
(1) On frappe la porte. .
(2) On ma racont une curieuse histoire. / *Je
/ . /
.

notre avis, cette phase franaise pourrait tre traduite en serbe


par une phrase passive:
/ .
(3) On voit rarement ici une pareille tempte.
. .
.18
(4) On tait fatigu de la guerre. .
(5) On ne saurait penser tout. .
.

notre avis, cette phase franaise pourrait tre traduite en serbe


de manire suivante:
.

Papi constate que dans la langue parle [on] de plus en plus


remplace nous:
Paul et moi, on est amis. Nous, on sen va. On sen va ensemble? On
vient te demander de nous aider

et que le on est parfois utilis la place de la 2e personne:


Eh bien! petite, est-on toujours fche? (Maupassant) (ibid.).

Pourtant, lauteur ne nexplique ni ne traduit les exemples cits.


Dans la langue crite derrire certains monosyllabes on est prcd
de l:
Si lon veut. On va o lon veut. Ce que lon veut.
Nous constatons que les exemples cits ne sont pas accompagns de
traductions.

Dans sa Grammaire franaise pour les coles secondaires publie il y


a 75 ans Kneevi considre le pronom on comme un pronom indfini. Sans expliquer les valeurs de ce pronom, lauteur constate quil
18

82

Cf. , propos par lauteur (Papi, op. cit., p.104) )

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


se traduit de plusieurs manires (Kneevi, 1937, p. 103) pour
donner cinq exemples de lemploi de ce pronom avec les diffrentes
valeurs en les accompagnant de traductions:
On est venu de chez le fleuriste. 19.
On a souvent besoin d'un plus petit que soi.
20.
On disait que c'tait juste. .
On le dit riche. . (Le verbe la 3e personne du pluriel.).
En France, on est tous gaux devant la loi. ,
21.
Parfois, en franais familier se dit on la place de la 1re ou de la 2e
personnes. En [][serbe], dans les cas pareils c'est le pronom de la 1re
personne du pluriel qui est utilis (ibid.)
On s'est bien amus? ?
On s' en va? ?
Comme on est belle aujourdui! A ! (ibid.)

Kneevi constate qu aprs si, o, que et et il est possible dutiliser l' devant on, cause de l'euphonie :
Si lon veut. A .
Et lon partit. .
Jirai o lon voudra. [sic!] (Kneevi, 1937, p.
104).22
19
20
21

22

Cf. / .
Cf. .
A notre avis, lexemple ci-dessus nest pas tout fait bien choisi tant donn que
sa traduction dpondrait du sujet de lnonciation et? ou du contexte. Cf.
() .
Choisies pour illustrer laffirmation ci-dessus, les trois dernires phrases sont
sorties de leurs contextes de sorte que leurs traductions en serbe, hors de leurs
contextes elles-aussi, tout en tmoignant de leffort de lauteur de tout expliquer, sont peu naturelles voire smantiquement peu transparentes tandis que
la troisime est fausse. Cf.
Si lon veut: / . Et lon partit: /
. Jirai o lon voudra: /
/ .

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Daprs cet auteur serbe on vite l' si aprs on se trouvent non
seulement le, la, les mais aussi un mot commenant par la lettre l
et c'est pourquoi il ne faut pas dire: Si l'on lisait mais Si on lisait
(ibid.).
Ksenija Jovanovi souligne galement que la langue serbe ne
connat pas de pronom correspondant au pronom personnel franais on et xplique quil peut se traduire de plusieurs manires:
, , , ou par un verbe pronominal (K. Jovanovi,
2005, p. 508):
On sonne. .
On fait ce qu'on peut. .
On dit que c'est une trs belle ville. .
Ici, on parle franais. O .

Pour complter la prsentation des quivalents smantiques et


des quivalents de traduction du pronom on en serbe nous allons
voir comment ce pronom est traduit dans deux dictionnaires franco-serbes.
Dans le dictionnaire franco-serbe de Peri le on est dfini comme
un pronom indfini et traduit par , , , (impersonnel) mais lauteur ajoute quil se traduit aussi par nimporte quel
pronom personnel du pluriel, surtout par la troisime personne
(1950, p. 333). En outre, lauteur donne les expressions contenant ce
pronom quil accompagne de traductions en serbe: On dit etc,;
le quen dira-t-on ja ; les on dit (ibid.).
Dans le dictionnaire franco-serbe de Jovanovi on est dfini simplement comme pronom et traduit par , ; , ;
, ; ensuite, l'auteur explique que ce pronom se traduit
par la 2e personne du pluriel ou par la 3e personne du singulier du
passif 23 et donne une srie d'exemples demploi de ce pronom accompagns de traductions: on a frapp la porte
24; on dirait , ; on dirait que
, , ; on vous demande ,
; autrefois, on vivait mieux ;
quand on veut, on peut , ; nous, on n'y peut rien
; on fait ce quon peut
23
24

84

Lexplication cite plus haut est mise entre parenthses.


Cf. .

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


25; on m'a demand de vos nouvelles ,
(ovanovi, 2005, p. 294).
Nous pouvons constater que les grammairiens serbes du franais
consacrent peu de place une analyse thorique et aux explications
des valeurs et des emplois du pronom indfini on, ce qui peut tre
expliqu par le fait quelles sont destines aux lves soit de lcole
primaire ou soit de lcole secondaire tandis que lanalyse de Ksenija
Jovanovi est prsente dans la Grammaire faisant partie dun dictionnaire franco-serbe. Dautre part, ils ne sont daccord ni en ce qui
concerne le status du pronom on ni en ce qui concerne ses valeurs et
emplois.
Si Drakovi et Ksenija Jovanovi prsentent dabord les quivalents smantiques du pronom indfini on en serbe, pour montrer ensuite ses valeurs et ses quivalents de traduction travers les exemples plus ou moins nombreux de son emploi quils accompagnent de
traduction en serbe, Kneevi passe directement la prsentation
des quivalents de traduction du pronom on, tandis que Papi fait
tantt lun tantt lautre. Mais, cest la grammaire de Drakovi qui,
travers les exemples de lemploi du pronom on et leur traduction
en serbe, offre un chantillon le plus diversifi dquivalents de traduction du pronom on et ceci dans des phrases correctement articules.
Papi ne donnent pas la traduction de ses exemples tandis que les
traductions donnes par Kneevi sont parfois htives et peu naturelles, voire incorrectes. Comme les phrases et expressions franaises sont donnes hors de leur contexte, leur sens parfois semble peu
facile saisir et leur traduction parat parfois peu naturelle, ce qui
est dailleurs montr par quelques traductions que nous avons proposes. Cest pourquoi certains auteurs donnent parfois deux voire
trois traductions possibles pour une seule phrase ou expression.
Si les grammaires que nous avons consultes offrent presque les
mmes quivalents smantiques du pronom on savoir ; ,
, , , Papi souligne qu' en outre ,[pour traduire on en serbe], il est possible parfois de recourir aux verbes rflchis ou bien
de traduire on (comme si c'tait ils) (ibid.). Mais parmi les quivalents de traduction pronom on, part les pronom et les substantifs
mentionns, figurent les pronoms personnels de la 1re personne du
singulier et du pluriel, ce dernier comme quivalent smantique et
quivalent de traduction de on employ avec la valeur du pronom de
25

Cf. .

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la 2e personne du singulier dans le registre familier, ainsi que le pronom personnel de la 3e personne du pluriel. Mais les pronoms personnels mentionns figurent implicitement, ntant pas exprims
dans la structure des phrases en serbe.
Mais propos du pronom rflchi serbe ce, nous constatons que
nos grammairiens ne soulignent pas que la forme pronominale peut
avoir la valeur du passif, comme dans la troisime traduction de cet
exemple donn par Papi:
On voit rarement ici une pareille tempte.
. .
.

aussi bien quune valeur impersonnelle, comme cest le cas dans la


seconde traduction de cet exemple galement donn par cet auteur:
On ne saurait penser tout. .
. (notre traduction).

Mais, dans la traduction du pronom indfini on en serbe, il est parfois possible, dirions-nous, de recourir au passif:
On ma racont une curieuse histoire. / *Je
/ . /
. (exemple et les deux premires traductions: Papi, 1984, p.75)
/ (notre traduction).
On sait que la France est un beau pays. ( , ,
) (exemple et la premire traduction: Drakovi, 1982, p. 133)
(notre traduction).

Nous constatons quun quivalent smantique du pronom on donn dans le dictionnaire franco-serbe de Jovanovi et dans celui de
Peri () n'apparat ni parmi les quivalents de traduction donns dans ces deux dictionnaires ni dans les traductions figurant
dans les grammaires du franais que nous avons consultes.
Notre analyse montre que les valeurs et emplois du pronom on
mriteraient, surtout pour les apprenants du franais langue trangre serbes un niveau plus avanc, une approche beaucoup plus
approfondie de la part des grammairiens serbes tant donn sa frquence dans le franais parl et crit et, disons-le avec les auteurs de
la Grammaire Larousse, sa trs grande souplesse [qui] explique en
partie le succs considrable de ce pronom (Chevalier et al., 1988,
86

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


p. 230 353), dautant plus que la langue serbe ne connat pas un pronom correspondant.
BIBLIOGRAPHIE

GRAMMAIRES DU FRANAIS
Callamand, M. (1989). Grammaire vivante du franais, franais langue trangre.
Paris: Librairie Larousse.
Chevalier et al. (1988). Chevalier, J.-C., Blanche-Benveniste, C., Arriv, M.,
Peytard, J. (1988). Grammaire Larousse du franais contemporain. Paris: Librairie
Larousse.
, . (1982). . : .
Dubois, . (1965). Grammaire structurale du franais, nom et pronom. Paris: Librairie Larousse.
Grevisse, M. (1980). Le bon usage. Bruxelles: Duculot.
Jovanovi K. (2005). Jovanovi Ksenija, Gramatika, in: ovanovi 2005: 441624.
Kneevi, R. (1937). Gramatika francuskog jezika za srednje kole. Beograd.
Monnerie, A. (1987). Le franais au prsent, Grammaire. Franais langue trangre. Paris: Les ditions Didier.
Papi, M. (1984). Gramatika francuskog jezika. Beograd: Zavod za udbenike i
nastavna sredstva.
Rat, M. (1965). Grammaire franaise pour tous. Paris: Garnier Frres.

DICTIONNAIRES
ovanovi 2005. Savremeni francusko-srpski renik: sa gramatikom, izradio
Slobodan A. Jovanovi; u saradnji sa Jovankom emeriki, Dafinom Damnjanovi i Milom orevi, Beograd, Prosveta, drugo izdanje
, ., -, , ,
[1950]

CORPUS26
Camus, Alber, La peste, Gallimard, Paris
Camus, Alber, Ltranger, Gallimard, Paris
Exupry, Antoine de Saint, Vol de nuit, Gallimard, Paris, 1931.

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

87

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Exupry, Antoine de Saint, Le petit prince
Gide, Andr, Les caves du Vatikan,
Gide, Andr, LImmoraliste
Proust, Marcel, Du ct de chez Swann
Proust, Marcel, Un amour de Swann

26

88

Les ouvrages mentionns sont repris par les auteurs du travail ci-prsent sur
Ebooks libres et gratuits, http://fr.groups.yahoo.com/group/ebooksgratuits
Adresse du site web du groupe : http://www.ebooksgratuits.com/ [9.IV 2011]

RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

LE PRONOM INDFINI ON EN FRANAIS CONTEMPORAIN ET SES QUIVALENTS EN SERBE


.

A
, ,

ON


on
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RADMILA M. OBRADOVI, IVANA M. JOVANOVI MILJKOVI

89


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104


GOLUB M. JAOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SERBIAN DIALECTS FROM KOSOVO


AND METOHIJA IN PETAR D. PETROVIS SHORT STORIES
Petar D. Petrovi, a teacher, was born in a prominent mercantile
family in Pe in 1881. He had graduated from theology school in
Prizren and worked as a teacher in Gnjilane, Pritina, Prizren and
Pe. He used to send short stories and notes concerning life and
work of Serbs in the area of todays Kosovo and Metohija to a various
newspapers and magazines which were printed from Constantinople to Belgrade and Novi Sad.
In the magazine Zastava, Svetozar Miletis journal of the National
Radical Party in Novi Sad, he has published 24 short stories between
1906 and 1912 and one short story in the illustrated magazine ,,Graniar.
The subject of our research here are speech properties of Prizren
South Moravian and Kosovo Resavian dialects which are registered in characters speech described in Petrovics prose originating
from different regions: Kosovo Pomoravian, Pritina, from Prizren
and its surroundings and from northern Metohija. We have also analyzed dialecticism recorded in the speech of the writer.
KEY WORDS: dialecticism, Petar D. Petrovi, teacher, Novi Sad,
printed media.

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SANJA D. MIKETI
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

JELENA R. RATKOVI STEVOVI


UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

REACTIONS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS FROM KOSOVSKA MITROVICA TO


ETHNONYMS AS STIMULI-WORDS
Association is a psychological term which is becoming more and
more important in linguistic theory. Psychologists regard association as a legitimate relationship between two or more mental processes (feelings, images, thoughts, emotions, movements). Therefore, it can be predicted that people from different backgrounds will
have different associations for certain words used as stimuli. The
purpose of this paper is to compare the responses to certain stimuli
words used in The Associative Dictionary of Serbian Language (which
used the responses given by pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high
schools, and students of Universities of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Ni,
aged 18-25), and, on the other hand, reactions of students from the
University of Pristina (in Kosovska Mitrovica), and pupils from Kosovska Mitrovica high schools. It will also give analyses of some of the
stimuli with drastically different reactions from those observed in
The Associative Dictionary of Serbian Language.
KEY WORDS: association, associative dictionary, ethnonyms, Kosovo and Metohija, connotation, social stereotypes.

. , J .

123


: 811.111'374=163.41(038) ; 81'255
: 199689228

. . 1

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snezzanaz@yahoo.com
28. 2013,
1. 2013.

125

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, ,
. , ,
, ,
,
. ,

, ( 1986: 120).3

,

.

: -
2005. , ,
, ; - -
-, 2003. ,
; - , 2010. . , Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners
2004. , . ,
. ,
, , ,
3

126


1978. ,
.


,
, .
, .
,
.
,

.
, , , , (, 1991, .
248).
.
,
, , ,

.

. ,

(, 2002, . 19).

127

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O
O -
- ( , love) ( , /lv/),
( ,
s. substantive ).


. O - je ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
(gen.) (acc.). .
.
, , , , , , , . Ta : *
(), (obsolete), fig. (figurative), fam. (colloquial), com. (commerce),
myth. (mythology), se (Old English), Sh. (Shakespeare), prv. (proverb)4 .

(1991, . 190)
4

128

- , ,
.


,
.

-
-
- - .
,
. , , .
,
( , n (noun)). ( ).
(a), (b), (c) .
.
. ~ , * .

-
- .


,
.
.
,
,
.

129

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( , n (noun)). -
.
,
.
. XYZ 5, , ,
. , . `. .
, , coll
(colloquial), pej (pejorative), fig (figurative), sl (slang), form (formal language) . , . ,

.

, esp
childspeak. ,
, . , ( 2010, . 7
12). 6

130

:
E E - ,
K - - ,

MD Macmillan English Dictionary.

- .



-
- ,
: LOVE, YELLOW, LADY,
RIOT, SIMPLE FALL.
LOVE

love
,
,

.

( s (substantive)
, (2003, . 350) (2010, . 505) n (noun)). se (Old English) (2005, . 766767) ,
.
f (femininum), .
love
, to show sb lots of love
, to be in love with sb , to be head over heels in love , to
make love to sb , a
she has a great love of music
to do smth for the love of it .
love (love of, for, * to loc.),

love, .
to fall in love with (acc.) to be out of love

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LIII (1)/2013
with (gen.). , , , , , love, Loves Labours Lost , a
love- loves pl. (plural) , ,
no pl. love
: a) , b)
, (Sh). (fam.)
love, a esp BRIT ,
,
,
(amongst strangers) Can I help you, love? Mo , ?
(fam.) love in cottage ,
. love
, (in games), a ,
TENNIS. E . K,
, (
love) ,
~affair , ~making , ~potion
love lover, lovely (adj (adjective) ) ier, -iest, lovable lovingly,

. K E
love with much love yours (E) Yours lovingly T (K). K
love, o ,
love (E tr.
(transitive) intr. (intransitive), vt (verb transitive) vi (verb intransitive))
opp.(opposite), a hate , prv. (proverb) Love me, love my dog ,
Love me little and love me long . E
132


love (obsolete), a ,
.

, MD,
love , ,
,
.
love
MD
MD: love (from) Hope to see you soon. Love, Ray. . , , lots of love (from) Take care. Lots of love, Helen , .
love je (2004, .
851) ,
,
. love,
, , , , , . , ,
. love (lover, lovable, lovingly)
.
, .

.
YELLOW

yellow je adj.
(adjective), a (2005, . 1000) se -

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,
yellow, a n. (noun).

. yellow leaves, yellow skin,
yellow peril. E sl. (slang) yellow boy , a Yellow Sea .
(fig.) yellow , , ,
,
(2010, . 1071) o coll (colloquial). yellow press
E K, a
E. O yellow , . K je
yellow , a E je
, , , ,
, , , , , . K (2003: 577)
, 7 yellow
yellow ish,
.
yellow ao
something that is yellow is the same colour as the
middle of an egg (2004, . 1669) : (informal ), (offensive ) to become
less white and more yellow, because of age or damage by the sun
, .
, yellow ao
,
,
.
yellow
, . 7

134

yellow je E K vt (verb transitive)


vi (verb intransitive), vi.


, , ,
.
LADY

O lady je ( , .).
(2005, . 717718) , , , , .
pl. form. (formal) - Ladies and gentlemen! !,
K (2003: 335) lady
, a Is there a ladies near here?
?. (2010: 471)
lady : a lady doctor , cleaning lady a, a E : lady author , ,
lady clerk , lady friend: a) ; b) ( ), lady president lady superintendant . old/young
.
lady (sl. (slang) AM-American)
, . Ka
lady's man ladybird . E
,
, :
boarding school for young ladies , ladies' college
, Ladies' gallery , Ladies' Mile
o , Lady Day Annunciation (25. ), Lady in Harvest (15. ). Ta

, : lady of easy virtue ; Cath. eccl (Catholic ecclestial ) Our (Blessed) Lady () , , Our (most gracious)
Lady the Queen , ,
lady dog , a
, a je ( -

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, ) lady cook , lady help
. E
lady, MD (2004, .
795) ,
: first lady, lady of the night, lady of the
house, our lady . a E , MD lady,
, .
A

.



.
RIOT

136

(
, ) riot, E (2005,
. 313) (hom.) ryot, a
sf (Old French) it (Italian)
.
riot E je hunt. (hunting)
,
, , .
(2010, . 766) K (2003, . 455)
, , Riot Act
e. hist. (English History) o
( ) . J
riot to run riot ,
`.

, , , , a
, . O riot , , .


riot~er n (noun)
riot~ous adj (adjective). E
riot out ().
, MD
(2004, . 1225)
riot. J
riot , rioter rioting
[C] [U] , riotous riotously (adv.)
riotousness (n). riot start/provoke/
spark a riot quell a riot
, .
SIMPLE

simple l. (Latin) i f.
(French), a , , (2005,
. 443) je opp. (opposite) compound ().
(2010, . 837), , ~ r,
~ st more ~ , most ~ , K (2003: 478) .
, simple simply . simple ,
(). ,
simple chm.
(chemistry) , com. (commerce) , mus. (music) , mar.
(marine) , phys. (physics) , gram. (grammar) , bot. (botany) , zo. (zoology) , pharm. (pharmacy)
. collective,
simple simples , , a
Peter Simple , .
(2004: 1331)
simple .
,

137

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, .
, Macmillan
English Dictionary, je , - .
, , , , - , ,
,
, .
FALL

138

fall je (2004, .
390), (2010, . 295), a K (2003, . 254255)
,
. ,
: , , , , , , , , . E fall
bot. (botany) ,
, , , a
. fall (in, into), , , ,
, . (mar.) to fall foul of e,
. ,
( pt (past tense)
pp (past perfect)), a
, .
(coll.)
fall about (laughing) o
. , US ( ) -,
.


the fall of
Troy, , the Fall of Man . fall
, (in+gen) in support o, , a pl. tantum
(pluralia tantum) METEO GEOG (meteorology, geography)
the rise and ~ of the tide .

AM (American) , . (2004, .
498499) fall , . Ta
: fall
to the ground, fall into decay/despair/ruin/disuse, fall from power.
fall , +by
Industrial production has fallen by 10%. (opposite) RISE, a
fall dramatically / rapidly / sharply / slightly / steadily / steeply.
fall ,

MD .

.
,
, . , ,

.

,
.

139

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, ,
, .

.
, ,
,
.

. , ,
, ,
.
, .
je
. ,
,
MD E, , .
- , .
, ,

, ,
.

. ,


-.
/, ( 2002, . 1319). M , 140


GENUS PROXIMUM
- ( 2002: 19). , ,
. ,
.
, . (1986). . :
.

, . (2002). - : . : .
, . (1991). , (: ). : .

J, M. -Jo, . (2003).
- - . : .
M 2004: Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Oxford:
Macmillan Publishers Limited.
2010: - . : K.
, ., , . , . (2005). E - I. : .
, ., , . , . (2005). E - II. : .

K - -
MD - Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners
ER E -
-

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SNEANA M. ZEEVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

TRANSLATIONAL EQUIVALENTS AND COMPOSITION OF THE ENTRIES IN


BILINGUAL ENGLISH-SERBIAN DICTIONARIES
The aim of this paper is the analysis of translational eqivalents as
well as of the composition of the entries in bilingual English-Serbian
dictionaries. It is initially assumed that there are different microstructure and macrostructure of the dictionaries of different volume
and purpose, likewise the correspondence of translational equivalents of their entries. The analysis conducted for the requirements of
this paper included six randomly chosen lexemes of the English language taken from three bilingual dictionaries that were contrasted
with their equivalent lexemes presented in the monolingual English
dictionary which was later used for checking. The results of the analysis presented less meaning of the lexemes in Colloquial and Universal
English-Serbian Dictionary while the utmost variety of semantic dimensions was noted in Encyclopedic English-Serbian Dictionary which by its
quality and organization presents an inexhaustible source of information neecessary for translating texts from English to Serbian language.
KEY WORDS: entry, translational equivalent, bilingual dictionary,
Serbian language, English language.

142


: 811.111'367.625 ; 811.163.41'367.625 ; 811.111:811.163.41
: 199689740

. . 1

A
, ,
K

OFF

2
. () , , , (. ) .
,
. ( ) , ,
. , .
, , .
, , ,
, . off. .

: , , off, , .
1
2

dzoni_gep@yahoo.com
30. 2013,
1. 2013.

143

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1.
(, ) ,
(
go, put, take) (), . , ,
. . ,

.
, ,
. he
Oxford Companion to the English Language
,
, , , -
, -, / / (1996, . 772),
. he Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English
Language, , , .
(1997, . 118).
, Understanding
English Grammar, ,

(1998, . 35). ,
(, 1996, . 773).
, go up
:
1) The balloon went up into the sky,

:
2) Up the balloon went into the sky.

, ,
go.
144

OFF
:
give in surrender;
pull through recover,
come by acquire
break up end.

, , .

2.
:
The party broke up when we turned in,

:
he put the shoes down . (She put down the shoes.)

, .
, :
1) :
I am looking for3 my keys. (I am looking my keys for.)

2) :
I have a lot of work on. (I have on a lot of work.)

3) , :
) he thunder woke up the children,
) The thunder woke the children up.
, ,
:
1) She put him down, *She put down him.
3

( look for) . .

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3.

/ (1996, . 773). ,
( ), ( ),
(
).
, , , , . .
) She put down the book. . ()
) The army put down the rebellion. . ( / )

,
, , .
:
,
-
.
:

4: .

take away ( )
,
. , drink up
- , drink 146

OFF
, (, = ). , bring about , , bring about, .

. , .
:

5:


,
, :
a) The statistics looks strange. Have we slipped up somewhere?4

/ ,

. , ,
pick up :
1. Pick up that book. ( , )
2. Please, pick up your room. ()
3. The airport van picked up its passengers. ()
4. I picked up this ring on sale. ( )
5. He picks up foreign languages fairly easily. ( )
4

slip up =
, slip, , .

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6. He picked up his package at the post office. ()
7. She picked up some milk on her way home. ()
8. Her boss picked up the tab for lunch. ( )
9. He picked up a virus on his trip. ()
10. The police picked up the bank robber. ()

4.

,

. .
, . ,
, . Up

I put my hand up.

, . get up , .

5. FF
5.1. ,
. ,
, FF . The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (OALD) (1974),
,
off, L. Alexander Longman English Grammar, , .
,
off, English Language Dictionary (1987),
, , :
1) Leaving and beginning ( // )
2) Rejecting and preventing ( )
3) Stopping and Canceling ( )

148

OFF
4) Decreasing ()
5) Finishing and Completing ( / / ).

, , .
off`,
:
1) LAVING AND BEGINNING ( ):
1) drop off (, , , ,
//)
) I can drop Daisy off on my way home. ()
b) The number of students in this course dropped off after the first test.
( )
) fter the long drive, we dropd off and slept for 10 hours! ( )

2) kick off (, )
) They kicked off a two-month tour of the U.S. with a party in Washington.

3) see off ()
) She saw him off at the station.

4) set off (, //, )


) He set off on another of his European pleasure tours. ()
) Your train sets off at 7. am. ()
c) Two terrorists set off a bomb under presidents car. ( )

5) spark off (, , //)


) There was a risk that the decision would spark off a conflict.

6) take off ( //, , //)


) She took off the shoes and entered the room. (
)
b) The plane took off on time. ()
) He took off in a hurry. ( )

2) REJECTING AND PREVENTING ( ):


1) hold off ( , ;
; )
.

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) They had to hold the creditors off. ( )
) Let's hold off until we have more data. (; )

2) keep off ( ; ; //)


) If you don `t keep off the street with your bicycle, I` ll take it away. (
)

3) lay off ( //; ; - //; //)


a) he firm had to lay off 100 men. ( )
) He laid off an area for a garden. ( - )
c) Lay off me, will you?! ( //)

4) put off ()
a) Don` t put it off till tomorrow.

5) write off (- , , .)
a) We wrote off the rainy first day of the vacation. ( )
b) Write the debt off from his account, please. ( )

3) STOPPING AND CANCELLING ( ):


1) break off ()
) Diplomatic relations were restored after being broken off during the war.

2) call off (; )
a) On the eve of her departure, the strike was definitely called off, and she was
sure of her flight.

3) let off (o ; ;
)
) I'll let you off from work for a week.
b) We have been let off our homework because of the concert.

4) take off ( , , .)
a) Bill and I took time off from work and flew to France.

4) DECREASING ():
150

OFF
1) cool off ( (.); ; ,
. //)
) We cooled off from the heat with a refreshing swim.
b) After the fight both men need to cool off.

2) fall off (() / /; ; ,


; )
a) Stock prices have fallen off. ()
b) The number of staff meetings fell off after a few months. ()
c) She fell off a chair. (() / /)
d) Toward the end of the dry season, the cattle fall off rapidly. ( ,
)

3) level off ( ; , )
) his growth in demand levelled off after 1973.

4) wear off (; ; ; ; )
) The drug wore off.
) The effect of the aspirin wore off and her toothache had come back.

5) work off (//; )


) We should all be able to work off our stress physically.
b) I dont have enough money for that watch, I`ll have to work off
some extra pounds.

5) FINISHING AND COMPLETING ( ):


1) finish off ( ; )
a) I finally finished off this homework assignment.

2) go off (; ; //;
; )
a) Please stay, don't go off mad.()
b) The project went off smoothly. ( )

3) pay off ( ; ; )
a) He had used the firm` s money to pay off gambling debts. ()

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b) That bet paid off poorly. ( )
c) The doctor got paid off for his service. ()

4) pull off ( //, ; , ; )


) You pulled off a last-minute victory! (, )
b) We pulled this firm off the project because they overcharged. ()

, , , ,
, , use up vs. consume; gather
together vs. assemble; put out vs. extinguish.
,
.

, , .
. ,
.

OFF .
Back off, Blast off, Block off, Blow off, Bounce off, Break off, Bring off,
Brush off, Bump off, Bundle off, Bunk off, Burn off, Buy off, Buzz off,
Call off, Carry off, Cart off, Cast off, Chase off, Check off, Choke off,
Clear off, Close off, Come off, Come off it, Cool off, Cop off, Count off,
Cream off, Cross off, Cry off, Cut off
Damp off, Dash off, Die off, Doze off, Drift off, Drive off, Drop off, Dry
off,
Ease off

152

OFF
Face off, Fall off, Feed off, Fence off, Fend off, Fight off, Finish off, Fire
off, Flip off, Flog off, Flounce off, Fob off, Fob off on, Fob off onto, Fob
off with, Frighten off, Front off,
Get it off, Get it off with, Get off, Get off it, Get off on, Get off with, Give
off, Go off, Go off with, Goof off
Hack off, Have it off, Have off, Head off, Hit it off, Hit it off with, Hive
off, Hold off,
Jerk off,
Keep off, Kick off, Kill off, Kiss off, Knock off,
Laugh off, Lay off, Let off, Level off, Lift off, Live off, Log off,
Make off, Mark off, Mouth off,
Nip off, Nod off,
Pack off, Pair off, Pair off with, Palm off, Pass off, Pay off, Pick off, Pig
off, Play off, Polish off, Pop off, Power off, Pull off, Put off,
Rack off, Rain off, Rake off, Rattle off, Read off, Reel off, Ride off, Ring
off, Rip off, Rope off, Round off, Rub off on, Run off, Rush off,
Sag off, Scare off, Screen off, See off, Sell off, Send off, Send off for, Set
off, Shake off, Shave off, Ship off, Shoot off, Show off, Shrug off, Shut
off, Sign off, Sign off on, Skive off, Slack off, Slag off, Sleep off, Slice off,
Slip off, Slip off to, Slope off, Slough off, Snap off, Sound off, Spark off,
Spin off, Spirit off, Sponge off, Square off, Square off , Start off, Start
off on, Stop off, Storm off, Strike off, Swan off,
Tail off, Take off, Tap off with, Tear off, Tee off, Tee off on, Tell off,
Throw off, Tick off, Tip off, Toddle off, Top off, Toss off, Touch off,
Trade off, Turn off,
Walk off, Wander off, Wear off, Work off, Write off,
Zoom off
Alexander, L. G. (1988). Longman English Grammar. London: Longman.
Anastasijevi, K. (1968), Dvolani glagol u savremenom engleskom jeziku. Beograd.
Bolinger, D. (1971). The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.
Patrick Hanks (Ed.) (1989). Collins COBUILD Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. London.

153

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John Sinclair (Ed.) (1987). Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. London:
COBUILD.
Gwyneth Fox (Ed.) (1996). Collins COBUILD Phrasal Verbs Workbook. London.
Crystal, D. (1997). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Cambridge University Press.
Kolln, M. and Funk, R. (1998). Understanding English Grammar. 5th ed. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Tom McArthur (Ed.) (1992). The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
McCarthy M., O'Dell, F. (2004). English phrasal verbs in use. Cambridge University Press.
Oxford University press (2006). The dictionary of Phrasal verbs.

154

OFF
NIKOLA N. DANETOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

PHRASAL VERBS WITH PARTICLE OFF


AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE

SUMMARY

Phrasal verbs are verbs that, unlike ordinary verbs in English, are
accompanied by particular particles, and as such, they function as a
whole. The original and primary meaning of the verb in such use varies, depending on the particle and the number of particles located after the verb. Phrasal verbs are very common in English (especially in
speaking). In informal use, they are more present and used than their
synonyms. English grammarians point out that the number of phrasal
verbs has increased significantly since the mid-19th century, especially in mid-20th, mostly in American English. Many phrasal verbs can be
replaced with another word with little change in meaning. In most
cases, the use of a phrasal verb is less formal, more colloquial and
more emotionally colored than a word that replaces it.
This paper deals with the definition, analysis and use of phrasal
verbs in general, and then concentrates and focuses on a particular
group those phrasal verbs that are accompanied by particle `off`.
Additional analysis of the examples and potential translations of certain verbs are provided along.
KEYWORDS: phrasal verbs, verbs, Serbian language, particle `off`,
English language.

155


: 821. 112. 2(436). 09-31 .
: 199673868

. . 1

A
, ,

2
.

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(
). .
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, ), (,
), ,
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.

: (18831924), , ,
, , , .

1
2

kosticdragomir @yahoo. com.


18. 2013,
1. 2013.

159

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.
(18831924)
, ,
. , ,
, .
, :
. .
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( )
3
4

160

, , , ,
, , 1978. . 7.
. [] , ,
(); , ; , ( , , ),
, ;
; , (
, . , ),
, (, 1961, .
392393).


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.
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). , , ( ) .
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( , ), (, , , ), (, ), ( , , , , , ).
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161

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. , ( )
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, . 114.
, . 161.
, . 25.
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.


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; , . . , .16

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13

14

15

16

Jo u poetku, taj junak nepokolebljive upornosti opisan nam je kao onaj koji se
zauvek odrekao svoga sveta, svoje rodne zemlje, ivota u kojem postoje ena i
deca. Jo u poetku, on je, znai, izvan spasa, pripada izgonu, tom mestu u kojem
ne samo da nije kod kue nego je izvan sebe, u samom spolja, oblasti potpuno lienoj prisnosti, gde bia izgledaju odsutna, gde se otima sve to verujemo da dohvatamo. Tragina tekoa poduhvata znai da je, u tom svetu iskljuenja i korenitog
odvojenja, sve lano i nepravo im se u njemu zastane, sve vam nedostaje im se o
njega oslonite, ali da ipak osnova tog odsustva jeste uvek ponovo data kao nesumnjivo, apsolutno prisustvo, i re apsolutno ovde je na svom mestu, to znai
odvojeno, kao da je odvajanje, doivljeno u svoj svojoj strogosti, moglo da se preokrene u apsolutno odvojeno, apsolutno apsolutno (Blano, 1983, . 159160).
Na poetku Zamka, K. se pojavljuje sam da bi odmah zatim usledio njegov dolazak
u gostionicu; nadalje je K. gotovo neprestano okruen ljudima; a ipak, on je zbog
neuspeha komunikacije usamljeniji na kraju knjige nego na poetku (Kon, 1985,
. 179).
, [] ( ,
, , 19101913, , , , 1978, . 26).
Izgubljenost i besciljnost, uzaludnost svakog ivotnog napora najvie dolaze do
izraaja u drugom Kafkinom romanu Zamak (Simi, 1968, . 7).

163

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). ,
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, (Kami, 1963, . 124)
, (Has, 1971, . 16) (Kaneti, 1986, . 93)
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18

164

Ali znaajan za mene je bio samo Zamak. Povukao me je i uznemirio zemljomer K.


u svom ne-moi-prispeti-u-svet, pie Ginter Anders u Predgovoru iz 1984. godine svoga dela Kafka pro et contra iz 1951. godine (Anders, 1985, . 9). ( ). , :
Kafkino glavno djelo Zamak, []. Isto, . 44.
Tema o ovekovoj nemoi veoma je precizno izraena u delu Franca Kafke. On u
Zamku opisuje oveka koji eli da doe u dodir sa tajanstvenim stanovnicima jednog zamka, od kojih oekuje da mu kau ta da ini i da mu pokau njegovo mesto
u svetu. Sav njegov ivot sastoji se u besomunom naporu da s njima stupi u dodir,
ali to mu nikad ne polazi za rukom, i on ostaje sam, oseajui krajnju uzaludnost i
bespomonost (From, 1989, . 124).


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, 20. 1913.
( 19101913, , . 296). Namee se pomisao na tradiciju
alegorijske knjievnosti u najirem smislu, na basne odnosno na parabole, na mistike prie i moralistike tractate s pripovjednim primjerima. Zbog nekih svojih
obiljeja Kafkini su tekstovi nazvani anti-bajkama. Na isti nain moemo ih nazvati i anti-parabolama, a neke i apsurdnim basnama, da upotrijebimo generiki pojam basne, koji je radio i sam autor. Meu zaista utemeljene sudove kritike treba,
naime, ubrojiti spoznaju da Kafkina proza neprestano upuuje na oblike alegorijske tradicije, ali da temeljna naela spomenutih knjievnih vrsta njoj vie nisu
svojstvena(mega, 1983, . 108).
Obe knjige (Zamak i Proces primedba D. K. ) doaravaju jedan prostor iz sna, prostor u kojem je detalj opipljiv i realistian, a celina irealna i neshvatljiva. Iz svakidanjice neprestano proistie stvarnost (Kili, 1990, . 249).

165

LIII (1)/2013
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166

Kafkino artistiko uivanje u antitezama (ivojinovi, 1990, . 18).


U tome je, najzad, i smisao Kafkinog dijaloga koji je samo naizgled alogian, i samo na izgled dijalog, dok zapravo razotkriva sutinsku izolaciju glavnog lika
(Grubai, 1983, . 72). .
, , . 346.
Moe biti da je Kafka shvatio da za itaoca svaki tekst mora biti nedovren (ili naputen, kao to je ukazao Pol Valeri), da se tekst zapravo i moe itati samo zato to
je nedovren, jer tako ostavlja prostor za itaoev rad, []. Nema poslednje stranice Zamka, jer K. , glavni junak, ne sme nikada do njega dospeti, tako da italac
zauvek nastavlja kretanje po vieslojnom tekstu (Mangel, 2005, . 102). .
No ova je nezavrenost romana ba njegova vrlina (G. Anders, isto, . 86).
Uostalom, svreci bi bili u mnogim Kafkinim radovima i potpuno suvini
(Isto, . 87).


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26
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28

Svet se prikazuje v romanu s stalia junaka, junak pa s stalia sveta (Pirjevec,


1979, . 227).
Uvek u pokretu, nikad se ne zaustavljajui, gotovo da se ne obeshrabruje, idui iz
neuspeha u neuspeh, neumornim kretanjem koje podsea na hladnu zabrinutost
vremena bez otpoinka. Da, on ide, s nepokolebljivom upornou, uvek u pravcu
krajnje zablude, prezirui selo koje jo ima neku stvarnost, ali elei Zamak koji
nema, moda, nikakvu, odvajajui se od Fride, koja na sebi ima nekoliko ivih
odblesaka, da bi se okrenuo Olgi, Amalijinoj sestri, dvostruko iskljuenoj,
odbaenoj; jo vie onoj koja je dobrovoljno, zastraujuom odlukom, izabrala da
to bude. Sve bi, dakle, trebalo da ide najbolje to moe. Ali, od toga nema nita, jer
zemljomer neprestano pada u greku [] (Moris Blano, navedeni tekst, isto .
161).
, , . 59.

167

LIII (1)/2013

?
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30
31

168

Moe se dodati da, strogo govorei, element fantastinog ne prodire u ivot


zemljomera K. u samom trenutku ulaska u selo, nego poto se probudio iz sna,
kada gostioniar trai od njega dozvolu za boravak u selu, poinje neobino
pozivanje zamka telefonom koji teko da postoji itd. (Meletinski, 1983, . 356).
, , . 8. On dakle nikako nije mogao biti pozvan (Adorno, 1985, .
112).
, . 9. Je li taj poziv stvarno postojao ili je to K-ovo puko uobraavanje
oko toga se zapravo vrti cijeli roman (Brod, 1976, . 165).
: Cela stvar se dakle okree oko toga da li je zemljomer pozvan ili nije, a od reenja tog problema zavisi kako emo simboliki shvatiti poruku romana:
ako nije pozvan, onda je on ili prevarant ili ovek pod opsesijom, i to je onda pria
o hohtapleru ili o opsednutom oveku, opsesivnoj linosti (Gluevi, 1972, .
130). . , , : Ve na prvim
stranicama Zamka nailazimo na paradoksalnu situaciju: svesno ili nesvesno izgovorene lai zemljomera se obistinjuju on kae da je dobio poziv iz zamka za koji
ranije nije znao ni da postoji, meutim, ovu la e administracija zamka raskrinkati kao istinu; on proizvoljno tvrdi da e njegovi pomonici uskoro stii, i oni
mu istina, u liku nepoznatih ljudi idu u susret iz pravca zamka, prihvatajui tu
injenicu bez daljeg objanjenja (Grubai, 1983, . 2930).


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169

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170

Kafkin veliki roman Zamak[] ta silna balada o


strancu bez zaviaja koji eli da se ukorijeni u svojoj drugoj domovini, ali to ne
moe postii (. Brod, isto, . 194), : U
Zamku se moe nai odraz Kafkina ljubavnog odnosa prema Mileni, dan s neobinom skepsom i na pejorativan nain, kao svojevrsna estoka deformacija stvarnih
dogaaja, to ga je moda jedino moglo spasiti iz krize (Isto, . 195).
. : Sve jasnije se opaa da hladan sloj izolacije to lei oko K. -a nije neto sluajno. [] Ali ne rjeava se zagonetka zbog ega se K. ne moe udomaiti. On je tu i dospio je u selo gdje strance gledaju s nepovjerenjem. [] To je poseban osjeaj idova koji se eli ukorijeniti u
tuoj sredini, koji iz sve snage tei da se priblii tuincima, da im postane potpuno
jednak, a to mu stapanje ipak ne uspijeva.
Rije idov ne pojavljuje se u Zamku. No sve jedno lei na dlanu da je tu Kafka iz
svoje idovske due, putem obine prie, rekao vie o opoj situaciji dananjeg
idovstva nego to se moe proitati u stotini uenih rasprava (Isto, . 164).
,
, ,
.
, , . 18.
, . 20.
, . 21.
, . 25.
, . 256.


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, . 37.
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, . 57. [] Njeno dranje prema K. -u ima u sebi neto od apsurdnosti sna


ili none more, i nemotivisana spontanost na poetku njihovog odnosa izgleda
kao znamenje neoekivanog preokreta (R. Kon, isto, . 180).
, . 46.
, . 57.

177

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, , . 104.
, . 105.
Plava uiteljica Gisa, sigurno jedina lijepa djevojka, strana i ivotinjski mila, koju on neokrnjeno opisuje, kao da se krutou sprda Kafkinu vrtlogu, pripada predadamskoj rasi hitlerovskih djevica koje mrze idove mnogo prije nego to su se takve uope pojavile (Th. Adorno, , . 124).
, , . 115.


. . ( ) ()
:
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, .86

. ,
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87
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, . 121.
, . 128.
, . 133.

181

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.90
. . .
?
. , , , ; , , .
( ) ().91
Adorno, 1985: Adorno, W. (1985). Zabiljeke uz Kafku, Filozofsko-socioloki
eseji o knjievnosti, preveo Borislav Mikuli. Zagreb: kolska knjiga.

Anders, 1985: Anders, G. (1985). KAFKA, pro et contra (osnovi spora), preveo
Ivan Foht. Beograd: Rogoz.
Blano, 1983: Blano, M. (1983). Kafka i zahtev dela, prevela Gordana Stojkovi. Delo, (god. XXIX, br. 1112, str. 139166). Beograd.
, 1995: , . . (1995). , , , . : .
Brod, 1976: Brod, M. (1976): Franz Kafka, preveo Zlatko Mateti. Zagreb: Znanje.
Gluevi, 1972: Gluevi, Z. (1972). Kljuevi za Zamak, Vrnjaka Banja: Zamak kulture.
Grubai, 1983: Grubai, S. (1983). Proces Franca Kafke. Beograd: Zavod za
udbenike i nastavna sredstva.
, 1961: , . . (1961). ,
, . : .
ivojinovi, 1990: ivojinovi, B. (1990). Kafkin Proces, u Franc Kafka, Proces. Beograd: BIGZ.
mega, 1983: mega, V. (1983). Sizifov trud interpretacije, Zapisi o Kafki,
Delo, (god. XXIX, br. 1112, str. 102113). Beograd.
, 1972: , . . (1972). . : .
Kami, 1963: Kami. A. (1963). Nada i apsurd u djelu Franca Kafke, Mit o Sizifu,
preveo Nerkez Smailagi. Sarajevo: Veselin Maslea.
89
90
91

182

, . 134.
, . 137.
.


Kaneti, 1986: Kaneti, E. (1986). Drugi proces, Kafkina pisma Feliciji, preveo Boidar Zec. Novi Sad: Bratstvo-Jedinstvo.
Kili, 1990: Kili, V. (1990). Pogovor za Proces nemakom izdanju, preveo Branimir ivojinovi, u Franc Kafka: Proces. Beograd: BIGZ.
Kon, 1985: Kon, r. (1985). Vot u svetlosti Zamka, Trei program, (br. 67, sv. IV,
str. 169183). Beograd.
Mangel, 2005: Mangel, A. (2005). Istorija itanja, preveo Vladimir Gvozden.
Novi Sad: Svetovi.
, 2005: , . (2005). , (. V, . 42, . 3339). .
Meletinski, 1983: Meletinski E. M. (1983). Poetika mita, preveo Jovan Janiijevi. Beograd: Nolit.
Pirjevec, 1979: Pirjevac, D. (1979). Franc Kafka in evropski roman, Evropski
roman. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zaloba.
Simi, 1968: Simi, N. (1968). Zapisi o Kafki, Predgovor Odabranim djelima
Franca Kafke, knj. prva. Zagreb: Zora.
From, 1989: From, E. (1989). Bekstvo od slobode, preveli Aleksandar orevi i
Aleksandar I. Spasi. Beograd: Nolit.
Has, 1971: Has, V. (1979). Predgovor Prvom izdanju Pisama Mileni, u Franc
Kafka: Pisma Mileni, prevela Zdenka Brki. Beograd: Nolit.

, 1978: , . (1978). , , ,
. : .
, 1978: , . (1978). , , 1910
1913, . : .
, 1978: , . (1978). , ,
19141923, . : .

183

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DRAGOMIR . KOSTI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE

SUMMARY

AN APPROACH TO KAFKA'S NOVEL THE CASTLE


In relation to The Process that has shocked readers with its vague
clarity, The Castle shocks by its clear ambiguity. There is no ghoulish
arrest without arrest, no silent and eloquent and infernal hallway
(mental vault), no thugs and, in the end, no executioners; no emphasized humiliation, violence and death. Everything in The Castle is reduced and moderate. And, of course, more hopeless. Unlike the plot of
The Process, which included the time span of about one year, here the
plot is summed up in a few days (it is said, a week ago, but in fact less
than that). And there is the hero called K. (only sometimes called Jozef
K.) Here is a figure reduced to K. (significantly reduced of something
what had already been reduced) to K. Only K. Without any form of
case endings, suffixes as to K, of K, as in The Process. And there, the author followed a single character, but here, from time to time, the character is continuously monitored, from hour to hour, day to day, or
from day to night, from night to day, so the plot is a bit protracted (approximately for a third more). However, unlike in The Process, in the
Castle everything is visible, all simple, all simpler, clearer, more certain, and again, nothing is seen, nothing is simple, nothing simpler,
nothing more clearly. The Castle as a trap for careless readers and, in
particular, for the interpreters of Kafka's enigmatic works!
KEY WORDS: Franz Kafka (18831924), the modern novel, realism as
surrealism, symbolic, identity, alienation, non-apprehension.

184


: 811.111(415).09-2"18/19"
821.152.1.09-2"18/19"
930.85(415)
: 199685900

PROF. DR MIRJANA N. LONAR-VUJNOVI1


ASS. MR ANA M. ANDREJEVI2
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

NATIONAL ELEMENTS
IN MODERN IRISH DRAMA3
ABSTRACT. The first performances of the Irish National Theatre took place in 1899. Soon
after, in 1902, the Abbey Theatre took the role of the main national theatrical
institution due to a small group of enthusiasts who believed that Irish drama
could achieve European prominence. The main innovator of this institution
was W. B. Yeats with his poetic and highly symbolic plays. In the plays he depicted historical events, the Celtic myths and legends from the folk past, and
he also advised the other young Irish playwrights (Synge, OCasey and others) to do the same. He wrote guided by the idea that the Irishman need to
know and discover their national identity and essence. Irish dramatists used
some national legends, historical figures, aspects of traditional village life
and wild nature of Ireland to express and to restore to life the sense of national oppression, traditional and cultural essence in modern time. The plays
of already mentioned Irish playwrights are the expressionistic evidence of
man's spiritual reality and the Irish consciousness through the process of national identity as the catharsis.

KEY WORDS: national identity, myth, folklore, history, language, Irishmen.


1
2
3

loncar.mirjana@gmail.com
andrejevic03@gmail.com
28. 2013,
1. 2013.

185

LIII (1)/2013
Raising the question of nationality in Irelands literature during the
first half of the XX century came together with political turmoil and
growing intolerance towards English predominance. Around this
time, there was also an Anglo-Irish literary revival which brought
writers such as William Butler Yeats, Lady Gregory and John Millington Synge to the fore. As the term Anglo-Irish implies, this literature was largely the preserve of the remains of the ruling class.
Presiding as a director of the Abbey theatre and as a great proponent
of creating the Irelands national conscience, Yeats thought that the
theatre was the right place for raising that question and making it
alive in the minds of oppressed Irishmen. He thought that native
Irish literature and tradition are suitable sources for literary inspiration. The race is more important than the individual but Yeats accentuated that literature must be national not nationalistic. Representatives of the Irish Renaissance Movement agreed that their dramatic tradition was too English and that the Irish characters were
badly interpreted, even caricatured. So, through the New Irish Theatre they managed to show nationalism in plays that enabled creating the deeper reality of Irish lives. Caricatures and comical Irish
characters vanished and instead the more realistic side of peasants`
lives and language of the province took the stage. Thus, the source
from which authors have started the Irish Renaissance Movement
was Celtic mythology but endowed in the modernistic form quite
different from English traditional and realistic drama.
In the play The Countess Cathleen, as the main theme Yeats uses a
national legend that he read about in the Irish newspaper. Surrounded by musical atmosphere, full of lyrical parts and short
speeches that are beautiful but outside the dramatic context, this
play lacks intense dramatic dialogue, convincing characters and
thrilling dramatic action. Nevertheless, the intention of the author
was quite clear: a great number of national and symbolic elements
that Yeats employed in this play had the bigger context of wakening
Irishness in whole: its history, tradition, values and beliefs. Although Yeats set not the time of the action as the 1840s when the
Great Famine, that killed hundreds of thousands of people,
emerged, it is nonetheless understood undoubtedly. Interpreted
from that point of view the peasants are starved people of Ireland
while two merchants are the representatives of English protestant
landlords who, due to historical documents, tried and managed to
convert great numbers of peasants from Catholicism to Protestantism during the Great Famine. Although the merchants are intro186

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duced as from the east carrying a carpet that is associated with Orient, it is more likely that Yeats had in mind England that is east of
Ireland. Just as England treated Ireland, the merchants behave in
Marys house like its their own. In this context Irishmen who sold
their souls that are the essence of their identity showed weakness
and Yeats, convinced that it never should happen again, wanted to
remind his people of it. But that was the reason why this play was
not so well accepted because it showed the weak side of Irishmen
while Yeats wanted to teach his countrymen to learn from their own
mistakes. The audience didnt like that Irish people should be able to
sell their souls which they saw as a direct attack on Irish Catholic
doctrine. We can today sympathize with starved people of course,
because the inner natural instinct of man is to try and prevent his
death and that is the universal theme that Yeats, consciously or not,
managed to inflict. In unnatural circumstances people change their
perspective, lose their values, succumb to evil and become brutal.
Yeats expressed the strong desire to protect Irish people of such
things.
This play is quite nationalistic especially at the beginning when
peasants are portrayed as typically Irish: humble, family oriented
with their superstition and quite rich imaginations. They believe
strongly in animal instincts that are considered as premonitions
and all were premonitions of something bad in this play.
Mary : What can have made the grey hen flutter so?
Teig: And that is not the worst; at Tubber-vanach
a woman met a man with ears spread out,
And they moved up nad down like a bat`s wing
Two nights ago, at Carrick-orus churchyard,
A herdsman met a man who had no mouth,
Nor eyes, nor ears; his face a wall of flesh;
He saw him plainly by the light of the moon.
In the bush beyond,
There are two birds if you can call them birdsI could not see them rightly for the leaves.
But theyve the shape and colour of horned owls
And Im half certain theyve a human face.
(W. B. Yeats, The Countess Cathleen)

Aside from these pagan elements the play offers us a deep and
pure Christian faith perpetuated in the character of Mary. She expected the salvation until the end of the play, therefore she even
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died rather than to offend God by selling her soul. Mary is a true representative of the Christian spirit but pagan beliefs were not so foreign to her as well. She confronts Shemus not to recall all the pagan
beliefs since that is the way to summon the devil. When the merchants appear she refuses to make them dinner out of her hen since
she feels that they are evil. She even dies strongly convinced that
her soul must not be sold and the food bought with gold out of the
demons must not be eaten, because she believes that God has never
forsaken them. Although Mary is a faithful, her husband and son reject to believe in Christ any more and, therefore they are easily influenced by devils.
Teig : What is the good of praying? father says.
God and the Mother of God have dropped asleep.
What do they care, he says, though the whole land
Squeal like a rabbit under a weasels tooth?
(W. B. Yeats, The Countess Cathleen)

Shamus and Teig even express doubt that soul exists at all. They become more violent and greedy helping the demons not only to buy
souls but also to convince Countess Cathleen to seal the deal with demons.
Even merchants talk in a Christian manner:
Second Merchant: Away now- they are in the passage hurry,
For they will know us, and freeze up our hearts
With Ave Marys, and burn all our skin
With holy water
(W. B. Yeats, The Countess Cathleen)

Another Christian element is introduced through the vision of the


angels who came down on earth to reprove peasants and bring happy news about Countess Cathleen being forgiven for her sin and accepted in heaven. The peasants understood their sin, they mourned
deeply for the death of the Countess so they naturally rejoiced upon
hearing the news.
Examples of Irish folklore can be seen in many myths and legends
incorporated in the play, like the one told by the Shemus:
Shemus : I heard say
Theres something that appears like a white bird,
A pigeon or a seagull or the like,
But if you hit it with a stone or a stick

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It clangs as though it had been made of brass;
And that if you dig down where it was scratching
Youll find a crock of gold.
(W. B. Yeats, The Countess Cathleen)

Although many disagreed with Yeats portrayal of the Irish people in


this play: their blunt imagination, strong belief in premonition and
weak spirit in the face of temptation not all the peasants are depicted in the same way. Mary is representative of an ideal Irishwoman
exactly how Yeats wanted them to be she has strong belief in God
and behaves kindly, compassionately and similarly to Countess
Cathleen. Making the husband and son non-believers and greedy,
Yeats wanted to accentuate the new materialistic world that sprang
around Ireland as well and to suggest that it cannot bring happiness.
J. M. Synge leaned towards more realistic and less poetic descriptions of dramatic themes trying to reach the same goal of creating
an Irish literarily tradition but using a different approach than
Yeats. He thought that Irish myths and legend as a retelling are not
fortunate themes for the stage. He also made an exception with his
play Deirdre of Sorrows which opposed to Synges main idea for the
modern Irish theatre. It fact, it was Yeats who gave the suggestion to
Synge to write about this well known and one of the most beautiful
legends in the literature of the world. But, unlike Yeats and Russell,
Synge reinterpreted the well known myth as a modern and human
tragedy of two lovers. Deirdre and Naisi are depicted as real people
who speak the real Irish native language and they are in conflict
with entire world. Predestined events limit their scope of life, but
Synge gives them free will and makes them individual, psychologically well constructed characters, at the same time distant (mythological) and real (contemporary). Synge thought that characters of
his plays must portray the Irish peasants and must speak HibernoEnglish since they are the guardians of Irish culture. That is why
Deirdre was not portrayed as a queen, but more as a child of Nature
without mystical but more realistic characteristics. With changing
the end of the traditional story Synge gave Deirdre deeper meaning
and made her even heroine by giving her a will and strength to
choose her own death and the way of life against the oppression of
old ways and tyranny of King Conchubor. Synge was focused on his
protagonists daily preoccupations, keeping them away from mysticism and supernatural versions of written legend that was not so
different from the original story of Deidre written in the 12th centuMIRJANA N. LONAR-VUJNOVI, ANA M. ANDREJEVI

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ry Book of Leinster. Synge managed to succeed this balance by using
the curious peasant language and original spirit and atmosphere of
the myth.
True, Synge's diction is based on a living peasant idiom, quaintly
naive and archaic both in individual words and in syntactical construction, but it is elevated or sublimated above, though consistent
with, this base, and has become (especially in the lyrical parts) an aristocratic dialect akin to the Elizabethan language of the English Bible.
(Bourgeois 1913: 216)

As an example of using the characteristic Irish words in Deirdre of the


Sorrows Synge wrote:
She wouldnt wish to be soiling them, she said, running out and in
with mud and grasses on her feet, and it raining since the night of
Samhain. (J. M. Synge, Deirdre of the Sorrows)

The word Samhain stands for All-Hallowtide or more precisely it


is a word for Celtic festival of the New Year, the dead, the north, the
element of earth and the frozen state just prior to rebirth.
Interesting lexical constructions Synge uses when talking about
nature and since Deirdre is surrounded by it throughout the play it
can easily be spotted:
She has the birds to school her, and the pools of the rivers where
she goes bathing in the sun.(J. M. Synge, Deirdre of the Sorrows)

The myth of Deidre and the sons of Usna was probably the most popular among Irishmen, especially during the Irish Renaissance Movement because both Yeats and Synge saw in the conflict between
Deirdre and Conchubar the struggle between England and Ireland.
Yeats saw in Deirdre and Naisi the picture of old Ireland filled with
love, nature and song and in Conchubar a new real world filled with
materialism, tyranny and hate. Its not the dread of death or troubles that would tame her like. (J. M. Synge, Deirdre of the Sorrows)
says Lavarcham describing the free spirit of Deirdre to Conchubar.
Synge made Deirdre even more heroic, almost like a martyr to the
nationalistic cause. We can notice that author made them return to
Emain from Scotland because they wanted to keep their love forever
young and alive, but seeing it in the nationalistic context we can say
that they were aware of their historical role in their country and
made a courageous choice to sacrifice themselves for the greater
cause. Rilschel even said that death was their duty to Ireland.
The Riders to the Sea is considered to be a one-act masterpiece of
modern theatre. The realistic setting of contemporary Aran Islands,
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NATIONAL ELEMENTS IN MODERN IRISH DRAMA


but also its history, language and beliefs are presented through a
story of one family but with the feeling of universality and destiny of
all its citizens. Aran was in public minds associated with death by
drowning which many documents sustain since its citizens lived
from fishing. The sea gave life but also took it. This island was distant from the mainland and resistant to modern changes so it preserved Irish Gaelic, folklore and superstition. Irish folklore is expressed through characters relationship with nature, death and
new order.
The sea is here identified with doom and death; it is the sea whose
formidable presence is felt all about the play; the sea that lurks behind
the stage; the sea that throws with loaded dice in the game of human
existence. He (Synge) himself confesses in the Aran book that he
"could not help feeling that he was talking with men who were under
a judgment of death." And this acute realization by the islanders that
the shadow of nothingness is perpetually hovering about them finds
its expression in Synge's play as in actual Aran life in the half-savage,
half-musical melopoeia known as the keen caoiri? (Bourgeois 1913:
165)

The power of sea viewed by Maurya and her daughters is even enlarged by Singes interpretation of peoples superstition and believing in supernatural elements. The pagan culture, which was longlasting part of Irish tradition, has not forgotten and rejected in the
face of Christianity, especially in those remote, outlandish places
like the Aran Islands. Synges life among the citizens of this island
brought him understanding of their innate wisdom, beautiful, melodious language and strange endurance against the natures inevitable and destructive power. He used it to express his devotion towards these people in their struggle with nature, but also their dignity in an old, modest, rough, almost forgotten but noble life that
makes the realistic side of the play. On the other hand the abundance of pagan beliefs that are scattered about the play makes the
supernatural side of the play even more attractive to viewers of the
time. But both are extremely familiar to the Irish audience and quite
national. Many premonitions throughout the play make the tragic
end almost inevitable. For example, Irishmen have believed that if
there is a lack of blessings something dangerous will happen. That is
why Cathleen is so upset with her mother when she fails to give her
blessing to Bartley.
Why wouldnt you give him your blessing and he looking round in
the door? Isnt it sorrow enough is on everyone in this house without

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your sending him out with an unlucky word behind him and a hard
word in his ear? (J. M. Synge, Riders to the Sea)

Local folklore and pagan belief in visions are introduced through


mentioning the old legend of Gaels, Bride Dara with whom Mauray
compares herself. It is believed that Dara had a vision of the dead
man holding the child in his arms and alike the vision that Muyra
had of her dead son on the grey horse, it came true.
Maurays keening is another old custom of Irish people. When
someone close died, Irish mourned them with high pitched crying
called keening. Synge wanted that the presentation of this custom
on the stage be authentic so he even hired an old woman to teach the
actress how to keen. Another custom seen in the play is all-night
wakes before the burial, but Synge uses these customs in the play as
unconscious and hidden paganism that is more dominant than
Christianity.
Nicely noticed by several critics is the repetition of number nine
in the play that was a significant number in pre-Christian times. It
was in the connection with Scandinavian belief in nine worlds, Odin
and all absolute and sacred values. Bartley says: Ill have half an
hour to go down, and you'll see me coming again in two days, or in
three days, or maybe in four days if the wind is bad". (J. M. Synge,
Riders to the Sea)
"I seen two women, and three women, and four women coming in,
and they crossing themselves, and not saying a word." (J. M. Synge,
Riders to the Sea) Numbers summed up give the total of nine days.
Nine days also did Maurya mourn Michaels death until she found
out that he was drowned for sure.
The old and the new world, both, the paganism and Christianity
have their representatives in the characters of this play. The young
priest is believer in Gods good grace and, therefore he rejects to
stop Bartley from going to the fair in Connemara believing that good
God want let that the last son of Maurya dies. Nora, the younger
daughter incline more towards the priests view on life wanting to
experience more than secluded island of Aran gives. Maurya`s hope
also lies in the hands of the young priest and God but only for a short
time and it is reduced since her premonitions become true. The
priest promised to try and convince Bartley not to travel when the
winds are rough and the waves are big, but he gave him his blessings
believing that God will keep him safe.
The tragedy of Maurya`s family is so profound and destructive because in the big world the old people do be leaving things after
192

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them for their sons and children, but in this place it is the young
men do be leaving things behind for them that do be old. ( J. M.
Synge, Riders to the Sea)
Mauray tries to explain the reason for not giving a blessing to her
son, with the anger and fear for him, but all the premonitions give
her almost certain feeling that he will never return like the rest of
her five sons and husband:
Hes gone now, God spare us, and well not see him again. He is
gone now, and when the black night is falling Ill have no son left me
in the world. (J. M. Synge)

After the vision of the dead son Michael riding the grey pony, Mauray didnt even try to say blessings to Bartley since she was convinced that she also lost him and the blessing would be in vain.
When daughters were telling her of Michaels death and while the
citizens of island came into cottage carrying the body, she immediately knew that it was Bartleys and not Michaels. Almost relieved
she gave the tragic speech filled with pagan and Christian beliefs:
Theyre all gone now, and there isnt anything more the sea can do
to meIll have no call now to be crying and praying when the wind
break from the southIll have no call now to be going down and getting Holy Water in the dark nights after Samhain(To Nora) Give me
the Holy Water; theres a small sup still on the dresserMaurya (drops
Michaels clothes across Bartleys feet, and sprinkles the Holy Water
over him).It isnt that I havent prayed for you, Bartley, to the Almighty God. It isnt that I havent said prayers in the dark night till you
wouldnt know what Ive been saying; but its a great rest I`ll have now,
and its time, surely. (J. M. Synge, Riders to the Sea)

Maurya`s approach towards death, however it sounds cruel and


cold, is also a belief of Aran`s people. Death is the fact that awaits for
us all, but even more surely for the Aran people because they lived
in the constant struggle with superior nature that ruled over their
lives.
Maurya:.No man at all can be living for ever, and we must be satisfied. (J. M. Synge, Riders to the Sea) She is satisfied that Michael will
have the decent burial in the far north where he died and new white
boards that were prepared for his coffin will now be used for Bartleys.
It is her last satisfaction and relief which seems cruel but rather realistic. Funerals were expensive for the poor people of the Aran Island,
especially when there are many of them in one family.

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Riders to the Sea exemplifies Synges unique and felicitous blending
of cosmopolitan literature and Irish social experience into a work of
heart-rending universal appeal as well as of individual self-expression. (Bourgeois 1913 :171)
There are some true Irish characteristics which are not used in
Synges plays at all or, at least, they are not used authentically. Although Synge is the extremely religious Irishman, he is also more
interested in the Irish past and the imaginativeness of Irish people,
so the atmosphere of his plays is mostly pagan. Love towards nature
of Irish landscapes is evident in all his plays. Going back to the Irish
past, Synge found most interesting the idea of the social status of
women in ancient Gael Dom that made his female characters more
superiorly matched with his men. Almost every dramatic work that
Synge had done was based on the realistic folk stories or legends
that he heard when leaving on the Aran Islands. The Riders to the Sea
is probably written due to Synges presence in front of more than
one death by drowning when he visited the islands. In the book Aran
Islands he preached that all dramatic action can be drawn from folk
history of Irish people, whether tragic or comic. By using all his
abundant knowledge of the Irish people we can say that Irish nation
spoke through him.
Synge felt that an Irish national theatre in English is, as we have
said, something of a contradiction in terms; but, as he wanted to write
his plays in English to appeal to a wider audience, he wrote them in
English modeled on the Gaelic of national Ireland. It is the Gaelic influence that gives color and distinction to his English. Synge's dialect,
therefore, is not the actual Anglo-Irish dialect. It is too Irish. An adequate rendering of Gaelic into English does not make peasant speech.
Here again we detect Synge's habitual process of accumulation. "Literariness creeps in. His language is crammed and supersaturated
with fantastical, overwrought "strings of gab" borrowed from Irish.
Even when he is not actually translating Gaelic, he seems to exaggerate the coefficient of Hibernicism. His characters bless and curse each
other too well. Whatever may be the unreality of Synge's Anglo-Irish,
it remains that his dialect possesses a literary value which it is difficult
to over-estimate. Leaving aside its strange aloofness and the sense of
distance which it lends to the mind, its principal quality in this connection is its rhythm. The concept of rhythm, which holds so important a place in latter-day philosophy and aesthetics, underlies Synge's
whole view of the drama, his technical execution, the antithetic design of all his plays, and, more especially, his literary use of the Irish
patois. He was bent on reproducing the suave and subtle "synge-

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NATIONAL ELEMENTS IN MODERN IRISH DRAMA


song" of peasant speech, and his vernacular has in it that happy coalescence of harmony and meaning which only a born musician can obtainHis dialect reads as well as Mr. Yeats's blank verse. If he did not
write his plays in verse, it is simply because he felt that peasant prose
had that flavor of reality and raciness which was so dear to
him.Synge strove to express himself first, and his drama, if it is, in a
way, true to Ireland, is primarily true to the individual vision of the
playwright. (Bourgeois 1913: 227-230)

Taking into consideration all aforementioned elements of national


identity, we have suggested that all of the authors doubtless were familiar, more or less, they are occupied by Irish origin and the twentieth-century recrudescence of individualism and were directly or
indirectly influenced by them.
Often the works of these writers were a voyage of discovery into
Irelands ancient and heroic past. They were consciously choosing
to see themselves as Irish and to weave another strand into the cultural tapestry of the country rather than to remain aloof and try to
be British. Many of their poems and plays became popular at home
and abroad. The poetry and writings of William Butler Yeats, for example, were a display of his passion for mysticism and the Occult
Sciences. His is one of the many famous names to come from the
original Golden Dawn. His works include such titles as Your Pathway
and Never Give All the Heart. However, more important was his desire to connect his own striving for knowledge of the unknown with
the Irish historical and national elements which beyond both exists
human knowledge and a traditional perception of Irish national
identity. By the time, this Yeatsian perception was transformed into
myth.
Many writers were attracted by the rich speech patterns of the
country people and they used as their models the remnants of the
Gaelic traditions which these people had carried with them into
English. Some, such as Synge, even went so far as to learn Irish so
that he could tap directly into this deep vein of culture and tradition
that lay just below the surface, despite centuries of repression.
All these cultural movements helped to reawaken the national
spirit which had lain dormant since the dark days of the famine.
They also encouraged debate and helped to create a new positive national identity.
LITERATURE

Bickley, F. (1912) J. M. Synge and Irish Dramatic Movement, Constable & Company LTD, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

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Bourgeois, M. (1913) John Millington Synge and the Irish Theatre, Constable &
Company LTD, London
Edwards, Ph. (1979) Threshold of a Nation, A study in English and Irish drama,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Howe, P. P. (MCMXII) J. M. Synge, A Critical Study, Mitchell Kennerley, New
York
ODonnell, F. and Macdonald, H. (1904) The Stage Irishman of the Pseudo-Celtic
Drama, John Long, London
Reid, F. (MCMXV) W. B. Yeats, A Critical Study, Martin Secker, London
Synge, J. M. (1912) The works of John, M. Synge, volume three, John W. Luce
and Company, Boston
Synge, J. M. (1995) The Playboy of the Western World and Other Plays, Oxford
English Drama, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Synge, J. M. Deirdre of the Sorrows, http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/
world/readfile?fk_files=1447352
Synge, J. M. Riders to the Sea, http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/
readfile? fk_files=1444235
Worth, K. (1978) The Irish Drama of Europe from Yeats to Beckett, The Athlone
Press of the University of London, London
Yeats, W. B. The Countess Cathleen, http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/
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NEBOJA J. LAZI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE

IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,

DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE

SUMMARY

THE CONSTRUCTION OF TIME IN THE THE GOLDEN FLEECE


BY BORISLAV PEKI
Time in the novel The Golden Fleece by Borislav Peki is manifested
as a historical, ideological or mythical time. Peki in the Golden Fleece
offers a a cyclical idea about time, which has its origin in antiquity.
This view of the nature of time helps him to have his literary heroes
easily move from myth to history and vice versa. The course of events
in the his novel is reversible. Historical events have a crucial impact
on the fate of the family Njegovan. As this extensive novel draws to a
close, they move completely to field of history and myth is replaced
by mythical timelessness.
KEY WORDS: Peki, time, the myth, symbolism, postmodernism.

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: 821.111(73).09-31 .
: 199686668

. M M. J1


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2
AEA. o a jaa oa, jeo o ooaea eaa, oe e o ao je eaoa ja eaje ao
ao ooa oaa eo ojee ao. ea eaja aeeo eooo ooa ojeao o ajoja je eejaa eooo aoja e eoo oea. oa eoa, o a, Moa aoo eoaae oaaa eoaj oejae eaa a ee oje e ooe a oae ojee ae ao.

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1
2

aenimax@gmail.com
a je oeao aaa oo aa ooe eaje aae eo: oo ooee oe ea aaoj aoaaoj eo, o eoo
o. aae o eo.
17. 2013,
1. 2013.

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eoajo eeeaa eo eoa
oo oe, ao o a oaa a eo
oaa ojee ee, eajo o oa eooe eeje ea, oae
e oj oo aaa a o eooao
aoja oee eooje, ooeo ajae
ooja, oea ea eoaa oeeja
eaa, oja oje eo oaa a oa eo aaaa. , je oao
eaa ae oa eo, a e, e
oje eo oaae aoe ao, aeeo,
ooao a.
, ao eoao aeoo, ajaa ooa oa eooa, aeaa, eej
aoaa, o oaaa eo eaaa,
ea (Blade Runner) ja oa oa eoa jaa oa a a eeaj aaaa ao ojeaoj ooaoj . o
e ojaa jo ea aaja aoaaa ea, aoo a, ao o To (Tron 1982), a (Brazil, 1985), Teao (The Terminator, 1984) ooa (Robocop, 1987), oja e
eoaj eee eaa, a eoa ea
oaj oaea oja ea . a oa ae aoa, o eoaa, eo Teaoa
Maa (The Matrix, 1999), a e o ajoj aoaa oaea, oaj oe ee, ja aaea oeeja ooeoo a, oa o
aoa ooaja oe aa, eo
a a a e, ao, oea oeooo aeee oo eo aaea ea.
Ae a Toa ojoj ej eaa,
a , e eae ooe o eae
eeae oaaa oo eeae e
a aea oaa ea, e a ooae
ooe oee ajae aae eooje a.
eaoa aa aaa, ojoj eaoj o,
aoj e o (1) ooo oaaa ajee o,
a e e oaa oa eaeea, e a (j. oo ao) ea ejae ee o oo ojee

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:
ae, ao (2) a a, oea, aa, eao
ooe ooa a (, 2005: 144).3

Mea eja ojee ae o oje oo


jee eoo, oj je o ao oja oe oo
o je ao e oja e ooo a a ae ae ooe, oa eoo oe oeeo
e ej oo eoo aaaa, eoja a
ojoj e e oaa oaaj eooj o (, 2000). Ta
eja aoaa je a ,
a, ao a oo eo eo eeaa oje eoojaa. ej a ooj ao e oo ojeoa aao eoojo o je eoao aje eaje oejae eooa, oj ooaaj ooo ea
oo ea oooje oa ao.
oj ao, oj e oa eoa, o a Moa aoo, o je aa oo aao oeo
aajo, a eoa ja eaje ao ao ooa aa je eo ao, eoae aoe aeeo eoo ooa ojeao
a.

EA AO
o oo aaa, eoe eoje aoj aa,
ea je o oaoa oe, e e a
aoa oj e a a ajeo oj a aee
eoe oaoj eaoa
ejaa. o ojae eaa, aa aaa e eaoo aa o o je o oe a e oo. Me, ao
e eoo eje oae aoj aa aaoae ao, aa je ao eoo eeja
oo ee o oje a ae aae aj eoa, o je a oaa ao je o aa. Te ojao eaa, aa aaa je ea ao e ao oe eoae, eoojo ooae o, e aee aao. ojoj ojej o, ea je eao eao ae3

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ea oje je aao, ao a oja ao
ea e.
ao eje a Meae (1991: . 12), eae
eoao a eeaja ea oja aeee eooje, ao o aee aee, eo ao eje,
eo-eoe, oje eo-e, a ao
MT a eoe ojae, e eo aoee. oeeo, o eaaj eeaj aa oj ao eje a oa, aaa aoa, oj oa oe eoojo, oao o, eoa ooajo oae oeae oaa, ao, oo,
eo aa, oa oa oa oea, eja
oeea ja oa.
ea je oa ae aae oj aje e
o oe aaj oje eao oea
a (aj a, 2007: . 607). Oa eja e oa a eaj eooje oea, ao a
eeo a je aa aaa oaj oaaa o. Me, ea je oo e o oa. ao o,
e, o e e eee, a oaee
aae, eje e a a eeaa ooa e oea ae oj je oea eea, aa o
oeaa eojo oaje, ooe ea. ea e aje ao oo a oeae oao ea
ae ooeaa, e oee oje oa , ooo oejae ooe oaja, oje
ooa aa ooea e ao ae, e
ojee ao. oo oe, ao jea o ajaajj
oa eaa o e oj ae eo o
eo oja ooao ea ao
o oea eaeo ooa ea eooj ee
eooae oee. oo, ea e aje o e o, e ae ao, o ja o aaaa oeao e ooje ae
a oe eoje, aa ao a o e o oe oje , o ea aa a je eoa aa aaa eaa, a o a eaa, oj aje ae oe, oje e
aeeoj ao aoeo oeaj. eoa ea,
ao ojaaa , jee a e e aee aaje oao a oj o o, je o e e a
oe o e aao, oo aa a aao
226

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:
je oo aa a je oeo je ojo (, 2000).
ao o je oa eaja aa o oa, ao je
ea o o ja aa, je e ao
ej a oea a, a oaaja eja o ea je aa jo jea oo. a, a a
o aa, oj je ao oe eo oaoj
, eooa ao eaoo ea
oaa je oje eo ojeoj ao, e je eoa
oaa aoaa aa eoaa eejaa
eooo aoja e eoo oea.
ao ao a e (1998: . XIII), ea
oe oja e e eaaj eooja e
oaee, ae oe, ooe ejee oe,
e e ajaj o e o je aa ea a ee aa
ooa, a e je aa eaja o ae. ea oaje oa o, oo, oa oo ea ojo oao
a aa ao eaja a ooaj, ee
ee, aaj ea, eaj ea eooje, a eae eeje, e ae
ao.
Aea je ooo aa a ooj, oaoj ao,
AJA
oj e a aajo aeeo eoojo. MeAO , aa aa oaa je aj oje
aao eao oaea o oao
ee, e ao aa, eoo ee oj o o aje oa eeje oj ao. ea je
eao ao ea oaja o oea aje oaa oe oaoe ao, ojoj je
aajae eao o aea oojaa oo
eo oojaa oao.
ea je oaao a ae ea a jao, o eeo eae. Teo e e oa a e
ooao oo, je e eo oe
oe ea a aje ooe. oa aaej
(1991, . 151153) je o, jeoj o ajaajj oa
eaa, ea eaj e ae,
oooj oj ao. a je aa e o oo, oja e eoa aeje
M M. J

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o e oe oe, ao o oaa aa
ee ae aojaje a aoa, oae aoaj oe oe, oe a, oj je
aja oe eaje. a aa, e oaa ae, oaje ooa o ejae ae e
oo eao, aae ao aaa, oee, oeae aaa, ao ooo a
ja, ao ee a aje eoo,
o oo o eaaea ee ae, oe e o eo. oooj oj e eje aaja, o eoo oa, oj o aj ao,
eaaee aeee ae. ea a
aoae, a a ooe a a, oaa
, aa a eo ea eooa, o
eooja ,
a aj, o ae eoo aea e a
a oa ao, j eaa aa
a oe aaej a o o ae, ao a je
aa ae o oeooea. a, o e aje
ae ae eo, e ao eaa oo
oejae, eoe oae aae aa e, j e
a ae oojaa e e oaa a eooj oaoo-eoo oo.
oj oooj oj
oe aa oeo, aeje oeae aaa ao eoo, a aaa
o eao e, oje eea
e. o ao o oeaje
ejo oooo aa, ea oo ojee ae ao, ooa oo a je e
ae oe, a e ea, a je oojao aje e eo
o a a ooj (o, 2001a: . 130). e ao ao oaj aoae, je oo je eoo oe, a e oa, oa ojea ao ea a, e je ao jea o o aeaa. ao ea
oae aoao, oao o e ea oae ooaj oo a eooo ao, a ae e eao ooa a oje eeao
ooa ae ao oeeo eaj.
aj aje ao je aaaae ae
oooe ae, eaaee oea oj e
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:
o oaa o ao aaa oe e . o
jo jea ooja oj ea e a eae, a a ae a oejae oee ae eaaje. jee ae, oe aoaje oa ao
jea, eaa eoo ao a oja, aj a
oea oa eaae oea . e ae,
oae ea oaa ae eea aeo o, oja e aa oeeje oea ao
jeee ee jee, eoa o a a oj je o
eaa, aoa eooja aoa o
a . ojoj aoaaoj o. oe
eooo aoja e oj, j je ea ae
aa e oaa oje,
eaa a eo ao, oja oaje a o
o ojaoa aja. ea oaje a oeae
oa eeje oo eooo oee aoaja ea oaj, o oejaa a oo eaj, oe a a ao ea a aa.
oa aaej Mae o o oo ae o
ao eea, oja je aea eaaee aa e ea ae, o o oa oa ae, je
oo ae a e ae a, e oeeo oa ooeo o oojaa aoa oo e ea a. oe oje je eo
aeo, a oaja oja a ao oea,
e eao a oae aeo o oeeje, oje
oea jee ojee. Me, oa
o, ea ea eejaa aoe ooo oja e eae eeje, oj oae aaae o, o oaje e ao a
e je aeo eooo oeeje e e, e
ooaa a ooaae o oo oaea o e oo o oo.
ao eeoo e o e ao a eoao a a
ao, aa jo ea eooje, a eooa, eoe ooje. o oa eo
oaje a je ea oeeo aaja eaja. O
ae eooje o aaa oeja, a
oeje ee o oo eo ao
oee aee eoojo. O je eaja eaja
M M. J

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ooja, eaao oje, eao o
oa ao, j ojeo jeeo oj eoojaa, ajaa eaa oa oo ae. ea ao oe ao eoo
oo oaa. O je o, oj e oeeo aoao eao o ao, je je aaj oj
ooeoa eoa ao eooo aoj
eao oaea ea eae, ee ao ao oje ao, e je eoa aaja
oeoaa eaa aeo eooo
aoja.
oa o e ao oa eooa, ooaea eaa jeo o aje oaa oee ae
aae. Toa je ojoj j o eo ojee eaa ooo ooa eo, a aeeoj, eoo ooaoj ao, e je aao a
oo e je ao e je jeoea, je
e je ao ja a oja a ao, e je
ao oea a a j.
aa a je o eoaa? ee aa, ooe a oo eaa, eoja eo oje je ja o e a ao ejo oje e. O je jo
e aj a, o oaje aa eo.
-a o a e oje ojeao oe, a
oe, a o o je oo j o, oja e oa eo o o ojeo a. o je
e e ao aoa, a o a ea -
(, 2005: . 146).

AO
O ojae eoaa oo oa e oeo e, a
AO
ooo aaa. e eeje aje, oa eoaEAA ae oaaa oaao a je ao a oa. eoaae oaaa oje oaaje oae aao, aa eea 2002. oe, eee oa aoe .
Teo aa, oj je oeao Ae eo e, ao
ea oj aa a o oaoe oaa ej, oa eoo oao ao oaa. aa je
eea aeo oa aja a e, je e ao
a je oaao ao ao oe a e ao oe
ao ea, ao a oe oj oaaj oe o, ao
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:
a oe oj a a eo eja, e a e aj Aee a oao o . a a o eeja o, aa a oaoaa je, oaj eo aa je, ao e aa, eoao
eoe, je je a oeo a o Aee. a, oj je a
e Aeaaa o aa o ej oaaj, ao a je
aao eejo aaaa eeo a a ao. eae ae e eje ojee ao, je oaaj, o aa o eea a ej
oo ae ooaa, aa o a e e eo
ooa, a oa aaja eao oee oee
e Ae.
e eaeoj ao, aa a Ae je
eo oea ejo eo oeajo a
oooejae eoe. ej, ae, oo ao eee ooe oj o e 1945. 2000. oe,
e o eo aa eoa e eo
aaa, a oaaja oja oea ao.
ao o eo aa oeo je eo ee eooe eaje, aoja ooao a eoejao aa oe oaja, o je ao oao eaee. o ej e ao eaee aeje ao aeja a ooe ooaja oja o oaoa ooao, ooeooo , oje je
oaja o oo eja o ao ooa.
o jeeo aea, ao o oee aeeoao a eoe eeaa ao eo aejaa oj
e ojaj a ee, oaa ejo oea e
aaje ej a oae eaoa eo eo aa
oa ee oa. eoa,
o Moao aoo, ej e oo oae eoaa oaaa e ee , e ee a oae oje je o o joa, eo
ooa, o Toja Moe, oj ooaaj oe aoa ojee ao.
eoaae oaaa, o oj aaaa ajeoj
eooj, je aoaao eo. Me, ao ea
ejaa, aae ao, eoa eooa, aoa, ooa, oee aoaa oa, oa oo aa oaa a (ao)aao, je oea aoa eeeaa ao
M M. J

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oaaa, oj e o eoa ooo aje aaa, aaa aa ooee aoaae eo, e aaa oa e oje. Eea oj ooe eo
aeja a je ao jaa oa e, ej
ojoj oa aje Ma, e eoa aj
oa eja oeaj a ea, a ooaja a a
e ooa ee aj /Me
ooa eea oo eo oaa.
ajaajj eeao oeaja aao oa eaa aoo ea a eo aeja ee aee, ao eo a ea e eoo aoo. ajje e aejao jee ea a o ea o a ja oeeja ee aa je e
oeeeo, eao, oao, oaeo o oea
oajo o ooa. oo a aoe aee, eo aoaoa, eeoa o eeoa ee aea , eo ae ao a eaj o oeo, a e e a
a ooje o eea ooa a e a aaa,
aoa a eea ea ao. oja oe eaa aeaa aaj a ojoo
eo (unheimlich), je oj e eeo aje a oe oaaa oao oje e
aoe eoao. eo ajo ao oae a
a oe oae eao aa oo oa a eaa oo eo aja a ja oaa eja
a ae eojao, o a aaa ja oaaea oea, eea ea a oja a. Toa ajoa je e e aaa, oj e je
ee o eea (o, 2006, . 54). ee ao oja ae aao, je o eea aoa a ej, eojao, a aao oje a oeaa o
oje e e a o oae o . aeao
aejaa, oo eeao ojaae a oo eea, ao eoaa oeo oo oooo eoea, e o oo oea,
e oaje ejao a a jea o jea, eo ee ee, oja je eea a eoe ojaee
eo ea. eo ejo eo aejaa, oaj
oo, oo o ee ao 232

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:
je, ao aj ea aa eea eje. aeja e
oe o oa oeo ja oa e, ae
o eoa oo, oj ojee j aj e, eoja o a ao eea o oaaa. o ej, aj
eea je eoa aa oj a e a ae
ej, o je o ea oejaa, je oo
eo ee eoaje ae oeja.
eoaa oaaa o oa ooo eooa, j eaj oaoo ojo e eoaj ee, o ao aejaa. ao e ao
aaeo ao oj oj, oo oa
aa ao eaoe ooaje, ao o
oa aeoa aoa a e, oje oe aaja eo
a, a e ooe e oajo eeeajo
ao eeoo oa. o aoaa e oe eooa, o eo aeja ae a a aa, oj e oj oj eo
oeje eooo.
Eeoa oa oj ej ae o aejaa eoao je ajej oa ooo eoo aaaa. e eoa oe ae e oea aaja
eooa, eeeaa a aae, ao oa oje e
ooe a ajae, eae aoae eeo o aejaa, o oje e ooo oeje a oe a e oaa
oa o eea oje ea
eeja, j o e o e aoao a e
ojae. eja eeoa oa aa aaoj
aao e eo eoaoe eaoe je
ao.
e ao a je o o ae, ao. aaoj eje a
aae. a aae a a. oea ao a a aae
a. ao je a ea: ao ea oj e a e
oeo aa ooa o ae, a o o o, a a oaeo eo eo. a e ajeo e. a oo
ea, ooo oo a o a, a e , oe a a e oaa.
ae a je o o o, e j. aa o aao, a a e ao a eo o eae, a a
o aao, a e o a, oo. a o ao ee, a
aao, aaj a o. a, ae o, a eo a
oo oe a. eoa je oe o e e oee ee
o eaa ao (o, 2006, . 266).

M M. J

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ao eoaaa oaaa aea je a oe a e
eoa eje ao a aaje, a e oa
oa ajea oja, oja e aa a oeo, eoe, ee eo aaa, ee eaoa, o oeao ooa a aa ej
oaa ajoo a, o e a eje aaoo.
oa oa aoeja, o je oea a e ae oa
ao ee e aj ee oaaa. eo oe aeeo oea,
aaoj, ej jae a e a o oeeo aejaa, ae: a oo aea je
eoaae oaaa (o, 2006: . 29).
aeea ao je aea a oaaa, oeoa, oejao e eaa aea. eo
aeja oa ao aa o aoa, a oj
e je a oa e o a oe oaj. eoa eja eaa aa eo-aeaa oejao eaa aj, eo ao
ae o oaaa ea aeo a oae, aaa,
aee a oee ae, aje ao ae a. ao o a a ea, ej oa a oae ao,
je e e oo ea ao ooo aa, oao
ao e aaa aa je a
oa.
oa o oa aoe ooe, eaa aja oje oaj a ae, aj e ea, oeeo a oj aaj eoo
eo. eja ao, oja je oa ao aoa, aea je o a ae ooa, oaa aja
ea, aoa eae ooe, ae oe e oaje ae, aae, ajoe (iBook)
e oe ae, e oja oo eeo Toja ea.
Oo je aja aje aje. aoea ea aa oea, oj je aoo ae ae ae , oj
e aa a ooe ee a e oa, eoo a oj a o eaa oee a oo
eea aa. A To e je aao a
aa, a a. ee oa a ooj ooje oaaa a eeo Toja ea, oe oa je eoe eoaj, a o oa, oaj o. aa e a je a

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:
e a a je, a e a e oe je ao
eoe ooe eo (o, 2006, . 24).

aj aje aje a e e ae ae eeaj


ooa eo a oo. eo o Toja ea eaaj a ee, oaj e oje aa a ooa. e e e eaa oo, oo oaaa e, je je ea e oo oeaea. eo
oa, e je eaejaa, aa eo, oja e eaa a oo a oje e aa, o ea e ea e
aoe aee eo. oeoae ea oaje je o oeoaa ooa, je je e aj
oj oaje oo oj je oeee. e e e oaaa ae, e ae, oo oaj aae, oj ea a oje oe a e ea eoa eo,
e e aa ja aeo, ojo aja aj aja aa ojao aj, ojoj
e e ooj.
ej je oa aea a eajo eoae ae oe eoa, a oa aa e oe a ee
aje aje. Jaa oj o, oao aa oa, ao ao aja, ea je ao oa ej je
ea ao a. eo ea je eaa a aj,
e je eoea o aj. e je o aj
oja je a e a eooojja o oaa. To je eoao aj oa oee ejoj aeo, ooo eae (o, 2006, . 17). ej a je ea jaa
eaea, a je. aje, aa je oe, aaj o o oja oj a ooaje a a, ej oja
o aj, o oj oj je a eo ea,
e je oe o eae oa aeoe eooojj o oaa.
ej ee ee aoe a Aee aa eo
oea. oo je jea o a aoa, oj eaa
oa ae Aee, a e ao ea ea, e ao aja eo, ojoj oe a aje, aoee,
ee eo oje e ej a oee e. o a oaaa eooa, e oa oje eoeje oe aaoe ao eja eaooa, ao a Aee oaje ooo aa. Ooeo eae ea ej e ao oao, e
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ao ee, aao, eo oje aj e aa eo oe . aaoao, oj je oao a e
eaa oa ee o, aj, oj, aj.
e oje je e oa ee o, aa ae a oo
oj je aja, ej oa a a oe, a a oae
o oa. ao je oa a oea a
je oja aaja eee oe Ae, oe a
a oae Aaj, a oa ao a e.
aa e ae oea aee ao, o aej a
eoe, ej e , aj
aj.
aeeoj ao eoaj oa eo
eeaja eee ooe oa ao, ao o eaaja, eoja, a ao, eajae oaa aoa oja. aje
a ae o ao, ojoj aaj ao o
eoao eoo, oao ao o eaa
e aae oe. ooeoj ao,
ao oaj oo aae, oo oja e ooa eao ooao a o a
e aoe aee oo, ea oj, oje aao ea oa aj ao. Tea aaa a Ae je oea aa je oaa ao
oo ea, ea aa je oo aa, aao eoaa, a o oaa eea. a Ae, o je ea aa je a aaj aao oa
eja oao aaa, oaj eooj o ojee ao. To je ea aa je oje ao ao ejo aaja.
oae ojeo ao, eooje ea,
eooje a, oaje e eje, a a oe e
e aae ea oe ao.
eo e ee oja ao aoeo oa a e oaja oa a oae je eoa
e eoo, a ea ee eje
aa ae aae aa e e e ao eoe aoaao. eo a eaaj je
ajea eooja, oeoae ooaaje e oe oaja, a a e ae oaje oe, o e e aje o oea
oaa eooa.
236

M M. J

:
ao o ao e ooje ae a oe eoje,
o e eja, e e ea
ea, ej aajo oe e o ao jo e eoojo.
M a oe oa oa ajao e
oeo, oeo eo ea. o e aa a,
ae? O o aa oe a ae aa. ao oa e
o je o je oo ao a a oa o
ea, aa. e je ee ee oa e a oje ej
a aja. eoa je eo a eejaoaa a a (, 2000).

ea oja (1991: . 113), [] aoj ee


(a eeoj) eooja je oea ea. O ao
oea ea, o
eooj a o , a ee ao oa,
oe oea e e, eo e aao a
o o a eeje (, 2000).
aaa eo o eeee oj e ooje
e o a a ao ao, a o a ooa o ao. o je eoa eoao oejae oje aa aaa aaa
eo aj a aeaj e, ao eoa
e o a, a o, aj a. oa a
aae eee
oe e a oj ao oja je eoaa oaaa
ooo oaa aoaaa ae aae oja
je oaa ao.
Bodrijar, . (1991). Simulakrumi i simulacije. Novi Sad: Svetovi.
, 2005: Disch, T. M. (2005). On SF. Michigan: The University of Michigan
Press.
Gibson, V. (2001a). Grof nula, prev. Aleksandar Markovi, Beograd: Plato/
igoja tampa.
Gibson, V. (2001b). Monalizin natpogon, prev. Aleksandar Markovi, Beograd:
Plato/igoja tampa.
Gibson, V. (2006). Prepoznavanje obrazaca, prev. Aleksandar Markovi. Beograd: Laguna.
Gibson, V. (2008). Neuromant, prev. Aleksandar Markovi. Beograd: IPS Media.

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aaej, 1991: Haraway, D. (1991). A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century. In: Haraway D.
Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (pp. 149-181). New York:
Routledge.
aj, . a M. (.) (2007). e e a e aa. o a: oeej.
Mae, 1990: McCaffery, L. (1990). Across the Wounded Galaxies: Interviews
with Contemporary American Science Fiction Writers. Urbana, Chicago:
University of Illinois Press.
, 2000: Neale, M (dir.) (2000). No Maps for These Territories. Docurama
Films, New Video Group.
Sterling, B (ed.) (1988). Mirrorshades. Berkley: Ace Books.

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:
MLADEN . JAKOVLJEVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

WILLIAM GIBSONS CYBERPUNK: FROM SIMULATION TO REALITY


The works of William Gibson, one of the most prominent writers of
the cyberpunk subgenre, show how the cyberpunk vision of the interaction of real and virtual spaces has become part of the objective reality. Its integration into the contemporary technological and consumer society is most obvious in the tendencies of the technological development and the pace of technological changes. Gibsons novels
Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive and Pattern Recognition
demonstrate cyberpunks potentials to reflect the dilemmas referring
to the integration of objective and virtual realities.
KEY WORDS: William Gibson, cyberpunk, simulation, science fiction,
reality.

M M. J

239


: 811.111.09-22"14/15"
: 199687180

DOC. DR SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI1

HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION ACADEMIC STUDIES


OF LAW AND BUSINESS DR LAZAR VRKATI,
DEPARTEMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE, NOVI SAD

CONTRIBUTION OF JONSONS YOUNGER


CONTEMPORARIES TO DEVELOPMENT OF
THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE COMEDY2
ABSTRACT. The starting point of this article lies in the fact that among the later postShakespearean dramatists there are no pure comediographers. Like Shakespeare himself, they wrote all kinds of drama, following not so much their inclinations as the changing fashions and the taste of the theatre-going public.
This means that in the case of Shakespeares successors, under Charles I
(1625-1642), the word is of authors whose main work lay in other fields. The
paper intends to show that although still plentiful in the first two decades of
the seventeenth century, the comedy was declining in quality. Its satire grew
more superficial, limited to transitory follies of humours many were imitating Ben Jonson in this. Intrigue and entertainment were growing more important than character or criticism of life. To be singled out deserve authors
of the few good comedies produced in Jonsons times, with the review of
their general characteristics.

KEY WORDS: comedy, humours, satire, collaboration, entertainers.

1
2

jovanovic072@sbb.rs
27. 2013,
1. 2013.

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INTRODUCTION
Benjamin, or Ben, Jonson (1573?-1637) was the central literary personality of his time, or, more precisely, during the first two decades
of the seventeenth century. His dramatic work consists mostly of
comedies, and in his Works, published in 1616, he included all the
comedies written to the date. It was an important precedent as it
helped to establish drama as literary kind comparable to the rest of
literature. Before that date, the drama was regarded as a low kind
of writing, unworthy of the name of literature, and Jonson was the
first to give it its new dignity. His example, of course, was then followed by others, whose extant plays speak of a rich prolificity concentrated within narrow limits of time.
The sequence of playwrights and plays speaks of a close likeness
between most of these works, created on the same principles. Nearly
all of them divide a whole story, rarely invented by the author but
rather taken from books, into scenes. They thus share their descent
from the mystery plays of the Middle Ages. The rather close likeness
between most of these works relates, among other things, to the appeal in their scenes by turns to the imagination, the understanding,
the feelings, the senses. They strive to interest the whole of man and
of mankind and not merely learned persons, in all this almost always mingling comedy and tragedy. The limits of the individual accomplishment of authors are not known for certain, and there are
also difficulties due to the then prevailing custom of collaboration.
However, it is still easy to distinguish certain very distinct figures
and their individual traces.

THE MOST OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTORS


GEORGE GEORGE CHAPMAN (1559?-1634?) had a university
CHAPMAN well known as the translator of Homers epics

education, and was


(translated Illiad in
1611, and Odyssey in 1614 Puhalo, 1968, p. 133) and other classical
works, as perhaps a rival poet of Shakespeares Sonnets, and as the
author of powerful tragedies with subjects from French history
Bussy DAmbois, 1607, The Revenge of Bussy DAmbois, etc. He also wrote
eight comedies, not without success. In collaboration with John
Marston (1575?-1634), author of sadistic satires and bloody trage-

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dies in the Senecan tradition, and Ben Jonson, who had little part in
it, he wrote the comedy Eastward Hoe also quoted as Eastward Ho!
(Legouis and Cazamian, 1971) (1605), one of the most popular in
this period, which landed the authors in prison because of their
ironic allusions to the Scots who came to England with James I. Of
the comedies Chapman wrote alone, The Gentleman Usher (1606) is
perhaps the best.
Eastward Hoe is an intensely bourgeois comedy, dedicated to the
City. Its title means the craving after high life and luxury, because
the East of London was then the centre of fashion. The plot centers
round the family of the goldsmith Touchstone, character similar to
that of Simon Eyre, with original tags such as Work upon it now!,
but less humorous. His wife and one daughter aspire to nobility, and
the younger daughter is good and sensible. He also has two apprentices, a good one, named Golding, and a bad one, Quicksilver. Gertrude, the upstart daughter, marries Sir Petronel Flash, a rake who
robs her of everything, but is soon caught. The ludicrous episode of
his and Quicksilvers failed voyage to Virginia makes the best comic
scene in the play. The comedy is written in prose, flat in comparison
with Jonsons. It is entertaining enough, contains effective social
satire, but is overburdened with the preaching on bourgeois virtues
progressive at the time, but faded today.
The Gentleman Usher (published 1606) is a romantic comedy on
Shakespeares model, in good blankverse and colloquial prose, verse
being predominant. It was played by children-actors, and therefore
contains mask-like pageants, dance and song. The setting is Italian,
and the main plot based on Plautus: it is a rivalry between a father,
Duke Alfonso, and his son, Vincentio, for Margaret, daughter of an
earl. The father is aided by Medice, a machiavellian villain, and the
son by his friend Strozza, a strong and independent man, one of
Chapmans characteristic heroes. Strozza is heavily wounded and in
his convalescence he develops a mystical sight, prophetic vision a
rare feature in this period. Margaret shows some individuality when
marring her face in despair. There is a subplot of servant-fools, the
group like those in Lylys comedies. One among them is the gentleman-usher of the title, Bassiolo, mediator in love correspondence
between Vincentio and Margaret. The comedy contains some expressions of Chapmans bold and unconventional views, such as Vincentios and Margarets betrothal scene, where they despise the
conventional marriage rite, Strozzas expressions of the view that
the only true nobility is human worth and strength of character, and
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his fine praise of a good wife as mans chief blessing. It is a successful
and highly original play.
THOMAS DEKKER THOMAS DEKKER (c.1570-c.1632) wrote a number of tragedies and trag-

icomedies, mainly in collaboration, as well as some prose works,


journalistic narratives about London low life. Nothing is known of
him for certain, but it may be suspected that he sprang from the
people of London and was irregularly educated. London was often
his theme and the citizens were always his public: This child of London writes especially of London and for the cockney people. ()
Dekker is, with Thomas Heywood, almost alone in his sympathy for
the world of the craftsmen and the ragtag and bobtail of the
streets. (Legouis and Cazamian, 1971, p. 463). He wrote for the stage
from 1594 onwards, at first as a subordinate. His comedies are few in
number, and only two of them deserve attention: The Shoemakers
Holiday (1599) and Old Fortunatus (1600). The first one is a romantic
and humorous comedy, celebrating the gentle craft of shoemakers, and displaying a petty-bourgeois class consciousness. It contains two well united plots: that of the love between a citizens daughter and an earls son, and how the two outwit their elders the
earls son taking temporarily a shoemakers job; and the plot of the
fate of a young couple separated by the wars, and of their happy reunion after much suffering. The mediator between the two plots,
who helps to bring them to a happy solution, is Simon Eyre, mastershoemaker, a merry madcap with a jargon of his own, an original
and successful humorous character, surely the breeziest character
that has ever set foot on the stage, Falstaff not excepted. () () the
Shoemaker, () is a model to all industrious apprentices and a paragon of civic virtue. () a character irresistibly ludicrous, one whose
portrait will be hung unforgettably in the readers mind. (Wheeler,
1971a, p. viii). There is some sentimentality and idealization in the
play, but also plenty of good-natured humor, tender lyricism in the
songs, good characterization of the main persons, and a mild human
kindness characteristic of Dekker.
Old Fortunatus is an original combination of various forms, a medley of morality, mask-pageant, and romantic comedy, based on a
folk story about the inexhaustible purse with gold and following the
fate of its possessor, old Fortunatus, and his two sons with contrasted characters (one virtuous, the other a spendthrift). It is built as a
series of pageants and episodes, more like a picaresque novel than
like a drama. Mixed with human persons there are various allegorical abstractions, as Virtue, Vice, Fortune, etc. The most interesting
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episode is that about the suitors to King Athelstanes daughter,
which contains some real drama. It seems that Dekker was partly
imitating Marlowes Dr. Faustus, and Fortunatus has some Marlovian
speeches. The comedy is burdened with moralizing, has little of the
comic spirit and no real unity.
JOHN MARSTON JOHN MARSTON (1575?-1634). Of the two dramatists against whom Jon-

son was most implacable early in the seventeenth century, Marston


and Dekker, Marston engaged him most and received his hardest
knocks. The conflict was between two satirical, arrogant men, of
whom Marston was foul-tongued into the bargain. His first literary
essay was the collection of satires or rather coarse insults called The
Scourge of Villanie (1598). Subsequently, for eight or nine years, he
tried his fortunes in drama, and met with very fair success before he
abandoned writing entirely and gave himself up to a long, silent ecclesiastical career; It seems a reasonable inference that he found in
the Church the source of moral authority vainly sought for in his
plays. (Salingar, 1973c, p. 338).
Marstons dramatic production belongs to the most glorious and
most intensely active period. Although an industrious and busy student, his temperament inclined him to romantic drama. Traces of
Seneca are visible in his work, notably the conceptions of atrocious
vengeance and of the horror of crime. He might, however, have
found all this equally well in Kyd and Marlowe, and his first tragedies, Antonio and Mellida and, even more, Antonios Revenge, show the
influence of the Kyds The Spanish Tragedie (Puhalo, 1968, p. 133).
Same as in his satires, here Marston seems to wish to attract attention by violence, by using more furious and eccentric language and
greater coarseness than any other writer.
Since Antonios Revenge is possibly prior to Hamlet, Marston certainly has more than one point of contact with Shakespeare. This is
even more obvious in his comedy, The Malcontent (1601?), than in his
tragedies. He introduces into this play a character who ironically
comments on actions and personalities, underlines whatever is ridiculous or vicious, deals blows right and left, and voices Marstons
own pessimism and cynical view of human motives. Only a happy
ending saves The Malcontent from being a tragedy. In some respects
it also anticipates Measure for Measure, and even The Tempest. He often recalls or anticipates Shakespearian subjects.
Marstons other comedies are less gloomy and have more cheerfulness, as well as some flashes of tenderness. The Dutch Courtesan
(1604) is a pendant to Dekkers domestic drama Honest Whore, and
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the order in which the two plays appeared is not certain. The heroine is no penitent Magdalen, who cleanses her soul by sacrifice, but
a passionate and potentially criminal woman. Franceschina, a
courtesan, has for some time been loved by young Freevill, a libertine who has sown his wild oats and aspires to the hand of a pure
young girl, Beatrice. He introduces the courtesan to one of his
friends, a morose young man named Malheureux, who falls in love
with her at first sight.
The play aims chiefly at affording amusement, and is really
diverting. In spite of the happy ending, however, there is little of
comedy about the plot, which is more heavily sordid than is usual
among plays of its kind (Enright, 1973, p. 419). The principal plot is
relieved by another, purely farcical, which shows a sharpers tricks,
the practical jokes played by the rogue Cockledemoy on a miserly,
stupid, and ridiculous citizen. Miscellaneous obscenities are scattered here and there and spoken by episodic characters. The psychology is slight and the portrait of the courtesan rudimentary, yet
there is a little bit of everything in this play, even feeling and grace.
The fact also deserves attention that Marston is one of the three
signatories of Eastward Hoe (1605), a play which is among the best of
the Renaissance comedies and which he wrote in collaboration with
Chapman and Jonson. It is difficult to distinguish what each contributed to it, but certainly Chapman nowhere else shows such vigour
and realism, Jonson so much lightheartedness, or Marston such decency. The play is a lively morality on the theme of social pretension and the good and bad apprentices: a combination of Dekkers
The Shoemakers Holiday with Massingers The City Madam (Enright,
1973, p. 420).
The very simple theme recalls the moralities. The industrious and
the idle apprentice are here side by side. Touchstone, a very worthy
city goldsmith, has two apprentices the dissipated and extravagant Quicksilver who spends his leisure among gamesters and tipplers, and the orderly, respectable, and virtuous Golding. Quicksilver, drunken and insolent, is suspected of theft and turned away,
and he afterwards lives by his wits, is thrown into prison and is in
danger of the gallows. He is, however, saved by his repentance, his
piety during his imprisonment, and Goldings intervention, and in
the end meets no worse fate than marriage with a girl he has debauched. Golding, on the other side, receives the hand of his masters younger daughter, becomes a deputy-alderman, and judges his
fellow-apprentice, saving him out of the goodness of his heart. He is
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a model apprentice, model son-in-law, model husband, and model
friend.
The two apprentices are balanced by Touchstones two daughters,
the younger well-behaved, sweet-tempered, and modest; the older,
a minx, ambitious to be fashionable, who, with the connivance of
her pretentious mother, marries not an honest apprentice, like her
sister, but a certain Sir Petronel Flash, a regular adventurer. She
flatters herself that she will ride in her coach and be mistress of a
fine house. But that house is Sir Petronels invention, and while she
is in a hurry to get there, Petronel is planning to flee to Virginia with
her dowry. He is put into prison, and the elder sister is obliged to implore mercy from the younger and from her father.
This morality play has much animation. It affords some vivid
glimpses the apprentices living in their masters household, the
interior of his shop, vainglorious Gertrude starting off in her coach,
dazzling all the neighbours. In a scene laid by the Thames, Sir Petronel and Quicksilver, the one as drunk as the other, plunge into the
water during a storm in order to swim to Captain Seagulls ship, and
are cast up on to the river-bank. Still fuddled, they imagine that they
have landed in France.
The drawing of the characters, especially the less virtuous of
them, is vigorous. Quicksilver with his rascality and his conversion,
and the moral ballads in which he embodies his adventures for the
edification of his prison-mates; Gertrude with the airs she gives herself and the romantic dreams in which she still indulges long after
misfortune has overtaken her. These are memorable portraits.
Throughout the play there is a lively realism which gains credence for the moral concealed beneath its varied and comic incidents. And all goes merrily forward to the end. No structural devices
obtrude themselves. Whatever part Marston may have had in the
writing of this play, it does him greater credit than any which he
produced by himself.
THOMAS THOMAS MIDDLETON (1580-1627) was a professional dramatist from
MIDDLETON 1602. He wrote about forty plays, mainly in collaboration, about 13

as the sole author. He is the author of the powerful tragedies The


Changeling and Women Beware Women, and he also wrote a number of
comedies. Worth mentioning are A Mad World, my Masters; A Trick to
Catch the Old One; Michaelmas Term (all acted about 1605), and A Chaste
Maid in Cheapside (between 1611-1613).
Michaelmas Term is a naturalistic and satiric comedy of London
life, with Plautian elements and some imitation of Jonson, but mainSLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI

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ly original, and in a more naturalistic spirit. The main plot concerns
Quomodo, a rich woollen draper, an arch-deciever and exploiter,
and his devilish plot to cozen and ruin Easy, an innocent young gentleman. Another knave is Lethe, an upstart Scot who is not willing to
recognize his own mother when he has got up in society by ill-gotten
wealth. The rivalry between him and an honest youth for Quomodos daughter Susan makes a subplot. Quomodo feigns death, like
Volpone, and is ruined and punished by it. It is a well constructed
comedy of rough social satire and interesting intrigue, in mixed
prose and verse, which is very colloquial, careless and prosaic.
A Chaste Maid in Cheapside is a brutal naturalist satire of sexual and
economic corruption. The plot moves between four families: that of
Alwit, a citizen who gets living by letting his wife to Sir Walter
Whorehound, who has become the real head of his household; that
of Touchwood Senior and his wife, a couple who willingly separate
because too fertile and poor; then that of Sir Oliver Kix and his lady,
a couple without children who solve their problem by allowing
Touchwood to become family friend; and that of the goldsmith
Yellowhammer, central to the plot, rich citizen with a marriageable
daughter, who fights for a lover of her choice, and a foolish son.
There is a conventional happy ending, but it is clear that the chief
corrupt characters will continue in their evil courses.
Another one of Middletons comedies, A Game of Chess (1624), was
immensely popular, owing to its topical subject: satire against bishop Dominis, from the Adriatic isle of Rab, who was converted to
Protestantism, lived in England between 1617 and 1622, but was
then returning to Rome and Catholicism. The satire is gross and unjust, but effective. In the history of the English Renaissance theatre
the play remains recorded as the only one acted on nine successive
days (not counting Sundays), each time in the overcrowded Globe
Theatre (Kosti, 1978, p. 151).
Middletons comedies are comedies of intrigue and social satire.
Their plots are well constructed and fast moving, but characters are
less clear and more conventional than Jonsons, there is less poetic
power and more bawdiness and brutality. The moral standard is
present, the social ills are well observed, but Middletons outlook is
pessimistic and sometimes cynical.
THOMAS
HEYWOOD

248

THOMAS HEYWOOD (1573?-1641) was a prominentplaywright, actor,


and author whose peak period of activity falls between late Elizabethanand earlyJacobean theatre. Few details of Heywoods life
have been documented with certainty. Most references indicate
SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI

CONTRIBUTION OF JONSONS YOUNGER CONTEMPORARIES TO DEVELOPMENT


that the county of his birth was most likelyLincolnshire, while the
year has been variously given as 1570, 1573, 1574 and 1575. It has
been speculated that his father was a country parson and that he
was related to the half-century-earlier dramatistJohn Heywood.
Thomas Heywood is said to have been educated at theUniversity
of Cambridge. Subsequently, however, he moved toLondon, where
the first mention of his dramatic career is a note in the diary of theatre entrepreneurPhilip Henslowerecording that he wrote a play
for theAdmirals Men, an acting company, in October 1596. By 1598,
he was regularly engaged as a player in the company, of which he
was presumably a shareholder, as was normal for important company members. During this time, Heywood was extremely prolific. In
his preface toThe English Traveller(1633) he describes himself as
having had an entire hand or at least a maine finger in two hundred
and twenty plays. However, only twenty three plays and eight
masques have survived that are accepted by historians as wholly or
partially authored by him. Heywoods first play may have beenThe
Four Prentises of London, printed in 1615, but acted some fifteen years
earlier. This tale of fourapprenticeswho becomeknightsand travel
toJerusalemmay have been intended as aburlesqueof the old romances, but it is more likely that it was meant seriously to attract
the apprentice spectators to whom it was dedicated. Its popularity
was satirized inBeaumont and Fletchers travesty of the middleclass taste in drama,The Knight of the Burning Pestle.
Thomas Heywood wrote for the stage, and, perhaps disingenuously, protested against the printing of his works, saying he had no
time to revise them. Heywood had a keen eye for dramatic situations
and great constructive skill, but his powers of characterization were
not on par with his stagecraft. He delighted in what he called merry
accidents, that is, in coarse, broadfarce; his fancy and invention
were inexhaustible; He was rather, perhaps, a prose Dekker, a
Dekker shorn of lyricism, fancy, and gaiety, able to create dramatic
and moving situations rather than strongly individualized characters (Legouis and Cazamian, 1971, p. 469).
Heywoods best known plays are his domestic tragedies and comedies, plays set among the English middle classes. His masterpiece is
generally considered to bea widely admiredPlautinefarceThe English Traveller(acted approximately 1627; printed 1633), which is also
known for its informative Preface, giving Heywood an opportunity to inform the reader about his prolific creative output. His citizen
comedies provide a psycho-geography of the sights, smells, and
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sounds of Londons wharfs, markets, shops, and streets which contrasts with the more conventional generalisations about the sites of
commerce, which are satirised in city comedies; () because he
found it easier than Dekker to do without romance, he was, in some
of his plays, more successful than the former in realizing the ideal
citizen drama (Legouis and Cazamian, 1971, p. 469).
Heywood wrote numerous prose works, mostly pamphlets about
contemporary subjects, of interest now primarily to historians studying the period. His best known long essay isAn Apology for Actors, a
moderately-toned and reasonable reply toPuritanattacks on the
stage, which contains a wealth of detailed information on the actors
and acting conditions of his day.
BEAUMONT AND
FLETCHER

250

FRANCIS BEAUMONT (1584-1616), dramatist of aristocratic origin, the


poet who wrote the famous lines Upon Mermaid Tavern, and a
friend to Ben Jonson, worked in close collaboration with his friend
JOHN FLETCHER (1579-1625), who also came from an aristocratic family of poets and intellectuals. In the years 1606-1616, after Beaumonts early death, Fletcher wrote many plays alone or in collaboration with many other dramatists, chief among whom was Philip
Massinger. The complete plays of Beaumont and Fletcher were published in the l647 Folio 50 of them. Later research, however, has
found that only 15 are their joint work, 16 written by Fletcher alone,
while the rest are either Fletchers collaborations with others, or
works of other dramatists.
The fifty-odd plays ascribed to Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher would not have meant an incredibly large output for the working
life of even one man. Their contemporary Thomas Heywood, for instance, claimed to have had a hand in two hundred and twenty!
However, only five years between 1608 and 1613 can be taken
with certainty as the period of their collaboration. The work of these
five years, more importantly, sufficed to establish a type of play
which remained influential throughout the seventeenth century,
and which was long appreciated as superior to Shakespeares. The
problem of deciding which plays belong to Beaumont, which to
Fletcher, which to both and which contain works by other playwrights can hardly be expected to ever reach its final solution. The
Faithful Shepherdess and The Wild Goose Chase are certainly entirely
Fletchers, while Bonduca is probably only Fletchers. The Knight of the
Burning Pestle is now ascribed to Beaumont, while The Maids Tragedy
and A King and No King remain examples of their collaboration (Bradbrook, 1970, p. v). Beaumont and Fletcher, succeeding the greater
SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI

CONTRIBUTION OF JONSONS YOUNGER CONTEMPORARIES TO DEVELOPMENT


dramatists Shakespeare and Jonson could most readily outgo
their predecessors by blending sophistication with violence. Their
writings, especially what was created by Fletcher alone, supply a
characteristic example of the appearance and development of a new
and significant type of dramatic work in the time of James I (16031625) baroque. The independent note of humanism then gradually
faded from the drama, as the dramatists tended to identify themselves solely with the dominant section of their public. The age of a
national drama was definitely over. The irony of Jacobean baroque,
however, should not be difficult to be understood by the present
age. The sick humour of their comedy provides insights highly
relevant to the deeply disturbed, powerful although seemingly
lighthearted work of the authors who have been known as entertainers to the Jacobean gentry.
Beaumont and Fletcher were the most popular dramatists in the
last two decades of the period, and their popularity continued for
more than a century later. The reason for it was that they successfully represented the new, courtly taste of the late Jacobean and
Caroline period, when private, closed theatres became more fashionable and the superficial and corrupted taste of court aristocracy
prevailed over the broader and more humanistic taste of the popular theatres. Most of their plays are tragicomedies, as this kind was
most pleasing to their audience. This public wanted excitement,
sensation, perverse crimes and naturalistic scenes, but demanded a
happy ending. These plays resemble those of Shakespeares last period, but are much more superficial; the best known is Philaster.
Their comedies are for the most part good entertainments with little depth. Worth discussing are two of them, The Knight of the
Burning_Pestle (1609), and The Wild Goose Chase (1621). The first is today ascribed to Beaumont alone, the second is Fletchers work.
The Knight of the Burning Pestle is an interesting and exceptional
comedy, a rehearsal-play, a parody and a romantic comedy all in
one. It has three plots: a parody of Thomas Heywoods bourgeois
plays about the heroic exploits of apprentices, a romantic love story
of a young couple who want to marry against the will of their parents, and the plot of Citizen and his Wife who attend the play with
their ridiculous comments, revealing their simple-minded characters. It is a vivid, funny play, more humoristic than satiric, highly
entertaining, written in good verse, and racy colloquial prose. The
characters of Citizen and his Wife are living and memorable, the rest
are caricatures.
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The Wild Goose Chase, comedy with a French setting (Paris), deals
with the chase of a husband by a girl. The wild goose, a young man
who tries to escape marriage, is Mirabel, an aristocratic Don Juan,
witty and cynical. There are two subplots, with two other wild geese,
Mirabels friends. All are family caught, after many stratagems by
the fairy Oriana and others. The comedy is witty and skillfully constructed, but its action moves in an artificial world of comic lovemaking by people who have no other cares or interests; () though
love figures so prominently as motive, it is always seen as a comic
madness. (Bradbrook, 1970, p. vii). There are, besides, visible pornographic tendencies. Fletchers verse is colloquial, nearing prose.
It is a foreshadowing of the Restoration comedy, witty but narrow,
artificial, and immoral.
PHILIP PHILIP MASSINGER (1583-1640) was a prolific professional dramatist,
MASSINGER who wrote above 30 plays alone, and much more in collaboration

with Fletcher, Dekker, and others. Like Chapman, he was an independent thinker, but more conservative than Chapman or Jonson.
In his comedies he imitated Jonson and Fletcher, but he also has
some originality, at least of his character. His best comedies are A
New Way to Pay Old Debts (acted some time before 1626, first printed
in 1633), and The City Madam (acted in 1632).
A New Way to Pay Old Debts is a comedy of satire and intrigue,
placed in Nottingham. The plot deals with a stratagem of Frank
Wellborn, young gentleman ruined by his own liberality and the dishonesty of his rich uncle, Sir Giles Overreach, by which he intends to
recover his economic and social station. Overreach is a tyrant, who
gets rich by force and deceit and who keeps in his pay a justice of
peace and a corrupted lawyer. His only weakness is his wish to marry his daughter to a lord (while she loves the lords page), and Wellborn profits by it, making a plot together with the virtuous Lady Alworth and lord Lovell to expose and ruin Overreach, in which they
succeed. Overreach, utterly defeated, goes mad at the end. His character is an original version of an early-capitalist criminal, convincing and very successful on the stage. The play has not much fun, but
its plot serves well its satiric purpose, creating the curiously modern atmosphere which hangs about it. We seem to have left behind
the gloom and strength, whether tragic or comic, of the Elizabethans and to be mixing with people fashioned far more like ourselves. Indeed, barring a few obsolete or unusual expressions, the
work might almost be a product of some early Victorian. (Wheeler,
1971a, p. viii). The moral of the play, that a man is judged to be or to
252

SLOBODAN D. JOVANOVI

CONTRIBUTION OF JONSONS YOUNGER CONTEMPORARIES TO DEVELOPMENT


possess what he appears to be or to possess, is also commented by
Wheeler (1971a, viii): Many an adventurer has lived comfortably on
his reputation for wealth; indeed, the whole of modern commerce is
based on credit, and Massingers play affords a good illustration of
the value of credit in social life. For, in mans dealings with his fellows, to him that is thought to have shall be given, and from him
that is thought not to have every attempt will be made to take away
that which he hath.
The City Madam is a satiric comedy of character and intrigue, dealing with the family matters of a rich citizen, Sir John Frugal, whose
wife and daughters, similar to those in Eastward Hoe, are mad with
ambition to become noble and live in luxury. But the chief character
is Sir Johns brother, Luke Frugal, reduced to poverty and living on
his charity. When Sir John, to try him, ostensibly goes to a monastery and leaves him his wealth, he is soon transformed into a greedy
exploiter, miser, and home tyrant over his brothers wife and
daughters, till he is unmasked and punished.
Massingers best comedies are Jonsonian, but his outlook is more
narrow and conventional, and his style less poetic and more naturalistic. The intrigue takes too much place, at the expense of character. He is moving towards the later comedy of manners and shallow
entertainment, but his comedies are still the best fruits of the late
Renaissance.
CONCLUSION

One general conclusion can always be drawn with certainty that


the drama was the great home of the literary activity of the English
Renaissance (Legouis and Cazamian, 1971, p. 515). When extant
plays and plays which survive only in their titles are added together,
their total number comes near a thousand, and that riches was concentrated within narrow limits of time. Only about sixty years separate the date on which the first public theatre was opened (1576
Mabilard, 2000) from that on which all the playhouses were closed,
when in 1642 Cromwell and his puritans locked the theatres due
to fear of their spreading revolutionary propaganda (Kosti, 1978,
p. 158).
The likeness between most of these works is the result of the concept of drama which they have in common, and the breadth of the
principle on which they depend produces, at the same time, their diversity. There is nothing really academic about these plays, not even
about those of the classicist Jonson. A lively air blows through all of
them. The role given to a homely comic element is a corrective of ro-

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LIII (1)/2013
manticism and brings realism everywhere. The presence of poetry
and lyricism are controlled, tempered, and made true to life by this
realism. There is nothing very distant from the earth, nothing entirely in the clouds, in a world of abstraction. Elements of direct observation of the real life occur in some scene of every play.
The rather free field given to the comediographers also enabled
them to let their personality be felt. Each of them could, depending
on his powers and his angles of observation, impress his own mark
on his work. Their gifts of life, variety, poetry, and realism lead
readers to overlook defects which are also numerous and sometimes
very serious the loose, clumsy, or too complicated composition,
the devotion of too much space to low buffoonery, the inclination to
melodramatic effects, the frequent introduction of horrors and
gloomy subjects due to the desire for immediate success.
In this period the dramatic style is gradually made flexible; prose
is more frequently used and grows more natural; tone increasingly
resembles the natural, normal voice. Conventional characters inherited from the miracle plays, personified Vice and the Fool, give
place more and more often to real beings. The Fool is a comic actor
rather than a character, and thus has neither place nor date. He does
not long survive Shakespeare, and his disappearance marks the advance of drama, not necessarily towards more truth, but towards
more realism. In the plays of Jonson, Middleton, Fletcher there is
hardly anything in the equipment of plays which is not modern. It is
sometimes really astonishing how their comedies are near to our
modern times although very little separates them from their predecessors.
While getting nearer to reality in external elements, however, in
essence these comediographers become more remote from it. Their
comedy shows a preference for eccentricity and anomalies. More
and more, the presentations of normal thought and feeling made
room for that of the extraordinary and complicated, even morbid. In
order to hold the attention of their audiences, the writers of comedy
sought to astonish them. Comic characters drawn mainly from life
evolved to the excesses of Volpone or Overdo, or some other previously highly successful ones, as Baroque art, which in the early seventeenth century developed all over Europe, is an art of distortion.
(Bradbrook, 1970, p. vi). This is the true reason why every analysis
returns inevitably to Shakespeare. It was exactly his genius that humanized the initial roughness, but in the decades after him it tended
once again to become remote from the central truth that of the hu254

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CONTRIBUTION OF JONSONS YOUNGER CONTEMPORARIES TO DEVELOPMENT


man character and feeling. The superficial and corrupted taste of
the court aristocracy definitely prevailed over the broader and
more humanistic taste of the popular theatres.
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SLADJANA . ALEKSI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SERBIAN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE

SUMMARY

RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF NARRATOLOGY


A new theoretical discipline, narratology, deals with the problems
of organizing text at a narrative level. The beginnings of narratology
are related to the eighth issue of the journal Communication (1966),
devoted to research stories. Mieke Bal wrote the first book that contains the word Narratology in its title (1979). The beginnings of narratological research can be found in Aristotle's Poetics, where he dealt
with the problem of organizing the narration of a text with the action
and the characters, and with the qualification of the elements of narrative text. The paper highlights the ontology of contemporary narratological landscape through semiotic research.
KEY WORDS: narratology, narrative text, story structure, typology of
characters, point of view.

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Devet, kao posljednji u nizu brojeva, istodobno najavljuje kraj i poetak. tj.
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281

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.

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, . (1990). . : .
, . (1984). I, : .
, . (2010). . :
.
, . (1982). . : .
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Rjenik simbola (1989). Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice Hrvatske.
, . (2008). , : .
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282


ARIJA D. MILJKOVI

E. S. BRANKO RADIEVI, ZVEAN

SUMMARY

KRALJEVI MARKO (RECORD OF DENA DEBELJKOVI, INTERNATIONAL


MOTIVE OF THE HUSBAND AT HIS WIFES WEDDING)
This thesis has aim to show some of motives in cycle of poems about
Marko Kraljevi where according to titles is not in Vuks collections of
traditional poems and accent was placed on the poem Marko at his
wifes wedding. Poem was analyzed through international motive
husband at his wifes wedding and in that way was brought in correlation with epic poem of uskoks cycle Jankovi Stojan Slavery.
Due to detection of high number of similarity beetwen this two poems, it will be about autochtony poems recorded in Kosovo and Metohija. Thanks to Dena Debeljkovi, recorder of folk epic poems in Kosovo and Metohija, Kraljevi Marko is not described as heroy in battle,
but as man who cares about the family safety, where, beneath all, is
possibly hidden mentality of people from Kosovo and Metohija.
KEY WORDS: Kraljevi Marko, Kosovo and Metohija, dinaric area,
husband, wife, wedding, initiation, autochtony.

283


: 821.111(73).09-1 .
821.111(73).09-1 ..
: 199688204

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azramusovic@gmail.com
18. 2013,
1. 2013.

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, , . (, 1976,
. 433). , ,

. , , : (.
6). ,
.
.
Blessing, R. A. (1979). The shape of the pysche : G. Lane, (ed.), Sylvia Plath:
New Views on the Poetry (pp. 5773). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.

Vendler, H. (1980). Part of Nature, Part of Us. Harvard: Harvard UP.


Graves, R. (1961). The White Goddess: A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth. London: Faber and Faber.
Emerson, R. W. (1883). Nature, Addresses and Lectures. Houghton Mifllin.
Oates, J. C. (1987). Soul at the White Heat: The Romance of Emily Dickinson
Poetry. Critical Inquiry 13 (4), 210220.
Perloff, M. (1979). Sylvia Plaths Sivvy Poems: A Portrait of the Poet as
Daughter : G. Lane, (ed.), Sylvia Plath: New Views on the Poetry (pp. 160172).
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.
Plath, S. (1981). Collected Poems, T. Hughes (ed.), London: Faber & Faber.
Plath, S. (1990). Journals of Sylvia Plath, F. McCullough and T. Hughes (ed.),
New York: Ballantine Books.
Plath, S. (1976). Letters Home: Correspondence, 1950-1963, A. S. Plath (ed.), London: Faber & Faber.
Roethke, Th. (1966). Collected Poems, New York: Doubleday.
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Stevenson, A. (1989). Bitter Fame: A Life of Sylvia Plath. Houghton Mifflin.

298


Heaney, S. (1988). The Indefatigable Hoof-Taps: Sylvia Plath : The Government of the Tongue (pp. 152175). London: Faber and Faber.

299

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ASS. M. PHIL AZRA A. MUOVI

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NOVI PAZAR


DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND PHILOLOGICAL SCIENCES
STUDY PROGRAM: ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

SUMMARY

THROUGH EMERSONIAN HERMENEUTICS


LANDSCAPES OF THE SPIRIT OR
TRANSCENDENTAL IN SYLVIA PLATHS POETRY
Criticism rarely portraits Plath as a nature poet, but landscapes occur regularly throughout her work. Her exploration of the relationship between the individual and the natural world is fundamental to
the development of her mature voice. This development reveals the
continuing influence of the American Transcendentalist poet, theologian and philosopher, Ralph Waldo Emerson, whose beliefs fundamentally shaped the society in which Plath was raised. In his oftenquoted essay Nature, the philosopher said: Nature always wears the
colors of the spirit expressing his belief in a dynamic interchange
between the mood of the perceiver and the mood of nature. Emersonian attitudes permeated and shaped Plaths vision as they have permeated so much American poetry and culture throughout her writing life. More fundamentally, his insistence on integrating the external world or, in Emersonian terms, the NOT ME into the soul is an
ambition which Plaths poetry shares. This paper shows that not only
does the brutal imagery of Plaths later poetry connect this spiritual
pursuit, but the inescapable centrality of the self and its experiences
can be traced back to the lasting influence of Emersonian idealism.
KEY WORDS: Nature, landscapes of the spirit, transcendental, poetic
self, integrating, influence, spiritual pursuit.

300


: 316.356.4-053.6(470)
316.644-053.6:172(470)
: 199678476

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LIII (1)/2013
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320


VIKTOR M. URCHENKO

KUBAN STATE UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF


POLITICAL SCIENCE, KRASNODAR, RUSSIA

NATIONAL IDENTITY AND THE FORMATION


OF CIVIL PERSONALITY TRAITS OF STUDENTS

SUMMARY

The transformation of post-socialist societies raised the questions


of identity, integration and disintegration, cohesion and value systems. Multi-ethnic regions, such as the North Caucasus or Kosovo,
were of particular relevance for these questions.The formation of social identity plays a major role in shaping the motivation of people to
join their efforts in addressing socially important problems. Contemporary processes of globalization lead to the erosion of nation-state
identity, which, in turn, influences the development of individual
countries and entire regions. The theme of identity was especially
popular in Russian scientific thought, in relation to the analysis of
ethnic identity and a global crisis of identity in the modern, transient
conditions. In the Russian Federation, ethnic communities are equal
participants in the social, cultural and political relations. This is most
clearly manifested in the North Caucasus. In the context of this problem an important tool for the analysis of civic identity are the polls.
This paper analyzes the results of a study conducted by a team of researchers at the The Department of Political science of the Kuban
State University. In this context, it should be noted that we, at the Kuban State University, pay a lot of attention to the formation of personality and the development of the social quality of tolerance .
Key words: national identity, civic identity, the North Caucasus, the
Kuban State University, a survey, students.

321


: 378.014.5
316.74:37
: 199692044

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31. 2013,
1. 2013.

323

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333

LIII (1)/2013
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334


DANILO . MARKOVI

MEMBER OF THE SERBIAN ACADEMY OF EDUCATION


CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF EDUCATION

COMPETENCE AND CREATIVITY

SUMMARY

Education is an essential resource for the development of modern


society. For its expression, the development of higher education is of
particular importance. For the realization of its importance, it is necessary to know that it provides competence and innovations in professional education. The author in the context of this approach considers the problems and content of higher education in contemporary
society, that increasingly takes characteristics of information society
on a global scale.
KEY WORDS: globalization, information technology, higher education, competence, innovation.

335


: 316.324.8:316.774 ; 316.776.2
: 199692300

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profapetar@gmail.com
31. 2013,
1. 2013.

337

LIII (1)/2013
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351

LIII (1)/2013
PETAR M. ANELKOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

SUMMARY

EDUCATIONAL AND(OR) ANIPULATIVE FUNCTION OF THE MEANS OF


MASS COMMUNICATION IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
The means of communication underwent a fast development in the
twenty-first century, largely contributing to creating the society
which gets a characteristic of a mass society. According to the mass
society of le Bone's psychology and the development of the means
of mass communication, with all positive options that it offers, many
questions and dilemmas arise. From the point of culture the two most
important ones are the following: despite the fact that the means of
communication represent the social need, what is the level to which
they can be a direct danger to the quality and value of national culture; and what is the level to which unselective and uncritical accepting of the imported content distance people from their own culture.
The expansion of the means of mass communication also carries negative and bad influences because human state in the sea of information can be confused and distorted. On account of the enlarged range
of available information, entertainment shows, especially the imported ones, societies are being slowly homogenized. Also the members of
societies are slowly being cut off from everyday life, under the influence of media that are interfered in their life. It is not a rear case that
the influence of television has a power of breaking man's connection
with cultural practice, social system of values, norms (moral and legal), behaviour and individual ambitions. Imported information and
entertainment shows can radically change social order which reflects
on tradition and economical and social flows. The means of communication are an inseparable part of acculturation of a social system, but
can also be an instrument of manipulation with people and the means
for destruction of the national identity, what is actually happening.
KEY WORDS: Means of mass communication, identity, spending society, manipulation, tradition, acculturation.

352


: 316.324.8:32
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, . (1984). . : .
Cooper, R. (2009). Slom drava (poredak i kaos u 21. stoljeu), Zagreb: Profil International.
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370


ALEKSANDAR V. KOSTI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEADQUARTERS


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF ECONOMICS

FUTUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GLOBALISATION

SUMMARY

The author examines futurological aspects of globalization having


in mind various models of historical processes. He describes the
changes as futuroshock, thus presenting a dilemma whether the
changes are only a momentum or a pre-planned concept. He especially stresses the Tofflers conclusion that turns a new page in futurology
examining the dangers that follow the changes. According to him,
predictions are made with the help of practically all the sciences in
two basic directions: exploratory and normative. In his work the author considers the problem of the future not having perspective as a
sequel to the present. The idea to build the world as a dualistic society
of the golden billion and the exploited crowd is but new kind of fascism. In his opinion it is necessary to answer the question of who will
indicate the qualitatively distinctive future and by which means this
will be achieved. The traditional western science considers an anomaly everything that deviates a bit from it. Such a scientific paradigm
projects conflicts, war, violence, which was the case in Yugoslavia,
Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria etc. The author asserts three hypotheses of the possible future world order, while noticing that globalization transforms the whole regions into neo-totalitarian version of the
order that spreads in concentric circles on the most of the world. According to the author, global totalitarian government is responsible
for dual moral and double standards that provide limitless freedom
for themselves and just the opposite for others. Within the given context, the conditions are being created on the East for a unique bloc
that will consist of Chinese, Russian and Hindu-Buddhist civilization.
This will serve as an alternative to the aggressive West.
KEY WORDS: prediction, future, strategy, civilization, futuroshock,
momentum, globalization, world order, anti-globalism, double standards.

371


: 378.147::93/94(497.11)"18/19"
378.4(497.11)"18/19":929
: 199691532

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dalibor.elezovic@pr.ac.rs.
47023 , , .
30. 2013,
1. 2013.

375

LIII (1)/2013
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387

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ARKO P. ATLAGI, DALIBOR M. ELEZOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

SUMMARY

SUBSIDIARY HISTORICAL DISCIPLINES AT YUGOSLAV AND SERBIAN


UNIVERSITIES THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES
Subsidiary historical disciplines are an important segment of the
studies of history without which the history cannot achieve its main
methodological goal. They are available for the purpose of history and
historical scientific research. Also, they are of an immense importance for collecting and examining historical sources that is for heuristics. At the same time they are relevant for the judgment regarding
choosing, valorization and the use of historical sources, namely for
historical critique. In the modern period of the development of teaching history at the universities, subsidiary historical disciplines were
consisted mostly of Latin paleography, diplomatics and chronology.
Since teaching at universities is being developed, the extension of
subsidiary historical disciplines is also being slowly spread on sphragistics and numismatics so that nowadays they include Latin paleography, Slavic paleography, epigraphic, filigranology, diplomatics,
chronology, genealogy, sphragistics, numismatics, historical metrology, toponomastics with topography and vexillology. Subsidiary historical disciplines became a part of the programmes for studying history at the end of the XVIII century while they were completely affirmed during the XIX century. However, that practice was not
included in Yugoslav and especially not in Serbian universities where
subsidiary historical disciplines should have been given the first place
in the programmes for studying history as well as in their practical
use.
KEY WORDS: history, subsidiary historical disciplines, Yugoslavia,
Serbia, university

388

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, 162.
This intelectual toleration, which is extended to religions quite distinct from Islam, such as Christianity and Judaism, is in no way incompatible with the poltical
intolerance which makes conformity to the faith of the ruling race a qualification
for civil equality If the Mussulman is a fatalist and a pessimist, so is his Christian
fellow-subject; and for the same reasons.; Lord Counrey, Nationalism and War in
the Near east, London, 1915, 37; http://ia700806.us.archive.org/10/items/cihm_99
2243/cihm_992243.pdf.
, ,
, ,
.; , , , , 1906, . 13.
. . : . , , , ,
1913. ,
,
, .
The Balkan nationality movements left certain debatable lands and remainder
regions after the more national territories had been developed into States. The
most important of these was Macedonia, for it was both the most extensive and
the most bitterly disputed ; and thus Macedonia became the arena for Balkan racial and social warfare and a focus of infection for European political war fever.;
Lord Counrey, Nationalism and War in the Near east, London, 1915, 81; http://
ia700806.us.archive.org/10/items/cihm_992243/cihm_992243.pdf.

397

LIII (1)/2013
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trtnete, VII/1, 414. : ,
19031914, , , , 2010, 79 80.
, , , 1935, 58.
,
40 .; , 18871914,
1982, , 1984, 42.
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: , 200 17781978,
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: , , , 20. , ,
4, , 2011, 377394.

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.60

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.
, , , 1907, 22.
, 18.
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Die Geschichte des serbischen Aufstandes
18071810. Benjamin von Kallay-a. .
, : .
.; ,
, 10, , 1909, 787.

403

LIII (1)/2013
, XX . , , .

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LIII (1)/2013
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As to the Servians, we possess authentic evidence in the shape of a letter from a


member of the Servian army, published in the Servian Socialist paper Radnitchke
Novine, of October 9/22. The contents of this letter resemble only too closely the
letters of the Greek soldiers. True, the reference here is to an expedition made to
repress a revolt. My dear Friend, writes the soldier, I have no time to write to
you at length, but I can tell you that appalling things are going on here. I am terrified by them, and constantly ask myself how men can be so barbarous as to commit such cruelties. It is horrible. I dare not (even if I had time, which I have not)
tell you more, but I may say that Liouma (an Albanian region along the river of the
same name), no longer exists. There is nothing but corpses, dust and ashes. There
are villages of 100, 150, 200 houses, where there is no longer a single man, literally
not one. We collect them in bodies of forty to fifty, and then we pierce them with
our bayonets to the last man. Pillage is going on everywhere. The officers told the
soldiers to go to Prisrend and sell the things they had stolen. ; Carnegi Endowment
for International Peace, Report for International Commission To Inquire into the
Causes and Conduct of the Balkans Wars, University of Toronto Library, 1980, 149.
: , : , , 2011.

1912.
, . . 1912.
,
, .
, , , , , 1913.

, , Yugoslavia's Implosion, The Fatal Attraction of Serbian Nationalism, , , 2012.


, , , ,
1974.
, , , , 2010.
, , , . 15. 16. 2012.
, , 1848, , 1963.
, , , , 1997.
, , , , 2007
, 200 17781978, ,
1978.
, , , , 1926.
, , , , , ,
, , 6, , 2009.
Lord Counrey, Nationalism and War in the Near east, London, 1915, 81; http://
ia700806.us.archive.org/10/items/cihm_992243/cihm_992243.pdf.
, , , , 1863.
, , , , , 2011.
, , , , 1934.
, , , , 1935.
, , - , ,
, 1994.
, , : (1844), , 2004.
, , , ,
2011.

407

LIII (1)/2013
, , , , 20. , , 4,
, 2011, 377394.
, , 20. '' '', ,
, 2002.
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, 2007.
, , , , , 2011.
,, , , 2001.
, , , , 2001.
, , , , , , ,
2001.
, ,
19031914 , , , , 2009.
-, , 1848, , 1996.
-, , ,
, 33, , 1986.
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, , , , , , 2007.
, , , , 1991.
, , 19021919, , , 1971.
, , , (18561922), , 1986.
, ,
(1889), , 40, , 1989.
, , , , 42, 1990.
, , 19121918,
, , 4, , 2006, 211219;
, , 19121918; ,
2005.
, , , , 2005.
, , ?, , 1907.

408

1912.
, , ?, , 1883.
-, (Hugh Seton-Watson), , , ,
1977.
, , , , 2010.
, , , ,
1913, .
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Report for International
Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkans Wars,
University of Toronto Library, 1980.
, , ,
, 1908.
, , , , , 1889.
, , :
, , 2011.
, , , , 1907.
, , , ,
1906.
, , XIX ,
, , 1996.

, .
, .
, .

409

LIII (1)/2013
SAA S. MARKOVI

FACULTY OF PEDAGOGY, SOMBOR

SUMMARY

THE PORTRAIT OF A SERBIAN SOLDIER IN WAR REPORTS


FOR SERBS IN VOJVODINA FROM 1912
During the First Balkan War, Serbian press in Hungary, namely the
two most influential newspapers that were political party-spirited,
Zastava (Flag) and Branik (Strong-hold), decided to send Jaa Tomi and
Veljko Petrovi as war correspondents accompanying the Serbian
Army in its quest for liberation. Numerous reports that have been
published are a very valuable testimony on this important historical
event. The circulation of these periodicals illustrates the interest of
Serbian people in Vojvodina in current national combat. Considering
the fact that the imperialism of the monarchy got an exclusive identity, and Serbian idea developed into the triumph of national liberation
and national unity, militaristic circles of Austria-Hungary were
searching for an incident that would help them break up the independent Serbdom.
KEY WORDS: Eastern question, Serbs, Balkan Wars, nation.

410


: 159.922.72.072-057.874
159.937.072-057.874
: 199694348

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2.
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3.
- . .
Baylay, N. (1955). On the growth of intelligence. : Am. Psychology 10, 805
818.

Bloom B.S., (1964). Stability and change in human characteristics. New York:
Wiley.
Bruner, J. (1969). Kultura i kognitivni razvoj. : Psihologija, vol. 11, br. 2, .
247265.
, . (1972). . : 12, :
, . 3552.
, . (1980). . : (Havelka N.)
2. : , . 128
222.
, . (1971). , 4, , . 365373.
, . (1971). .
: .

429

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, . . (1972), ,
12, . 6372.
, . . (1966), ,
, .
, ., , ., , . (1977). . : .
, . (1974). . :
.
, . (1981). . :
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, . (1997). Age and Transferal changes in inteligence of pupils. Facta
Univerzitatis, No 5. : , . 497507.
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, . (2003). Prediction of success in the school by using the primary
mental abilities tests. : , . II . 2. : , . 3544.
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Pijae, . i Inhelder, B. (1978). . : , . 133145.
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- . : , . 3,
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430

-
BLAGOJE V. NEI
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

THE AGE-RELATED CHANGES


IN FIGURAL PERCEPTUAL ABILITIES OF PUPILS

SUMMARY

This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a
transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to
fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the
figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is
the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do
the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of
tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in
space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial
reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations
and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the
right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions
of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between
elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment) of
these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual
abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline
data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects
were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1)
The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the
figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were
used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2) There is
a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress,
and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3) However,
when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant
differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher grades were better at tests of
spatial thinking and transformation than the younger pupils. In contrast, younger pupils were significantly better at the tests dealing
with mechanisms, perceptual identification, classification, identification of similarities and differences than pupils in higher grades.
.

431

LIII (1)/2013
Therefore, the research shows that in this period there is significant progress in figural perceptive abilities and that the pace of
change depends on the age and, above all, types of tests, that is, the
type of psychological operations as latent structures which register
the test.
KEY WORDS: developmental (natural) changes, figural-perceptual
abilities, individual progress, the age of pupils.

432


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Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Euwema, M. C. (2005). Job resources buffer the

impact of job demands on burnout . Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,


10(2): 170-180.
Bosma, H., Peter, R., Siegrist, J., & Marmot, M. (1998). Two alternative job
stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public
Health, 88, 6874.
Breslow, L., & Enstrom, J. E. (1980). Persistence of health habits and their relationship to mortality. Preventive Medicine, 9, 469483.

Burke R. J., & Greenglass, E. (1995): A longitudinal study of psychological


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446

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irovi S. (2007) Doivljaj stresa na radu kod nastavnika u srednjim kolama.
(Diplomski rad) Filozofski fakultet u Beogradu.
izmi, S. (2006): Ljudski faktor osnovi inenjerske psihologije. Beograd: Institut
za psihologiju.
Coladarci T. (1992): Teachers sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching.
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stress. J Educ Pychol, 65: 69-71.
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L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organizational stress (pp. 122152). Oxford, England:
Oxford University Press
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25(2): 131-148.
Freudenberger H. J. (1974): Staff Burnout. Journal of Social Issues, 30:159-164.
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burnaut. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(5): 281-289.
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Krnjaji, S. (2007). Pogled u razred. Beograd: Institut za pedagoka istraivanja.
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Work and Stress, 4, 285294.

448

. , .


JELENA B. GRUBAI
MILANKO D. ABARKAPA

UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY


DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

SUMMARY

STRESS AND BURNOUT SYNDROME AMONG TEACHERS


Today we talk about professional stress (occupational stress) in
many occupations. One of the professions that is of a large social significance, reputation and prestige is the teaching profession. However, until recently, only the positive side of this job and profession was
emphasized, while the negative aspects and consequences of mental
and physical health of employees were considered as something of no
great importance.
Regarding teachers' work at schools, there are more and more discussions about stress and burnout syndrome, which is related to the
demands of the job and the role that teachers perform, as well as to
the consequences that are presented in the form of mental and emotional exhaustion.
This paper is based on the data from literature, the author's own research and direct experience in the teaching job, an analysis of the
most significant sources of stress and on the characteristics of the
burnout syndrome among teachers in our schools.
As important sources of stress and burnout syndrome among
teachers, we point out the following factors: poor student behaviour,
too much work, poor working conditions, unequal workload during
the school year, a number of school activities that are performed at
home, work shifts, and tact and patience in working with students
and their parents.
Considering teachers' work at schools, combustion model includes
three dimensions - exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment experience in job, which occurs primarily as a
result of claims relating to the roles that teachers perform, including
the effects that present themselves in the form of mental and emotional exhaustion.
KEY WORDS: stress, burnout syndrome (BOS), teachers and schools.

. , .

449


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, , (1979): Beck, A. T., Rush A. J., Shaw, B. F. & Emery, G.


(1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.

. , . , .

465

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, , (1985): Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen,
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(2002): Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). he Mental health Continuum: From
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207222.
, ., , ., , ., , .,
, ., , ., , ., , . , . (2008).
17. 2004.
, 56. - , , . 125,
: .
(2006): Lackovi Grgin, K. (2006). Psihologija adolescencije,
Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap.
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468

. , . , .


DRAGANA Z. STANOJEVI, MIROSLAV . KRSTI, BILJANA N. JAREDI
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

SUMMARY

LIFE SATISFACTION AND DEPRESSION OF SERBIAN ADOLESCENTS IN


KOSOVO AND METOHIJA FROM 2008 TO 2012
The main aim of this study was to investigate if there was a change
of level of depression and life satisfaction of Serbian adolescents in
Kosovo and Metohija. For that purpose we used a part of data from
some research realized at the beginning of the year 2008 and compared them with data collected at the end of year 2012. In both sequences of research we measured depression by Beck`s Depression Inventory, but satisfaction with life was measured by different scales.
We had to standardize scores for satisfaction with life so we could
compare data from different research sequences. Our results showed
that depression level in second research sequence was significantly
lower, while we didn`t get significant differences in life satisfaction.
Also, we found differences in depression and life satisfaction regarding gender, family material status and place where examines lives
(north Kosovo and Metohija or Serbian enclaves). Obtained results
were discussed regarding the possibility of adaptation at unfavourable circumstances of growing up and living.
KEY WORDS: life satisfaction, depression, adolescents, year 2008
2012.

. , . , .

469


: 159.947.5 ; 159.923.2
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471

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481

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LIII (1)/2013
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Ryan, 2000). , (. Lynch, Plant, & Ryan, 2005; Van den Broeck et al., 2008), (., Ilardi,
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2008), (Gagn, 2003;
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et al., 2008). (Baard, Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ilardi, Leone, Kasser & Ryan, 1993; Ryan & Deci, 2000)
,
, , , . , 484

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Leone, Usunov & Kornazheva, 2001; Ryan & Deci, 2000).

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.
, (Vansteenkiste, Neyrinck, Niemic, Soenens, De Witte, &
Van den Broeck, 2007; Van den Broeck et al., 2008).

(Vansteenkiste et al., 2007; Van den Broeck
et al., 2008).
Brdar, I. (2006). ivotni ciljevi i dobrobit: je li za sreu vano ta elimo? Drutvena istraivanja, 45, 671691.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in


human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000): The What and Why of Goal Pursuits:
Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior, Psychological Inquiry,
11(4), 227268.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of Self-Determination Research.
Rochester, The University of Rochester Press. Preuzeto januara 2010. sa:
http://books.google.com
Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). The evolving concept of
subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. Advances in Cell
Aging and Gerontology, 15, 187219.
Majstorovi, N. (2008). Primena teorije self-determinacije u istraivanju
radne motivacije. Primenjena psihologija, 12, 518.

. , .

485

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Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American
Psychologist, 55, 6878.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review
of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141166.
Reis, H.T., Sheldon, K.M, Gable, S.L., Roscoe, J., Ryan, R.M. (2000). Daily WellBeing: The Role of Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (4), 419435.
Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., & De Witte, H. (2008). Self-determination theory: A theoretical and empirical overview in occupational health
psychology. In J. Houdmont & S. Leka (Eds.). Occupational health psychology:
European perspectives on research, education, and practice, 3 (pp. 63-88). Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout and engagement. The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22 (3),
277294.

486

. , .


KRISTINA M. RANELOVI
UNIVERSITY OF NI, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

DUAN J. RANELOVI
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

SUMMARY

SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY AND THE WELFARE OF EMPLOYEES


The objective of this article is to give an account of the psychological welfare of employees in the context of self-determination theory.
SDT represents an approach to human motivation and personality
that uses traditional empirical methods which make clear the importance of development of human innate abilities for personal development, integration and self-regulation. Self-determination theory emphasizes that welfare is an direct function with the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. According to the above mentioned theory
self actualization (eudemonia) represents the key aspect of psychological welfare. Namely, SDT aims to explain what it means to actualize oneself and how to schive that. The researches within self-determination theory are focused on the factors that allow or prevent psychological grouth, integrity and welfare. SDT is a theory with great
prospect and it allows us not only to understand better the psychological processes in many aspects of use (sport, work, parenthood, education, etc) but also to direct programs and interventions that improve the circumstances in which people live. The theory has recently been applied in health-working psychology and few empirical
findings have given support to its fundamental premises. SDT is a consistant theory that can be tested, it is applicable in almost all spheres
of life (family, school system, helth care, work, relationships among
people ect.) and it gives a broad spectrum of possible problems to research. It not only offers different social environments and his welfare, but the theory also offers directives how to impruve the conditions in witch people live and work. The organizational context that
allows the possibility to shoose, make autonomous decisions, clear explanations of certain work assignments, as well as the appriciation of
feelings and attitudes of the employees will bring about greater satisfaction of the innate needs for grouth. It is necessary, in our environment, to ephasize the importance of SDT and its capacity, in other

. , .

487

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words the possibility of practical implementation of above mentioned
concepts andtheoretical assumptions.
KEY WORDS: self-determination theory, welfare of employees, selfactualization.

488

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, , .

, 1991: Ashmore, R. D. (1991). Sex, gender and the individual. :


Pervin, L. (Ed.), Handbook of personality. New York: Guilford Press.

, 1974: Bem, S.L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny.


: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(2): 155-162.
, 1983: Bem, S.L. (1983). Gender Schema Theory and Self-Schema Theory
Compared: A Comment on Markus, Crane, Bernstein and Siladis SelfSchemas and Gender. : Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 43,
No. 6: 1192-1194.
, 1987: Deaux, K. & Major, B. (1987). Putting gender into
contex: An interactive model of gender-related behavior. : Psychological
review,Vol. 94, No. 3: 369-389.
, , 1993: Deutsh, F.M., Lussier, J. B. & Servis, L. J.
(1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participation in childcare
and housework. : Journal of personality and social psychology 65: 1154-1166.
- , 2004: Zahn-Waxler, C., Polanichka, N. (2004).
All thing interpersonal: Socialization and female aggression. : Bierman,
M.P.K.L. (Ed.), Aggression, Antisocial Behavior and Violence: A Developmental
perspective.Guilford Publications, Inc.
, ., , . (2010). . .
, . (2004). . , .
, 2000: Eckes, T. (2000). The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

504


, 2008: Ellis, L. et al. (2008). Sex differences: summarizing more than a
century of scientific research. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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children's sex- role concepts and attitudes. : E. E. Maccody (Ed.), The development of sex differences.Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
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109: 267-296.
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, . (2007). . : -, ., , ., , . (.), : (. 165-176), : .
-, ., , ., , . (2010). :
. , .
(2009): Helgeson, V. S. (2009). The psychology of gender 4th ed.,
Pearson Education, Inc.

505

LIII (1)/2013
OLIVERA B. RADOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

SUMMARY

REVIEW OF APPROCHES OF STUDYING GENDER


AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PSYCHOLOGY
There is long tradition of investigating gender differences in psychology and interest in this subject is still on high level. As gender
has proved to be strongly connected with beliefs, emotions and behavior of individuals in last two decades gender has become one of
most studied concepts in psychology. Basic aim of this paper is to give
brief synthetic review of theoretical approaches of studding gender
and gender differences in psychology. While earlier approaches deal
with gender as subject variable, modern social psychology is quietly
different, it focuses on interaction.
KEY WORDS: gender, gender differences, psychology.

506


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19. 2012,
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507

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Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye.
Berkeley: University of California Press.

. . (1999). . : .
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515

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, . (1997). , . : .
, . , . (2003). . , . 36, 3, 313329.

516


TIJANA R. TODI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

SUMMARY

INFLUENCE OF OBJECTS POSITION AND SIZE


ON CONFIGURATION AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE
The aim of this experiment was to verify the assumption that the
aesthetic preference of certain objects presented in the picture is influenced by its size and already given position of the object (balanced/unbalanced position). In this experiment, 30 participants had
the task to make the aestheticly most prefered confuguration by moving/not moving the object given in the picture. Analysis of the results
has showed that size and initial position of a circle could not explain
the way participants had chosen positions in such a way as to make
configuration aesthetically prefered.
KEY WORDS: aesthetic preference, object size, balanced/unbalanced
position.

517


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2. 2013, 1. 2013.

521

LIII (1)/2013

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.

533

LIII (1)/2013
,
, . , , .
, .. (1996).
, , .

lliot, J. (1993). Educational research as a form of democratic rationality.


Journal of Philosophy of Education. 40 (2), pp.169185.
Hatton, N., Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in Teacher Education: Towards
Definition and Implementation, Educational Research and Perspectives, No.20/
1, University of Western Australia.
Jackson, P. (1986). The Practice of Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
, .., , .. ( 2000 ). ,
.
, .. (1980).
, . ., . 14.
Osterman, K.F. (1990). Reflective Practice: A New Agenda for Education.
Education and Urban Society, No.22/2, p.132152.
, . (1998). . :
.
Schon, D. (1983). The Reflective Practioner. New York: Basic Books.
Schon, D. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
, . (2005). .
: (. 35;
. 293306). : .
, . (2009). . : / .
, . (2012). .
: / .

534


PREDRAG . IVKOVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PEDAGOGY

FRAGMENTS ON TEACHERS REFLECTIVE PRACTICUM

SUMMARY

In many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in


which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical
theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933) is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge) in practice. Reflection as a concept is
understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as
continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in
situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing
connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that
preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995). Reflective thinking is the most
general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the
problem.
Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. In later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem,
an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984). Already at
first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and
adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. It would be useful to
compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression
of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to
the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection), which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and
that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment.
We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-inaction'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally (Schon,
1987). This presents, almost unexpectedly and suddenly, two types of
reflection (1) reflection on action which occurs during the action interrupting and interfering with it, and (2) reflections in action which
appears in the action as well as in the disruption and interruption, so
.

535

LIII (1)/2013
that we think about her and about how to reshape the action that
takes place in the moments of reflection.
The idea of reflective practitioners (educators, adult educators, sociologists, etc.), or a practitioner who thinks about his/her own practice and the practice of reflection draws on its theoretical origins that
Schon develops almost like an original idea that became well-known.
He assumes that the practice of practical activities (such as teaching,
instruction, therapeutic work of doctors or therapists) constitutes an
original and very specific epistemology. Contrary to the dominant
technical rationality that underpins modern professional education,
Schon believes that professional knowledge and competence includes
the effect of successful practitioners (educators, adult educators,
teachers, etc.), especially in reflection-in-action (''reflection of what
we do while doing'') (Schon, 1986), which appears in problem situations. Hence, the practical education of the profession, according to
the author, necessarily follows the model of learning by doing a particular kind of apprenticeship modelled on the training of musicians,
artists and drama artists.
In his second book (The Reflective Practitioner), Schon develops reflective practicum and confronts it with a dominant, normative curriculum, which constitutes the basis of theoretical knowledge to solve
practical, instrumental problems. Practice, however, that is often
characterized by uncertainty in this case does not become one solution, but the solution depends on the choice of the value of paragraph,
depending on what aspect of the situation we pay more attention to.
Schon distinguishes knowledge in action, what implicit knowledge
is contained in intelligent actions that are difficult to explicate verbally, and theory of action, an attempt to describe the tacit knowledge
based on observation and reflection (reflection). While knowledge is a
dynamic action, the theories of action (descriptions of the operation
and the strategies they use, rules, values and assumptions which we
hold) are always a static structure. They are practical checks that are
back in action. These checks are nothing but an evaluation of our theory and action based on the action, and self-evaluation practitioners.
It is believed that only in an ironic sense and not as a pedeutological
truism active and dynamic teaching situation can be treated as a nonsusceptible reflective thinking of teachers. Advocates of this view argue that this is so because the teacher is in the midst of an activity,
and cannot make a ''step back'' nor the first rationalization of the various alternative courses of action in the immediate moment, but he
then reflects on the consequences of the different alternatives. And
536


even though he thinks very carefully about how to act in each moment and the situation that continues, he eventually has to admit to
himself that he must determine on something that he does or does not
do. Thus, a teacher who works is in a way still a dogmatist who can
think of a rich range of possible actions and activities, while it may
seem that he can do only one thing at a time. Proponents of this concept of critical reflexivity used to broad explanations of his criticism
that are often based on a single act of the court action, which may not
always be the argument of generalization.
Notwithstanding the aforementioned arguments, finding that the
teacher is an active teaching situation that is too busy to think reflectively, it does not mean that the teaching sentenced to life is a blind
impulsivity and a conduct routine. Teachers feel that they can continue to operate keenly and dedicatedly. When you are in the classroom,
good teachers act ''knowingly'' and often with a direct review or selfinsight. As teachers, we are often like them in a position to find ourselves (beat out) in a situation that bites ''language''. On the other occasions, the situation and context tell us in which direction and how
to act.
Reflective thinking and actions of the teacher's centred and insufficiently treated pedeutological term should demand phenomenological, philosophical, conceptual and empirical research. In this short
essay on reflective practicum teachers restrict to just thinking about
distinctive phenomenological attitude and the importance of teaching practice as a reflective action.
We may ask where and how does reflection affect pedagogical reality? Is it in a way that reflectivity can be achieved through experience? How does this differ from conceptualizations that were made in
literature? What kind of reflection and conscious and meaningful action can be achieved in the classroom? What are the forms of knowledge and skills that inform and constitute the practice?
We know ad nauseam that beginning teachers (sometimes occurs
and marks the induction of teachers) typically face a number of problems in the interactive reality of teaching. We will present, at the beginning, the ideal situation: thoroughly prepared new teachers, an
expert in the field of science that teaches, successfully defeating the
theory of developmental psychological characteristics of students
working with them etc., an expert who becomes a connoisseur
equipped with knowledge about successful models of teaching and
school management, someone who successfully combines the practical and theoretical skills acquired in the training of team cooperation
.

537

LIII (1)/2013
and through learning the exercises in observation of teaching, acquires and begins to develop a critical understanding of the philosophical, political and professional implications and issues of professional practice. Finally, regardless of the lack of experience, the
teacher is willing to consciously and conscientiously lead students
through innovative, well-structured, streamlined lectures and lessons.
It is not unusual that, despite the excellent preparation, new teachers still do well in the conflict and confusion of the reality in the classroom: he is now face to face with students, faced with the risk of no
illusions and self-delusion, and with all plans and no anticipation fit to
the new reality. And somehow, by some chance, not all the hardearned knowledge in the subject areas of science and teaching, teaching skills, teaching, and educational theory and knowledge of the
characteristics of the curriculum are fulfilled nor they live the reality
of the teaching situation.
KEY WORDS: teacher, reflective thinking, reflective practicum, narrative study.

538

E E,
,
,


: 316.74:82(049.32)
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556


GLIGOR M. SAMARDI
UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE
IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

SUMMARY

THE FLORENTINES IN THE BALKANS


RADMILO PEKI, FLORENTINES IN THE BALKANS, 1300-1600,
FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY, KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, 2012, 528 PAGES
In the monograph The Florentines in the Balkans 1300-1600, the main
topic is Florences trade in the Balkans, in the period from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century. This historical period is the subject of the author's scientific research. The fact is that neither in Serbian nor in European historiography, with the exception of a few fragmentary works, there is no comprehensive survey to date of the
Florentines role in the Balkans. Writing the book, the author was
faced with extensive and varied problems. To make his monograph
more accessible and more acceptable to the readers, he divided the
text in five main chapters (Review of the history of Florence and its
pollitical ties with the Balkan countries (pp. 14-38), Florences trade in
the Balkans 1300-1600 (p. 39-156), Forms and organization of Florentine business in the Balkans 1300-1600 (p.157-311), Prominent Florentines in the Balkans 1300-1600 (pp. 312-374), The Private Life of
Florentines (pp. 375-452)), not including ancillary and methodologically planned topics, and within them a greater or lesser number of
headings. The author covered all the segments of the temporal and
spatial scope of the research. This monograph contains pedagogical
criteria in addition to his basic content. The handling of facts and conclusions reflects the professional, scientific and narrative high level
of the author. He shows a subtle sense for identifying and defining
problems, he logically and gradually develops the topics, he is consequential in his conclusions and his arguments. This monograph by
Radmilo Peki is written meticulously and the author is critically
aware of the methodology of scientific research. His work is based on
some authentic and original material, not disclosed until now.Thats
why it is, indeed, an important scientific work and a valuable contribution to the understanding of political, economic and cultural history of Florentines in this important and strategic sensitive area.
KEY WORDS: the Florentines, the Balkans, trade, transportation, insurance, supplies, featured occupations.

557


: 94(=18)(497):930
: 199695116

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radomir.djordjevic@hotmail.com
30. 2013,
1. 2013.
,
.

559

LIII (1)/2013

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567

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569

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1878. .

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(1999. .) .

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Murdal, J. Kessle, G. (1978). Albania Defiant. Kant: Whithstable, Litho ltd.
. ., , ., , . (2008). .
: .

570


, . (2010). . :
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, . (1988). . : , , XXXIX, . : .
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2].

http://.be/ENhrKNamtu
http://www.youtube.com/

571

LIII (1)/2013
RADOMIR D. DJORDJEVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

SUMMARY

THE IDENTITY CONTROVERSIES


ABOUT ALBANIANS IN SERBIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY
The period of our new historiography is mostly burdened by a political discourse of a new establishment, with which the so called period of brotherhood and unity began in the former Yugoslavia. In
that period of time, but also after the fall of socialism in 1998, fascination with Yugoslavism is still present in the Serbian history. There are
almost no textbooks or monographs in which a dogmatic way of
thinking is critically reviewed as incomprehensible in our historical
science. This is especially related to the problem of Albanian ethnogenesis and their presence in the Balkans. By adopting this imposed
opinion that the Albanians are a native population, our historians directly made an immense damage to the Serbian people.
KEY WORDS: our historians, Serbian historiography, origin of Albanians, ethno-genesis of the Balkan nations, Illyrians.

572


: 159.9.019
: 199695372

. . 1

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1
2

misotodorovic@yahoo.com
8. 2013, 1. 2013.

573

LIII (1)/2013
.
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575

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,
. , praxisa,
,
.

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Heidegger, M. (2006). Temeljni problemi fenomenologije. Zagreb: Demetra.
Hothersall, D. (2002). Povijest psihologije. Zagreb: Naklada Slap.
Jung, C. G. (1977). O psihologiji nesvesnog. Novi Sad: Matica srpska.
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administracija.
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586

PRAXISA
MILORAD V. TODOROVI

UNIVERSITY OF PRITINA WITH TEMPORARY HEAD OFFICE


IN KOSOVSKA MITROVICA, FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY,
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

ACADEMIC PSYCHOLOGY OR THE LOST MEANING


OF PSYCHOLOGY AS PRAXIS

SUMMARY

cademic psychology has interpreted the development of neurobiological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the
death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the
meaning sought by the Soul and speech-being, at a time when the
secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical
and electrical activity.
It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements
of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can
be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells
and individual behavior.
Fortunately, the subjects soul, which is believed to have been banished from the real, true science, and biological theories, returns
even under the banner of cognitivism.
Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been
its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas,
what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul.
Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted
that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.
KEY WORDS: psychology as praxis, functioning of the mind, university education.

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= Recueil de travaux
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