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KT CU NHP LN KHNG GIAN KHI NIM V KT CU KHNG GIAN NHP LN

Cc kiu mi vi nh nhp ln vi kt cu khng gian


1. Kiu h li khng gian phng 2. Kiu h li khng gian dng v 3. Kiu mi cupon

1. Kiu h li khng gian phng


- Thc cht l h thng dn cnh song song t giao nhau,c nhp n 50,60m,chiu cao h bng 1/15 1/20 nhp. - C cng khng gian v h li thanh vt c nhp ln nn c th bao ph c cc cng trnh c mt bng hnh tam gic, a gic. - Kt cu c nhiu thanh,nt ging nhau nn d nh hnh ho v tiu chun ho. - H li thanh chia lm 2 loi sau: + Loi 3 dn giao nhau theo 3 hng + Lai 2 dn giao nhau theo 2 hng

a) Loi 3 dn giao nhau theo 3 hng : - C cu trc chng xon tt nn cng l ln nht - Nhng phc tp v mt cu to,ch ti v dng lp
1.Thanh cch trn 6.Vnh bin

2.Thanh cch du ? i

3.Thanh b?ng xin

b) Loi 2 dn giao nhau theo 2 hng : - Chu xon km nn cng nh - C th gia cng bng cc thanh t theo phng ng cho
4.Thanh cho trn 1.Thanh cch trn 2.Thanh cch du ? i

5.Thanh cho du ?i

6.Vnh bin

3.Thanh b?ng xin 1,4 3 2,5

a. sn, x g v 2 thanh cho b. chia hinh qu trm. c. chia kiu sao.

2. Kiu h li khng gian dng v


- L h thanh khng gian mt lp c mt ngoi cong theo mt chiu,dng cho cng trnh c mt bng hnh ch nht nhp n 90m. - Cc li ca v n gin nht l dng hnh thoi,nu c b tr thm cc thanh dc nh th cng s tng ln. - cng t gi tr ln nht cng chi ph vt liu c li nht khi c b tr thm cc thanh cho xin gc 45 so vi thanh dc.

a)

1.V? b)

2.Vch c? ng d?u nh 3 3.Gi?ng 4.C?t


L

e) c) d)

a)S

b) Li hnh thoi

c) Li c thanh chng dc d) Li c thanh chng ngang e) Li c thanh dc v thanh cho

- Hnh nh minh ha:

Cc loi cu pn L loi kt cu khng gian c mt cong 2 chiu. Mt bng thng dng: - Trn - a gic u. Cc loi thng gp: Cu pn sn, cu pn sn vng, cupn li

Cu to cu pn sn

Gm cc sn t hng tm, ta trn 2 vnh chn v nh. Hai na sn hng qua tm to nn mt vm nn thc cht cu pn l cc vm t theo phng bn knh. Cc vm lin kt vi nhau bng x g v ging. Vnh chn chu lc x ca cc vm nn chu ko Vnh nh chu nn v xon (nn to cng m bo chu lc) Sn c th l c hoc rng. X g gm 2 loi: hng tm v vng.

Tnh ton cu pn sn chu ti trng i xng

(ti trng mi v trng lng bn thn) Cc vm chu ti trng nh nhau nn c th tch 1 vm tnh. S tnh: thay nh hng ca vnh bng 1 thanh cng sao cho bin dng theo phng ng knh ca vnh bng bin dng ca thanh cng:

v = th
. Khi s c s vm 2 khp c thanh cng. Din tch tit din thanh quy c l:

2 Av Ev Ath = n Eth
n: s na vm

1. Thn vm; 2. Thanh cng quy c

Ni lc: - H c n s l lc trong thanh cng - Gii bng cc phng php c hc kt cu hc.

tnh ton cu pn sn chu ti trng khng i xng (Chu ti trng gi) S chu ti trng gi: chia lm 4 vng.

- Vng II v vng IV chu ti trng i xng.

- Vng I v vng III chu ti trng khng i xng.

Cc vm nm trong vng c ti trng khng i xng c quy v 1 vm tng ng t vo trng tm vng. S tnh: Vi

Jtd = J cos i
i =1

: m men qun tnh ca 1 vm.

i : gc ca vm i so vi vm tng ng.
m: s vm trong vng chu ti trng khng i xng. Ni lc: Ni lc vm bt k = Ni lc vm tng ng

cos cos i

cu pn sn vng

Cu to Ging cu pn sn nhng x g vng lm 2 nhim v: - tm mi. - Tham gia chu lc ging nh vnh chn. Lin kt sn vng vi sn hng tm thng dng khp. X g vng c tit din c hoc rng (dng dn). Tnh ton: Vnh chn cng nh sn vng c thay bng thanh quy c cho 1 vm phng. V s tnh: h c nhiu n s. Gii h phng trnh n n (n l s thanh cng quy c) Ti trng gi: tng t cu pn sn.

cu pn li

L 1 dng ca kt cu v li. Kt cu gm sn hng tm, x g vng v thanh cho, cc thanh u l thp ng, lin kt khp ti nt Ni lc trong thanh ch yu l lc trc (Mcb rt b). Ni lc dn u trn b mt cu pn. Nh nht trong 3 loi k trn. Mt ngoi chia theo nhiu dng.

c im ca kt cu mi dy treo u im: -Kt cu chu lc chnh l dy, ni lc ch yu l ko. -Dng c vt liu c cng cao (b = 12 14 T/m2). -Trng lng bn thn nh. -D ch to, dng lp v vn chuyn. - Hnh dng c bit

Nhc im:

-D bin dng: + chuyn v ng hc do ti trng. + chuyn v n hi do dy co dn. -Tn km v kt cu gi ta (thng l cao, ln). -Kh thot nc. Bin php khc phc bin dng: -Chn dng dy ph hp vi a gic dy ca ti trng gim chuyn v ng hc. -ng lc trc cho dy khi lp mi gim chuyn v n hi. Phm vi ng dng: -Cc dng thng gp: + H dy 1 lp. + H dy 2 lp. + H dy trc giao. + H hn hp. -Thng c dng cho cng trinh th thao hoc cho cc cng trinh c cng dng ring nhp ln.

H mt lp dy mm

Thng dng cho mt bng ch nht Gi cng 2 bin song song ca mt bng; gm dm bin ta vo khung cng. y l kt cu chu lc chnh, cc tm mi lin kt vi nhau v vi dy lm tng cng cho h. d thot nc mi: t dy u hi n dy gia cng dn to dc ra 2 pha u hi. Khi lp mi thng gia ti cho dy dn, chn mch cc tm mi, b ti dy co li, nn tm mi vo to cng cho mi. (y chnh l phng php ng lc cho dy). Dy c tnh ton vi s lm vic ring r.

Tnh ton dy mm khng dn

T l hp l ca dy:

f 1 1 = l 10 20 f 1 > l 10 f 1 < l 20 f 1 l 20

nu nu Khi

dy qu chng;

dy qu cng.

b qua bin dng n hi. Lc ko trong dy ti v tr x:

Tx = Qx + H 2

- Mmax; Qx ti v tr x c xc nh nh dm n gin. - Lc ko ln nht trong dy: V: phn lc ng gi ta. H: Phn lc ngang gi ta:

Tmax = V 2 + H 2

M max H= f

Vi ti trng phn b u, chiu di dy ld c xc nh theo:


lD H= 2 ld l

8f2 ld = l(1 + 2 ) 3l
2 D = Qx dx 0 l

D c trng ca ti trng (tra bng).

Tnh ton dy mm n hi

Khi

f 1 < l 20

dy qu cng, bin dng n hi ln, khi tnh ton phi k n bin dng ca dy. Phng trinh dy mm n hi:

H3 +(

E d Ad D E d Ad D 0 2 H ) H =0 0 2 2l 2 lH 0

g 2l 3 D0 = 12

D0, H0: c trng ca aai trng, phan lc ngang trng thi u (dy ch chu ti trng thng xuyn). D, H: c trng ca ti trng, phn lc ngang trng thi sau (dy chu c ti trng thng xuyn v tm thi). Ed, Ad: m un n hi v din tch tit din ca dy. Vi ti phn b: D tra bng. C H, V, tim c Tmax theo cng thc:

Tmax = V 2 + H 2

Tnh ton vng ca dy (f)

Vi q phn b u:

3m 2 ql 4 f = 128 Ed Ad f 2

ld 8f2 m = = 1+ 2 l 3l

h mt lp dy cng

Dy l thp hinh cn nng dng ch I.


Gi cng l dn m bo chu lc t dy truyn vo.


Dy lm vic trong trng thi ko un.


Tnh ton dy c xt n cng chng un ca dy


Gi f : l vng ban u (ch chu g) fs: l vng khi s dng (chu g + p) Ga s ti trng phn b u, vng c xc nh theo:

4A 3 4A 2 H0l2 (g + p)l4 fs + (1 f + ) fs = +f 15Jm 15lm1 10EJ 80EJ 1

Gi s ti trng phn b u, vng c xc nh theo:


( g + p)l 4 4 A 2 H0 l 2 4A 3 ) fs = +f f + fs + (1 80 EJ 15lm1 10 EJ 15 Jm1

16 f 2 m1 = 1 + 3l 2
A tit din ngang ca dy. H0: phn lc ngang ban u. J: m men qun tnh ca tit din dy tnh vi trc un. Phn lc gi:

8 EA H = 2 ( fs + f )f + H 0 3l m1
M men ln nht dy:

f = f s f

( g + p )l 2 M= H fs 8

Kt cu mi dy hai lp

Lp vng xung l lp chu lc


Lp vng ln l dy cng (lp dy n nh)


Cc thanh chng chu nn (c khi ko nh s sau)


H chu lc c 2 chiu

Tnh ton h dy 2 lp theo phng php gn ng.


Kt cu mi dy trc giao (mi yn nga)

H mi dy ny c hnh thnh t 2 lp dy vung gc nhau: Dy vng xung l dy ch - chu lc. Dy vng ln l dy cng. Ta, lin kt, neo vo gi cng l vnh (hoc dm bin) Dy lun lun cng vi bt k ti trng tc dng do mi lun n nh. Tnh ton phc tp, h phng trnh nhiu n s.

kt cu hn hp dy v thanh cng

p ng nhu cu khng gian rng. X c treo bng dy vo ct tr. Gim m men x bng nhiu lp dy. Thng dng cho nh trin lm, hng ga my bay...