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GUA DIDCTICA DEL DOCENTE

Jolanta Polk Reyes

Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Dublin, Ireland. Teacher training, translation and English literature, University of Silesia, Poland.

2013 Ediciones Cal y Canto Global English 3 Gua Didctica del Docente ISBN: 978 956 339 073 5 Original text Jolanta Polk Reyes Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Dublin, Ireland Teacher training, translation and English literature, University of Silesia, Poland

Original illustrations Ediciones Cal y Canto Design General Manager Senior Editor English Editor Assistant Editor Design Cover design Layout Proofreading Illustrations General Production Production Assistant Recording Producer Recording Engineer Photos Printed in Chile

Ediciones Cal y Canto


Jorge Muoz Rau Alicia Manonellas Balladares Gloria Caro Opazo Lina Alvarado Jantus Mara Jess Moreno Guldman Mara Jess Moreno Guldman Cristina Seplveda Aravena Marcela Silva Pedreros Nicholas Gunn Venus Astudillo Vera Cecilia Muoz Rau Lorena Briceo Gonzlez Rodrigo Gonzlez Daz Ignacio Arriagada Maia Banco de Fotos Ediciones Cal y Canto

CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Students Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Book Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Learning Progress Maps as Support Material for Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The Internet in the Language Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Classroom Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Teachers Book .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Classroom Language.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Suggested Year Planning .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 UNIT 1: ADVICE AND SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Reading Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT 2: TWO OF THE ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Reading Texts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT 3: PROFESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Reading Texts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT 4: BEING ACTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Reading Texts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIT 5: AT WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopiable Additional Reading Texts .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extra Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test question bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thematic bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 63 64 65 68 94 95 97

100 121 124 125 128 154 156 158 162 186 189 191 194 211 212 215 216

PLAN OF THE STUDENTS BOOK


Unit
1
6

Unit 2
TWO OF THE ELEMENTS
28

Unit 3
PROFESSIONS
52

ADVICE AND SUPPORT

GETTING INTO THE UNIT............. 7 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT................................. 8 LESSON 1 Reading Letters to Aunt Anne (personal letters)..............................10 Language Note Linking words................................... 13 Application Task Writing A letter of advice.............................. 15 LESSON 2 Listening Embarrassing Moments (TV interview).................................. 16 Language Note The First Conditional ........................ 18 Application Task Speaking A role play describing own experiences .............................. 19 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES..................................... 20 JUST FOR FUN............................... 22 CHILEAN CONNECTION .............. 23 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE........... 24 FINAL REFLECTION .................... 26 SELF-EVALUATION ...................... 27

GETTING INTO THE UNIT ..................................... 29 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT ..................................... 30 LESSON 1 Reading Earth (school newspaper interview) ..................................... 32 Language Note The First Conditional ...................... 33 Application Task Writing A school earthquake plan ............. 37 LESSON 2 Listening Water (TV programme) ................. 38 Language Note Connectors of condition ................ 40 Application Task Speaking Description of pictures in detail ...... 41 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES .................................. 42 JUST FOR FUN ............................ 44 CHILEAN CONNECTION ............. 45 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE................................ 46 FINAL REFLECTION ................... 48 SELF-EVALUATION...................... 49 SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 & 2.................................. 50

GETTING INTO THE UNIT..........53 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT.............................. 54 LESSON 1 Reading Preparing a CV (article, tips, model CV)................. 56 Language Note Recommendations and suggestions.............................. 61 Application Task Writing Own CV............................................ 62 LESSON 2 Listening Advertising for jobs (advertisement)............................... 64 Language Note Had better versus should................. 66 Application Task Speaking Role play of a job interview............ 67 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES..................................... 68 JUST FOR FUN............................... 70 CHILEAN CONNECTION............... 71 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE................................. 72 FINAL REFLECTION...................... 74 SELF-EVALUATION....................... 75

Plan oF tHe BooK

Unit 4
BEING ACTIVE
76

Unit 5
AT WORK
106

WORKBOOK

GETTING INTO THE UNIT.......... 77 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT............................. 78 LESSON 1 Reading Flying (article)................................ 80 Language Note Prepositional phrases..................... 84 Application Task Writing An itinerary for a two-day trip....... 87 LESSON 2 Listening A competition (radio programme)......................... 88 Language Note Adverbial phrases............................ 91 Application Task Speaking Role play of a quiz show................. 93 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES.................................... 94 JUST FOR FUN.............................. 96 CHILEAN CONNECTION.............. 97 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE................................ 98 FINAL REFLECTION..................100 SELF-EVALUATION ...................101 SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 4................................102

GETTING INTO THE UNIT.........107 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT ......................... 108 LESSON 1 Reading Volunteering (website, e-mail, magazine article, forms).............. 110 Language Note The Present Perfect Continuous ................................... 115 Application Task Writing A composition.............................. 117 LESSON 2 Listening Applying for a job(interview).......... 118 Language Note The Present Perfect Continuous with for/since........... 121 Application Task Speaking Introduce yourself at an interview............................. 123 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES................................. 126 JUST FOR FUN........................... 128 CHILEAN CONNECTION........... 129 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE............................. 130 FINAL REFLECTION................. 132 SELF-EVALUATION................... 133 SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 5............................... 134

Unit 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Unit 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Unit 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Unit 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Unit 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

FINAL PAGES
BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR the student.......................... 138 WEBSITES FOR the student.......................... 138 SUGGESTIONS FOR EXTRA READING..................... 139 material used in the preparation of global english................................... 140 ANSWERS Student s Book..................157 ANSWERS Workbook............................170 Thematic Index....................172
Plan oF tHe BooK

INTRODUCTION

A message from the author


Global English has been developed taking into account the patterns and activities most relevant to the effective learning processes suitable for 11th grade students. What was most taken into consideration was how to keep students interest in the contents of the book, i.e. subjects and themes of special relevance and attraction to young people of this age group. Youngsters are often criticised for their apparent lack of interest in contingent issues. We firmly disagree with this idea. It is true that they show certain disenchantment with some aspects of the globalised world, but time and time again the younger generation has shown that they are interested in what goes on around them. That is why the units in the book have been developed around key issues that interest our students. To quote M.B. Tinzmann, B.F. Jones, T.F. Fennimore, J. Bakker, C. Fine, and J. Pierce, 1990: It is primarily through dialogue and examining different perspectives that students become knowledgeable, strategic, self-determined, and empathetic. Moreover, involving students in real-world tasks and linking new information to prior knowledge requires effective communication and collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other actors in the educational process. Indeed, it is through dialogue and interaction that curriculum objectives come alive. Collaborative learning offers students enormous advantages not available in more traditional forms of teaching because a group - whether it be the whole class or a learning group within the class can accomplish meaningful learning and solve problems better than any individual can alone. The majority of the listening and reading texts have been taken from authentic sources. Where this was not possible, they were specially written trying to make them as real as possible. All our cartoons are original and the result of many hours of thinking, the extra sections have been included to provide additional information in different forms, and both the book as a whole and each individual page have been carefully designed to contribute to the establishment of a pleasant learning environment. Finally, the purpose of the book, apart from providing learning contents, is to offer fun and diversion in the sometimes dry and arduous knowledge acquisition process. We hope that both students and teachers will enjoy Global English and use it to its maximum extent. The Author

INTRODUCTION

THE STUDENTS BOOK


Global English consists of five units. Unit 1: Advice and Support Unit 2: Two of the Elements Unit 3: Professions Unit 4: Being Active Unit 5: At Work Each unit has been divided into two lessons of gradually increasing complexity and level of difficulty, both of them with Before, While and After reading or listening activities. Each unit contains the following sections: Introduction There is an attractive, motivating photo that illustrates the main topic of the unit and accompanies the learning objectives of the unit, presented on the same page. Getting into the unit Short activities that have a double purpose: to motivate and create interest, and to evaluate how much students already know about the topic(s) to be covered. Getting ready for the unit This section identifies and practises language and skills that the students will need to have mastered in order to move on to the new contents of the unit. Reading When students have a purpose for reading, they can adopt different reading strategies to suit different types of texts and different reasons for reading. For example, students may need to skim one type of text to identify the main points it covers, but scan another text to locate specific information. The Before you Read activities motivate students to read and encourage them to predict and anticipate information. They are essential for reading skills development. Making predictions is a core strategy for reading comprehension; proficient readers constantly attempt to read ahead of an author, picking up clues and predicting what might unfold. Predictions are a category of inference: when we predict, we are going beyond what is explicitly stated to anticipate what, where, why, how, who and if. Developing students abilities to make reasonable predictions helps to sharpen their inferential thinking. Make sure that you tell students that their various predictions, though thoughtful and well-founded, may still turn out to be incorrect. The Reading tasks focus students attention, show them how to look for specific information, locate clues, and separate essential from non-essential information, and teach them that it is not necessary to know and understand every single word in the text to accomplish the tasks and get the required results. The After you Read tasks connect the text with the students own reality, give practice on specific grammar points extracted from the reading texts, and provide opportunities for oral and written expression. Listening The tasks to develop listening skills in Global English help students to learn strategies that will improve their understanding of spoken messages. The same as for the development of the reading skills, its methodology adopts a three-phase approach with Before, While and After listening tasks, to provide a setting, motivation and linguistic preparation, as well as activate previous knowledge, focus students attention on specific tasks and reduce anxiety produced by unknown messages. Writing and speaking The development of these two skills is carefully guided and always based on the content of a text, making use of a variety of activities and strategies. In each Reading lesson there is a section called APPLICATION TASK - WRITING, in which students are asked to develop a written text imitating what they have read in the lesson and following clear steps and instructions. In the Listening lessons, there is an APPLICATION TASK - SPEAKING, where students participate in a speaking activity imitating models and following clear instructions.

THE STUDENTS BOOK

Additionally, there are JUST FOR FUN activities to stimulate students development and self-study skills. An important component of this section is the CHILEAN CONNECTION, which explicitly relates the topic of the unit to the Chilean context. This part of the book is owned by the students and the role of the teacher is simply to guide and answer questions, but not to intervene, reward, or punish for exercises either done or not completed. The four following parts of the book respond to Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain. Namely, there is no complete learning process without consolidation, (CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES), testing (TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE), and selfevaluation activities (FINAL REFLECTION and SELFEVALUATION). American v/s British English Special boxes will show students the differences between American and British English, both in writing and in pronunciation. Students are frequently confused with the different spelling or pronunciation and the idea of this explanation is to show them that both ways are perfectly acceptable. Make it clear to students that they can use either way (spelling and pronunciation), but that they must stick to one way only throughout their oral or written production. Did you know that ? The aim of this section is to provide interesting bits of information on the main topic of the lesson and motivate students to find more similar details on their own. Internet resources Global English makes use of information technology by suggesting Websites to access resources when the students need to gather information on various topics or prepare for a presentation. They provide a good opportunity for independent work. Throughout the book, students and teachers will find website-based resources to expand their knowledge of specific subjects. Exploitation of these resources is important, as self-study is part of many school improvement approaches.

Moreover, when students realise their additional efforts are seen and recognised, they usually become more committed to and interested in improving their work. Language note This section encourages students to identify characteristics of a grammar point that has appeared in the reading or listening texts, provides more examples, and helps students to deduce some general rules. Learning tip This is an additional tool we have provided to make learning more accessible and contents easier to understand. Learning tips can be done by the students on their own or you can analyse them with the whole class, helping the students to understand and put them into practice. Consolidation activities They play an important role in the learning process because: they let both teachers and students find out where they are still lacking; they help to correct errors and reinforce strengths; they provide an attractive and entertaining new setting for the contents of the unit. Formal evaluation - Test your knowledge This part of the book provides the teacher with the necessary elements to formally evaluate the students learning process. There is a strong need not only for the adequate marking of students acquired knowledge, but, most importantly, for determining the shortfalls and stumbling blocks on the road to consolidated knowledge. Therefore, the teacher should not consider this part as exclusively the rewarding / punishing tool for acquired / not acquired knowledge, but rather as the basis for establishing remedial and reinforcement procedures and techniques. Synthesis evaluation There are three synthesis tests in Global English: Units 1 & 2, after Unit 2; Units 1 to 4, after Unit 4; and Units 1 to 5, after Unit 5. They have the same format as the tests at the end of each unit, but cover all the contents in the previous units.

THE STUDENTS BOOK

Self-evaluation By getting involved in their evaluation, learners come face to face with their learning problems and consciously try to tackle them. Self-evaluation requires students to be more aware of the changes they are experiencing, motivates them to form a realistic and honest perception of their own work, and to try to take responsible steps to solve their problems. Self-evaluation enables students to become independent learners as well as independent thinkers. There are three formal instances of self-evaluation in Global English. Quick self-check. In every lesson, there is a short testing activity which students must carry out within a time limit and for which they must assign themselves points. The teacher is strongly advised to encourage students to analyse their performance, identify strengths and weaknesses, and consider steps to improve. Final reflection. At the end of the unit, students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in

order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self-evaluation. There is a final self-evaluation section at the end of each unit, divided into two parts. The first part helps students to assign themselves marks in the final test of the unit (TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE). The second part provides the students with statements that help them to decide how much they have learnt, putting them in a position to make an assessment of their whole work. Workbook At the end of the units, there is a Workbook, which provides additional activities to engage students in further practice of the Students Book material. It follows and reflects the Students Book organisation and offers exercises that can be done in class or assigned as homework. Each Workbook unit practises and consolidates reading and listening skills, grammar, and vocabulary. The listening activities are shown by the audio icon, and their transcripts are included in the Answers to Workbook Activities section, at the end of this book.

THE STUDENTS BOOK

Book MethodoLoGY
Task-based learning Global English helps students to develop language and learning skills to carry out sequences of tasks. Some advantages of task-based learning are: increased motivation, as learners become personally involved; all four skills - reading, writing, listening, and speaking - are integrated; autonomous learning is promoted, as learners become more responsible for their own learning; there are learning outcomes, learners have an end product; the tasks are authentic and therefore the language input is more authentic; interpersonal relations are developed through working in pairs or groups; there is always a break from routine and the chance to do something different. Collaborative work Students work in teams that share what they have learnt to explore real-world problems and create presentations. This approach has many benefits for the students, including: deeper knowledge of subject matter; increased self-direction and motivation; improved research and problem-solving skills. Additionally, it gives the teacher the grounds for evaluating what students have learnt and how they apply that knowledge to real-life situations, and an excellent opportunity to observe these components of group / team dynamics: the natural forces at play who is the leader, who lags behind, who needs encouragement or pulling back; real group / team behaviour (cooperation, respect, support, encouragement, responsibility); need for interventions to make the effect of those dynamics more positive. Working in groups develops several very important skills, including collaboration, error correction, and respect for other peoples opinions. In addition to completing the task at hand, you could ask students to evaluate how well they worked as a group after each group exercise using this simple instrument: Our Effectiveness as a Group Evaluation scale: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Low High ______ a. The group defined its task. b. All members of the group i. accepted the responsibility for the outcome. ______ ii. felt free to state their real opinions. ______ iii. were productive. ______ ______ iv. were respectful at all times. v. feel satisfied about the work done. ______
(Based on: Stopper, R. (2004). Small-Group Discussion, pp. 299-303. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris)

Learner training This concept has to do with developing students awareness of how they learn and how they develop their learning strategies so that they become more effective and independent learners. Teachers should constantly encourage students to analyse their learning process, making them think about their learning, what problems they have, and how they could improve their performance so that they can take the appropriate steps to optimise their learning. Mixed ability Global English caters for mixed-ability classes in a variety of ways. The teacher needs to develop techniques which allow students of all levels to benefit from the lesson. Individual feedback is advisable in any class, but in a mixed-ability class, this attention to detail can increase student satisfaction. The teacher should always try to make some mental - if not written - notes about each student in such classes. As the course progresses and opportunities arise, the teacher should congratulate individual students on their improvements and make tactful suggestions on areas to work on. A few sentences during general monitoring are better than nothing. These details show that the teacher is aware of the individual needs of the students.

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BooK MetHodologY

Besides, each lesson in Global English offers at least one activity that can be done by fast learners while the rest of the class is finishing a task, and there are additional activities to cater for a variety of learning styles. Learning styles Research and teaching experience have shown that students are better motivated and learn more when their different intelligences and learning styles are taken into account in the teaching and learning process. As there are different personalities, there are also different learning styles in a classroom. Visual learners need to see things in the class, for example, wall displays, posters, realia, flash cards, graphic organisers, etc. Auditory learners learn better by listening to audio recordings, DVDs and songs. They like working in pairs and small groups. Kinesthetic learners learn through physical activities, competitions, board games, role plays, etc. Tactile learners like board and card games, demonstrations, projects, role plays, etc. While listening / reading activities are motivating for them. For example, they enjoy filling in a table while listening to a talk, or labelling a diagram while reading. Global English has considered these important facts and it offers different kinds of activities to suit the variety of students needs in a class. Discussions Any pair or group discussion is aimed at stimulating free expression among students. Avoid interrupting or correcting at that very same moment, as it inhibits their free expression. When correcting, avoid words such as wrong, incorrect, or bad. Instead, use expressions such as How about? Why dont you ? Games A teacher should bear in mind that games are important when teaching a foreign language because they are motivating and help students to sustain the effort of learning. However, games are

the means and not the end - they are simply a way of making learning more entertaining, so never treat games as time-fillers or as something students should do when you are stuck for ideas. Each game should have a purpose, with teacher supervision and, sometimes, prior preparation. Vocabulary The active vocabulary in each unit is the vocabulary the students need to carry out the tasks. There is development of students passive vocabulary through a rich variety of lexis in the reading and listening texts. There are specific vocabulary sections and practice activities. Students should be trained to develop effective strategies for learning vocabulary and for keeping clear vocabulary records. There should be systematic use of a vocabulary column on one side of the board in which any words or phrases that crop up during the lesson can be recorded. At the end of the class, students can copy these, with an example, picture, or translation in a special section of their notebooks. When especially difficult words appear in a text or in an activity, their meaning is given in a glossary section at the bottom of the page. All these words are presented together in the Glossary section at the end of this book. Grammar Global English deals with grammar with the purpose of making it more meaningful and useful for students. Structures that are essential for the understanding of oral or written texts are presented and practised in a very controlled way, in the After reading or After listening sections of the lessons. The learning of the structures is not an aim in itself, but it is important for the reading or listening comprehension task(s). In order to activate students language awareness, the course highlights some morpho-syntactic elements, such as cognates, false cognates, synonyms, antonyms, etc. Cognates Cognates are words in different languages related to the same root, for example, education in English and educacin in Spanish.
BooK MetHodologY

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The different lessons in Global English provide students with questions that help them to notice and recognise cognates. The teacher should encourage students to find the cognates whenever they face a new text. False cognates Students might get confused because there are several words in Spanish that are similar in English, but have a different meaning. Here are a few examples of false cognates: actually = en realidad, not actualmente (at present, currently); approve = aprobar = agree with something, not aprobar un examen (pass an exam); embarrassed = avergonzado/a, not embarazada (pregnant); familiar = estar familiarizado con, not familiar (relative); lecture = conferencia = a talk about a topic, not lectura (reading); library = biblioteca, not librera (bookstore); parents = padres, father and mother, not parientes (relatives); politics = la poltica, not los polticos (politicians); realise = darse cuenta, not realizar (carry out, fulfill); try = tratar de hacer algo, not tratarse de (be about) or tratar con (deal with) Collocations When words are used together regularly, rules are formed about their use not for grammatical reasons, but because of the association. Black and white appear in that order because of collocation; they are always in that order and to put them the other way around seems wrong. Some common collocations in English are: verb + noun: throw a party / accept responsibility; adjective + noun: square meal / grim determination; verb + adjective + noun: take vigorous exercise / make steady progress; adverb + verb: strongly suggest / barely see; adverb + adjective: utterly amazed / completely useless;

adverb + adjective + noun: totally unacceptable behaviour; adjective + preposition: guilty of / blamed for / happy about; noun + noun: pay packet / window frame. Prefixes and suffixes A word can consist of three parts: the root, a prefix, and a suffix. The root is the part of the word that contains the basic meaning, or definition of the word. A prefix is a word element placed in front of the root, which changes the words meaning or makes a new word. A suffix is a word element placed after the root, which changes the words meaning as well as its function. Common Prefixes Prefix Meaning Example bi- two bicycle de- not decaffeinated dis- not dishonest im- not impossible mis- not misunderstand before preview pre- re- again reactivate un- not untidy Common Suffixes Suffix Meaning Example able imaginable -able -er doer teacher -ful full of wonderful -ly or -y like heavenly -ment state of agreement -ness state of being happiness -ous full of joyous

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BooK MetHodologY

LEARNING PROGRESS MAPS AS SUPPORT MATERIAL FOR TEACHING11


What we have in common makes us human. Our differences make us individuals. In a classroom where there is very little or no differentiated teaching, only the similarities among students seem to be the focus of attention. In a differentiated class, the common areas are acknowledged and exploited, and the differences among students also become important elements in the teaching learning process.
Carol Ann Tomlinson12

Education. The Maps can be used in day to day classroom work to establish the students position, their differences, and their learning needs. Once this reflection and awareness task is done, it is possible to design a variety of teaching strategies to cater for the students needs. Learning progression and diversity Childrens learning as shown every day in the teaching process - shows progressive development as they move up from one level to the next. Older students generally know more about a subject and show more complex cognitive abilities than younger students; when comparing abilities and knowledge of a student in 4th Year of Secondary Education with those of a student in 1st Year of Primary Education, it can easily be noticed that the former is much more competent than the latter in all the learning areas. Between these two students, who represent the extreme levels of achievement during the school cycle, it is possible to distinguish several intermediate stages. On the other hand, children in a particular level make use of different abilities to understand the same topic, and have different ways to explain what they understand. There is progression not only from one level to the next; it is normal that, in the same class, students are at different levels and show different degrees of understanding and achievement of the required abilities. However, not all students progress in the expected direction. Inadequate attention to differences can produce delay in students learning. This delay, in turn, has a cumulative effect; it tends to increase in the upper levels and, when this happens, its effects are more difficult to revert. Therefore, it is important to clearly understand the state of students learning. The Learning Progress Maps are a support instrument to diagnose achievement and differences among students to help them to move on in their school work according to the expected outcomes promoted by the national curriculum; they offer common criteria and language to observe learning.

The Chilean Ministry of Education has presented the community with a new curricular tool, the Learning Progress Maps. It is possible that the teachers may have a lot of information about them, from different and probably more complete sources than those provided here. to be exhaustive nor replace any of those sources. It only intends to present the Maps in a particularly specific context, that of a very specific training in evaluation for learning, as it is in that area that they can be very useful in the different steps of that training. This is a brief introduction to the Maps that considers the inclusion principle that guides them, the way in which they are presented, an example, and some details to understand their pedagogical and evaluative usefulness. Rather than theoretical or conceptual details, special importance is given to the elements that facilitate their use by teachers. Introduction The Learning Progress Maps have been developed to show teachers, students, and parents the way in which learning progresses throughout school life, and especially the expected direction for each of the areas of the curriculum. They are neither a new curriculum nor a curricular alternative; they are based on the existing Curricular Framework. Their objective is to describe the types of learning promoted by the Fundamental Objectives and the Obligatory Minimum Contents, and to indicate the characteristics of their development from 5th Year of Primary Education to 4th Year of Secondary
13. This brief and concise document does not intend

Please note that this document has been translated directly from the document prepared by the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin of the Ministry of Education; the superscript references have been kept the same as in the original document. 11 Document prepared by the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, Ministry of Education, Chile, 2007. 12 Tomlinson, C. A. (2005). Estrategias para Trabajar con la Diversidad en el Aula. Madrid: Editorial Paids. 13 The full Maps are published in the website of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl.

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Evaluation for learning in practice It is important to distinguish Evaluation for Learning as a particular model that is different from the traditional interpretations of evaluation. Here is a summary of its main characteristics. In this conception, evaluation: is considered an intrinsic part of teaching and learning; requires that teachers share with their students the learning achievements expected from them; helps students to know and identify the standards they must reach; involves students in their own evaluation; provides feedback that tells students what they have to do, step by step, to improve their performance; assumes that every student can improve his / her performance; involves both teachers and students in the analysis and reflection on the data provided by the evaluation. This model contrasts with the type of evaluation that, in practice, means adding evaluation procedures or tests at the end of the programmed units of work. These procedures or tests are separable and independent from the teaching of the unit. The feedback is a mark the students receive. Although, according to this model, evaluation is a teachers issue (the State, for example, does not get involved), it tends to have a summative rather than formative objective. However, the term formative can have several interpretations: very often it only means that evaluation is frequent in a period of time and has been planned together with the teaching. In this sense, formative evaluation does not necessarily consider all the features identified as characteristic of Evaluation for Learning. Evaluation can be formative because it helps the teacher to identify areas where more explanation or training are needed. From the point of view of the students, although their final mark and the comments written on the margins of their work may signal their weak and strong points, they do not give them clues as to how to progress towards the achievement of more and better learning.

The concept of learning underlying this model is another distinctive feature. Todays approach to learning suggests that it is students themselves who are responsible for their own learning (nobody can learn for them). Consequently, Evaluation for Learning must necessarily involve students in the evaluation process so as to provide information on their performance and guide their efforts to improve. An important part of this information is the feedback the teacher gives students, but another part must be the result of the direct participation of students in this process through self-evaluation. In the context of promoting lifetime learning, it is more and more important to develop in students the capacity to know how much they have learnt and the ability to guide and manage their own learning. So, what actually happens in the classroom when evaluation is used to improve learning? To begin with the more obvious aspects, teachers are involved in the collection of information about their students learning and must motivate them to revise their work critically and constructively. The methods to obtain information about the learning are well known. These are the most frequently used. To observe students and listen to them when they reason and describe their work. To ask students open questions, inviting them to explore their ideas and reasoning. To propose ideas that require students to use certain abilities or to apply ideas. To ask students to communicate their ideas not only in writing, but also through drawings, artifacts, actions, dramatisations, and concept maps. To discuss key words and analyse how they must be used. Of course, teachers can collect this information through the methods identified above, and then use it to improve learning. The use of this information requires that teachers and students make decisions and act; they must decide on the next steps in the

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learning process and help students to get started. It is of the utmost importance to remember that it is students who must do the work; consequently, by being more involved in the process, students will better understand how to extend and improve their learning. A plan that involves students in the judgement of their own work instead of being passive to face their teachers judgement has higher probabilities of raising learning and achievement standards. This is a different conception of feedback. The food the teacher offers is a reflection of the objective to reach, of the standard or goal towards which the student must aim at, and which, in this way, constitutes a point of comparison for his / her work. The role of the teacher and what constitutes the core of teaching is to provide students with the skills and strategies required to take the steps they need to improve their own learning. Key principles of evaluation for learning Evaluation is a process that allows the collection of evidence of the learning achieved by students at a given moment. The object of the evaluation is the work produced by the student, never the student.

The key dimensions of learning, from the point of view of the learning area and the learning level of students, constitute the criteria used for the evaluation of learning. The criteria must be shared with students so that they know and understand them, and can then direct their work accordingly. Self-evaluation and peer-evaluation must be done using pre-established criteria. If this does not happen, their validity will be questionable because different individuals naturally evaluate according to their own personal criteria. It must be remembered that evaluation necessarily involves value judgements. This happens when a teacher assigns a numerical grading to a students test, and also when concepts are used, for example, poor or excellent to indicate a students level of achievement at a certain moment. The teacher must take responsibility for the evaluation instruments he / she develops and uses with students; this means that he / she must make sure that they really let him / her collect information about the learning outcomes defined in the pre-established evaluation criteria.

What Learning Progress Maps are and what they are not What Learning Progress Maps are They are materials for each area of the curriculum that describe the usual road followed by students in their learning. They assume that progress is the result of maturity and exposure to learning opportunities in specific stages of school life. They express knowledge and abilities, that is to say, the competences that students typically reach at certain moments of their school life. They indicate what is valued as learning goals and the sequence in which they are achieved; they provide a framework to monitor progress and communicate results. They are presented as concrete descriptions of learning and offer examples of possible achievements in each level. They provide a guiding framework for teaching; they let users elaborate evaluation tasks that will indicate the level of each student, and organise teaching strategies accordingly. What Learning Progress Maps are not They do not state that learning is linear (a sum of specific learnings), nor do they propose an exact description of the learning progress that all students experience. They are not a statement of all the knowledge and abilities students can achieve in a specific level. They are not a new curriculum and they do not assume that all students in the same class should be at the same level of learning. They are not checklists for test correction. They are not instruments to grade students and they do not support a specific teaching model to achieve learning.

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How many LPMs have been prepared? Each area of the curriculum has sub-divisions that represent topics or abilities that must be developed during school life. A Map has been designed for each of them. English Our countrys active participation in different areas of international life, together with the changes produced by globalisation, make the learning of English essential to successfully face the demands of society in the 21st century. Learning English is a challenging and attractive activity at any age, but particularly for young people who see it as a tool to access information and technology and as a means of communication with other realities and cultures. Learning English, or any other foreign language, contributes to the understanding of the mother tongue and, at the same time, it widens the opportunities to access information in other areas of study. Presentation of the maps The Maps are organised in seven levels that cover students learning life from 1st Year of Primary Education to 4th Year of Secondary Education. Each level describes the expected learning outcome for two school years. For example, Level 1 corresponds approximately to 1st and 2nd Year of Primary Education, Level 2 to the next two years, and so on. The last level (7) describes a student whose outcome when finishing school is outstanding. All this information and the complete maps can be found on the website of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl. Relevant aspects of the reading map In concordance with the curricular emphasis aimed at the development of the abilities and the use of language with the purpose of acquiring information and gaining access to other cultures and technological advances, grammar is not the focus of attention of the Reading Map. Its role as facilitator of understanding and communication is acknowledged, but the role of grammar will become more evident in the Writing Map.

The Reading Map emphasises the importance of working with authentic texts as early as possible; their degree of complexity increases as students move from one level to the next. By the end of their secondary school education, students should be able to read authentic texts of intermediate complexity, which implies beginning their learning using simple authentic texts. The Reading Map accepts the use of the mother tongue as a resource to monitor learning when the situation requires that students show evidence of comprehension and interpretation rather than oral production. It is a well-known fact that students of a foreign language can understand much more than they can express orally or in writing. For this reason, the answers to the tasks presented as examples in the Map are in Spanish. This does not mean that students are not allowed to express comprehension in English or that there is an intention to work these abilities separately. In the following pages, you will find an excerpt of the Reading Progress Map. It begins with a brief presentation of all the levels. Then, each level is presented in detail, with its description and some examples of performance that illustrate how that level of learning can be recognised. Reading Progress Map The aim of the English curriculum is to get students to use and apply the language in different tasks that imply they can understand oral and written texts, and solve simple communicative situations orally or in writing. From this point of view, four English Learning Maps have been designed, around the following linguistic abilities: Reading Listening Written Expression Oral Expression The Maps of English have been designed using the international standards of the Common European Framework (CEF) for teaching, learning, and evaluating languages, and those of the Association of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE). CEF A2 and ALTE 1 describe the expected learning achieved

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by the majority of students by the end of their 8th Year of Primary Education; CEF B1 and ALTE 2 are associated to Level 6, which describes the expected learning achieved by the majority of students by the end of their 4th Year of Secondary Education. To describe progress in reading comprehension, the Reading Map is organised around two dimensions. a. Text-types. In this dimension, the progression is given by the complexity of the topics students read about and the complexity of the language used in the texts. There is progression from concrete to abstract topics, and from language expressed in simple sentences to language expressed in compound sentences of intermediate complexity.

b. Reading abilities. This dimension includes students capacity to extract specific information, to infer information, and to show global comprehension of what they have read. The Map describes how these reading abilities become more complex from one level to the next, while the texts they read also get more complex. In the light of these dimensions, the Map describes a students reading comprehension progress, from the ability to identify some highlighted information, to make simple inferences, and to state the main topic of a very short, simple text (in Level 3), to end up being able to reach higher levels of inference and a deeper understanding of linguistically and conceptually more complex texts (in Level 6).

Reading Progress Map Identifies explicit and implicit messages and incorporates knowledge of the topic and of the English language to build up the Level 7 main meaning. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and medium complexity structural patterns and are (Outstanding) related to personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers ideas and identifies messages, points of view, and attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and mediumLevel 6 complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from other similar information. Infers suggested messages or ideas and identifies main ideas, stating supporting data. Understands texts that include simple and medium-complexity structural Level 5 patterns, and are related to well-known or personal interest topics. Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from secondary information. Makes simple inferences relating ideas or information, and identifies with some detail the main idea(s) explicitly stated, relating information found in different Level 4 sections of the text. Understands brief texts that include simple structural patterns and are related to well-known concrete topics. Identifies explicit information that is highlighted. Infers information and identifies one main idea using information explicitly stated in the text. Understands very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences, and are Level 3 related to concrete topics of his / her immediate environment. Identifies words and short sentences in very short texts that include plenty of visual support, use simple short sentences, Initial level and are related to concrete topics of his / her immediate environment. In our teaching proposal for 3rd and 4th Year of Secondary Education, evaluation is conceived from the following level: Identifies explicit key information, discriminating it from distractors. Infers ideas and identifies messages, points of view, and attitudes to build up the main meaning of the text. Understands texts that include a variety of simple and mediumLevel 6 complexity structural patterns and are related to well-known or personal interest topics.

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How can one recognise this level of learning? Examples of performance. When a student has reached this level, he / she can do the following activities: compare information to identify relevant data in the text; identify in the text words or sentences that reflect an opinion or an attitude; identify and organise the main ideas to state the main meaning; contrast information from the text to identify opinions and messages that are not obvious; identify words and expressions that provide coherence to the text; identify words that can have different meanings according to the context (polisemia); identify a variety of terms for the same concept. Example: big, huge, enormous. Written Expression Progress Map The Written Expression Progress Maps describe the development of skills and knowledge students display when they write in English. This activity is understood as students competence to solve, in writing, simple communicative situations which are personally relevant and have clearly defined purposes. According to the curricular framework, writing in English is a process that begins in 5th Year of Primary Education, when students have already developed this competence in their mother tongue. Therefore, in this process of expressing themselves in English in writing, students transfer to this new domain what they learnt during their literacy process in Spanish. Writing in another language is a complex and slow progressive construction process that is developed along an extended period of time. In this Map, the progress of this competence is described considering two dimensions: the types of texts students can write and the mastery of the foreign language students display when writing texts.

a. Types of texts. It refers to students capacity to write a variety of texts of increasing complexity in terms of topic and purpose. The topics grow from very concrete and close in the lower levels to less concrete and more varied topics in the higher levels of the Map. This is what the purposes consider: give instructions or indications. For example, a message, or the steps to carry out a task; describe. For example, people, objects, and places; narrate. For example, daily situations and special events. These purposes are expressed in texts of highly practical use, for example, messages, postcards, recipes, faxes, e-mails, personal letters, business letters, letters for educational purposes, a short curriculum vitae, a composition. b. Mastery of the language. It considers the following skills: communicate, in writing, increasingly more complex information, which goes from the inclusion of general information to the ability to incorporate details and complementary information. use formal aspects of the language. This means to show increasing mastery of: - the thematic vocabulary in terms of quantity and pertinence; - the morpho-syntactic elements needed for communication. Progress in the use of morpho-syntactic elements is described from students capacity to write very simple texts using chunks of language, and the writing of texts with very simple grammatical structures that include the verb forms they first learnt. As from Level 5, students use simple structures that include some sequence markers and the combination of some verb tenses. In Level 6, students can incorporate grammatical structures of medium complexity to their writing, such as markers that indicate a clear organisation of introduction, development, and closing, and the combination of more complex verb tenses.

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Here is part of a presentation of the Written Expression Progress Maps, with a brief presentation of all the levels, and then a detailed presentation of each level, with its description and some examples of performance that illustrate how this level of learning can be recognised.

All this information and the complete maps can be found in the website of the Unidad de Currculum y Evaluacin, www.curriculum-mineduc.cl.

Level 7 Outstanding Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3

Level 6

Writes texts related to familiar or personal interest topics, with narrative, descriptive and instructive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple and complex grammatical structures and connectors according to the communicative purpose; includes generally accurate vocabulary. Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple grammatical structures, adds some fairly complex elements, uses connectors according to the communicative purpose, and varied and appropriate vocabulary. Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific topic, incorporating relevant details; uses connectors according to the communicative purpose and some varied vocabulary. Writes very short texts related to concrete familiar topics, with descriptive and instructive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific topic, uses very simple grammatical structures, some connectors, and frequent thematic vocabulary. Writes very short texts related to concrete topics of his / her immediate environment, with descriptive and instructive purposes. Uses set phrases and sentences, some very simple grammatical structures, and very frequent thematic vocabulary. In our teaching proposal for 3rd and 4th Year of Secondary Education, evaluation is conceived from the following level: Writes short texts related to familiar topics, with narrative and descriptive purposes. Organises sentences around a specific topic, incorporating complementary information. Uses simple grammatical structures, adds some fairly complex elements, uses connectors according to the communicative purpose, and varied and appropriate vocabulary.

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Nowadays, in the era of the information revolution and the widespread use of the Internet in almost all spheres of life, it seems that using computer technology in the teaching process is more and more accepted and widespread. The Internet can serve as a teaching medium, a rich resource of materials of any kind (texts, pictures, sounds, music, films, etc.), and teachers may use these as a basis for their lessons instead of texts from the course book only. In this way, Internet-assisted lessons may supplement teaching by adding an additional dimension to the classroom. Students can use Web resources to gather information on various topics or prepare to present a project. The Internet gives great possibilities for students individual work, allowing them to work at their own pace, on the materials they choose themselves, giving them variety and choice, and offering an attractive and interactive learning environment. This is largely achieved by the use of communication tools such as e-mail, chat, or discussion groups. Due to these widely accessible and inexpensive tools, any student can communicate with people from different parts of the world. How useful is the Internet in the classroom? Students do online reading, listening, writing, or speaking activities and thus improve their skills. Students encounter grammatical structures in real contexts. The potential of communication tools may be exploited through e-mail, chat, discussion groups, video-conferencing; activities demanding collaboration can be developed. Internet-assisted instruction fosters learner independence. Individual students find partners and can write e-mail letters to them. Collaborative work between schools can be developed. How does the Internet help the teacher? Teachers can gather information about different and varied topics: facts, figures, and formulas; book reviews; historical archives; authors; collaborative projects; lesson plans. E-mails, for example, can serve the goals of the teacher reinforcing structures and lexis, enlarging students knowledge of the world, and practising the conventions of writing. Teachers can easily find opportunities for professional development through up-to-date resources and seminars. How can we collect and analyse information? The use of the Internet allows students to practise and develop Web searching techniques, as well as analyse and critically evaluate online sources. It is important to make sure that students not only search for and find required information, but also understand the materials and use their own words to paraphrase the websites. In this way, students need to use all their learning skills and favourite techniques to collect, organise, and present the information found on the Web. Web searches help students to develop analysis and synthesis skills, as well as stimulate them to think critically. Students should be taught how to evaluate sources and discriminate between good and bad ones, and they should be given constant guidance so that they are not overwhelmed by a multitude of resources. How can we develop Internet-safe lessons? Never start lessons by having students use search engines on their own. Ask students to find very specific information, not just surf. Always ask students to write down the URLs of the sites they use for reports in a bibliographical format. Do not send the entire class to the same site at the same time. Whenever possible, try to preview sites before students visit them. URLs of websites change all the time, so try the links yourself first.

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Websites made available to students and teachers http://www.onestopenglish.com MacMillan Campus site. Videos, chat, news, activities. http://esl.about.com ESL / ELT problems, suggestions for solutions, explanations, examples, and activities. http://www.eslcafe.com Discussion forums, chat room, interactive exercises, online tutorials, teaching ideas, job postings and extensive web guide. http://www.pearsonelt.com Pearson Education site. Articles, classroom resources, discussions, videos. http://www.rong-chang.com/ A wealth of ideas to teach, prepare materials, use the Internet, etc.

http://www.cln.org/int_projects.html List of sites that will help teachers who are looking for Internet projects for their classes. http://maryglasgowplus.com Mary Glasgow Magazines plus news, contacts, ideas for teachers and students. http://www.holidays.net Information about various celebrations and religious holidays, with related recipes, crafts and fun activities. http://www.infoplease.com Information about practically every country in the world.

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CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Classroom management has to do with methods used by the teacher in order to establish harmonious class organisation and discipline. The following components play an important role in the achievement of these goals. The teacher A classroom where learning takes place is a pleasant environment; the teacher is enthusiastic and active and encourages student participation. In most cases, the teacher is the only direct contact students have with English. It is therefore important to try to communicate with students in English as much and as often as possible. Some students may not be used to this; explain, in Spanish, that they may find it difficult to understand at first, but it will gradually get easier. You can also use gestures or mime to help understanding. Instructions for activities should be given as clearly and as simply as possible, through demonstration and examples. If it is clear that many students have not understood, ask a stronger student to explain or translate for the class. The students Teenage students are going through a difficult process of development in their lives, so the teacher might face discipline problems, disruptive behaviour, or unwillingness on students part to do the different tasks they are assigned. The topics in Global English have been carefully selected, since it is known that the choice of appealing content for adolescents has an essential influence over success or failure. The responsibility for building a positive learning atmosphere lies not only in the good relationship the teacher and her / his students develop, but also in the one students have among themselves. Global English helps the teacher in this task through a number of carefully designed exercises, very clear tasks, and opportunities for students to check and evaluate their own work. Discipline One of the reasons for bad discipline is usually a students inability to cope with the tasks. The noisiest students will demonstrate their frustration by means of loud outbursts and disruptive behaviour, while the rest of the class may remain passive. To avoid discipline problems, these preventative strategies are suggested: careful planning. When a class is carefully planned, students realise there is a feeling of purpose which keeps their attention on the task in hand; clear instructions. Instructions are crucial in a class. They must be given very clearly and assertively so that students know exactly what to do. The English class The main objective of the English class in Global English is the development of all the skills, reading, listening, speaking and writing. However, the teacher may allow students to use Spanish to show understanding of some of the reading and listening texts. Students must be encouraged to use English whenever possible, and the teacher must provide patterns and clear examples for them to follow. Large classes Teachers have to face large mixed-ability classes every day; instinctively, they feel that they could do a better job in a smaller class. Grouping is one technique that has been used to reduce the negative effects of large classes. When the class is divided into smaller units, many learning activities can be undertaken that would not otherwise be feasible in a large class, particularly those of a communicative nature. All this implies a different role for the teacher. The teacher must not become less active in the classroom, but rather less the centre of activity. A teacher who is monitoring, encouraging, and participating in different classroom groups will be even more active than the traditional teacher. The teachers role is crucial in determining the rate of language acquisition and learning in the classroom. By re-organising the classroom to allow more opportunities for communicative interactions and activities, students will be in a better position to acquire the foreign language.

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Group learning Students learn best when they are actively involved in the process. Researchers report that students working in small groups tend to learn more of what is taught and retain it longer than when the same content is presented in other formats. Students who work in collaborative groups also appear more satisfied with their classes. Informal learning groups are temporary clusterings of students within a single class session. These groups can be initiated, for example, by asking students to turn to a neighbour and spend two minutes discussing a question or doing an exercise. You can also form groups of three to five to solve a problem or answer a question. You can organise informal groups at any time in a class of any size to check on students' understanding of the material, to give them an opportunity to apply what they are learning, or to provide a change of pace. Formal learning groups are teams established to complete a specific task, such as write a report, carry out a project, or prepare a presentation. These groups may complete their work in a single class session or over several weeks. Typically, students work together until the task is finished, and their final product is formally evaluated. Study teams are long-term groups (usually existing over the course of a term) with stable membership, whose primary responsibility is to provide members with support, encouragement, and assistance in completing course requirements and assignments. Study teams also inform their members about contents and assignments when someone has missed a class. The larger the class and the more complex the subject matter, the more valuable study teams can be. General strategies Plan for each stage of group work. At the beginning of the term, decide which topics, language contents, or projects might lend themselves to formal group work. Think about how you will organise students into groups, help groups to

negotiate among themselves, provide feedback to the groups, and evaluate their product(s). Carefully explain to your class how the groups will operate and how their work will be graded. Explain the objectives of the group task and define any relevant concepts. In addition to a well-defined task, every group needs a way of getting started, a way of knowing when its task is done, and some guidance about the participation of members. Give students the skills they need to succeed in groups. Many students have never worked in collaborative learning groups and may need practice in such skills as active and tolerant listening, helping one another in mastering content, giving and receiving constructive criticism, and managing disagreements. Discuss these skills with students and model and reinforce them during class. Consider written contracts. Some teachers give students written contracts that list members' obligations to their group and deadlines for tasks.
(Adapted from: Gross Davis, B. (1993). Collaborative Learning: Group Work and Study Teams. Retrieved July 18, 2012 from http:// teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/collaborative.html

Pairwork and groupwork One of the ways of giving students the time they require to practise the language in the classroom is by dividing the class into groups or pairs. Grouping helps teachers to individualise or match their teaching to individual learners. When implementing grouping, several aspects should be taken into account, such as the teaching context, the teaching content, and the individual learner. Grouping provides opportunities for peer interpretation and sharing of experiences and insights. It may also help a teacher to accommodate learner differences by changing student roles and diversifying the types of student involvement. Thus, teachers should think of grouping as a way to appreciate all the unique individuals that they may find in a classroom.

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

23

Teachers must bear in mind that this type of work encourages students to share their skills and knowledge and to learn from each other. It also increases students involvement and active participation and develops positive attitudes. It is important to share with students the importance of these activities, which will give them an opportunity to learn the social and communicative skills required to work with other people. The teacher should take an active role in group and pair formation, so that students do not always work with the same people, to take full advantage of the variety of learning styles and abilities found in each classroom. Students should assume different roles each time: coordinator, secretary, researcher, presenter, artist, etc. Some basic teaching reminders Teachers should prepare the lesson beforehand, since thorough prior preparation will allow them to develop useful ideas. It is their chance to make the class entertaining and to involve students in the learning process. An important part of making a class interesting and lively is through directly engaging students by name and on a personal level, and by sharing personal experiences with them. Start every lesson in a way that focuses everyones attention. This creates expectation and prepares students for what is to come. For example, with books closed, write the topic of the lesson on the board and ask some questions about it, show a poster / picture related to the lesson, ask who can remember what they did in the previous class, etc. Students should not open their books until everyone is paying attention. End an activity before students get bored with it. Equally, do not hurry students or end the activity too soon if they are obviously enjoying it. Ask students their opinion. Do not assume that if one student says they understand, everyone else does.

Ask (elicit) rather than tell. Students get bored of listening to the teacher explaining; someone in the class will probably know the answer. Do not ask students to explain difficult things, such as definitions of words, in English. Do not interrupt students during pair / group speaking activities to correct their English. It is better to note the main, common mistakes, put them on the board, and correct them with the class at the end. Do not insist on 100% accuracy all the time. Mistakes are a normal part of the learning process and a valuable source of information for the teacher. Give praise and encouragement, especially to weaker students; write positive comments on their work; let them know what they are doing well and also what they need to improve. Remember that you are the main motivator in the classroom! Make use of alternative assessment and evaluation strategies. For example: - make use of recordings of formal and informal oral language experiences (May I go to the bathroom; Excuse me How do you say ?, etc.) and then assess these according to predetermined criteria which are based upon student needs and curriculum objectives; - use checklists as concise methods of collecting information, and rating scales or rubrics to assess student achievement; - interview students to determine what they believe they do well or areas in which they feel they need to improve; - have students keep portfolios of their writing tasks, and language abilities checklists and records; - keep records of students reading and writing activities and experiences. - have students write in journals; - share with students during the writing and reading processes, and observe them during peer activities;

24

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

- involve students in developing some or all of the evaluation criteria whenever it will be beneficial to do so.
(Taken from: Spandel, V. and Stiggins, R. (1990) Assessment and Evaluation. Portland, OR: Assessment Training Institute.

Teachers are advised to consider this diagram when planning the use of resources throughout the book.

ures, Gest , signs que res pictu age langu isible The v uses: er teach

res, Pictu sters, s, po video slides

en Writt nd ols a symb otes n

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s, chart Flow ams, diagr , graphs cs rubri

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25

THE TEACHERS BOOK


This component includes: an introduction with a description of the course and the course components, the methodology used, and suggestions for classroom management; background notes for the teacher, related to the information content of the different texts; detailed teaching notes for every unit; answers for all the tasks in the Students Book and in the Teachers Book, for all the tests, and for all the activities in the Workbook; the transcript of the recording; one additional photocopiable test per unit. one or two photocopiable additional activities per unit. a photocopiable additional reading text per unit, with activities and background information. Choice of tasks The book includes a great number of varied activities. The teacher should choose the ones which are more appropriate for his / her group, depending on their general level. The important thing for the teacher to bear in mind is the final objective of each unit, and how the different students are advancing towards it. There are activities for fast learners - exercises for those students that have started to become independent users of Global English and have developed the capacity to work more quickly and on their own The teachers role here is to offer more instances to those students who instinctively feel the need to actively apply the language they have been practising during the lesson. The teacher does not need to correct or become involved unless students directly appeal to him / her to do so. There are ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES, which the teacher can use if there is enough time or if students require further practice, and OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES, which generally offer a break from the routine, a moment to relax, or a bit of fun while practising the language. Avoid this mistake Information and extra practice is suggested when there is a chance that students will make a mistake, in grammar, vocabulary, or pronunciation. Remember to be very careful as to when and how to correct errors; avoid interrupting students when they are doing oral communication activities; instead, make a note of the common mistakes and then correct with the whole class at the end of the activity. Level of difficulty The activities and texts included in the book are classified according to their level of difficulty This is shown in the Teachers book with the following icons: + = Low ++ = Medium +++ = High CD The first 9 tracks of the CD offer examples of classroom language for the teacher and for the students. It includes all the listening material: Pronunciation, Listening and Listening test material, with a variety of accents: British, American, Canadian, Irish, Scottish, Indian, Chilean, French, Russian, etc., to expose students to different accents. Classroom language The Teachers Book offers a selection of useful language that the teacher can use with the students in different situations, with different purposes. They provide examples for students to imitate, or they are expressions the teacher can use and which students need to identify and recognise. All of them are recorded in the first nine tracks of the CD. Test question bank This is a set of 75 test questions that the teacher can use when preparing his / her own evaluation instruments. There is one set for each language ability and one set for grammar and vocabulary. However, many of them can be used for other skills, different contents, a variety of contexts, etc. Glossary The meaning of difficult words from the texts appear in a glossary in the final pages of the Teachers Book. The meaning provided has to do specifically with the context in which the word appears. Thematic bibliography There is a list of books where the teacher can find further information on the contents of the book, divided into reading, listening, speaking, writing, and grammar and vocabulary. Bibliography and websites Both the Teachers Book and the Students Book offer suggestions of materials that can be used for reference. Some of these materials can be found in the Centro de Recursos de Aprendizaje (CRA) in each school.

26

THE TEACHERS BOOK

CLASSROOM LANGUAGE
Greetings 1 Good morning. / Good afternoon. / Hello. / Hi. Good bye. / See you tomorrow. / See you later. Have a nice weekend. / Enjoy your holiday. Moods and feelings 2 A: How are you today? B: Im fine. / Im great. / OK. / Very well, thank you. / Im not very well. / I have a problem. / Im feeling down. / Im sad. Asking for clarification 3 Can you repeat that, please? Can you say that again, please? Sorry. Im afraid I didnt understand. Can you help me with this exercise, please? Encouragement 4 Well done! / Good! / Excellent! / Good work! / Congratulations! Do it more carefully. / Say it again. / Try to correct that, please. Not too bad. / Youll do better next time. / Keep trying! The date 5 A: What day is it today? B: Its Monday. / Its Tuesday. / Its Wednesday. / Its Thursday. / Its Friday. / Its Saturday. / Its Sunday. A: Whats the date today? B: Its (Monday) March 9th. / Its (Monday) 9th March. The weather 6 A: Whats the weather like today? B: Its sunny. / Its cloudy. / Its hot. / Its cold. / Its nice and warm. / Its nice and cool. / Its raining. / Its snowing. The time 7 A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its one oclock. / Its two oclock. / Its three oclock. / Its ten oclock. / Its twelve oclock. A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its quarter past nine. / Its half past ten. / Its five past eleven. / Its ten past twelve. / Its twenty past one. / Its twenty five past two. A: Whats the time? / What time is it? B: Its quarter to eight. / Its twenty five to nine. / Its twenty to ten. / Its ten to three. / Its five to four. Some commands and instructions 8 Answer the questions. Look up these words in Be quiet. the dictionary. Check your answers. Make a list. Check your predictions. Make some notes. Close the door. Match the pictures. Come to the board. Name three activities. Compare your answers. Open your books. Complete the Pay attention, please. paragraph. Put the pictures in Copy the instructions. order. Discuss the ideas in Read the instructions. your group. Select the correct Do Exercise 1. answer. Do not write in your Silence, please. book. Sit down. Fill in the blanks. Stand up. Find examples in the Talk to your partner. text. Thats all for today, Find the cognates in thank you. the text. Work in groups of four. Listen to the recording. Work with your partner. Look at the pictures. Write the sentences. Turn-taking and permission 9 Can I talk to you after the class? Excuse me; can I say something? Excuse me; can I leave the room for a minute? May I go to the bathroom? Its your turn. Sorry, its my turn.

CLASSROOM LANGUAGE

27

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING


Unit Unit 1 ADVICE AND SUPPORT Topics: Teen issues Pages: 6 - 27 of the Students Book Time: 21 hours Answers: Pages 145 - 146 Expected Learning Activities Resources Reading text: Letters to Aunt Anne. Notes with additional information. Letters. Pictures. 5. 6. 7. 8. Track 12, Page 17 Listening text: Embarrassing moments. Notes with additional information. Language Note. Sentences. Language note. Pictures. Notes with additional information. Notes with additional information. Oral Practice. Notes with additional information.

Students show general and specific 6. Page 10 comprehension when reading and listening 7. 8. 9. Page 12 to different types of texts.

Students consolidate a language point.

11. Page 13 10. Page 18

Students complete sentences using linking words.

11. Page 13

Students write a letter of advice. Students imitate a spoken model and role play a dialogue and a monologue. Students describe own experiences.

17. Page 15 13. Track 10, Page 14 11. Track 13, Page 18 13. Page 19

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Indicators of Evaluation Getting into the unit. Students do activities that introduce them to the topic and to some of the language that they will study in the unit.

Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 7 8, 9 14 19 24, 25 25 25 26 26 26

Page

Getting ready for the unit. Students do activities that revise their previous knowledge of the 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. language and skills that are pre-requisites for the new contents. Track 12 Quick Self-Check. Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points, and analyse their performance. Test your Knowledge Reading: Students summarise and match information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use linking words and the First Conditional. Writing: Students complete a letter with their own ideas and opinions. Speaking: Students role play a dialogue expressing opinions. Final reflection. Students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the final test and assign themselves points. Students reflect on value issues and behaviour while working on the unit. Extra Test (Teachers book) Reading: Students find and match specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use connectors and intensifiers. Speaking: Students ask for and give advice. Writing: Students write a letter of advice. (Teachers book) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 16 6. 7. 8. 9. 15. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Track 15 7. 8. 9. 10.

27

(Teachers book) 65 66 66 66 - 67 67 67

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

29

Unit Unit 2 TWO OF THE ELEMENTS Topics: Earth and water Pages: 28 - 51 of the Students Book Time: 21 hours Answers: Pages 147 - 149

Expected Learning

Activities

Resources Reading text: Earth. Pictures. Notes with additional information.

Students show general and specific 4. 5. 6. 7 Page 32 comprehension when reading and listening 8. Page 33 to different types of texts.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10 Track 19, Page 39

Listening text: Water. Diagrams. Language Note. Dialogue.

Students consolidate a language point.

9. Page 33

10. Page 36

Article: What to do before and during a tsunami. Sentences. Oral Practice. Language note. Pictures.

12. Page 40 Students complete sentences using the First Conditional and key vocabulary. 9. Page 33

Students complete a security warning with 10. Page 36 recommendations. Students write a school earthquake plan. 13. Page 37

Article: What to do before and during a tsunami. Pictures. Notes with additional information.

Students discuss their own and their schools earthquake plan. Students describe a process. Students imitate spoken models and role play a dialogue and a monologue. Students describe pictures in detail.

13. Page 36 11. Page 40 9. Track 17, Page 33 13. Track 21, Page 41 14. Page 41

Notes with additional information. Notes with additional information.

Chart.

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Indicators of Evaluation Getting into the unit. Students do activities that introduce them to the topic and to some of the language that they will study in the unit. 1. 2.

Activities 29 30, 31 36 41 47 47 48 48 48 48

Page

Getting ready for the unit. Students do activities that revise their previous knowledge of the 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. language and skills that are pre-requisites for the new contents. Track 20 Quick Self-Check. Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points, and analyse their performance. Test your Knowledge Reading: Students summarise and match information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use connectors of condition and the First Conditional. Writing: Students turn an interview into a letter. Speaking: Students talk about disasters and their prevention in Chile. Final reflection. Students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the final test and assign themselves points. Students reflect on value issues and behaviour while working on the unit. Synthesis Test Units 1 & 2 Reading: Students locate information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students identify speakers. Students find specific information. Language: Students use connectors of condition and other linking words. Students match information to offer advice. Writing: Students write a letter of advice on what to do if there is an earthquake. Speaking: Students talk about natural disasters, offering advice and tips on how to behave. Extra Test (Teachers book) Reading: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find synonymous expressions. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Language: Students use connectors of condition and the First Conditional. Speaking: Students discuss possible reactions using the First Conditional. Writing: Students write an action plan. 1. 2. 3. 4. Track 24 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (Teachers book) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 25 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 13. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 23 8. 9. 11. 10.

49

51 51 51 51 51 (Teachers book) 98 98 98 - 99 99 99

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

31

Unit Unit 3 PROFESSIONS Topics: Professional conduct and job applications Pages: 52 - 75 of the Students Book Time: 21 hours Answers: Pages 149 - 150

Expected Learning

Activities

Resources Reading text: Preparing a CV. Notes with additional information.

Students show general and specific 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Page 57 comprehension when reading and listening to different types of texts.

7. 8. 9. 10 Track 29, Page 65

Listening text: Advertising for jobs. Chart.

Students consolidate a language point.

13. Page 61

Language Note. Pictures.

12. Page 66 Students play a word game. Students give recommendations. Students write their own CV using a computer application. 11. Page 60 13. Page 61 16. Page 62

Situations. Game. Pictures. Link with additional information. Illustrations. Microsoft Office Word.

Students role play a conversation.

12. Track 26, Page 60

Oral Practice. Notes with additional information.

Students role play a monologue.

13. Track 30, Page 66

Oral Practice. Notes with additional information.

Students role play a job interview.

15. Page 67

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Indicators of Evaluation Getting into the unit. Students do activities that introduce them to the topic and to some of the language that they will study in the unit. Getting ready for the unit. Students do activities that revise their previous knowledge of the language and skills that are pre-requisites for the new contents. Quick Self-Check. Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points, and analyse their performance. Test your Knowledge Reading: Students find and match information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find and match information. Students find specific information. Language: Students use modals to express recommendations. Writing: Students write a job advertisement. Speaking: Students describe problems and offer recommendations and advice. Final reflection. Students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the final test and assign themselves points. Students reflect on value issues and behaviour while working on the unit. Extra Test (Teachers book) Reading: Students find and match specific information. Students transfer information to a graphic organiser. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students identify sequence. Language: Students use should, shouldnt, and had better to give advice and recommendations. Speaking: Students ask for and give recommendations and advice to write a CV. Writing: Students write a cover letter to introduce a CV.

Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 29 14. 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 32 6. 7. 9. 8. 53 54, 55 61 67 73 73 74 74 74 74

Page

75

(Teachers book) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 33 6. 7. 8. 9.

(Teachers book) 126 126 126 - 127 127 127

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

33

Unit Unit 4 BEING ACTIVE Topics: Travelling experiences and television quiz shows Pages: 76 - 103 of the Students Book Time: 21 hours Answers: Pages 151 - 153

Expected Learning

Activities

Resources Reading text: Flying. Chart. Notes with additional information.

Students show general and specific 5. 6. 7. 8. Page 81 comprehension when reading and listening 9. 10. 11. Page 84 to different types of texts.

8. 9. Track 37, Page 89 10. 11. 12. 13. Track 37, Page 90

Listening text: A competition. Chart. Notes with additional information. Language Note.

Students consolidate a language item.

12. 13. 14. Page 85 16. Page 91

Notes with additional information. Sentences. Dialogues. Pictures.

Students write questions from visual and textual clues. Students write an itinerary. Students complete dialogues with key words and expressions.

14. Page 85 15. Page 86 18. Page 87 16. Page 91

Pictures. Textual clues.

Students role play a conversation imitating a model. Students role play a monologue imitating a model. Students role play a quiz show.

16. Track 34, Page 86 18. Track 38, Page 92 21. Page 93

Oral Practice. Oral Practice.

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Indicators of Evaluation Getting into the unit. Students do activities that introduce them to the topic and to some of the language that they will study in the unit.

Activities 1. 2. 3. 77 78, 79 86 92 99 99 100 100 100 100

Page

Getting ready for the unit. Students do activities that revise their previous knowledge of the 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. language and skills that are pre-requisites for the new contents. Track 37, Track 40 Quick Self-Check. Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points, and analyse their performance. Test your Knowledge Reading: Students identify topic. Students find and classify specific information. Students synthesise and locate information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students match specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Language: Students write questions corresponding to adverbial phrases. Students complete sentences with adverbial phrases. Speaking: Students talk about a favourite activity. Writing: Students write an itinerary for a class trip. Final reflection. Students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the final test and assign themselves points. Students reflect on value issues and behaviour while working on the unit. Synthesis Test Units 1 to 4 Reading: Students identify type of text. Students synthesise information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Listening: Students identify sequence. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students transfer information into a graphic organiser. Language: Students use different modals to complete conditional sentences. Students identify prepositional phrases. Writing: Students write questions to ask at a job interview. Speaking: Students role play a job interview using the questions they wrote. Extra Test (Teachers book) Reading: Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students identify type of text. Students identify sequence. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Language: Students use prepositional and adverbial phrases. Speaking: Students talk about their last holiday. Writing: Students write a post to a blog describing an outing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Track 41 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. (Teachers book) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Track 42 7. 8. 9. 10. 15. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 40 8. 9. 10. 11.

101. 101. 103 104 104 104 105 105 105 (Teachers book) 156 156 156 - 157 157 157

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

35

Unit Unit 5 AT WORK Topics: Different types of jobs Pages: 98 - 127 of the Students Book Time: 21 hours Answers: Pages 153 - 155

Expected Learning

Activities

Resources Reading text: Volunteering. Diagram. Chart. Pictures.

Students show general and specific 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Page 111 comprehension when reading and listening 11. 12. 13. 14. Page 114 to different types of texts.

8. 9. 10. Track 46, Page 119 11. 12. 13. 14. Track 46. Page 120 Students consolidate a language point. 15. Page 115 16. Page 116 15. 16. Page 121 Students use the Present Perfect Continuous to: write descriptions of pictures; complete a conversation; write about personal experiences; complete sentences using for / since. Students imitate a spoken model and role play a dialogue. Students role play a job interview. Students develop a personal presentation using PowerPoint. 15. Page 115 16. Page 116 20. Page 117 15. Page 121 17. Track 43, Page 116 17. Track 47, Page 122 21. Page 123

Listening text: Applying for a job. Pictures. Language Note. Language Note.

Pictures. Pictures and textual clues.

Textual clues. Oral Practice. Oral Practice. Guidelines to create a PowerPoint presentation.

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Indicators of Evaluation Getting into the unit. Students do activities that introduce them to the topic and to some of the language that they will study in the unit. Getting ready for the unit. Students do activities that revise their previous knowledge of the language and skills that are pre-requisites for the new contents. Quick Self-Check. Students do a short testing activity within a time limit, assign themselves points, and analyse their performance. Test your Knowledge Reading: Students identify topic. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students find specific information. Language: Students use the Present Perfect Continuous. The students use for and since. Speaking: Students describe a job interview situation.. Writing: Students complete a job application form and write a job application letter. Final reflection. Students are invited to think about their performance while doing the different activities. Tips are offered in order to help them to improve and solve problems before moving on to the next unit. Self Evaluation: Students analyse their performace in the final test and assign themselves points. Students reflect on value issues and behaviour while working on the unit. Synthesis Test Units 1 to 5 Reading: Students match information in different types of text. Students find specific information. Students identify meaning of words in context. Students identify tone of letters. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students identify sequence. Students find specific information. Language: Students use the Present Perfect Continuous. Students complete sentences with prepositional phrases and with the First Conditional. Writing: Students write a composition about a personal experience. Speaking: Students talk about a personal experience. Extra Test (Teachers book) Reading: Students identify purpose of text. Students find specific information. Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Listening: Students discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Students match written and spoken information. Language: Students complete sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous. Students complete sentences with for or since. Speaking: Students role play a job interview. Writing: Students write a job application letter.

Activities 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Track 46 18. 19. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Track 49 6. 7. 8. 9. 107

Page

108, 109 116 122 130 131 131 131 132 132 132

133. 133. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 50 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. (Teachers book) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Track 51 8. 9. 10. 11. 135 136 136 137 137 137 (Teachers book) 190 190 - 191 191 191 191

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

37

WORKBOOK It offers additional practice of the abilities and of the vocabulary and grammar contents in the corresponding units. Unit 1. Advice and support Pages 141 144 2. Two of the elements Pages 145 147 3. Professions Pages 148 150 Reading Keys to a good friendship Text Type Listening Text Type Conversation Grammar Linking words The First Conditional

Teen magazine article Understanding adolescence Track 14 Web page invitation to join an organisation Web page job advertisement International Rescue Corps Track 22 Interview with a DJ Track 31

Earthwatch Institute

Interview

The First Conditional Connectors of condition

Coolwork summer adventures

Interview

Modals to express recommendations and suggestions

4. Being active Pages 151 153

What is parkour?

Web page article

Whats your question? Phone-in radio programme Track 39

Prepositional phrases

5. At work Pages 154 156

A job with a difference Extract from a diary

Phone help Track 48

Interview

The Present Perfect Continuous

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SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

Vocabulary Words related to friendship, feelings, and adolescence

Activities

Game

Answers Page 170

Synthesise information. Discriminate between correct and incorrect Word Search puzzle information. Use connectors. Use the First Conditional. Identify speaker. Find specific information. Complete sentences about the listening text with the First Conditional. Identify synonyms. Use words from the unit to complete sentences. Identify purpose of text. Discriminate between correct and Crossword puzzle incorrect information. Match information. Find specific information. Complete sentences about the reading text with the First Conditional. Identify sequence. Match and synthesise information. Find specific information. Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Use information from the listening text to offer recommendations and suggestions. Complete sentences with words from the unit. Match words from the reading text and their definitions. Synthesise information. Identify purpose of text. Put prepositions back into the text. Find specific information. Identify topic. Identify speakers. Discriminate between correct and incorrect information. Identify and correct incorrect information. Match words from the reading text with their definition. Find words from the listening text that correspond to definitions. Hangman

Words related to the environment and emergency situations Words related to job descriptions and different occupations

Page 170

Page 170

Words related to parkour

Find the word

Page 171

Words related to job Synthesise information and relate it to pictures. Identify what words applications, voluntary refer to in the text. Identify sequence. Find specific information. work, and emotions Complete sentences from the texts using the Present Perfect Continuous. Classify words from the unit.

Find the letters, find the phrase

Page 171

SUGGESTED YEAR PLANNING

39

UNIT

ADVICE AND SUPPORT

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
READING: to read teenagers letters and an agony aunts answers that contain the communicative function of asking for and offering advice, consider the importance of teen issues, include a variety of connectors and introductory expressions, and identify main ideas by choosing a title for the text. find specific information by answering questions. match information by relating letters and replies. discriminate between correct and incorrect information by correcting wrong information. WRITING: to write a letter of advice that contains the introductory expressions studied and follows the correct pattern of a letter. LISTENING: to listen to a television programme that contains the communicative function of expressing conditions and reflects the acceptance of and respect for different opinions, and identify speakers by choosing the right names. discriminate between correct and incorrect information by choosing the right word. find specific information by answering questions.

SPEAKING: to role play a television programme using expressions learnt, correct pronunciation, and the correct structures to narrate an event.

DIdACTIC RESOURCES ANd METHOdOLOGY TIPS If available, use of complementary material such as English language newspapers and magazines with an agony aunt section, personal letters in English and Spanish, postcards, e-mails, etc. Good online sources are www.teenmag.com and www.seventeen.com. For comparison, you can use Chilean teen magazines so that students can compare and see if the issues that worry / interest them are the same that worry / interest their foreign peers. Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, and notes.

40

UNIT 1

PAGE 6 INTRODUCTION Invite students to examine and describe the photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of the unit and make comments on the things they already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. Elicit from students what values they think will be paid more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what issues will be discussed in connection with them. Before you start this unit, please remember: no student or class is ever the same, so what worked with another group might not work with this class. Get to know your students before you start planning; identify slow and fast learners so that you can help the former to move forward and get the latter to enjoy a challenge; use local context as much as possible, so a class located in the regions will not have to deal only with examples based on other realities; avoid stigmatising your students; each one has a value to add to the class; remember that repetition is one of the keys to success so, if you repeat things enough times, they are bound to be learnt. PAGE 7 GETTING INTO THe UNIT Explain to students that this page of each unit will contain activities meant to identify and activate their previous knowledge of the topic and related vocabulary, to establish the starting point for the activities that will follow. Give students time to form groups and discuss the exercises that have to be done in groups; encourage them to reflect and be honest to do those that require individual responses. Talk to students about situations where they generally ask for or offer advice. When they offer advice, is it generally from a personal point of view or do they use other peoples experiences? What expressions would they use to offer personal opinions about a situation? Help with these prompts:

In my view I think

I believe If you ask me In my opinion Personally speaking

UNIT 1

1 Ask students to read the statements (a h) and

rank them from the least to the most serious, individually first; then they can compare in their groups. Give them four or five minutes to complete the activity. think about what they do when they need advice. They can list possible sources of advice and support their ideas individually or in pairs. Give them two or three minutes to write their lists of possibilities. In this exercise, there are no correct or incorrect answers.

2 Ask students to read the examples and then

Possible answers I read self-help books and articles. I ask a psychologist. I talk to my parents. I talk to someone in my family. I talk to a teacher. I phone a radio programme. I visit a fortune teller. I dont ask for help and support.

3 Tell students to work in small groups and

describe the four pictures, paying attention to details. What are the people wearing? What do their facial expressions show? If students need vocabulary, provide lists (clothes, adjectives, surroundings, etc.) and then ask them to describe the pictures. Ask students to read the four statements and match them with the pictures.

Answers a. Picture 4. b. Picture 3. c. Picture 1. d. Picture 2.

4 Ask students to read the comments again and


decide what they express: a suggestion, a personal opinion, or certainty.

Answers Picture 1 (c.): An opinion. Picture 2 (d.): An opinion. Picture 3 (b.): A piece of advice. Picture 4 (a.): A suggestion. Make notes of any useful information about what students already know that you can use later when developing the lessons.

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PAGES 8 - 9 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT Before starting this unit, the students need to know: characteristics of different types of sentences. how to find main idea(s) in written texts. how to use some connectors. the Simple Present. the Simple Future. how to identify number of speakers in an oral text. how to adapt and role play a dialogue.

Answers a. i. S. ii. Cd. iii. Cx. b. i. Cx. ii. Cx. iii. Cx. c. i. Cx. ii. S. iii. Cd. d. i. Cd. ii. S. iii. Cx.

3 Students identify what the speakers are


Answers Set a. Main idea a. Set b. Main idea c. Set c. Main idea d. Set d. Main idea b.

expressing in each set of sentences in Exercise 2.

4 In 3 Medio, students should already be familiar

1 Ask students to work in pairs or small groups


and read the definitions and examples of different types of sentences. Check that they understand the three concepts and request more examples that would show they have identified the differences.

with simple connectors or linking words which will be further explored in this unit. Ask students to do this exercise individually and then compare with a classmate. This activity will prepare them for the Language Note and the exercises following it, where more complex linking words will be explained.

The knowledge of different types of sentences is necessary for students to understand how to use more complex linking words, to be explained further on in the unit. A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. A complex sentence has an independent clause joined to one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when, or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.

Answers and, as, because, but, so, while.

5 This exercise requires students to practise and

apply their knowledge in a context. You can personalise the activity asking students to write sentences about themselves using connectors, or you can turn it into a game, asking students to write sentences about themselves on pieces of paper which are then thrown into a hat or a container and read aloud. Other students try to identify the writers of the sentences.

Answers a. because. b. and. c. but.

6 This exercise reviews the Simple Future and the

Simple Present tenses; students will need to be able to identify and use them together correctly when they learn the First Conditional.

2 Students use the information provided in Point

1 and your explanations to identify the different types of sentences. Make sure that they understand them and not just automatically insert the name of the type of sentence.

You can give these uses of the two tenses and then ask the students which use applies to each sentence in the chart.

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The Simple Future We use it: when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak; we make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Example: This exercise is rather difficult. I will ask Marian to help me. to make a prediction about the future; again, there is no firm plan, we are saying what we think will happen. Example: The forecast says it will rain tomorrow. when the main verb is be, we can use the Simple Future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Example: I will be in London next week. The Simple Present We use it: for repeated actions. Example: I go to the gym every day. for events that take place as a matter of fact or are recognised general truths. Example: Water boils at 100C. for fixed arrangements, scheduled events. Example: The supermarket opens at 7.30am. for actions in the present, one following after the other . Example: First I have a shower and then I have breakfast. with verbs that usually do not have a progressive form. Example: I love you. Answers a. P. b. F. c. P. d. P. e. F. f. F.

8 Students will talk about suggestions and

advice further on in this unit. Ask them to work in pairs and match the questions and answers related to those issues. Invite them to read the dialogues aloud.

Answers a. ii. b. i. c. iv. d. iii

9 Ask students to change partners and form

new pairs to practise the dialogues. Before they start replacing parts of the conversations, you can brainstorm ideas and list them on the board. Give them some time to practise and then ask a few pairs to act out the new dialogues in front of the class. PAGE 10 LESSON 1 - READING LETTERS TO AUNT ANNE

++

Tell students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: different types of sentences (refer to Exercises 1, 2 and 3 on Page 8 of this unit). simple linking words (refer to Exercises 4 and 5 on Pages 8 and 9 of this unit). how to find main idea(s) in written texts (refer to Exercises 2 and 3 on Page 8 of this unit). BEFORE YOU READ

1 + (Learning ability: to connect topic and


personal experiences). Ask students if they write letters or e-mails. Who to? Why? Is letter writing in general a skill they think they will need in the future? What for? Ask them to list reasons why people write letters to newspapers, magazines, or radio programmes. Tell students to work in small groups, read the statements in the exercise, and decide which ones they most agree / disagree with.

7 12 Play the recording the students will work

with in Lesson 2 of this unit. Students only have to identify the number of speakers, in preparation for what they will be doing during the unit.

Answers Three speakers.

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Did you know that See Page 8 of the Introduction.

2 + (Learning ability: to make predictions from


provided information). If available, read a few titles of letters to an agony aunt from an original source (magazine, newspaper, online magazine, etc.). Ask students to read the four titles (a d). Do they understand them? What do they think the letters might be about? Brainstorm ideas and jot them down on the board for later discussion. Ask them to try and predict which letter corresponds to which title. Do not check students answers at this point.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY The Prediction Wheel You can go through all the prediction steps with any other simple text of your choice. Step 1: ask students to predict what the text will be about, paying attention to the title, pictures, previous knowledge, vocabulary you have provided. Ask them to make at least two predictions, for example, what do you think it will be about? Who do you think the protagonists will be? Step 2: students read the text and find evidence to validate their predictions. Follow the instructions in the wheel. Step 3: after validating, checking, or abandoning / correcting their predictions, students write a summary of the text.
Taken from: Zygouris-CoeV. and Glass, C. (2004) For-pDs reading strategy of the month. Prediction Wheel. Retrieved on March 12, 2012, from http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratWheel.html

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3 + (Learning ability: to identify cognates).


See notes on cognates on Page 11 of the Introduction. Tell students to work in pairs and read the words, first silently and then aloud, to identify the cognates. Answers blouse = blusa. habits = hbitos. physical= fsico. pickles = picles. recently = recientemente. recommend = recomendar. style = estilo. terrible = terrible. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Spanish and English have thousands of cognates - words that are practically the same in both languages - because their etymology is the same. In most cases, students can easily recognise the word and infer its meaning, but there are some cases in which you should draw their attention to a cognate which is, in fact, a false friend. False friends, or false cognates are pairs of words that are similar in form, but have different meanings, that is, they appear to be cognates when in fact they are not. For a comprehensive list of false cognates see http:// spanish.about.com/cs/vocabulary/a/obviouswrong.htm AVOID THIS MISTAKE Tell students there are two false cognates in the texts on Page 11. Can they find them? False cognate Advice Parents Correct meaning Mistake Spanish aviso (notice, Consejo advertisement, warning) Spanish parientes Padres (parents)

Fill in the blanks in these sentences using advertisement advice notice parents relatives warning. are in show business: her mother a. Both her is a singer and her father is an actor. in todays paper. b. Im calling about the job live abroad: my grandparents, c. Many of my two cousins, and an uncle. d. The test has been postponed; there was a on the board. ten minutes after the e. There was a tsunami earthquake. . f. Our teacher gave us an excellent piece of Answers a. parents. b. advertisement. c. relatives. d. notice. e. warning. f. advice.

4 ++ (Learning ability: to revise meaning of key


expressions). Time expressions are used to indicate the time at / during which an action takes place. Common time expressions include: Present forms (for present habits and routines): every day, on Fridays, at the moment, now, always, usually, sometimes, etc. Past forms: when I was ..., last week / month / year, etc.; yesterday, two weeks / years / months ago, etc. Future forms: next week / month / year, tomorrow, tonight, by the end of the week, next week / year / month, etc., in two weeks / four months time, etc. You can find more information and exercises on time expressions / adverbs of frequency at http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/bl_timeexpress1. htm and at http://esl.about.com/library/quiz/ blgrquiz_time.htm

Let students know that the noun advice is uncountable; we do not say an advice and it does not take a plural form. If we want to express that it is a singular noun, we say a piece of advice. Write this exercise on the board and tell students to do it in their notebooks.

Read the example and then elicit a few more time expressions from the class, asking students to provide example sentences or their Spanish equivalents. Tell them that the expressions can
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indicate when something happens or happened, and also the frequency with which an action takes place. Ask them to fill in the table with the correct replies, indicating in which letter (I IV) they found the expression. You can ask all students to have a quick look at the four letters to find time expressions or you can divide the class into four groups and assign one letter to each group. Check answers on the board. Answers Referring to repeated actions Several times a week (Letter I) A few hours a day (Letter II) Twice a week (Letter III) In the last few weeks (Letter III) Referring to one action At the weekend (Letter I) A few weeks ago (Letter I) Last year (Letter II) Once (Letter III)

Teenagers (hardcopy issues). You can access Seventeen online at www.seventeen.com Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

6 + (Learning abilities: to relate information in


order to synthesise content). Students read letters I IV on Page 11. Give them enough time to read them quickly, only with the purpose of checking their predictions in Exercise 2. Check answers orally. Answers Letter I d. Friendship or love? Letter II a. Computer addiction Letter III c. Too much food when depressed Letter IV b. My parents dont get my style PAGE 12

5 ++ (Learning ability: to identify meaning and


function of key words as components of texts).

Invite the students to find the words in bold in the letters and identify what they do in the sentences (their function). General answers are acceptable. You can ask all students to have a quick look at the four letters to find and explain the function of the words in bold or you can divide the class into four groups and assign one letter to each group. Check answers orally. Answers Letter I: so = as es que result; however = sin embargo contrast. Letter II: as long as = en tanto que, mientras condition; although = aunque contrast; because = porque reason; besides = adems something additional. Letter III: however = sin embargo contrast; provided that = siempre que condition. Letter IV: because = porque reason; so = as es que result.

7 +++ (Learning ability: to find specific


information). Tell students to read the questions carefully first and then read each letter to find the required information. Students can work individually, finding the answers to all the questions, or in small groups, distributing the questions and then sharing the answers. If necessary, explain the meaning of the word binge (Letter III) = to eat or drink too much, especially without being able to control yourself. Check their answers orally, inviting different students to ask the questions to different classmates.

WHILE YOU READ The letters in this section were adapted from letters written to Seventeen Magazine for British

Answers a. They do homework together, they visit each other, and they go to the cinema or to parties together. b. Six or even ten hours a day. c. She went to the gym twice a week, she got good and bad grades at school, and she loves going to the mall with her friends to shop for clothes. d. She wears baggy trousers, heavy boots, and sweatshirts.

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8 +++ (Learning ability: to relate knowledge from


different sources in order to match information). Students read the four answers provided (a d) and match them with the original letters (I IV). You can ask all the students to match the four letters and the answers, or you can divide the class into four groups and assign one answer to each group to find the letter it corresponds to. Check answers orally. Answers a. Letter III. b. Letter I. c. Letter II. d. Letter IV.

Example: Tears ran down his face. The information we can infer from the second example is that he was sad. Readers can think inferentially when they connect their background of information, ideas, and experiences with the text. To infer as we read is to go beyond literal interpretation and to open a world of meaning deeply connected to our lives.
Keene, E.O., Zimmerman C. (1997). Mosaic of Thought Teaching Comprehension in a Readers Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

9 +++ (Learning ability: to find and correct


incorrect information). Let students know that there is a mistake in each statement; their task is to find and correct it. You can ask all the students to read all the statements and correct them, or you can divide the class into four groups and assign one letter (I IV) with its corresponding false statement to each. Check answers on the board, asking students to first underline the incorrect information and then correct it. Answers The writer of Letter I doesnt see this boy very often. The writer of Letter I sees this boy very often. The writer of Letter II goes out very often. The writer of Letter II has stopped going out. The writer of Letter III feels happy when she eats things from the fridge. The writer of Letter III feels terrible when she eats things from the fridge. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Students must be able to find various types of information in a text; it can be specific or general, mood and tone of a text, or explicit and implicit information. Explicit information is clearly stated in a text. Example: His face showed sadness. Implicit information must be inferred from the text using the context.

a. Tell fast learners to read the letters again to find implicit information that would indicate if the writers of the letters are boys or girls. Answers Letter I was written by a girl. She refers to a boy she likes. Letter II was written by a boy. He says: unlike other boys my age. Letter III was written by a girl. She refers to a school skirt she wears. Letter IV was written by a girl. She refers to the clothes she wears. b. You can give fast learners these additional scenarios and ask them to infer information. i. You see a little girl whose nose is red; she has watery eyes, and a box of tissues next to her. You can infer that she has a cold or that she has been crying. ii. You see a large dog running at full speed, barking loudly and with its mouth wide open. You can infer it is going to attack somebody. c. Ask fast learners to work in pairs and create more scenarios from which information can be inferred. Ask them to read or write them on the board for the class to make the corresponding inferences. PAGE 13 AFTER YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

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10 +++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a


language item). Invite students to have a quick look at Annes answers in Exercise 8 again, paying special attention to the expressions in bold. Tell them to read and complete the sentences individually and then to compare with a partner. Check their answers orally. Answers a. I think you should ask for help if you have a problem. b. I believe you have two options: you can start studying now or be prepared to fail the exam. c. The best way to finish sooner is to work harder. d. I would recommend you talk to your teacher immediately. e. The only way you can find out the truth is asking your friend directly. f. Why dont you organise an outing for this weekend?
Language Note

Sentence connectors of result: as a result, as a consequence, therefore, thus, consequently, hence. Sentence connectors of comparison: similarly, likewise, also. Sentence connectors of reason: the cause of, the reason for, due to. Invite different students to write more examples from the letters on the board. More useful information on linking words can be found at http: //www.english-at-home.com/ grammar/linking-words
Answers Point 3 Other sentences with linking words in the letters: Letter I: He was shy and didnt feel happy, so I talked to him. We do homework together and visit each other, and at the weekend we go to the cinema, but a few weeks ago I noticed that my feelings for him were changing. Letter II: Although at first I used it only a few hours a day, after a few weeks things got out of hand. I have stopped going out because I spend all my free time chatting and surfing. Letter III: I get good and bad grades at school, just like any other kid, and I love going to the mall with my friends. However, I have recently noticed that when I get sad or depressed, I start eating. In the last few weeks, Ive noticed that it happens more and more often, and because I eat so much, my dresses and my school skirt dont fit me any more. Letter IV: I decided to write to you because my parents and I are having serious problems about the clothes I wear. I dressed in the clothes my mother bought for me, but then I started wearing baggy trousers, heavy boots, and sweatshirts. When I want to go out with friends, my father says I cant because Im not wearing the proper clothes!

LINKING WORDS This section deals with linking words. They enable the writing to flow from one idea to the next in a logical way, showing cohesion. The information in this section will help students to join shorter sentences into longer ones. The two most important types of linking words are: Conjunctions: and, but, so, or, for, nor, yet. Sentence connectors of logical / sequential order: firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc.; next, last, finally; in addition; furthermore; also; at present , presently. Sentence connectors of order of importance: most / more importantly, most significantly, above all, primarily, it is essential / essentially. Sentence connectors of contrast: however, on the other hand, on the contrary, by / in comparison, in contrast.

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Write this short text on the board, but do not highlight the linking words. Ask the students to copy it into their notebooks, underlining all the linking words. Ask them to compare with another student and then correct on the board. I met Lucy the other day and she told me about her bad experience. She was driving to work while listening to the news, but she was not paying attention to the traffic around her. As a consequence, she was stopped by a policeman and given a ticket. She was really upset about it, so she tried to argue with the policeman, but he was firm; as a result, Lucy will be fined because she was driving over the speed limit.
Learning tip

Examples: Uruguay is a small country; however, their football team did very well in the 2010 World Cup. Your written English is very good. However, you need to improve your pronunciation. Tell students to do this exercise in their notebooks. Circle the best linking word in these sentences. a. Although / But we warned them, they still went up the mountain. b. I like it here, but / however I wont stay long. c. The tourists didnt have much time. But / However, they managed to visit lots of places. d. Lindsay felt exhausted, although / but she stayed up to finish her homework. e. Matthew went to see the film although / but he had seen it before. f. Nat Alexander did not win the prize. Although / However, she offered a great performance. Answers a. Although. b. but. c. However. d. but. e. although. f. However.

Analyse this Learning tip together with the class. Help them to notice that they can also do this with vocabulary words and other grammar points. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Tell students that the connectors although, but, and however have the same function: to indicate contrast. However, they are used differently: But is less formal than although and however. It is used between the two sentences it connects and is normally preceded by a coma. Examples: We called Joanna, but she didnt answer. Mr Anderson is over 75, but he is still very active. Although is more typical of careful or formal speech or writing. The word although can be at the beginning or between the two clauses. Examples: Although Bradley didnt like the show, he stayed until the end. Ginger tried to smile although she was disappointed. However is more common in formal speech and in writing. It introduces or completes a contrasting sentence. It is always preceded and followed by punctuation.

Draw students attention to the Internet site where they can find more information and exercises on connectors. Encourage them to use the site on their own, but to share information with you and with their classmates.

11 ++ (Learning ability: to apply a language point).


Refer students to the Language Note. Tell them to read the words in the box and the sentences (a c), and to try and relate one of them to the picture on the right. Check answers orally. Answers a. provided that. b. although. c. so + picture on the right.

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PAGE 14

12 ++ (Learning ability: to organise the parts of a


text using the correct pattern). If necessary, revise the different parts of a letter with the class.

the form of Dear Anne or Hello, Anne, for less formal letters. The introductory paragraph: it is the first paragraph and will generally outline the purpose of the letter, the reason why the letter is being sent. This can deal with any issues that are outstanding and is used to set the tone for the rest of the letter. In this first paragraph, the summary of the letter can be found and the intentions which will be displayed through the rest of the letter should be outlined. From this introductory paragraph, the recipient should be able to note the tone of the letter. The body: it will expand upon the introductory paragraph and the writer can extend their thoughts and feelings further. The body of the letter can be anywhere from multiple pages for personal letters, to one page or two pages for most business letters and other types of proposals. The closing: here the writer will finish any thoughts that have been mentioned. The closing of the letter comes in various forms, from Yours truly, for the

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Address: put your address at the top of your letter, so that the reader will know where to send their reply. Date: put the date on which the letter is written in the format Month - Day - Year. (June 15, 2012). Inside address: it is only required for a business letter and will include the address of the person you are writing to, along with the name of the recipient, their title, and the company name. If you are not sure who the letter should be addressed to, either leave it blank or try to put in a title, for example, Director of Human Resources. The greeting: it will address the person that the letter is being sent to. This is usually completed in

506 Country Lane North Baysville, CA 53286 July 16, 2007 Dear Susan, It feels like such a long time since l last saw you, although I know it's only been a few weeks. So far, my summer has been great! I spend all my weekends at the beach. I am getting a nice tan and you can no longer say I am paler than you. I have been playing lots of volleyball, surfing, and building a nice collection of sea shells. Just this past weekend I took second place in a sandcastle building contest! I hope the summer's been going well for you too. There's only a month and a half left of summer vacation and after that it's back to school. Would you like to meet up some time before school starts? Your friend, Teresa

AddRESS DATE GREETING

INTROdUCTION

BOdY CLOSING SIGNATURE

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people who are familiar with one another, to a traditional Sincerely, which is a versatile closing that can be used in a variety of letters and situations. Signature: Your name as you usually write it. It can be just your first name, your full name, or your nickname.
Taken from: (n.d.) How to write a letter. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from http://www.letterwritingguide.com/howtowritealetter.htm

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Marianne speaks with a British accent and Tom with an American accent.

10

Help students to notice that this is a more complete version of Annes letters in Exercise 8 and, if necessary, guide them so that they can identify the different parts. Check answers orally. Answers a. i. b. iii. c. vi. d. ii. e. iv. f. v. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can ask fast learners to choose a letter from Page 11 or one of Annes answers and complete it in their notebooks with the missing parts of a complete letter. Notice that all the letters only have the greeting and the body, so the students should add an address and the date at the beginning, and a closing and their signature at the end.

Marianne: Im still unsure what to study in college. Tom: How about something you really like and are good at? Marianne: Like what? You are good at languages and you like good food. Tom: Marianne: So? You could take up tourism or cooking. Tom: Marianne: Should I listen to my parents advice? Tom: Of course you should, but mainly, follow your heart.

14 ++ (Learning ability: to role play a conversation).


One of the main motivations to encourage pair work in the English language classroom is to increase the opportunities learners have to use English. Through pair work, learners revise what they have understood after reading the text. This allows them to compare answers and clarify problems together, using English. Students get into pairs, read two other problems mentioned by other teenagers, and choose one of them. They role play the situation stating the problem and giving advice in front of the class. They use expressions to make suggestions and offer advice provided in Annes answers in Exercise 8, Page 12. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation, using the criteria in the Speaking section of the Test your Knowledge of this unit to identify and provide feedback on performance. evaluate learning).

13 10 ++ (Learning ability: to imitate a spoken


model). Remind students that correct pronunciation of English is much more than imitating only specific sounds. They must pay attention to pauses, to the intonation of the voice, and to patterns of emphasis. No matter how vast the students vocabulary is and how well they use grammar structures, if they dont use correct pronunciation, it may be very difficult for listeners to understand what they say. Play the recording once or twice with pauses, for students to repeat. Then give them some time to practise the dialogue in pairs and invite them to role play it in their groups. If you want to evaluate students oral performance, use the criteria in the Speaking section of Test your Knowledge.

15 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


This Quick Self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores.

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If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should devote some time to going through the subject one more time to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. so therefore - but - although - Besides provided that. PAGE 15
Answers

17 +++ APPLICATION TASK WRITING

(Learning ability: to write a text acknowledging the subjectivity of its content). While completing this task, students will talk about feelings, look for a solution to a problem, develop and summarise different options, write a letter using the correct format, and analyse their mistakes and their progress.

Considering that this is the first application task, guide students very carefully, first to form the groups and distribute tasks and roles, and then to read the instructions and follow them step by step. Help and correct students work while walking among the groups and encourage them to evaluate each step of the task. Make sure students understand the importance of cooperative work, respect each others opinions, and do the work they have committed themselves to do. At the moment of evaluating their own letters, encourage them to be honest. When they exchange letters, highlight the importance of respecting everyones work and of offering positive comments. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation, using the criteria in the Writing section of the Test your Knowledge of this unit to identify and provide feedback on performance.
American v/s British English

16 ++ (Learning ability: to identify and apply rules


for the use of capital letters). In the reading lessons of each unit you will find information to help your students master the rules of punctuation and correct spelling. Simple rules will be provided with specific examples that can be found in the reading texts. Go through the rules with the class and ask them to find examples in the letter in Exercise 12. Offer more examples and ask students to provide some too.
75 East Payton Drive, Newbury, CA 00001 (3. Proper nouns). 28 January, 2010 (5. The months of the year) Dear Reader, (1. The first word of a sentence / 3. Proper nouns) I think you should see a doctor. Mood (2. The pronoun I / 1. The first word of a sentence) swings in teenagers can be dangerous, therefore, a visit to a psychologist can help to determine the cause of your depression. Dont wait any longer and get some professional help immediately. (1. The first word of a sentence) Yours truly (1. The first word of a sentence) Anne (3. Proper nouns)
Answers:

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that only one spelling is acceptable in American English, while British English uses both. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT You can design your own writing assignment / application task as homework or as an extra test. Although Global English has been written with a wide range of students in mind, there might be

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situations where you may feel that an application task is not localised enough. Feel free to design your own task and ask yourself these questions when preparing them. 1. Is the general subject target-specific, is it really directed at my students? 2. Do students have enough opportunities to use the language learnt in the lesson? For example, if the subject of the unit was letters and the grammar content the First Conditional have I incorporated these into the task? 3. Is the task clearly defined? Do my students understand what I want from them? 4. What kind of knowledge is the task putting into practice? Have I covered it before, in previous lessons? 5. Does the topic invite students to use wide and varied vocabulary? For example, a task telling students to describe a flower might not be demanding enough and students would not have the chance to use varied vocabulary. 6. Does the task elicit sentences, ideally connected, and not just lists of words?

Cut up the letters into 6 chunks not necessarily paragraphs and put all the pieces inside an envelope. Pass an envelope to each group and tell them to reconstruct the letters in the correct order, without looking at the book. The winner is the first group to get their letter in the correct order.

++

PAGE 16 LESSON 2 - LISTENING EMBARRASSING MOMENTS

Tell students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: how to form and use the Simple Present and the Simple Future (Exercise 6, Page 9). how to identify number of speakers in an oral text (Exercise 7, Page 9). how to adapt and role play a dialogue (Exercises 8 and 10, Page 9). AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to the name of the lesson, and make sure they realise the word embarrassing is a false cognate. Encourage them to deduce the meaning of the words embarrassed and embarrassment, and ask them to complete this chart. Mistake Embarrassing Spanish embarrando (covering in / with mud) or embarazando (getting pregnant, getting somebody pregnant) Embarrassed Spanish embarrado (covered in mud) or embarazada (pregnant) Embarrassment Spanish embarrada (blunder) or embarazo (pregnancy) False cognate Correct meaning Embarazoso, vergonzoso

18 +++ (Learning ability: to discuss the contents


of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences, using clear arguments).

This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson, in terms of abilities, content, grammar, and vocabulary. It also encourages them to express their opinions concerning important values explicitly or implicitly stated in the texts and activities. Refer students again to the first exercise in the unit, encourage them to share answers in their groups and / or with the whole class, and motivate them to substantiate their answers.

OPTIONAL ACTIVITY You can do this activity at any time during the AFTER YOU READ activities, when you feel the students need a change, or a little break. Divide your class into groups of six students. Make as many copies of the letters on Page 11 as there are groups (you will need one letter per group).

Avergonzado

Vergenza, bochorno

ADVICE AND SUPPORT

53

Write this exercise on the board and tell students to do it in their notebooks. Fill in the blanks in these sentences using a word from the chart. Use the correct verb tense. a. while at school can be a traumatic experience. . b. Having to sing in public was very when Raymond said that. c. I nearly died of at being the centre of d. Pauline felt attention. ; her baby is due next month. e. Ruby is f. Some women experience sickness during . their when they g. The children were absolutely finished the match. their faces to avoid being h. They are detected. when he answered i. Timmy made a terrible like that. Answers a. Getting pregnant. b. embarrassing. c. embarrassment. d. embarrassed. e. pregnant. f. pregnancy. g. covered in mud. h. covering / with mud. i. blunder. BEFORE YOU LISTEN

3 + (Learning abilities: to make predictions).


In groups, students describe and discuss the pictures. Ask them to provide as much detail as possible. Encourage them to ask each other questions and offer explanations. Ask them which situations they think will be presented in the recorded text. Tell them to think about the clues (title, pictures, etc.) and what they already know (vocabulary, previous discussion, topic, etc.). Do not check their answers at this point.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can ask fast learners or keener students to write a description of one of the pictures. Help them to correct errors. Example: There are three girls in the picture. Two of them are wearing miniskirts and T-shirts; they seem to be friends. It looks like the two girls are laughing at the third girl who is wearing jeans and carrying a handbag because, in a moment, she is going to walk into a lamp post.

4 ++ 11 (Learning abilities: to find meaning of


key words / to match written and spoken language / to identify and practise the pronunciation of an English sound that may interfere with comprehension).

1 + (Learning ability: to connect topic and


personal experiences). Students read the three statements in their group. They check vocabulary (explain, if necessary or refer to a dictionary) and then discuss which ones they most agree / disagree with. Tell them they do not need to agree on the statements; however, through discussion, they should try to reach consensus.

2 + (Learning ability: to make predictions based on


provided information). Students read the title of the lesson again and comment on what an embarrassing moment might be. They should feel free to share experiences and embarrassing moments, but remind them to be respectful of their partners when making comments.
UNIT 1

Tell students that these key words will appear in the listening texts, and that it is important that they know their meaning and what they sound like. Go through the words with them, and draw their attention to the phrasal verb hang up / hung up, which includes both the infinitive and the past form. Give them a few minutes to check meanings in dictionaries, and then play the recording. a. First they only listen to the words, and then they listen and repeat. You can let your students know that the word breath / bre / is the noun (= aliento, respiracin) and the word breathe / bri / is the verb (= respirar). b. Read the example words aloud and ask students to repeat them. If necessary, you can add a few more with the sound //, like bus, done, fun, gun, hunt, nut, etc.

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UNIT 1

Answers The four words that contain the sound // are anyone, crush, hung and up.

PAGE 17 WHILE YOU LISTEN Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION

11

anyone breath daring crush - garlic hang up / hung up - pick up sleepover. Note that the word crush is used here with the meaning of loved one (teenage talk).
AVOID THIS MISTAKE Explain to students that the correct pronunciation of vowels is very important in English, as sometimes they are the only element in a word that produces a change of meaning. Copy this chart on the board and tell students to copy it into their notebooks. Then, ask them to listen and repeat the pairs of words after you. / / bag cat crash Dan fan gas / / bug cut crush done fun Gus / / ham fan Nat Patty rat tag / / hum fun nut putty rut tug

5 + 12 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Refer students back to the pictures in Exercise 3, the situations they represent, and the predictions they made in Exercise 3b. Play the recording once and ask students to check their predictions (guesses, really). Answers 1, 4.

6 (Learning ability: to identify speakers using


provided information). Students should be familiar with the recording as they listened to it when they were asked to identify the number of speakers in the section GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT. Before playing it again, ask them to read the statements once or twice. Check answers orally. Answers a. Presenter. b. Belinda. c. Belinda. d. Presenter. e. Peter. f. Peter. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation of listening skills. Feedback: 0 1 correct answer: needs a lot of extra listening work. 2 4 correct answers: good, but could improve with extra listening work. 5 7 correct answers: very good, could try to help classmates who did poorly.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can give keener or faster learners a list of words and ask them to circle the ones they think are pronounced with //. Check answers orally and tell students to practise the pronunciation of the words in pairs. Invite them to act as models for the class to repeat. Ask them to write sentences with the words that contain the sound and then read them aloud. Possible words to use: cup // do /u/ butt // cool /u/ duck // enough // fun // pup // super /u/ supper // shut // tool /u/

7 + 12 (Learning ability: to discriminate


between correct and incorrect information). This is an activity to improve fine listening skills and help students to discriminate between sounds or words. Read the sentences with both alternatives aloud and then play the recording once or twice again. Check answers orally.

Answers a. me / anyone. b. home / tonight. c. kiss / hold on. d. sister / beautiful. e. as / stairs.
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55

8 +++ 12 ( (Learning ability: to find specific


information). Ask students to read the questions and then play the recording again for them to answer. Tell them to compare answers with a partner and then check orally. You can then ask them to write the questions and answers in their notebooks. Answers a. Her crush. / A boy. / A boy she likes. b. She had bad breath because she had eaten pizza with a lot of garlic. c. How beautiful his sisters friends were. / That his sisters friends were beautiful. d. Because the girls were listening to him.

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING EMBARRASSING MOMENTS

12

Presenter: Thank you for sharing your most embarrassing moment with us, Belinda. And now, Peter is ready to talk to us. What happened to you, Peter? Peter: My sister has the most beautiful friends, and last Friday they had a study group in my house and I thought: if my best friend comes over, we will be the only boys with this group of beautiful girls. Presenter: Did you tell your sister about this? Peter: No, but I called my friend, and as soon as I heard him pick up, I started talking about how my sisters beautiful friends were over and how much I liked one of them. Presenter: Nothing embarrassing about that. Peter: No, but as I hung up, I looked down the stairs and saw my sister and her friends listening to the phone on speaker! I was so embarrassed!
AFTER YOU LISTEN Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

The presenter speaks with a British accent. Belinda speaks with an Australian accent. Peter speaks with an American accent. Presenter: Welcome to If it happens to me, it can happen to anyone. In todays conversation, Belinda and Peter will tell us about their most embarrassing moments. If you have similar experiences, call us and tell us about them. Belinda, what is your embarrassing experience? Belinda: Last week, my friends and I were walking around town playingTruth or Dare before our sleepover. As we passed the pizza shop, my friends said: If you are brave and daring, you will eat a piece of pizza with a lot of garlic. Presenter: Do you like garlic? Belinda: No! I hate garlic. If you eat just a little, youll have bad breath for two days! Presenter: So you refused to do it. Belinda: Well, I thought, Its all right. If we stay at home, I wont meet anyone else tonight. Big mistake. Presenter: Why? Belinda: Soon after we got home, the doorbell rang and it was my crush, who wanted to tell me that he liked me. When he tried to kiss me, I told him to hold on and I raced upstairs to brush my teeth. Presenter: Problem solved, then. Belinda: No! When I came back down, he was sitting with my friends, laughing at the story of my garlic breath.

9 ++ (Learning ability: to share and synthesise


information in order to complete summaries).

Ask students to work in groups and use the information they collected while listening to the recording to complete the sentences that summarise the anecdotes. Answers a. Belinda was walking around town with her friends, who dared her to eat pizza with a lot of garlic, which gave her bad breath. When the boy she likes tried to kiss her, she had to run to brush her teeth, but her friends told the boy about her bad breath! b. Peters sister has a lot of beautiful friends, and when they came to study at his house, he phoned his friend to invite him over and tell him how much he liked one of them. When he hung up, he realised all the girls were listening to his conversation on the other phone!

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UNIT 1

UNIT 1

American v/s British English

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that only one spelling is acceptable in American English, while British English uses both. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm PAGE 18
Language Note

Refer students to the Language Note before doing the exercise. Write the example on the board using the colour code in the Language Note. Let students know that all the sentences must be completed with the First Conditional. Take this opportunity to help students to compare British and Chilean superstitions. Most of them are the same in both cultures, except for the black cat, which in Chile is considered bad luck. You can encourage them to find out about British superstitions at any of these sites:
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/ superstitions.htm http://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/Superstitions.htm

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL For more information on this section see Page 8 of the Introduction. This Language Note introduces the First Conditional and its uses. The First Conditional follows this pattern: If + Simple Present + will + infinitive without to. We use it to talk about things which are likely to happen in the future, describing possible results, which could easily come true. Examples: If it rains tomorrow, we will not go down to the beach. If Brenda passes the exam, she will be very happy. We will visit you if you invite us. If the if clause comes first, a comma is usually used. If the if clause comes second, there is no need for a comma. More information on the First Conditional plus extra exercises can be found at http://web2. uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/StudyZone/330/grammar/1cond.htm Answers Point 4 If you eat just a little, you will have bad breath for two days!

Answers a. If a black cat walks towards you, you will have good fortune. b. If someone is sweeping the floor and sweeps over your feet, youll never get married. c. If your right hand starts to itch, you will come into money in the near future. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME Form groups of four or six students. Give the groups some time to think of or find other superstitions that they could express using the First Conditional. Tell them to find two or three, which they should write in their notebooks using the First Conditional. Alternatively, you can write some superstitions on pieces of paper and give one to each group. Each group must choose one superstition and get ready to present it through mimicry to the class or to another group. Possible superstitions to present through mimicry: If you touch wood, you will make something come true / you will prevent something from coming true. If you find a four-leafed clover, you will be very lucky. If you cut your hair when the moon is waxing, it will grow faster. If you open an umbrella indoors, you will have bad luck.

10 ++ (Learning abilities: to consolidate a

language point / to relate knowledge and compare different cultures).

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57

If you drop a table knife, you will receive a male visitor; if you drop a fork, you will receive a female visitor.

11 13 ++ (Learning ability: to imitate a


spoken model / to role play a monologue).

ADDITIONAL ACTI VITY You can play the recording again, with pauses, and ask keener learners to replace parts of it with their own ideas. Then they can role play their monologues for the class. 13 TRANSCRIPT - ORAL PRACTICE Mildred speaks with an American accent. I wonder what to do this weekend. If its sunny, I think Ill go to the seaside. If my best friend Linda doesnt have to study, shell go with me. If my father isnt using his car, hell probably lend it to us, but if he has to use it, then we can go by train. We can either take the 10:30 from the Central Station or the 10:45 from the Northern Station. If we go by car, then we can take a picnic basket with us, but if we go by train, we can have lunch at a seafood restaurant. If I see a nice gift at the crafts fair on the beach front, Ill buy it for Tom. If Tom likes my gift who knows? He might ask me out! PAGE 19

This exercise combines listening to imitate a spoken model and consolidation of the First Conditional. First, play the recording for students to repeat the monologue and then give them a few minutes to practise it in their groups, taking turns to say different parts of it. Invite some groups to role play the monologue in front of the class.

OPTIONAL ACTIVITY You can use this monologue to ask students to work in pairs and write at least four questions beginning with the question words How - What When - Where - Who. Then, they ask and answer the questions with a partner. You can ask some students to ask their questions to the whole class. Possible questions and answers: What will the girl do if it is sunny this weekend? Shell go to the seaside. Who will go to the seaside with her? Her best friend Susan. How will they travel to the seaside? By car or by train. What time are the trains to the seaside? At 10:30 and at 10:45. Where do the trains leave from? From the Central Station and from the Northern Station. What will the girls have for lunch? They will have a picnic lunch or lunch at a seafood restaurant. Who will the girl buy a present for? For her boyfriend Tom.

12 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning) This Quick Self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you can offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should devote some time to going through the First Conditional one more time to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units.

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UNIT 1

UNIT 1

Answers Students own ideas, but ask some of them to write their answers on the board and help them to notice the correct use of verb tenses.

Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

14 ++ (Learning ability: to write a text organising


content and format). In this exercise, students apply what they have learnt in the whole unit to produce a written text following the model letters they saw in the reading lesson. They can choose one of the embarrassing moments described by their classmates in Exercise 13 or one of the situations in the pictures. Make sure that when checking the letter, you consider language errors, coherence, and the application of the letter structure learnt in Lesson 1 of this unit. contents of the lesson, relate them to personal experiences, and express value judgements).

13 +++ APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING Learning


ability: to role play a television programme). See notes on this section on Page 7 of the Introduction. While completing this task, students will discuss a topic, assign roles respecting each others opinions, use descriptions, participate in conversations, and analyse their mistakes and their progress. If necessary, begin by playing the recording of the listening section again, for students to remember the style, the intonation, and the atmosphere of the programme. Help students to form the groups and distribute the roles presenters and participants. Go through the instructions with the class and make sure everyone understands what they have to do. All the presenters can get together to prepare the participants presentation and the questions they can ask them, while the participants work in pairs to prepare the description of an embarrassing moment. Depending on the type of students you have, you can invite them to present their role plays to other groups or to the whole class. Give the groups a few minutes to evaluate their performance using the points suggested, and invite them to share their conclusions with other groups or with the whole class.
American v/s British English

15 +++ (Learning abilities: to reflect on the

Students are asked to reflect on what they have discussed in the lesson and decide if what they have done has influenced their opinions. Ask them to read and answer the questions, substantiating their answers. Pay special attention to questions b. and c., which deal with the OFTs that have to do with the ethical area. PAGES 20 - 21 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES

See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction.

1 This activity concentrates more on the content


than on the format of the letter. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can ask faster students to copy and complete the letter in their notebooks, adding the missing elements of a complete letter.

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice the different spelling of the word. Notice that British English uses the American spelling program when referring to computer programs.

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59

Answers a. (a.) Ill answer it again. (b.) are only going to flirt. (c.) person you want to be. (d.) flirt with her boyfriend? (e.) not harmless fun. (f.) What will happen. (g.) he dumps his girlfriend. (h.) if you keep chatting with him. b. i. She is beginning to chat and flirt with her friends boyfriend. ii. She should stop chatting with him, she should think about the kind of person and friend she wants to be.

Answers 1. a. Any five of these: finger, mouth, thumb, arm, legs, knees, head, throat. b. Fence, floor, bedroom. c. Sofa, wardrobe, cupboard. d. Hamster, turtle, goldfish. 2. Paragraph I Picture 5. Paragraph II Picture 8. Paragraph III Picture 4. Paragraph IV Picture 2. Paragraph V Picture 7. Paragraph VI Picture 3. Paragraph VII Picture 1. Paragraph VIII Picture 6. PAGE 23 CHILEAN CONNECTION Let students read the section on their own and then comment on it in their groups. Promote comparison between the foreign and the Chilean contexts encountered in this short text and in the unit, making sure students give each one its own value. It is important to offer students learner-generated contexts from their own surroundings. According to Lev Vygotsky, it makes learning more pleasant and assimilation easier. Vygotsky says that it is the childs culture that gives him the cognitive tools needed for development. Consider three of Vigotskys theories when teaching a classroom that is diverse and has different individual needs: 1. Learning and development is a social, collaborative activity. 2. School learning should occur in a meaningful context and not be separated from learning and knowledge children develop in the `real world. 3. Out-of-school experiences should be related to the childs school experience.
Lev Vygotsky - http://www.ced.appstate.edu/vybio.html

2 Students apply the First Conditional.


Possible answers Picture 1: If a bird collides with a plane, there will be an accident. Picture 2: She will hurt herself if she is not more careful / if she falls down. Picture 3: The shark will bite him if he swims near it.

3 You can use the Prediction Wheel on Page 34 of


the Teachers Guide with this text. Answers a. The correct order of the pictures is: 4-2-8-7-3-5-1-6 b. i. Bailey went very quiet and there was a big bump in his tummy. ii. The vet kept pulling things out of Baileys tummy: two gloves, one hand towel, and five socks. iii. Yes, he is, but he keeps eating things. PAGES 22 - 23 JUST FOR FUN See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Remind students that they should do the activities on their own, without much intervention from you, but help and support when necessary.

Encourage students to describe their own embarrassing experiences during Independence Day or other celebrations.

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UNIT 1

UNIT 1

PAGES 24 - 26 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Answers READING SEEKING SUPPORT 1. Letter I c. Tough life decision. Letter II b. Difficult family situation. 2. a. talk. b. alone. c. grateful. d. united. e. argue. f. upset. 3. a. Because they are having problems at work and they are not very young. b. She says her family was a loving one and that they used to do things together. WRITING

LISTENING TAKING AN EXAM 4. Not mentioned: c. and f. 5. a. eat. b. brain. c. excess. d. properly. 6. a. A university teacher is talking to first year students. b. Deep breathing. LANGUAGE

15

7. (a.) as long as. (b.) therefore. (c.) although / but. (d.) However. (e.) although / but. 8. a. go - will see. b. get - will buy. c. will get eat. d. can help ask. e. asks - will tell.

9. Students use their own ideas and opinions to complete the letter. Assign points according to these criteria. Final Task Score Language Score Presentation Score score Filled in all the blanks with Practically no grammar or Correct spelling, heading and 4 4 4 appropriate information. vocabulary mistakes. greeting. Filled in most of the blanks with Very few grammar or vocabulary A few spelling mistakes, 3 3 3 appropriate information. mistakes. incorrect heading or greeting. Filled in some of the blanks with Some grammar and vocabulary Several spelling mistakes, 2 2 2 appropriate information. mistakes. incorrect heading or greeting. Filled in only one or two of the blanks with appropriate information. 1 Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. 1 A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect heading and greeting. 1

SPEAKING 10. Assign one point for each correct expression placed in the blanks. Im not sure - your opinion - if you ask me not certain - I can see from my point of view Assign points to the role play according to these criteria. Task Completed the dialogue with five or six of the correct expressions. Completed the dialogue with three or four of the correct expressions. Completed the dialogue with one or two of the correct expressions. Used only one of the correct expressions. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes, a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

ADVICE AND SUPPORT

61

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - TAKING AN EXAM The teacher speaks with an Indian accent.

15

PAGE 27 SELF-EVALUATION See notes on this section on Page 9 of the Introduction. As this is the first time students will be doing this section, go through the different parts with them. Help them to notice that there are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE. For YOUR TEST RESULTS, they have to work out their score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read their results, and reflect on them. Help them to think of what they can do to improve results, solve problems, give or get help, etc. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection on their involvement with the main OFTs discussed in the lessons and invites them to think about their learning strategies and attitudes. NOTE

University Teacher: You have asked me how to prepare for your first university exam. Well, as I said before, its quite different to any tests you took at school, but there are some general suggestions that you could follow. For example, if you drink too much coffee, tea, and fizzy drinks before the exam, it will increase your nervousness. I suggest that you drink a glass of milk, or maybe some orange juice instead. You should also eat healthily and at regular times, and your brain will benefit from good nutrition. Some of you ask if it is a good idea to do physical activity before the exam to get rid of excess energy. Mm, it depends. If you do some very strenuous activity just before the exam, for example several hours of swimming, or running a marathon, you will get rid of the excess energy and have nothing left for your exam, but if you do some mild activity, such as walking in the park or even some dancing, you will benefit from it. If you are very tense just before the exam, you can practise relaxation techniques. For example, you can clench or unclench your fists or you can buy yourself a squeezing ball instead. You can also practise deep breathing to get oxygen to the brain. One of the most important things is to believe in yourself. If you prepare for the exams properly ,you will do fine, meaning that there is no need to worry excessively. And finally, if you are still nervous, tell someone it always helps to get some moral support.
PAGE 26 FINAL REFLECTION Give students enough time to analyse what they have done and learnt in this unit. Encourage them to follow the tips suggested and to share ideas in their groups.

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UNIT 1

PHOTOCOPIABLE ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY UNIT 1 Lesson 2 The First Conditional


Cut up one broken sentence for each pair of students. Hand out the pieces at random. Students then stand up and try to find the other half of their sentence by reading their half aloud. Redistribute the pieces and repeat, this time with students memorising the words. Ema will catch a cold... I wont eat it... Ill be very sad... If I need any help,... If Valerie gives me an apple,... If Walter doesnt have money,... If you dont take an umbrella,... If you like,... If you see Sonia,... If you take a map with you,... If you write Fran an e-mail,... If youre not careful,... My parents will be very happy... Tammyll be annoyed... Vincent will buy some ice-cream... We wont save the planet... Will the children share their toys... Will you go out... Youll be late... Youll get hungry... ELTgames.com 2007 ...if she doesnt wear warm clothes. ...if theres chilli pepper in it. ...if you decide to go away. ...Ill let you know. ...Ill give her an orange. ...he wont go to the concert. ...youll get wet. ...Ill help you with your bags. ...can you give her a message? ...you wont get lost. ...she will tell you how to do it. ...youll knock that glass off the table! ...if I pass all my exams. ...if she sees you reading her notes. ...if we give him the money. ...if we keep using so much electricity. ...if their mother tells them to? ...if its 40C? ...if you dont hurry up. ...if you dont eat something now.

UNIT 1

ADVICE AND SUPPORT

63

Photocopiable material

Global English 3o MEDIO

Additional ReadinG teXt unit 1- Lesson 1 The fading art of letter writing
The envelope arrives with the address handwritten and the stamp with the Queens head always evenly placed in the top right-hand corner. The postman slides the letter through the letterbox and the dog lets out two barks. Its time for me to make tea, and read. The letter is from Joyce, my 75-year-old mother-inlaw, who lives in Scotland and was recently widowed. It is always written on two sides of a single sheet, on good-quality white paper. (1) _______________________________________ Her words sit comfortably on both sides of the page; her thoughts flow neatly from one paragraph to the next. There are no strange abbreviations, no smiley icons. Just words. Her letter often takes four or five days to reach me, but the feel of it instantly breaks through time and space. Sitting with the letter in my hands, I immediately see her in my mind. There she is at the dining table, a cup of tea to her right, the radio switched off or turned down, her thoughts flowing through her fingers and onto the page. Her letters inform us of the weather, of the kindness of neighbours, of a thousand other things in short, of all the bits and pieces of starting life without the man she loved for 50 years. Once finished, she puts on her coat and walks to the mail box, just in time for the 4:30 p.m. pickup. For her, writing a letter at a time of grief is part of seeing things through, a sign of the civility and commitment that bind societies. Will this fading generation also be the last to write letters? Letter-writing is among our most ancient of arts. (2) ____________________________________ A good handwritten letter is a creative act, and not just because it is a visual and tactile pleasure. You savour their arrival and later take care to place them in a box for safe keeping. Yes, e-mail is a wonderful invention. It links people across the world, destroying in an instant the hurdle of geography that confronts snail mail. Yet, it is by its nature ephemeral and lacks the spark of character that only handwriting can provide. (3) ___________ Sitting here, savouring the imminent arrival of the next letter from my mother-in-law, I wonder what will be the legacy of the digital letter-writing age. Taken from: Field, C. (2011, February 4), The Fading Art of Letter Writing, The International Herald Tribune, p. 12.

Global English 3o MEDIO

Photocopiable material

1. What type of text have you just read? a. An article. b. An essay. c. A short story. 2. These three excerpts (a c) were removed from the text. Place them back into the corresponding spaces (1 3): a. When you get an e-mail, you can never be sure that you are the only recipient or even that it is original. b. Think of letters and the mind falls on Abraham Lincoln, Jane Austen, Mark Twain; on love letters written during the American Civil War, or letters written to a parent by a frightened soldier at the battlefront.

c. She writes in an easy, cursive script, a clear but relaxed style that does not seek to impress. 3. Find the answer to these questions: a. What happened recently that made Joyce sad? b. Do you know what the abbreviations OMG and LOL mean? Where do we use them? c. What does Joyce like writing about? d. What comment does the writer of this text make about e-mail?

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EXTRA TEST UNIT 1


READING ANNES ANSWER
Dear Teen, Its really sad that these days we measure how bright a person is by his or her class grades. I know it must be tough for you, but it is definitely not worth worrying so much. Being young is a beautiful gift and to be cherished. Dont throw it away at any cost. Your `problem as you call it seems (a.) right now, but believe me good marks are not the only things that matter. There are many more (b.) things in life such as what kind of person you (c.) ; you have to be bright from within. Also remember that many of the really successful people in life didnt have a college degree. I am not minimising the importance of a college education - I am just telling you to perk up. Study well, but relax. As for your classmates teasing you, I am (d.) it is because they dont know you well enough. Show a positive attitude and be confident. Dont apologise for what you are. Once you start being confident about yourself, the world will look up to you. I would also (e.) that you approach a caring teacher or counsellor at school, or maybe you can get your parents to talk to your school mistress. This might put an end to the insensitive remarks of some of the teachers. So cheer up! Concentrate on your (f.) . Most dyslexics have outstanding talents. Find yours and shine in life. Love Anne
Taken from: Chakravarthula, S. (2003). Teen Talk. Retrieved July 9th, 2008, from http://www.boloji.com/teens/articles/letters.htm

UNIT 1

1 Read Annes answer to a teens letter.


Which of these is it answering? a. b.

1 pt. c.

Dear Anne, I am a 15-year-old girl and an only child. My problem is that my parents dont let me go out anywhere. I cant go to parties or to the cinema, like other people my age. My folks are also very suspicious of my friends and keep asking me questions.

Dear Anne, I am deeply unhappy. My problem is that I think I am not very intelligent. The doctors have diagnosed me as dyslexic. I study a lot, but never manage to get good marks. I am older than most of the others in my class. I am really weak in maths and never manage to even pass.

Dear Anne, I have a strange problem and hope you can help me out. I am 16 and I am in love with two people. There is this childhood friend of mine (we grew up together) and we are kind of going steady. Then last month a new guy moved onto my block and I fell for him. He is so handsome and he likes me too. What shall I do?
ADVICE AND SUPPORT

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Global English 3o MEDIO

2 Read Annes letter again and choose one option


(i iii) for each gap (a f) a. i. attractive b. i. important c. i. are d. i. happy e. i. like f. i. problems ii. terrible ii. pretty ii. can ii. sad ii. suggest ii. studies iii. ugly iii. worrying iii. choose iii. sure iii. tell iii. talents

6 pts.

4 16 Listen to Carla telling her friend about an

embarrassing experience. Are these statements true (T) or false (F)? 5 pts. a. b. c. d. e. Carlas crush is in a grade higher than she is. Carlas crush plays hockey and volleyball. When her crush looked at her, Carla got really nervous. Carlas crush was smiling and waving at her. The guy is not her crush any more. 5 pts.

3 What advice is Anne giving the teen? Tick (3)


three of these options. a. b. c. d. e.

3 pts.

Concentrate on what you are good at. If you are not happy in your school, change to a different one. If people tease you, you should tease them back. Studying and grades are important, but not the most important thing in life. Try to be positive and have a confident attitude.

5 16 Listen again and identify the word


you hear.

LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING MOMENT

a. The embarrassing moment took place at a shopping centre / school. b. When I looked back he was still looking / staring at me. c. I bet you got really excited / worried! d. I noticed his smile turn into a funny / strange look! e. I just grabbed my friends / things and left.

LANGUAGE
Global English 3o MEDIO

6 Complete these sentences with your own ideas.


5 pts. a. The accident victim has internal injuries, therefore  b. If we visit Vicua, we   c. I need to phone Patrick because   d. Although Mark went to Via del Mar,   e. Do you think they will help me if  

. . . . .

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UNIT 1

UNIT 1

7 Use different intensifiers to make the meaning


a. b. c.

WRITING

of these sentences more powerful. 5 pts.

I failed the exam even though I tried   hard. I can hardly hold the pen. It is   cold in this room. You ask if I liked the film. It was  fabulous. d. We went out last night and had a(n) good meal. e. I like the Allens because they are nice people.

9 Write a reply to the letter below, offering your


personal advice.

10 pts.

SPEAKING

8 Develop a conversation with a partner asking

for and giving advice in the situations below (a e). Use the expressions in the box. 10 pts.

According to me I think you should If I were you, I would In my opinion The best thing you
a. You have had an argument with your girlfriend / boyfriend and want to make it up. b. You think your parents are too strict and wont let you go out with your friends. c. You came home late last night and your parents got very angry. d. Someone at school is bullying you and has threatened to hurt you if you tell anyone. e. You want to invite your crush to a party, but you have hardly ever talked to him / her.

Dear Anne, a &boyfriend. I &feel &very I am 16 and &have never &had s me down. out of &place and &it &really get &shy and &self-&conscious; The &trouble &is Im &extremely cant &seem &to change &it. Ive &tried not &to &be, &but I &just I &really &like. Ive only There &is &this guy at &school nths. Hes in my group of &known &him a couple of mo &speak; &when &we are &in class &friends, &but we &hardly &ever &sides of &the &room; &we &keep &together &we &sit on opposite &try &to &smile at &him, &but &he making &eye &contact and I e. Ive &tried &studying &his &just &looks away all &the &tim nervousness, &etc.) and &it &body &language (&eye contact, ut Im &thinking &this might &would &suggest &he &likes me, &b &be all &in my &imagination. I &would &really &like &to date I dont &know &what &to do, ell just &laugh or &be &him, &but Im &scared &that &h &frightened off. Please give me &some advice. Georgia
0 to 10 11 to 24 25 to 37 38 to 50 50 PTS Global English 3o MEDIO

Keep trying

ReVieW

Well done! Excellent!

TOTAL

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UNIT

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
READING: to read a school newspaper interview that contains the communicative function of expressing condition, includes a variety of expressions to express recommendations, and identify text organisation by deciding how the interview has been divided. relate information presented in different forms by identifying what some numbers refer to. discriminate between correct and incorrect information by deciding if it is true or false. distinguish explicit and implicit information by classifying certain items. WRITING: to write a school earthquake plan that includes different stages, uses the First Conditional, contains sequencing words, and is organised logically. LISTENING: to listen to a scientific presentation that contains the communicative function of expressing conditions, reflects the importance of English to learn and to acquire information, and discriminate between correct and incorrect information by choosing the right option. identify speakers by choosing the right names. find specific information by completing diagrams and answering questions. SPEAKING: to describe pictures in detail sharing ideas and knowledge, using expressions learnt, correct pronunciation, and the correct structures for descriptions.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS Complementary material such as English language science books, newspaper cuttings on earthquakes and the elements, encyclopaedias, etc. A reliable online source is the US government Earthquakes for Kids at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/ with a wealth of information and activities or, alternatively the BBC resource http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4126809.stm Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries, definitions of chemistry terms, printed handouts, library material, notes, etc.

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UNIT 2

PAGE 28 INTRODUCTION Invite students to examine and describe the photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. Form groups. Ask them to read the objectives of the unit and make comments on anything they already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. Elicit from students what values they think will be paid more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what issues will be discussed in connection with them. Before you start this unit, please remember to: constantly communicate with your students parents or tutors. This is an important aspect of their educational progress; communicate clear expectations - be specific about what you expect students to know and be able to do; create an environment in which there is genuine respect for students and a belief in their capability remember that each student is different, has different needs, and a different pace of progress; assign students research projects that focus on issues or concepts that apply to their own community or cultural group. PAGE 29 GETTING INTO THE UNIT Remind students that this page of each unit will contain activities meant to identify and activate their previous knowledge of the topic and related vocabulary, to establish the starting point for the activities that will follow. Give students time to form groups and discuss the exercises that have to be done in groups; encourage them to reflect and be honest to do those that require individual responses. Before doing the exercises, ask students to give examples of natural phenomena. Alternatively, give them a list and ask them to decide if they are caused by humans or if they occur naturally. Examples: car crash, drought, earthquake, flood, H1N1 flu outbreak, hurricane, landslide, mine explosion, nuclear disaster, rain, snow, terrorist attack, tornado, etc.

Ask about safety, prevention, and protection when there are natural disasters. Refer students to what they might have learnt in their natural science classes about such occurrences.

UNIT 2

1 Quizzes are a favourite with students, especially

when they are carried out as a competition. If appropriate, you can award a small prize (extra points for a future test, a sweet, etc.). Set a time limit and ask students to get into pairs to do the quiz. You can make it more entertaining by ringing a bell when time is up.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Natural phenomena (plural) natural phenomenon (singular). A natural phenomenon is a non-artificial event in the physical sense, and therefore not produced by humans, although it may affect humans. For example, bacteria, natural disasters, etc. Common examples of natural phenomena include volcanic eruptions, weather conditions, earthquakes, and the elements in general. When natural phenomena cause a lot of damage, they are called natural disasters. Here is a definition of the most common natural disasters. Tornado: characterised by violent winds that swirl in a counter clockwise direction north of the equator and clockwise south of the equator. Volcanic eruptions: escape of boiling hot magma through the vent of a volcano. Drought: unusually dry weather within a geographic area where rainfall is normally present. Flood: excessive amount of water that leads to the overflowing of rivers, lakes, and seas. Earthquake: shaking of the ground caused by the sudden dislocation of material within the earths outer layer or crust. Tsunami: the Japanese word meaning tidal wave. A tidal wave is a large sea wave caused by a submarine earthquake or volcanic explosion. Avalanche: a fall or slide of a large mass of snow or mud down a mountainside.

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These are some famous people related to natural phenomena. You can ask students to find information on other famous scientists related to natural phenomena, from Chile and other countries. Roger Hill: one of the most famous and successful storm chasers in the world. He lives in Bennett, Colorado and has laid claim to having witnessed 416 tornadoes - and counting! He has chased severe weather from one end of the nation to the other and videos of his chases have been featured on National Geographic, The Weather Channel, The Discovery Channel, The Travel Channel, The Learning Channel, NOVA, BBC, 60 Minutes and all of the major networks.
Taken from: Hake, T. (March 3, 2009). An interview with Roger Hill, world famous storm chaser. R etrieved April 11, 2012, from http:// www.examiner.com/weather-in-denver/an- interview-with-roger-hillworld-famous-storm-chaser.

Draw this chart on the board and ask students to write the corresponding plurals. Suggest they use dictionaries. Singular bacterium corpus criterion curriculum datum medium memorandum phenomenon stratum Answers Singular bacterium corpus criterion curriculum datum medium memorandum phenomenon stratum Plural bacteria corpora criteria curricula data media memoranda phenomena strata Plural

Hiroo Kanamori: Japanese American seismologist who has made fundamental contributions to understanding the physics of earthquakes and the tectonic processes that cause them. Kanamori and American seismologist Thomas C. Hanks developed the Moment Magnitude Scale which replaced the Richter Magnitude Scale as a measurement of the relative strength of earthquakes. In 2007 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences.
Taken from: Hiru Kanamory biography. n.d. Retrieved on April 11, 2012, from http://wn.com/Hiroo_Kanamori

2 Ask students to work in small groups and

Haraldur Sigurdsson: professor of Oceanography at the University of Rhode Island. He has worked on research in the field of volcanology for over forty years, with studies on volcanoes in his native Iceland, North and South America, the Caribbean, Indonesia, Italy and Africa, as well as on submarine volcanoes.
Taken from: Thera Expedition Underwater exploration of an active volcano. n.d. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from http://www.uri. edu/endeavor/thera/bio-sig.html

identify the objects in the pictures. They must first say what they are and describe what we use them for. Then each student chooses the objects he/she feels are important to have in the case of a disaster and which ones could be left out. Students should apply the First Conditional they learnt in Unit 1 to complete this exercise. Make sure that all the students in the group get the opportunity to express their views. Make notes of any useful information about what students already know that you can use later when developing the lessons.

AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to the word phenomena in the instruction of Exercise 1. Explain that some singular words of Latin origin form their plural changing their ending to a.

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UNIT 2

UNIT 2

Possible answers Picture 1: bottled water. If we have clean water, we will not be thirsty. Picture 2: British English: torch / American English: flashlight. If we have a torch, we will be able to find our way in the dark. Picture 3: a battery-operated radio. If we have a radio, we can know what is happening in other places. Picture 4: batteries. If we have batteries, we can use the radio and the torch. Picture 5: a first-aid-kit. If we have a first-aid-kit, we can cure injuries. Picture 6: canned / tinned food. If we have canned food, we will not go hungry. Picture 7: matches. If we have matches, we will be able to build a fire. Picture 8: a mobile phone. If we have a mobile phone, we will be able to let others know where / how we are. Picture 9: chocolate. If we have chocolate, we will keep our sugar levels up. Picture 10: blankets. If we have blankets, we will not get cold. PAGES 30 - 31 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT Before starting this unit, students need to know: characteristics of different types of sentences. how to find main idea(s) in written texts. how to use some connectors. the Simple Present. the Simple Future. how to identify number of speakers in an oral text. how to adapt and role play a dialogue.

Answers a. see. b. will leave. c. have. d. takes place.

2 Further and more demanding practice of the

First Conditional. Explain to students that there are different ways of saying the same idea (paraphrasing) and tell them to try to express sentences a c using the First Conditional.

Answers If you see a flying saucer, will you run? / Will you run if you see a flying saucer? If we win the lottery, will we buy a new house? / Will we buy a new house if we win the lottery? If it is sunny tomorrow, we will go to the beach/ We will go to the beach if it is sunny tomorrow.

3 Imperatives are used to tell or ask people to do


something, to make suggestions, and to give advice or instructions.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION To make the Imperative, we use the Infinitive of the verb without to, and to make a negative Imperative, we put do not or dont before the verb. We use the Imperative form to give an order, a warning or advice, and, if we use please, to make a request. Examples: Come here! Be quiet! Dont go! Dont open the box! Try again, please. Listen to me carefully, please. The Imperative can be used for all subjects, you, he, they and we; you can also use lets before the verb if you are including yourself in the Imperative. Examples: Lets stop now. Lets have some lunch. Lets not argue! Lets not tell her about it. We can also use do with an Imperative in polite requests, complaints, and apologies. Examples: Do sit down! Do be a little more careful! Do forgive me I didnt mean to interrupt. We can also use the structures I would like you to / I want you to to give instructions and orders.

1 This is a review of the First Conditional before


it is further developed in the rest of the unit. Ask students to read the sentences and underline the correct verb form. You can ask fast learners to write additional sentences to illustrate the use of the First Conditional in context for example, natural disasters, accident prevention etc.

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Examples: I would like you to find that address for me. I want you to finish this work today. Possible answers: Sit down! Sit down, please. Lets sit down. Do sit down! I want you to sit down immediately.

7 This is one of the areas of knowledge of a

4 An action plan is a written document that

describes the steps that must be taken in a given situation, for example, if there is a fire or an emergency. An action plan consists of bullet points or numbered steps to let readers know what to do first, next, etc.

language that students will need to use again and again; numbers appear in all aspects of life, in forms, articles, television shows, maths problems, etc. Before doing this exercise, revise how to express large numbers and decimals and how to use signs such as %, , etc. Students will need this knowledge to understand the reading text on Pages 34 and 35.

Ask students to read the two texts and try to establish which one is an action plan; ask them to justify their choice. After they have correctly identified the text, draw their attention to the way it is written and to the Imperative forms used. Answer Text II.

Remind students that in English, we use a full stop with decimals and a comma with large numbers, exactly the opposite of what we do in Spanish. Answers a. One point one. b. Six percent. c. Eight point eight. d. Three hundred and eighty seven. e. One thousand, nine hundred, and sixty two. f. Fifty six thousand, four hundred, and five.

8 Students continue practising numbers, using

5 Students choose a general idea for each text in


Exercise 4. Assigning a general idea to a text is similar to summarising it in a very short way; a summary is a shortened version of a text; it contains the main points in the text and is written in your own words. It is a mixture of reducing a long text to a short text and selecting relevant information. A good summary shows that a person has understood the text.

provided information. Invite fast learners to ask more questions like those in this exercise, find the correct answer, and then share the information with the class.

Answers a. Text I. b. Text II.

Answers a. It is Mexico City, with twenty five million people. b. It is Antarctica, with minus eighty seven point eight degrees Celsius. c. It is the Atacama desert, with four hundred years without rain. d. It is Greenland, with a surface of two million, one hundred and seventy five thousand and six hundred square kilometres.

6 Frequently, orders and prohibitions are

expressed by visual signs. Students match the pictures with the commands. Ask them to compare answers with a partner, and then check answers orally.

9 20 Students listen only to the presentation of

the programme in the recording they are going to work with in Lesson 2 and fill in the blanks with the missing information.

Answers Picture 1 - d. Picture 2 - f. Picture 3 - e. Picture 4 - c. Picture 5 - a. Picture 6 - b.

Answers The following programme is sponsored by Watertech, the company in charge of our drinking water.

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UNIT 2

UNIT 2

++

PAGE 32 LESSON 1 - READING EARTH

2 + (Learning abilities: to identify topic from


visuals / to activate previous knowledge). This kind of exercise encourages students to apply previous knowledge, relates what has been learnt to their own experiences, and stimulates thinking. The whole process of referring to previous knowledge and other learnt subject-matters is called reflective learning. The following graph illustrates the reflective learning and thinking process. Concrete experience (1) Testing in new situations (4) Observation and reflection (2)

Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: the First Conditional (refer to Exercises 1 and 2 on Page 30). how to express invitations and orders (refer to Exercise 3 on Page 30). how to identify types of written texts (refer to Exercise 4 on Page 30). how to identify main ideas in written texts (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 31). the Imperative form (refer to Exercise 6 on Page 31). how to say different types of numbers (refer to Exercises 7 and 8 on Page 31). how to find specific information in an oral text. (refer to Exercise 9 on Page 31).

Forming abstract concepts (3) You can also ask these questions to encourage discussion in the groups. Why is one of the pictures in black and white? When and where were they taken? Ask students to make notes, but do not check answers at this point.

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). Ask students to work in pairs to analyse and compare the information provided. They then investigate the earthquake history of another country (recent earthquakes in Japan, Haiti, Mexico, Indonesia, etc.) and prepare a similar graph for the information found.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION A bar graph may be either horizontal or vertical. The important point to note about bar graphs is their bar length or heightthe greater their length or height, the greater their value. Bar graphs are one of the many techniques used to present data in a visual form so that the reader may readily recognise patterns or trends. Bar graphs usually present numeric variables grouped in class intervals. They consist of an axis and a series or labeled horizontal or vertical bars. The bars depict frequencies of different values of a variable or simply the different values themselves.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Earthquakes are very relevant disasters for Chile, as our country sits on a very active tectonic plate leading to strong movements. Earthquakes are the deadliest of all natural disasters; most deaths are caused by collapsing buildings or fires. Several million earthquakes occur in the world each year; however, many of these are undetected because they occur in remote areas or are very weak. On average, there are 18 major earthquakes and at least one great earthquake each year. On May 22, 1960, the earthquake that struck Valdivia, in the south of Chile, had a magnitude of 9.5 on the Richter scale. This is the strongest earthquake ever recorded. On the previous day, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5 had struck the city of Concepcin. Approximately 130,000 homes and buildings were destroyed, there were 2 million people displaced, the death toll was estimated at 2,000, and 3,000 people were injured. (Some
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sources say 6,000 people were killed). The total loss and damage to property was approximately half a billion dollars (1960 dollars).
Taken from: The largest earthquake in the world. n.d. Retrieved on March 12, 2011, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/ regional/world events/1960_05_22.php

3 + (Learning abilities: to find meaning of key


words / to predict their presence in a text). The concept of key words is one of the most important ones to grasp when trying to optimise reading or listening skills. Increasingly, when looking for information on the Internet, you go to the search engines and you type in some words to describe what you are looking for. These words are key words. Students will come across them in all kinds of everyday activities. It is important to stress that finding the right key words might facilitate both their comprehension and their search for information.
Taken from: Nessel, D., Graham, J. (June 1, 2000). Thinking Strategies for Student Achievement. Skylight Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corbin Press.

At 3:34 am local time on February 27th, 2010, a devastating magnitude 8.8 earthquake struck Chile, one of the strongest earthquakes ever recorded. According to Chilean authorities, over 400 people were killed. The earthquake also triggered a tsunami which propagated across the Pacific Ocean and reached Hawaii.
Taken from: (February 27, 2010). Earthquake in Chile. Retrieved on March 12, 2011 frm http://www.boston.com/ bigpicture/2010/02/earthquake_in_chile.html

A ferocious tsunami, resulting from a 9.0 earthquake slammed Japans eastern coast Friday, killing hundreds of people as it swept away boats, cars, and homes while widespread fires burned out of control. This earthquake occurred nearly exactly a year after the Chilean earthquake on 11 March, 2011. Hours later, the tsunami hit Hawaii and warnings blanketed the Pacific, putting areas on alert as far away as South America, Canada, Alaska, and the entire U.S. West Coast. In Japan, the area around a nuclear power plant in the northeast was evacuated after the reactors cooling system failed. The Japanese authorities confirmed 15,850 deaths, 6,011 injured and 3,287 people missing.
Adapted from: Alabaster, J., Yamaguchi, M. , Hosaka T. A., Kageyama, Y. (March 11, 2011). Japan Earthquake 2011: 8.9 Magnitude Earthquake Hits, 30-Foot Tsunami Triggered. Retrieved on April 10, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/03/11/ japan-earthquake tsunami_n_834380.html

Students read the words in the box and check that they know their meaning. If not, encourage them to ask you or a classmate: what does ____ mean? Then they think how they could be related to the subject of the lesson. In this case, the topic is earth and previous exercises indicate that it is moving earth, in other words, earthquakes. Students form hypotheses and debate their ideas, which are then substantiated once they read the text (confirming, abandoning and rectifying predictions). Do not check answers at this point.

The Richter Scale: a logarithmic scale used to rate the strength or total energy of earthquakes. The scale has no upper limit, but usually ranges from 1 to 9. Because it is logarithmic, an earthquake rated as 5 is ten times as powerful as one rated as 4. An earthquake with a magnitude of 1 is detectable only by seismographs; one with a Magnitude of 7 is a major earthquake. The Richter Scale is named after the American seismologist Charles Francis Richter (1900-1985).
Taken from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Richter+scale

AdditionaL actiVity You can tell students that to place their ideas in easy compartments they may use a concept wheel. Draw one on the board and tell them to copy it into their notebooks. There must be as many compartments as concepts. In this case, the central idea is earthquakes. They then fill the concepts into the compartments and say how each word can be related to the central concept. After they finish, tell them to put one or two more examples into the wheel, for example: disaster, tsunami, weather, etc.

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UNIT 2

UNIT 2

Magnitude

Victims and damage Protection and prevention

If you are interested in starting a school newspaper, you can find great ideas at the following sites, among others:
http://www.suite101.com/content/school-newspaper-ideas http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/LETSNet/noframes/subjects/la/ b6u3.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_3290000/ newsid_3292300/3292327.stm

Related phenomena

Earthquake

Origin Meaning of the words Damage = physical harm = dao. Crowded = having a lot of people or too many people = lleno/a. Epicenter = the point on the earths surface where the effects of an earthquake are felt most strongly = epicentro. Fall = to drop down from a higher level to a lower level = caer. Magnitude = the size of an earthquake = magnitud. Movement = the act of moving = movimiento. Noise = a sound, especially when it is loud, unpleasant or disturbing = ruido. Prevent = to stop something from happening = prevenir. Tsunami = an extremely large tidal wave in the sea = maremoto. Volcano = a mountain with a large opening at the top through which gases and lava are forced out into the air = volcn. Withstand = to be strong enough not to be damaged = soportar. WHILE YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A student newspaper is a newspaper run by students of a university, professional, technical, or other school. School newspapers traditionally cover local and, primarily, school or university news. Working for ones high school newspaper is sometimes an extracurricular activity, but often it is integrated with journalism classes. Some schools have both a basic class, in which students learn about newspapers, and a class that produces the schools newspaper.

4 + (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Students read the text and check their predictions in the ideas they shared and the notes they made in Exercises 2 and 3. Answers 2. The pictures illustrate the Great Chilean Earthquake: Valdivia, 22nd May 1960, and the 27F earthquake: central and southern Chile, 27 February 2010. 3. The words that appear in the text are: crowded, epicentre (with the American spelling, epicenter), fall, magnitude, movement, prevent, tsunami, volcano, and withstand.

5 + (Learning ability: to identify text


organisation). Ask students in what other ways we can organise an interview (chronologically, geographically, by interviewee, etc.). Have they ever carried out and / or written an interview? Who was the interviewee? What was it on? How did they organise it? Answer b. By question.

6 ++ (Learning ability: to relate information).


Tell students that frequently, just by looking at a number we know what it refers to, for example, 2009 (a year), 50 m2 (a surface), etc. There are other indicators that tell us what the number is, for example signs, such as $, %, etc.

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Answers a. Number of houses destroyed in the Valdivia earthquake. b. Number of people left homeless. c. The magnitude of the Valdivia earthquake on the Richter Scale. d. Hours after the earthquake when the Puyehue volcano erupted. e. The year of the Great Chilean Earthquake. f. The highest magnitude on the Richter Scale. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation of reading skills. Feedback: 0 1 correct answer: needs a lot of extra reading work. 2 4 correct answers: good, but could improve with extra reading work. 5 6 correct answers: very good, could try to help classmates who did poorly. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Explain to students that in English, the comma is used as a thousands separator and the period as a decimal separator, exactly the opposite of what we do in Spanish. Read the numbers in the exercise first (notice the use of and after the hundreds). Then tell them to copy and do these exercises in their notebooks. 1. Write these numbers in words. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 2,200: 25.75: 10,000: 22.2: 1,237: 2.5 0.3: 8,497:

c. Twelve thousand five hundred: d. Zero point seventy two: e. Eight thousand six hundred and forty: f. Three thousand: g. Fourteen point sixty four: h. Ninety eight point twenty one: Answers 1. a. Two thousand two hundred. b. Twenty five point seventy five. c. Ten thousand. d. Twenty two point two. e. One thousand, two hundred, and thirty seven. f. Two point five. g. Zero point three. h. Eight thousand, four hundred, and ninety seven. 2. a. 11,238. b. 57.19. c. 12,500. d. 0.72. e. 8,640. f. 3,000. g. 14.64. h. 98.21. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Write these numbers and signs on the board and ask students to read them aloud. a. 23%. b. US$100. c. 24C. d. 50. e. #10. f. 50. Answers a. Twenty three per cent. b. One hundred dollars. c. Twenty four degrees centigrade. d. Fifty euro(s). e. Number ten. f. Fifty pounds.

7 ++ (Learning ability: to discriminate between


correct and incorrect information). Students read the statements and then they go back to the text to check if they are true or false. Ask fast learners to correct the false statements and then share the information with the rest of the class.

2. Write these numbers. a. Eleven thousand two hundred and thirty eight: b. Fifty seven point nineteen:

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UNIT 2

Answers a. True. b. True. c. True. d. False. Valdivia has since been rebuilt. PAGE 33

When we use a different person instead of you, we employ the modal verb should. Examples: If Ron wants to be healthy, he should exercise more. If Sylvia uses the Internet, she shouldnt give her personal details to everybody. More information on the First Conditional plus extra exercises can be found at http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/ elc/StudyZone/330/grammar/1cond.htm and www. englishgrammarsecrets.com/firstconditional/ menu.php Answer 3 a. If you are hungry, get yourself a sandwich. b. If you chat on Messenger, dont reveal your telephone number or address. 4.a. If you are near glass or anything that can fall, move away quickly. b. If you are in a crowded area, do not run for the nearest exit. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can write this table on the board or photocopy it and give it to fast learners. Ask them to match the two parts of these sentences in the First Conditional and write them on the board for the rest of the class to copy. Check answers orally. If there is an emergency, If Fred wants to catch the bus, If the fire alarm goes off, If Brenda buys a new car, If you see Jenny, she should register its licence plate. press the red emergency button. he should run really fast. dont panic and leave the building. tell her I want to talk to her.

8 +++ (Learning ability: to distinguish and


classify explicit and implicit information). See detailed information on inferring on Page 47 of this book and revise the difference between both types of information with students. Answers a. Written in the text. b. Inferred because the earthquake affected areas of Concepcion, Valdivia, and Puerto Montt. c. Inferred as it is expressed in numbers, we can guess it is a numerical scale. AFTER YOU READ
Language Note

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL (continued) More information on the Language Note on Page 8 of the Introduction. In Unit 1, students learnt that we use the First Conditional when we are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and about the result of this condition; there is a real possibility that this condition will happen. They also learnt that we use the Simple Future tense in the clause following the if clause. However, when we want to give an instruction, an order or a recommendation, we often use the First Conditional followed by the Imperative. Examples: If you want to eat, cook something. If you want to finish on time, hurry up. If you watch TV, dont listen to the radio at the same time.

American v/s British English

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that the word is accented differently in each variety of English. If your students are interested in this sort of information about the language, you can add that the word is accented differently when it is a noun, but in both varieties the verb is ad`dress.

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Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

9 17 (Learning abilities: to consolidate a


language point / to imitate a spoken model).

Students complete the conversation individually or in pairs and then compare answers with the recording. Play the recording again for students to listen and repeat the dialogue.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Emergency services telephone numbers. European Union: 112. United Kingdom: 999 / 112. USA, Canada: 911. Australia: 000. Chile: Ambulance: 131, Fire Department: 132, Police: 133. Answer See Transcript below. Did you know that... See Page 8 of the Introduction.

OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME Form groups of four to six students. Give the groups some minutes to invent six sentences like those in Exercise 9, using the First Conditional followed by an Imperative. Check and correct the sentences students produce while you walk around the class. Tell the groups to write each of their sentences in big, clear handwriting on separate pieces of paper, and to cut up each sentence into the two clauses: conditional clause and imperative clause. Organise the exchange of cut up sentences between groups. Once the groups have put together the sentences, they write them on a piece of paper and show them to the authors, who decide if they are correct or not. PAGE 36

10 + (Learning abilities: to consolidate vocabulary


and a language point). 17 This exercise can be done individually or in pairs, giving students the opportunity to discuss what they have learnt. You may need to explain some difficult words or expressions before they read: security warning = security alert; huge = enormous; shoreline = waterside; heeded = paid attention to. Tell students to read the text, then read the recommendations, and then read the text again, trying to insert the recommendations into the corresponding gaps. (a e). Check answers orally. Answers a. Follow these guidelines. b. Turn on your radio to learn if there is a tsunami warning. c. Move inland to higher ground immediately. d. Stay away from the beach. e. Move away immediately. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can make your own gap-filling exercises from English texts, depending on the type of grammar point / vocabulary you want to practise.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Dana has an American accent and Lennox has a British accent. Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox: Dana: Lennox:

Can we predict earthquakes? No, we cant. What will you do if theres an earthquake? Ill drop and look for cover. Who will you phone first of all? Ill phone the Emergency Office. What will you do if the land line isnt working? Ill use my mobile phone. What will you do if someones hurt? Ill call for an ambulance. What if theres no electricity after the earthquake? Ill use matches or a torch. Where will you hide if youre outdoors? Ill hide far away from buildings. What will you do if there are aftershocks? Nothing, just wait for them to end.

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Choose a short, simple, and interesting text in English, such as a popular song, an article, a news item, an excerpt from a story, etc. Copy the text and delete some words in the copy. Your choice of words can be made concentrating on certain types of words prepositions, adjectives, verbs in a certain tense, definite articles, specific vocabulary items or you can delete one in every six, eight, or ten words. Photocopy or write the gapped text on the board and ask students to fill in the gaps correctly. Variation: Students work in pairs. Each student prepares a short text and gives a gapped copy to his / her partner, who will try to fill in the gaps correctly. The author of the gapped text checks the answers.

American v/s British English

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that different words are used in each variety of English. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

12 ++ (Learning ability: to connect topic and


personal experiences). To quote the British Council: group discussion skills are useful for everyday life, as we regularly find ourselves having discussions amongst friends, family, and colleagues. These may vary from very informal chats about day-to-day things, to more serious topics, for example, a discussion about a recent news story or a problem that needs to be solved. Additionally, group discussions are increasingly being used in the job market during interviews and selection procedures. These can take a variety of formats, but the key skills remain very similar. Last but not least, group discussions offer an opportunity for extended speaking and listening practice by all of the contributors. Group discussion practice and skill development is therefore useful for all students. In this exercise, students practise group discussion skills; they read questions that will help them to progress in the discussion and prepare for the writing Application Task. As in all guided discussions, you should play the role of mediator and make sure that the discussion is carried out with respect for other peoples opinions. For further information on team / group dynamics see Page 9 of the Introduction. PAGE 37
Learning tip

11 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more, to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. Answers a. ii. b. iv. c. iii. d. i.

Analyse this Learning tip together with the class before doing the Application Task. Help them to

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notice that in this case they have already brainstormed ideas for the writing assignment (Exercise 12).

13 +++ APPLICATION TASK WRITING

(Learning ability: to write a text organising content and format). For more information on the Application Tasks, see Page 7 of the Introduction. This exercise is based on the group discussion in the previous exercise. The final version of the Earthquake Plan can be done either in class or as homework. Do your best to check each individual assignment, correct errors, and make helpful comments. Encourage students to evaluate their work and reflect on their performance, considering strengths and weaknesses and steps they can take to solve problems. Offer assistance if necessary.

Answers a. If there is a tsunami, try to go as far away from the coast as possible. b. You will find information on earthquake procedures if you look on the Internet. c. If Renata sees an accident, she will call for an ambulance immediately. d. Paul will let us know if there is an emergency.

15 +++ (Learning ability: to reflect on the

contents of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences).

This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of content and language. Tell them to work in groups and share their answers with other groups. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, what am I supposed to learn? early in the process, how am I doing? during the process, and what have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations.

Source: Based on the Minnesota Language Proficiency Assessments and the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines - Writing (Revised 2001-PDF) available as a downloadable PDF file at www.actfl.org

By completing this task, students will: make use of notes taken during a previous activity; identify the purpose of a specific task; discuss ideas with respect for others; do basic Internet research; practise sequencing; elaborate an action plan.

14 + (Learning ability: to identify and apply the use


of the comma in conditional sentences). We use a comma when the if clause is at the beginning of the sentence. Example: If I go to London, I will visit the London Eye. We dont use a comma if the if clause is at the end of the sentence. Example: I will visit the London Eye if I go to London.

Draw students attention to the Internet site where they can see science films about the elements. Encourage them to use the site on their own, but to share the information with you and with their classmates. PAGE 38 LESSON 2 - LISTENING WATER Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

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For this lesson, students should be familiar with: how to say different number to ask and answer questions (refer to Exercises 7 and 8 on Page 31); how to find specific information in oral messages (refer to Exercise 9 on Page 31). This is a very cross-curricular lesson that calls upon the students prior knowledge of things they have learnt in their chemistry and biology classes. The listening text and the activities reinforce and / or revise the students knowledge of these subjects. Go through the BEFORE YOU LISTEN activities very carefully to facilitate the listening tasks. BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). For information on reflective learning, see notes for Exercise 2, Lesson 1 on Page 73. Invite students to look at the pictures carefully and then to get into small groups to describe them in as much detail as possible. Then they read and answer the questions. Check answers orally. Answers a. Water in different locations and uses: Picture 1: people enjoying the water in the sea. Picture 2: water falling in a beautiful cascade. Picture 3: water in bottles / bottled water. Picture 4: a water-purification system. b. It comes from rivers and streams; it needs a process of purification; some people prefer to drink bottled water; bottled water may be parkling (fizzy, bubbly) or still (just like water from the tap). ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY This activity calls on students prior knowledge and can be assigned as a group project. Students choose a topic from different areas of their curriculum and form groups according to the subject they are going to research and present to the class. The possibilities are: maths, history, philosophy / psychology, physics, technology, visual arts, and music.

Each group browses the textbook or discusses the subject they have chosen to decide on one point they want to teach in English. They must decide how they are going to organise the teaching strategically (who does what, what materials they will need) and linguistically (what vocabulary and structures they need for the task). As well as preparing the teaching, they must also prepare a test on the main items that they are going to teach. The test is handed in to the teacher. The group teaches their material to the rest of the class. The teacher gives out the tests, probably with some minor corrections or editing, to be done by the whole class in some subsequent period. (The group who set the exam may or may not be exempt from doing their own test).
Source: Phillips, D., Burwood, S. & Dunford, H. 1999. Projects with Young Learners. Oxford: OUP.

2 + (Learning ability: to identify key words using


knowledge from other areas). Elicit from students the difference between elements and compounds and between symbols and formulas. If necessary, write the definitions on the board, with examples. Read the contents of the ovals aloud and then draw students attention to the difference in colour. Ask them to read the instructions carefully, check that everyone understands what they have to do, and give them a few minutes to do the activity in pairs. Check answers on the board. Answers CaO Calcium oxide. NaClO Sodium hypochlorite. NaOH Sodium hydroxide. FeCl3 Iron or ferric chloride. O3 Ozone. H Hydrogen.

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION Element: a simple chemical substance that consists of atoms of only one type and cannot be split by chemical means into a simpler substance. Examples: gold, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, copper, etc. Compound: a substance formed by a chemical reaction of two or more elements in fixed amounts relative to each other. Examples: ammonia, calcium chloride, carbon monoxide, silver nitrate, etc. Symbol: When writing names of elements, abbreviations are generally used, since they are quicker to write than the names. These abbreviations are called symbols. None of the symbols contain more than two letters; the first one is always capitalised and the second, if any, is always lower case. Examples: H (hydrogen), Cu (copper), C (carbon), Au (gold), Ag (silver), etc. Formula: letters, numbers and symbols that show the parts of a chemical compound. Examples: NH3 (ammonia), CaCl2 (calcium chloride), CO (carbon monoxide), AgNO3 (silver nitrate), etc. http://library.thinkquest.org/3659/pertable/ Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2000. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can ask fast learners to write the symbols and formulas on cards of one colour, and the elements and compounds on cards of another colour to play Memory Game, matching the corresponding cards.

this reason, many cognates are used. Encourage them to identify them in the exercise (reservoir, aeration, chemicals, particulate, odour, micropollutants). Invite them to work in pairs and share the information they find in the dictionary. Play the recording once through, and then play it again, stopping after each word for the students to repeat.

TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION

18

surface store reservoir aeration softening chemicals particulate settle flocs odour micropollutants muddiness harmful layer storage supply
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Flocs are small solid particles formed in a liquid through precipitation or aggregation of suspended particles. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas or liquid.
American v/s British English

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice the different spelling of the same word. You can ask keener students to write more examples of the same difference on the board. Other examples: flavor flavour; neighbor neighbour; rumor rumour; labor labour; behavior behaviour; harbor harbour, etc. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

3 + 18 (Learning ability: to identify key words

connecting their written and spoken form / to practise pronunciation of key words).

4 + 19 (Learning ability: to identify and practise

First, read the words aloud and ask students to repeat them. Then give them some time to look up the meaning of those they do not know. Help them to notice that the text they are going to listen to contains scientific information; for

a pronunciation element that may interfere with comprehension).

A silent letter is a letter that does not correspond to any sound in the pronunciation of the word. Silent letters create problems for both native and non-native speakers of a

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UNIT 2

language, as they make it more difficult to guess the spelling of spoken words. It is thus important to practise such words with students in order to improve both their pronunciation and their spelling. Answers In this exercise, all the words have a silent t. castle /`ksl/ chestnut /`tesnt/ Christmas /`kr I sms/ fasten /`fsn/ listen /`l I sn/ mortgage /`m g I d / mustnt /`msnt/ often / fn/ soften /`s fn/ whistle /`w I sl/

Starting in the 1950s, Popeil began using 30-second, 60-second, 90-second and 120-second television spots to sell his inexpensive array of useful products, including the Pocket Fisherman and the Veg-O-Matic food slicer. Long-form DRTV followed in the mid-70s. According to statistics, on average, 250,000 infomercials air each month on the eight U.S. broadcast networks, their 1,600 affiliates and 36 national cable channels, dominating the small screen between the hours of 1 a.m to 9 a.m. The infomercial industry is booming, enjoying $91 billion dollars a year in sales in the United States alone. On British television, infomercials are not as popular as in the USA, but they are still a mega-earning business. They are usually known as paid programming or teleshopping (a term coined in the eighties). Until 2009, the UK permitted neither paid infomercials nor teleshopping on mainstream network television, but in 2009 allowed up to three hours of infomercials a day on all channels.

5 (Learning ability: to make predictions).


Inform students that they are going to listen to a special presentation. Based on the previous activities and on the pictures in Exercise 1, students try to predict the topic of the presentation, choosing from the provided alternatives. Do not check answers at this point. PAGE 39 WHILE YOU LISTEN Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. BACKROUND INFORMATION This presentation on television is an infomercial a long advertisement that tries to give a lot of information about a subject, so that it does not appear to be an advertisement. In this case, it is a scientific presentation with an expert talking to a live audience of students. An Infomercial is a piece of television programming that everybody has seen at least once; they are short, usually less than 30-minute programmes that tell us about the unique qualities of a product we usually would not have bought. They are also known as direct-response television, or DRTV. It is claimed that the first infomercial for a commercial product, a blender, appeared in 1949 or 1950, but the real pioneer of the short form was an inventor named Ron Popeil.

6 + 20 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Play the recording of the infomercial once through for students to check their prediction in Exercise 5. If you notice that most students have identified the correct topic before finishing the first listening, stop the recording and check their answers. Answer c.

7 ++ 20 (Learning ability: to discriminate


between correct and incorrect information).

Read the questions and the alternatives with the class and then play the recording again, once or twice, for students to identify the correct answers. Answers a. A radio or TV programme. b. Nick Rogers.

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8 ++ 20 (Learning ability: to identify speakers


using provided information). Elicit from students the number of people they identified in the previous listening activities, and their roles. Ask them to write these names on the board: Presenter, Expert, Student. You can ask keener students to also write the number of the student, 1, 2 or 3. Play the recording once or twice again and then check answers on the board. Answers a. Presenter. b. Student (1). c. Student (3). d. Student (2). e. Expert. f. Expert.

b. Before listening again, students must check which elements and compounds from Exercise 2 are already written in the diagram. Once they have identified which of them they have to insert, play the presentation again for them to find in which of the two empty rectangles each one should go. Answers Stage 2, step d: FeCl3 iron or ferric chloride. Stage 5, step i: NaClO - sodium hypochlorite.

10 +++ 20 (Learning ability: to find


specific information). By now, students have listened to the presentation several times, fast learners may be prepared to answer these questions without listening again. If this is the case, read the questions with the whole class and ask those fast learners to put up their hands when they hear the answer to the first question, stop the recording and check their answer. Do the same with the second question. If you notice that the students have got tired of listening to the presentation, skip this activity; you can do it the following class, as part of revision. Answers The water that comes from rivers, lakes and streams. If there is natural filtration, softening /`s fnI / will take place naturally.

9 ++ 20 (Learning ability: to transfer


information to a graphic organiser). This activity requires concentration and careful preparation. Read the instructions with the class and make sure they understand the items they have to choose from to complete the information in the diagram. a. Read the items in the box aloud and ask students to repeat them, to help them to get familiar with what the words sound like. Read the parts of the process that already have a name (Steps a., c., e., g., i., and k.). Students now have to listen and put the names in the box in the empty slots: Steps b., d., f., h., and j. Play the recording once or twice for students to do this task. Ask them to compare answers with a partner before checking them orally. Answers Step b. Microfiltration in drum filters. Step d. Removal of flocs. Step f. Disinfection. Step h. Active carbon filtration. Step j. Aeration.

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20 TRANSCRIPT LISTENING WATER The speakers have a British accent Presenter: The following programme is sponsored by Watertech, the company in charge of our drinking water. With you, their expert, Nick Rogers. Nick: The diagram on the screen explains the purification of surface water, the water that comes from rivers, lakes, and streams. All the stages in the diagram have a number and the steps in each stage have a letter. Stage 1 is prefiltration. In Step a., water is stored in reservoirs, where aeration, softening, and pH- adjustments take place. Step b. is rapid sand filtration or microfiltration in drum filters. Student 1: Stage 2 looks complicated. What is it? Nick: Its the addition of chemicals. Student 2: Chemicals? What for? Nick: Look at letter c. If we add calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide, there will be pH adjustment. Look at letter d.; when we add iron chloride, we will remove humid acids and suspended particulate matter. Separators then settle and remove flocs. Student 3: What is Step e.? Nick: When water is placed in a reservoir, there will be softening through natural aeration or using sodium hydroxide. If there is natural filtration, softening will take place naturally. Student 1: What is Stage 3? Nick: Stage 3, Step f. is disinfection, using either sodium hypochlorite or ozone. If ozone is used, it will kill bacteria and viruses, it will improve taste and odour properties, and break down micropollutants. Student 2: Why is the picture in Stage 4 very similar to that in Stage 1? Nick: Stage 4 is the process of fine filtration, while Stage 1 was pre-filtration. Step g. shows slow sand filtration to remove residual muddiness and harmful bacteria. Notice that if sand filters are backwashed with water and air every day, they will keep their filtrating capacity for a long time.

Student 3: What is Step h.? Nick: Active carbon filtration. Unless water streams through a granular activated carbon layer in a filter, it will retain particles affecting taste and odour. Student 1: What is Stage 5? Nick: Preservation and storage. When we add sodium hypochlorite in Step i., we will guarantee the preservation of quality. The water is now ready to be distributed to users. Step j. is aeration. If there is aeration, we will recover the oxygen supply of the water before storing it. Step k. shows that the remaining water is stored in drinking water reservoirs. In our next session, Ill explain (fade)
PAGE 40 AFTER YOU LISTEN Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

11 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate key


vocabulary / to synthesise information). Ask some students to copy the diagram on the board, while others contribute information and write some clues on the board for each stage and step of the process. Give groups some time to complete their summaries and help and correct while walking around the class. Check that students use appropriate verbs in their descriptions (See transcript).
Language Note

CONNECTORS OF CONDITION For more information on the Language Note, see Page 8 of the Introduction. This section provides information on connectors of conditions such as when, if and unless. To talk about repeated predictable actions, in the sense of whenever, we can use if or when; it does not really matter which one we use, as there is very little difference in meaning.
ADVICE AND SUPPORT

85

When Im broke, I borrow money from my mother. I borrow money from my mother if Im hard-up. Whenever Im short of cash, I borrow money from my mother. Unless means the same as if... not. Like if, it is followed by a present tense if the sentence is in the First Conditional; it is used instead of if not in conditional sentences of all types. The same punctuation rules apply as in the case of if. Unless Sandra hurries up, we wont arrive in time. We wont go unless Henry invites us himself. Encourage students to collect more examples from the listening text. If necessary, play the recording again. Additional practice can be found at http://www. tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/ exercise-english-45666.php Possible answers If we add calcium oxide and sodium hydroxide, there will be pH adjustment. When we add FeCl3 iron chloride we will remove humid acids and suspended particulate matter. If ozone is used, it will kill bacteria and viruses. If sand filters are backwashed with water and air every day, they will keep their filtering capacity for a long time. When we add sodium hypochlorite in Step i., we will guarantee the preservation of quality. If there is aeration, we will recover the oxygen supply of the water before storing it.

Answers a. Unless you pay attention, you will not understand the explanation. You will not understand the explanation unless you pay attention. b. We will not give Jim the chemicals unless he asks politely. Unless Jim asks politely, we will not give him the chemicals. c. Unless Kelly sends the information now, it will not arrive before the meeting. The information will not arrive before the meeting unless Kelly sends it now. d. I will not let anyone take part in the experiment unless I know who they are. Unless I know who they are, I will not let anyone take part in the experiment. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation of connectors of condition. Ask students to write all the sentences with unless at the beginning and in the middle of the sentence. Feedback: 0 2 correct answers: needs a lot of extra grammar work. 3 5 correct answers: good, but could improve with extra grammar work. 5 6 correct answers: very good, could try to help classmates who did poorly. PAGE 41

13 21 QUICK SELF-CHECK / ORAL PRACTICE

(Learning abilities: to complete a monologue / to imitate a spoken model / to evaluate learning).

12 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a language


point). Once students have become familiar with the material included in the Language Note, they work in pairs and rewrite the sentences in their notebooks using unless. To check answers, ask different students to write the new sentences on the board.

This Quick Self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you can offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind.

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If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more, to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. This exercise has two components. First, students have to apply the First Conditional and their general knowledge of the language to fill in the blanks in the monologue, and then they have to role play it. Give them time to read the incomplete monologue carefully and then to complete it. Walk around the classroom, checking their answers as they finish. Give them one point for each correctly completed blank. Then play the recording for them to listen and repeat. Give students a few minutes to practise the monologue in groups of three and then ask them to role play it. Each member of the group can practise and role play one paragraph of the monologue. If there is time, ask all groups to role play in front of the class and assign between 1 and 10 points to their performance. If not, ask students to get together with another group and to evaluate each others performance in the same way. To evaluate students performance in the role play you / students can use the chart in Exercise14. Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT QUICK SELF-CHECK / ORAL PRACTICE 21 Claire has a British accent. Claire: What a horrible day! Oh! Im feeling low, the sky looks dark and the weather man said itll rain soon. If it rains, Ill have to stay at home. If I stay at home, Ill get really bored. Perhaps if I call my friend Elaine, we can do something; if shes free, shell come over; if she comes over well rent a DVD, or just talk. Yes, thats what Ill do. Ill definitely phone Elaine. Oh, but what if Elaine isnt free? What if she has something important to do? Maybe Ill have to stay at home alone and get bored. If that happens, Ill be really upset!

14 +++ APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING

(Learning ability: to describe a picture in detail, sharing ideas and knowledge).

For more information on the Application Tasks, see Page 7 of the Introduction. Read the instructions carefully with the class, making sure they know what they have to do in each of the steps. Help them to choose one of the pictures on Page 38, Exercise 1, and try to get at least two groups working with the same picture. Remember that the process of discussion and preparation of the task is as important as the final product, so encourage the groups to use English as much as possible, and to use their imagination to add details to what they can actually see in the pictures. Assign a time limit to the preparation of the descriptions. Once they have finished, go through the evaluation criteria with the class and form pairs of groups that worked with the same picture. Tell them to say their descriptions and to evaluate each other using the evaluation chart. Take this opportunity to emphasise the importance of fair play, respect for other peoples performance, and respectful silence to listen to their classmates.
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By completing this task students will: participate in team work; describe pictures in detail; practise speaking in public; practise peer evaluation. discuss the contents of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences, valuing different learning strategies). This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of content and language. Tell them to work in groups and share their answers with other groups. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations. In this case, questions a., b. and c. invite students to reflect on what / how they have learnt, and question d. promotes reflection and discussion comparing what they learnt in the unit and their own reality. PAGES 42 - 43 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES

they read and use the words and expressions in different colours in the text to write their definite version of the complete diagram. Answers a. precipitation. c. hail. e. suns heat. g. transpiration. i. rivers and streams. b. snow. d. rain. f. run off. h. condensation. j. lakes and oceans.

15 +++ (Learning ability: to reflect on and to

AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to the pronunciation of the last syllable in the words ending in tion, all of them with a soft sibilant sound, like the one we use to request silence / /. Read these words aloud for students to listen and repeat. abbreviation benediction - communication definition election function generation hallucination immigration junction legislation migration narration obligation - plantation quantification radiation station translation undulation vaccination - westernisation.

2 You can ask the whole class to find the answers

to these questions. Alternatively, you can divide the class into two groups. Each group answers one question and then they share their answers, or you can ask fast finishers to do it.

For more information on this section, see Page 8 of the Introduction.

Answers a. Vapour, liquid water, rain, hail, snow. b. Because water does not disappear, but changes from one form to another, and moves from one place to another.

1 Students should be familiar with the water cycle

3 Tell students to study the schedule before doing


the exercise. Students work in pairs. Encourage them to take turns to ask and answer, giving full answers to each of the questions. Example: If I play volleyball on Monday, I will not be able to take drama club or communication skills.

from their science lessons, so this activity should be fairly easy for them. If necessary, you can ask them to work in groups and describe the cycle in Spanish, trying to identify the words they would need to fill in the blanks in the diagram. Then

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UNIT 2

Answers a. If I play volleyball on Monday, I will not be able to take drama club or communication skills. b. If I take guitar classes, I will go twice a week. c. If I take guitar classes, I will need my own guitar. d. If I go to basketball on Tuesday, I will not (wont) be able to play football. e. If I take Drama Club on Monday, I will also go on Tuesday.

PAGE 45 CHILEAN CONNECTION For more information on this section, see Page 8 of the Introduction. One of the most important requisites for language teachers is to incorporate cultural material into their teaching, both from the target language and from their own mother tongue culture. This way, students will be able to compare their daily reality with the new reality they are learning about. The objective of this section is to provide students with samples of their own culture, but in the target language. Students work in pairs or small groups. This is a particularly challenging text, so be prepared to provide support, help with vocabulary, or have dictionaries at hand. You can also elicit / give some key vocabulary before students begin to read: Free trade agreement = acuerdo de libre comercio Strengthen = reforzar Measures = medidas To guide students reading, you can write questions like these on the board for students to read the text and find the answers. You can check answers orally with the whole class, or ask students to compare answers with other pairs / groups. Avoid using these questions as a testing device; their purpose is to help students to read and find the answers, focusing their attention on particular points. Questions and answers Which countries are mentioned in this text? Chile and Canada. Why are they mentioned? Because they signed a free trade agreement. When did this happen? In February 1997. What two parallel agreements does this agreement contain? An agreement of work-related cooperation and an agreement of environmental cooperation. What are the main objectives of the agreement? To strengthen cooperation between both countries and to ensure the efficient application of internal environmental laws and regulations.
TWO OF THE ELEMENTS

4 Students work in pairs, examine and describe


each picture carefully and then complete the dialogues according to the pictures.

Answers a. If there is another tremor, that wall will collapse / fall down. b. If you dont like tap water, you can drink bottled water / mineral water. c. Of course we will, unless it is raining / it is very cold / the weather is horrible. PAGES 44 - 45 JUST FOR FUN For more information on the JUST FOR FUN section, see Page 8 of the Introduction. Students can work in pairs or small groups and check their answers on their own, using the answers provided in their book. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to question 7 of the questionnaire: What do we call a person who studies the stars? There may be a risk of negative transfer from Spanish, leading learners to say How do we call? Ask students to work in pairs and write two more questions. They can refer to jobs, parts of the body, objects, etc. Possible questions What do you call a person who repairs cars / takes photos / designs clothes / drives a bus /cooks professionally? What do you call this in English? (pointing at object or part of the body).

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What other important points are also mentioned? The promotion of sustainable development, cooperation in conservation, protection and improvement of the environment, the promotion of effective and economically efficient environmental measures. What is an important aspect of the agreement of environmental cooperation? The promotion of transparency and the public participation in environmental management. What have Chile and Canada done in connection with this? Both countries have created web sites of the agreement. What for? To provide clear and updated information on the subject. PAGES 46 - 48 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE READING RYANS STORY 1. c. 2. a. 1998: the year Ryan learnt that people did not have clean water to drink. He decided that raising money for these people would be a good thing and worked for four months to earn some money. b. US$70: the first money Ryan earned to help people who didnt have clean water to drink. c. 16: the number of countries that have received water and sanitation projects from Ryans foundation. SPEAKING 10. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Talked to a partner using all the expressions suggested. Talked to a partner using most of the expressions suggested. Talked to a partner using some of the expressions suggested. Tried to talk to a partner, but used very few or none of the expressions suggested.
UNIT 2

d. 621,712: the number of people who have benefited from Ryans project. 3. a. False. b. False. c. True. d. True. 4. a. To earn money to build a well / to help people who were dying because they didnt have clean water to drink. b. The need for clean water around the world. c. He plays basketball and ice hockey, and loves playing video games. d. He will be attending the University of Kings College in Halifax, Nova Scotia. 23 LISTENING A RADIO QUIZ 5. a. ii. b. i. c. ii. d. ii. e. i. 6. a. Music. b. tickets. c. disco. d. before. e. line. 7. a. the Rolling Stones. b. Maroon Five. c. on the line. d. Seventeen. e. songs. LANGUAGE 8. a. If / When the weather is good, we will go to the seaside. b. When / If he knocks on the door, I / someone will open the door. / Unless he knocks on the door, nobody will open the door. / I wont open the door. c. If / When you give me some money, I will wash the dishes. Unless you give me some money, I will not wash the dishes. I will not wash the dishes unless you give me some money. 9. a. If. b. Unless. c. Unless.

Score 4 3 2 1

Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension.

Score 3 2 1 0

Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation.

Score 3 2 1 0

Final Score

90

UNIT 2

WRITING 11. Students use the information in the interview in Lesson 1 to write a letter. Draw students attention to the number of words the letter should have in each paragraph and in total. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Changed the whole interview into a correct letter. Changed most of the interview into an appropriate letter. Changed some of the interview into an acceptable letter. Changed very little of the interview into a letter. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. 23 Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and letter format. A few spelling mistakes, slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes, rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes, incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final Score

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING A RADIO QUIZ

The presenter speaks with a British accent. Jenna speaks with a Scottish accent. Jack speaks with an American accent. Presenter: The prize, a Maroon Five concert ticket for two, is sponsored by the Music Netline. Remember, if you answer the question correctly, you can get two tickets to a concert. So call us now and in the meantime, Ill repeat the question: Which popular band from the 70s is named after the elements? Yes. I hear we have the first caller. Hello, there! Whats your name? Jenna: Jenna. Presenter: So, Jenna, whats the answer to our question? Jenna: Im not that sure, but I think it must be the Rolling Stones. Presenter: Sorry, Jenna. Wrong answer, so therell be no tickets for you tonight. Jenna: What a pity! I really love Maroon Five. Presenter: Maybe next time. Here comes the question again: Which popular 70s band is named after the elements? I can also add that they played a fusion of disco, funk, and jazz. And here comes a small sample of their music. Come on, the questions really easy. Yes? Another caller. Whats your name? Hello? I think were having some technical problems. Sorry, no luck.

Yes, we have somebody else on the line. Jack: Hi, Jack here. I think I know the answer. Presenter: Now, are you sure? Jack: Well, Im pretty certain. Of course, its a band that played long before my time. Presenter: How old are you, Jack? Jack: Seventeen. Presenter: Yes, its a band your dad probably listened to. Jack: Actually, it was my mother, and I think its Earth, Wind, and Fire. Am I right? Presenter: Absolutely! Three elements out of four. And what a band it was! Jack, you win two tickets to a Maroon Five concert on Sunday in Detroit. Please stay on the line to take your details. And you, listeners enjoy a few more songs with this band.
PAGE 48 FINAL REFLECTION Give students enough time to analyse what they have done and learnt in this unit. Encourage them to follow the tips suggested and to share ideas in their groups. PAGE 49 SELF EVALUATION See notes on this section on Page 9 of the Introduction.

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Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation sheet with students. Remind them that there are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE. For YOUR TEST RESULTS, they have to work out their score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read their results, and reflect on them. Help them to think of what they can do to improve results, solve problems, give or get help, etc. PAGES 50 - 51 SYNTHESIS TESTS UNITS 1 & 2 Answers READING - TWO LETTERS These two texts are in American English. 1. a. I. b. I. c. II. d. II. 2. a. upstairs or in a high place. b. calm / reassure. c. people than to property. d. in danger.

24 LISTENING A NEW ROLE 3. a. The interviewer. b. Miley. c. The interviewer. d. The interviewer. e. Miley. 4. a. teen. b. nearly. c. leaves. d. cool . LANGUAGE 5. a. If you dont listen to the radio all the time, you will not know if the flood is subsiding. You will not know if the flood is subsiding if you dont listen to the radio all the time. b. If you dont stay calm and relaxed, others around you will panic. Others around you will panic if you dont stay calm and relaxed. 6. a. iii. b. ii. c. i. 7. a. therefore. b. although. c. so.

WRITING 8. Students use the information in the units and in the test to write advice on what to do if there is an earthquake. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote appropriate advice in the whole letter. Wrote appropriate advice in most of the letter. Wrote appropriate advice in some parts of the letter. Most of the advice in the letter is inappropriate. Score 3 2 1 0 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and letter format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final Score

92

UNIT 2

UNIT 2

SPEAKING 9. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Talked to a partner about natural disasters, offering appropriate advice and tips. Talked to a partner about natural disasters, offering mostly appropriate advice and tips. Talked to a partner about natural disasters, offering some appropriate advice and tips. Tried to talk to a partner about natural disasters, but couldnt offer appropriate advice and tips. Score 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 Presentation Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 2 1.5 1 Final Score

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - A NEW ROLE

24

Miley:

Both speakers have an American accent. The script also uses American spelling and vocabulary: favorite, a`dult, movie, meter, center, learned. Please note that the girl is not Miley Cyrus, but a professional actress. Interviewer: Favorite teen sensation Miley Cyrus has walked away from her previous roles to embrace a new coming of age. For her first adult role in The Last Song, she shares an on-screen romance with co-star and ex boyfriend Liam Hemsworth. Was that very awkward, Miley? Miley: In the movie, I had to kiss him, which was no problem, but the uncomfortable thing was that I had to stand on a box because Liam is nearly two meters tall! Interviewer: In the movie, you play a teen who reluctantly leaves her home in New York to spend the summer with her father in a small southern beach town, where she unexpectedly finds romance. I understand the script was written especially for you.

Yes, can you imagine? It felt really cool. In fact, I was blown away; a movie written especially for me! Interviewer: The movie centers on a death in the family and I understand you drew on a personal experience. Miley: It was hard because certain scenes made me think about the time when I lost my best friend. When she passed away a while ago, there were moments when I couldnt breathe and I felt sick. I couldnt even switch on the TV because I thought of nothing else but her, but making the movie made me appreciate my own family more. I learned to never let a day go by without telling my family that I love them. I dont know what Id do if anything happened to my parents. My heart hurts just thinking about it.

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PHOTOCOPIABLE ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY UNIT 2 Lesson 2 The First Conditional

63 49 48 33 32 17 16
Global enGlish 3o MEDIO

62 51 46 35 30 19 14 3

61 52 45 36 29 20 13 4

60 53 44 37 28 21 12 5

59 54 43 38 27 22 11 6

58 55 42 39 26 23 10 7

57 56 41 40 25 24 9 8

50 47 34 31 18 15 2

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Snake: go down. Ladder: go up. Sun: move forward 3 spaces. Write the short instructions above on the board. Tell students to work in groups and re-write the instructions in the First Conditional using if, when and unless. Photocopy the snake and ladders board by the number of groups in the classroom. Examples: If you land on number 29, you should go up. When you land on a snake, you must go down. Unless you land on a sun, you cannot move forward 3 spaces.

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UNIT 2

ADDITIONAL READING TEXT UNIT 2 To build a fire (abridged version)


I The man walks down the trail on a cold, gray day. Pure white snow and ice cover the earth for as far as he can see. This is his first winter in Alaska. He is wearing heavy clothes and fur boots, but he still feels cold and uncomfortable. The man is on his way to a camp near Henderson Creek. His friends are already there. If he hurries, he will reach Henderson Creek by six o'clock this evening. It will be dark by then. His friends will have a fire and hot food ready for him. A dog walks behind the man. It is a big gray animal, half dog and half wolf. The dog does not like the extreme cold; it knows the weather is too cold to travel. II The man continues to walk down the trail. He comes to a frozen stream called Indian Creek. He begins to walk on the snow-covered ice. It is a trail that will lead him straight to Henderson Creek and his friends. As he walks, he looks carefully at the ice in front of him. Once, he stops suddenly, and then walks around a part of the frozen stream. The ice is thin. If he steps there, he will break through the ice into a pool of water. To get his boots wet in such cold weather might kill him. His feet will turn to ice quickly, he could freeze to death. III At about twelve o'clock, the man decides to stop to eat his lunch. He takes off the glove on his right hand. He opens his jacket and shirt, and pulls out his bread and meat. This takes less than twenty seconds. Yet, his fingers begin to freeze. He makes a fire, beginning with small pieces of wood and adding larger ones. He sits on a snow-covered log and eats his lunch. He enjoys the warm fire for a few minutes. Then he stands up and starts walking on the frozen stream again. IV Half an hour later, it happens. At a place where the snow seems very solid, the ice breaks. The man's feet sink into the water. It is not deep, but his legs get wet to the knees. The man is angry. The accident will delay his arrival at the camp. He will have to build a fire now to dry his clothes and boots. He walks over to some small trees. He puts several large pieces of wood on the snow, under one of the trees. He pulls off his gloves, takes out his matches, and lights the fire. He feeds the young flame with more wood. As the fire grows stronger, he gives it larger pieces of wood. V He works slowly and carefully. At sixty degrees below zero, a man with wet feet must not fail in his first attempt to build a fire. While he was walking, his blood kept all his body warm. Now that he has stopped, cold is forcing his blood to withdraw deeper into his body. His wet feet have frozen. He cannot feel his fingers. His nose is frozen, too. The skin all over his body feels cold. Now, however, his fire is beginning to burn more strongly. He is safe. He sits under the tree and thinks of the old men in Fairbanks. The old men told him that no man should travel alone in the Yukon when the temperature is sixty degrees below zero. Yet here he is. He has had an accident. He is alone. And he has saved himself. He has built a fire. Those old men are weak, he thinks. A real man can travel alone. If a man stays calm, he will be all right. The man's boots are covered with ice. Suddenly, without warning, a heavy mass of snow drops down. His movement has shaken the young tree only a tiny bit, but it is enough to cause the branches of the tree to drop their heavy load. The man is shocked. He sits and looks at the place where the fire was. He holds the blazing matches to a piece of wood. After a while, he becomes aware that he can smell his hands burning. Then he begins to feel the pain. He opens his hands, and the blazing matches fall on to the snow. The flame goes out in a puff of gray smoke.
Global English 3o MEDIO

VI

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VII The man looks up; the dog is still watching him. The man gets an idea. He will kill the dog and bury his hands inside its warm body. When the feeling comes back to his fingers, he can build another fire. He calls to the dog. The dog hears danger in the man's voice; it backs away. The man calls again; this time the dog comes closer. The man reaches for his knife, but he has forgotten that he cannot bend his fingers. He cannot kill the dog because he cannot hold his knife. VIII The fear of death comes over the man. He jumps up and begins to run. He feels warm. If he runs far enough, he will reach his friends at Henderson Creek. They will take care of him. It feels strange to run and not feel his feet when they hit the ground. He falls several times. He decides to rest a while. As he is lying in the snow, he notices that he is not

shaking. He cant feel his nose, or fingers, or feet. Yet, he is feeling quite warm and comfortable. He realises he is going to die. The man closes his eyes and floats into the most comfortable sleep he has ever known. IX The dog sits facing him, waiting. Finally, the dog moves closer to the man and catches the smell of death. The animal throws back its head. It lets out a long, soft cry to the cold stars in the black sky. And then it turns and runs toward Henderson Creek, where it knows there is food and a good fire.

Source: London, J. (1902), (adapted by de Sanctis D. for the Voice of America Radio). To build a fire. Retrieved on February 16, 2012, from http://www.voanews.com/learningenglish/ home/a-23-2009-01-10-voa1-83143117.html

1. In Unit 2 you learnt about the elements and natural disasters. What element is the short story about? a. The weather. b. Snow. c. Fire. 2. Why do you think we never know the mans or the dogs name? a. The writer didnt know their names. b. The writer wanted to protect their identify. c. The writer wanted us to think that this situation could happen to anybody.
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3. Read the story again and copy all the sentences in the First Conditional.

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UNIT 2

UNIT 2

EXTRA TEST UNIT 2


READING - AN EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION PLAN

-Original Message @gmail.com ] Sofia [mailto: sofia2012 From: 12, 13:52 Wednesday, July 13, 20 Sent: James Oswald To: plan Earthquake protection Subject: Dear James, quake. dents if there is an earth stu its ct ote pr to es tri school d us about an You asked me how my ergency Office who tol Em al loc r ou m fro r ito vital points Today we had a vis e. He told us about some ak qu rth ea an of se ca edures. evacuation plan in the nning evacuation proc pla en wh nd mi in ep we must ke d with tes with our teachers an nu mi few a e tak ld ou we sh that a good idea First of all, he suggested uation plan. He told us ac ev an ss scu di to me ld walk our families at ho or school. Then we shou me ho r ou of n pla or n a second would be to sketch a flo ls. Next, we should pla tai de n tio ua ac ev ss discu id that if we needed through each room and possible. The expert sa if a, are or om ro ch ea to mark where way to exit from it would be a good idea r, de lad pe ro a as ch ergency special equipment, su the place where our em n pla e th on rk ma to us it is located. He asked are located. s, and fire extinguishers kit aid stfood, water, fir ilys or the location of our fam e cid de to is do to s nt thing of us are able to One of the most importa must make sure that all e W . ce pla ng eti me r our groups outdoo leave the building. rtant must write down impo we , dy rea n pla l oo sch e or dical centres. The Once we have the hous fire, paramedics, and me e, lic po as ch su , ers ighbours and telephone numb the numbers of our ne ve ha to ea id od go a s me, such as expert also said it wa had no access to our ho we se ca in ed ne t gh on. some information we mi to take regularly, and so ed ne we ns tio ca di me er, the car registration numb there was an thing could be done if no at th t gh ou th I it, ourselves. Before the experts vis lots of things to protect do n ca we at th re su am dically, everybody earthquake, but now I rthquakes happen perio ea ere wh rs, ou as ch In a country su should be prepared. e contact your if you need more, pleas d, an l efu us n tio ma or I hope you find this inf local Emergency Office. Love Sofia
English Created by: Author and editors

TWO OF THE ELEMENTS

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Global English 3o MEDIO

1 Read the text and answer these questions.


4 pts. a. Where is the school visitor from? b. What special equipment is mentioned in the mail? c. Why do we need to prepare ourselves for earthquakes? d. What numbers should we have at hand if there is an emergency?

LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME

2 Read the text again. Underline and correct the


false information in these sentences.

3 pts.

a. First of all, he suggested we should take a few minutes with the Emergency Officers to discuss an evacuation plan. b. He asked us to mark on the plan the place where our family members are located. c. We must write down important addresses, such as police, fire, paramedics, and medical centres.

4 25 Listen and circle the word you hear. 5 pts.


a. There was sand / sound, and hills, and rings. b. It felt good to be out of the city / rain. c. I was looking at the river bank / bed. d. After nine days, I let the horse run far / free. e. Under the cities, lies a heart made of gold / ground.

3 Read the mail once more and find phrases used


by the writer that mean the same as these. a. Decide where you are going to meet.    b. We should consider an alternative way to get out of each room or area.      
Global English 3o MEDIO

3 pts.

5 25 Listen again and fill in each blank with


one word.

5 pts.

a. On the first part of the journey the person saw , and , and , and things. b. According to the poem, the a desert with its LANGUAGE is underground.

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6 Choose the best option to complete the


sentences.

5 pts.

c. We should make a picture of the floor.

a. If Oliver doesnt phone you today, i. he will do it tomorrow. ii. he will go to the party. b. If you give me a 10% discount, i. I will not return. ii. I will buy two of those.

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UNIT 2

UNIT 2

c. Unless you ask Florence politely, i. she will not help you. ii. she will talk to you. d. When people get together, i. there is trouble. ii. they can achieve great things. e. Unless Vance works really hard, i. he will pass the test. ii. he will not pass the test.

SPEAKING

8 Take turns to ask and answer these questions.


10 pts. a. What will you do if you get a poor mark in this test? b. Who will you phone if you know you are going to get home late? c. Where will you go if you want to celebrate your birthday? d. What will you say if you meet your ex boyfriend / girlfriend in the street? e. Where will you go if you want to buy tickets for a very popular concert? WRITING

7 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with when, if


or unless. a. 5 pts. you do your homework now, youll be free all day tomorrow. we tell her b. Joanna will be sad the dog has run away. c. Youll be really tired tomorrow you dont go to bed soon. you do it well, I wont be able d. to accept your work. Irene keeps practising, shell e. get better.

9 Choose one of these issues and prepare an


action plan. Do not use more than 60 words. 10 pts. a. A fire prevention plan. b. An evacuation plan. c. A school anniversary celebration plan.
0 to 10 11 to 24 25 to 37 38 to 50 50 PTS

Keep trying

ReVieW

Well doNe! EXCelleNt!

TOTAL
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UNIT

PROFESSIONS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
READING: to read CVs and other types of related texts such as tips and articles that contain the communicative functions of expressing suggestions and recommendations and offering and applying for jobs, consider the importance of writing the appropriate CV and of observing correct professional conduct, and predict and validate predictions by scanning. find specific information by matching titles and headings with extended information. relate and summarise contents using written texts and pictures. WRITING: to write a Curriculum Vitae following a provided model, using a computer application. LISTENING: to listen to job advertisements on the radio that contain the communicative functions of describing jobs and offering suggestions and recommendations, consider the importance of relating the right person and the right job, and discover the order in which information is mentioned by numbering items. identify specific information and transfer it into graphic organisers. discriminate between correct and incorrect information by choosing correct alternatives. SPEAKING: to prepare for and role play a job interview as an interviewer and as an interviewee, asking for and offering suggestions and recommendations.

DIdACTIC RESOURCES ANd METHOdOLOGY TIPS If available, use of complementary material such as English language newspapers and magazines with the classified ads section and other job advertisements. A good online source is http://www.jobisjob.co. uk and http://www.job4good.com. For comparison, you can use Chilean magazines and newspapers with job offers. Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes.

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UNIT 3

PAGE 52 INTRODUCTION Invite students to examine and describe the photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of the unit and make comments on the things they already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. Elicit from students what values they think will be paid more attention to and ask them to anticipate what issues will be discussed in connection with them. Always remember that the learning styles of your students vary. Auditory learners prefer to receive ideas and information by hearing them. These students may struggle with reading and writing, but are really good at memorising spoken words such as lyrics. Visual learners prefer to receive information by seeing it. Typically these students pay a lot of attention to detail. They are less likely to speak in class than auditory learners. Use lots of visual aids with such students. Kinaesthetic-Tactile learners learn best via movement and touch. These students are often labelled hyperactive because they tend to move around a great deal. They may take many notes and learn best when allowed to associate contents with physical movement. PAGE 53 GETTING INTO THe UNIT

Discuss with students or ask them to talk in groups about the jobs they would like to have in the future. Talk about their families and friends and the jobs they have. Ask students to read the business cards (1 4) and match the professionals with the job descriptions (a d). Make sure that students understand the vocabulary. Tell them that the pictures in the cards will help them to guess. Give them four or five minutes to complete the activity. Answers Card 1 d. Card 2 c. Card 3 b. Card 4 a.

UNIT 3

2 Ask the students to work on their own and

complete the sentences with their own ideas. After they finish ask them to work in pairs or small groups and compare their answers. Tell them that most of their answers will be different and that it is important to express their own opinions and respect others opinions. students which jobs they would like to do and why and which jobs would definitely not be for them. Always encourage discussion and involvement even if it is in Spanish.

3 This can be a general class discussion. Ask

4 Ask students about the places where they think


people can look for jobs. Ask them if they know where their friends or family members got their jobs. Tell them to begin their answers with: People should / people might PAGES 54 - 55 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT Before starting this unit, the students need to know: characteristics of different types of sentences. how to find main idea(s) in written texts. how to use some connectors. the Simple Present. the Simple Future. how to identify number of speakers in an oral text. how to adapt and role play a dialogue.

1 Explain to students that this page of each unit

will contain activities meant to identify and activate their previous knowledge of the topic and related vocabulary, to establish the starting point for the activities that will follow. They will also help to detect weaknesses that will require extra work and support and to contextualise the contents that will be developed, and present cognitive challenges.

Give students time to form groups and discuss the exercises that can be done in groups; encourage them to reflect and be honest when doing those that require individual responses.

1 Ask students to read the examples and draw

conclusions about the characteristics of modal verbs. Check their answers orally. Ask for and offer more examples.
PROFESSIONS

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Answers i, ii, iii. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Modals are special verbs which behave irregularly in English; they do not take an s in the third person singular, they use not to make the negative form, even in the Simple Present and the Simple Past, and they are followed by an infinitive without to. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the Past tense or the Future tense. Some common modal verbs: can - could may might must - ought to - shall should - will would.

Answers a. They must to decide today. (X) Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to. b. Candy shoulds exercise more. (X) Modal verbs do not take an s in the third person singular. c. Do you can play the guitar? (X) Modal verbs do not use auxiliaries.

3 This exercise further develops students ability


to identify and to apply modal verbs. Check answers orally.

2 Ask students to work individually, check

Answers a. must. b. is eating. c. is. d. can.

answers with a partner, and then share them with the rest of the class.

4 Students will frequently be asked to establish

Answers a. Darryl and Emily might buy a house next year. d. You mustnt swim in this river because the current is very strong. e. Annie and Burt need not worry. g. It is possible Janet will visit Tom in Boston. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can ask fast learners to do this activity on their own and then write it on the board to share it with the class. Invite them to explain why the sentences are correct or incorrect. Mark the correct sentences with a tick () and the incorrect sentences with a cross (X). a. b. c. They must decide today. They must to decide today. Candy shoulds exercise more. Candy should exercise more. Can you play the guitar? Do you can play the guitar?

the type of text they are reading in order to identify characteristics that may help them to understand or to define the purpose of their work. If it is a narrative text, then most commonly the purpose of reading is entertainment; if it is a manual or a guide, the purpose will be to receive instructions or orders. Ask students to have a quick look at the texts and establish which one is a CV, justifying their choice. Then they answers questions b. and c.

Answers a. Text B. b. IT engineer. c. A printer.

5 29 Students use their own ideas to complete

the first sentence; then play the recording they will be working with in the listening lesson for them to compare both sentences.

Answers If you are looking for a job, listen carefully to these advertisements from our community service.

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++

PAGE 56 LESSON 1 READING PREPARING A CV

2 + (Learning ability: to connect pictures and topic).


Ask students to look at the four pictures and describe them. Tell them to read the list of suggested qualities for each job. Tell them to pay close attention to the structure: You should . Students match the suggestions (a d) with the jobs in the pictures (1 4). Answers a. Picture 4 - ambulance driver. b. Picture 2 - trapeze artist. c. Picture 3 - party entertainer. d. Picture 1 - wildlife photographer.

BEFORE YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: modal verbs and their special characteristics (refer to Exercises 1, 2 and 3 on Page 54); the format and elements of a Curriculum Vitae (refer to Exercise 4 on Page 55); how to find specific information in written texts (refer to Exercise 4 on Page 55). If possible, bring some English language magazines or newspapers with job advertisements. If not, bring Spanish language newspapers and magazines to show students the section(s) where people usually look for jobs. Ask students to look at the cartoon and discuss it. How do they understand the word responsible? Why is the cartoon funny?

3 ++ (Learning ability: to connect topic, general


knowledge, and personal opinions). This exercise deals with students own experiences, interests, and feelings. Given that they are about to finish their secondary education, they probably think quite a lot about what they want to do after they finish school. Make this discussion as personal as possible and encourage presentation and acceptance of different points of view. PAGE 57

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). Tell students to form small groups. Read the questions with them and ask them to answer and discuss them. Ask them to present their findings / opinions to the rest of the class. Do students have the same experiences / opinions?
American v/s British English

4 + (Learning ability: to make predictions from


provided information). Ask students if they have ever written a CV. In what situation? Have they sent or presented the CV? Were they successful in getting the job they had applied for? Was it difficult to include all the information they wanted? A wealth of CV samples can be found at http://www.cv-service.org . They are downloadable in pdf and can be used for the class. Ask students to read the list of headings. Which headings do they think should be included in a CV (3) and which ones should not (7)? Which information is optional (?)? Do not check their answers at this stage.
PROFESSIONS

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that totally different words are used in each variety of English. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl.about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ ambrit.htm

103

AVOID THIS MISTAKE Tell students to have a quick look at the texts and find sentences with apply for, which is a false cognate. False cognate Apply for Mistake Spanish aplicar (apply) Correct meaning Postular

AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to points e. Employment History and f. Education History in Exercise 5. Elicit / Provide the difference between history and story. History: (noun) 1. all the events that happened in the past. Example: These events changed the course of history. 2. The study of past events as a subject at school or university. Example: Ms Allen is our history teacher. 3. A written or spoken account of past events. Example: Burl Davies is writing a new history of Ireland. 4. A record of something that happened frequently in the past life of a person, family or place; the set of facts that are known about sbs past life. Example: Dr Campbell read her patients medical history very carefully. Story: (noun) 1. a description of events and people that sb. has invented in order to entertain people. Example: Grandpa read the children an adventure story. 2. An account of what happened to sb. or of how sth. happened. Example: The police didnt believe Anettes story. 3. An account of past events or of how sth. has developed. Example: Bryce told us the story of his life. 4. A report in a newspaper, magazine, or news broadcast. Example: Jocelyns activities appear in a front page story. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. History or story? Fill in the blanks in these sentences with one of the two words. a. Have you heard the school? of the ghost in our

Ask students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Circle aplicar and underline postular in these sentences: a. Apply sun lotion to your face and neck. b. Lisbeth has applied to join the army. c. Maxwell is applying for a scholarship to Australia. d. The students are applying pressure to get longer holidays. e. They are applying the new technology to farming. f. You should apply in person. Answers Aplicar: a., d., e. Postular: b., c., f. WHILE YOU READ

5 ++ (Learning ability: to find and match specific


information, identifying correct patterns). The reading text has three components: an article on CV writing PREPARING A CV (Page 58), tips for CV writing (Page 59), and a sample CV template (Page 59). Tell students to first have a look at the sample CV. Ask them to read the headings (a f) and then place them back in the sample CV (I VI). Answers a. VI. b. I. c. V. d. II. e. III. f. IV.

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b. Id like to listen to a summary of the two main news from tonights news. . c Julian is studying to get a degree in art about a dolphin. d. Lets invent a of bad behaviour in class. e. Lionel has a of earthquakes in Chile is very long. f. The g. World War I was a turning point in human . ? h. Would you like me to tell you a Answers a. story. b. stories. c. history. d. story. e. history. f. history. g. history. h. story.

8 ++ (Learning ability: to relate information and


draw conclusions). Tell students to work in small groups. Ask them to read the tips on Page 59 and decide which of them should be expressed as a positive recommendation - should - and which ones as a negative recommendation - shouldnt. Once they place the correct word in the provided blanks, ask them to read the whole tip aloud. Do the tips sound correct? Check answers orally. Answers Tip 1: You should. Tip 2: You should / you should. Tip 3: You should. Tip 4: You should. Tip 5: You shouldnt. Tip 6: You shouldnt. Tip 7: You shouldnt. Tip 8: You shouldnt.

6 + (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Tell students to discuss their choices in Exercise 4 with other students. Then ask them to check their predictions and also compare with a classmate; were they the same or different? Answers (3): a., b., c., f., g. (?): e., j. (7): d., h., i.

9 ++ (Learning ability: to locate information by


comparing and discriminating). This is another application of the scanning technique. Students look for specific required information in the tips. Check answers orally. Answers a. Tip 2 and Tip 5. b. Tip 4. c. Tip 3. d. Tip 6.

7 + (Learning ability: to find specific information).


Scanning is a technique often used when looking up something in the telephone book or in a dictionary. People look for key words or ideas. In most cases, they know what they are looking for, so they are concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving the eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when one first finds a resource to determine whether it will answer ones questions. We often use scanning when the objective is to find specific information, as in this case. Answer Party entertainer. Did you know that See Page 8 of the Introduction.

10 +++ (Learning ability: to find supporting


information). Answering questions helps students to get the gist of a text. Take into account that the sentences students will produce will sometimes be awkward, but as the objective of the activity is to guide comprehension, you should favour correct information rather than perfect use of English. Encourage students to share examples of qualities and skills, and of shortcomings and problems.

PROFESSIONS

105

Answers a. You need a CV to apply for a job, to apply for a scholarship, to be admitted to a university, to apply for speaking engagements, lectures, conferences, or to publish your work. b. You can explain what you have included in the CV. c. You should promote your qualities and skills and avoid your shortcomings and problems. PAGE 60 AFTER YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests.

OPTIONAL ACTIVITY You can give fast learners an additional and challenging activity. You can either write this list on the board or photocopy it. Tell students to find out the meaning of these prefixes and then write as many derivatives using them as possible. Once they finish, ask them to share their work with the class. anti bio gastr/o kilo micro out trans Example: Tele: television, telephone, telegraph. Possible answers anti (against): antisocial, anti-depressant, antiseptic, etc. bio (life): biology, biologist, bionic, biosphere, etc. gastr/o (stomach): gastronomy, gastrointestinal, gastritis, etc. kilo (one thousand): kilogram, kilometre, kilobyte, etc. micro (very small, a millionth): microbe, microbiology, microscope, etc. out (external): outgoing, outside, outstanding, outsider, etc. trans (across, beyond, change): transport, transplant, transgenic, translate, etc.

11 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate vocabulary).


It is advisable to check if students have assimilated key words from the reading text. Frequently, an exercise is provided in the Students Book, as in this case. However, you can design your own exercises, given that you know what your students might find difficult. You can do this exercise as a competition; the winner is the student who first gets the four words and writes them correctly on the board. Answers a. interview. b. scholarship. c. advertisement. d. employer. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Write a list of words on the board in their root form: Admit Compete Market Apply Employ Publish Common Engage Spell

12 ++ 26 (Learning abilities: to relate and put


information in a logical sequence / to imitate a spoken model).

Ask students to go back to the text and find the derivatives from the root words. Some of them might have more than one form. Admit - admission. Common - commonly. Employ - employer. Market - marketing. Spell - spelling. Apply - applying. Compete - competition. Engage - engagement. Publish - publishing.

This exercise helps students to organise information logically, the result being a sort of summary of the key information for CV writing. Ask them to work in pairs and read the questions (a i) and the answers (i ix). Tell them to write the questions and the corresponding answers in their notebooks. Play the recording for students to check their work. Once everyone has written the conversation in the correct order, ask them to repeat after the recording and then practise and role play the dialogue.

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Answers e. viii. g. iv. c. v. h. iii. f. ii. a. i. d. ix. i. vi. b. vii. Learning tip Analyse this Learning tip together with the class. Help them to divide the dialogue into meaningful chunks to practise.

PAGE 61
Language Note

RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This section deals with different modals we can use to express suggestions and recommendations: should, ought to, might want to. Should and ought to have the same meaning. They are used to give advice, or say what the right thing to do is. Draw students attention to ought to; its own form contains the particle to. Example: We ought to go right now. The negative and interrogative forms of ought to are used rarely. Example: They ought not to speak so loud. Ought Marion to study so late at night? Might is most commonly used to express possibility, but we can also use it to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. It is never used in the negative form to offer a recommendation or a suggestion. Answers Point 3 You might want to prepare yourself... Below is a list of things you should and should not do. You will find an example of a CV you should fill in as practice. You should prepare for the job requirements. You should use clear formatting. You should be neat. You should check your spelling. You should not use text boxes. You should not include the reasons... You should not lie about your experience. You should not include a photo. Your employer might want to judge...

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

26

A has an Indian accent and B has a British accent. A: When should I use a CV? B: When you apply for a job, or a scholarship, or a grant. A: Why should my CV be concise? B: Because no employer will want to read a CV several pages long. A: Should I type or write my CV by hand? B: Its better to type, as its more readable. A: Why should my CV look nice? B: Because first impressions are important. A: Why is it important to check spelling and grammar? B: Because employers pay attention to grammar and spelling errors. A: How many times should I check my CV for errors? B: As many times as necessary. A: What happens if I lie about my work experience? B: You might be caught out because employers often do a background check on candidates. A: Would you recommend that I include my photo in the CV? B: Only if you are a model or an actor and your appearance is important. A: Should I tell my future employer about my experience as a party entertainer? B: Only if you are applying for a position in the entertainment business.

PROFESSIONS

107

13 +++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a


language point). This exercise uses everyday activities students might encounter. Ask them to offer appropriate recommendations and suggestions. After they have written the sentences, tell them to justify their choices. Help them along with prompts and questions: why should the man not drive and talk on the phone at the same time? Why is it important to be well-mannered when we share a meal?, etc. Possible answers Picture 1: The man should not / ought not to talk on the phone while driving. Picture 2: The girl should wear different clothes to a job interview. Picture 3: The boy should mind his table manners / shouldnt put his elbows on the table.

Possible answers a. You should / ought to eat more healthy food and watch your diet. b. You might want to talk to her / him and forget about your differences. c. Sheila should not drive without a driving licence. She ought to pass a driving test. d. You might want to talk to them and ask them to turn the volume down. e. He should inform the police immediately and get a new ID card.
American v/s British English Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice the different spelling of the word. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl.about.com/od/ toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

14 QUICK SELf-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You could take this opportunity to look at the different uses of the word licence Do you think that you have licence (permission) to behave any way you want? They have a licence (authorisation) to use the Word and Excel programs. The restaurant is licensed to use the Disney characters. He has a licence (degree) to teach primary and secondary school. PAGE 62

15 + (Learning ability: to identify the use of capital


letters in proper names). Although capital letters are not really an aspect of punctuation, it is convenient to deal with them. Talk students through the use of capital letters in the names of companies, organisations and brand names. Ask them to read sentences a e and circle all the words that are spelt with a capital letter.

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16 +++ APPLICATION TASK WRITING

(Learning ability: to write a text applying a provided pattern and making use of a computer application).

By completing this task students will: review and discuss offered tips; learn how to prepare a CV; discriminate between important and unimportant information; use a computer application in English; review their own and their classmates work. This is an individual task; organise it carefully so that all the students have access to the computer: faster students can use it first while slower students prepare their drafts. Ask students to read the instructions carefully and answer any questions they may have. Make sure they go back to the CV template and check once again all the information that should be included in a successful CV. Ask them to re-read the tips (1 8), to know what to include or not. Help and correct students work while walking around the classroom and motivate them to evaluate each step of the task. At the moment of evaluating their own work, encourage them to be honest. Ask them to exchange the CVs and proof read each others work. Highlight the importance of respecting everyones work and offering positive / constructive comments. Organise a display of all the CVs in the classroom. PAGE 63

Tell them to work in groups and share their answers with other groups. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations. Refer students again to the first exercise in the unit, encourage them to share answers in their groups and / or with the whole class, and motivate them to substantiate their answers.

++

PAGE 64 LESSON 2 - LISTENING ADVERTISING FOR JOBS

Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: making and validating predictions in oral messages (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 55); finding specific information in oral messages (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 55). BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). Refer students back to Exercise 4 on Page 53, where they discussed sources to find job offers. Ask them to indicate which ones, in their opinion, are the best places to look for jobs. Have they or their friends / relatives found jobs through one of them? Ask them to talk about their own / their friends experiences when applying for jobs.

17 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of


the lesson, relate them to own experiences, and express value judgements). This is a roundup exercise where students have to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of abilities, content, and language. It also encourages them to express their opinions concerning important values explicitly or implicitly stated in the texts and activities.

PROFESSIONS

109

2 + (Learning ability: to identify the correct

sequence of events in order to organise the parts of a text).

from the text or previous activities, and their own expectations. The predicting process must be then rationalised (why?), checked (through reading / listening) and substantiated (proved). This is done in a subsequent exercise in the While you Listen / Read part of the lesson. Always make sure that predictions are checked once students have listened to or read the text.

Tell students to describe the cartoon and match each picture with the corresponding sentence (a c). Write these sequencing words on the board and ask students to match them with those provided in the exercise: After that Last Second Then To begin with. Then, tell them to sequence the actions using different sequencing words. Possible answers First / To begin with - a. - Picture 2. Next / After that / Second / Then - b. - Picture 3. Finally / Last - c. - Picture 1.

5 ++ 27 (Learning ability: to compare English


and Spanish sounds). The pronunciation of the sound /r/ in English is often difficult for Spanish speakers as it is much softer, rolling than in Spanish. There is also an important difference between the pronunciation in British and American English. In British pronunciation, the letter r is usually silent, unless it is followed by a vowel, either in the same word or in the next. Examples: In car, tower, inform, first, the r is silent because it is not followed by a vowel. However, notice what happens in this sentence: That tower on the hill is new. The r in tower is pronounced because the next word begins with a vowel. In red, foreign, print, the r is pronounced because it is followed by a vowel in the same word. In American English, the r is always pronounced, even if it is not followed by a vowel. Give students plenty of examples of both types of pronunciation. Answers a. The sound is different in Spanish. b. Single r or double r are pronounced the same in English; in Spanish, single r is pronounced as a tap between and after vowels: para, carta, perla, duro, etc. and as a strong roll in initial position: rato, rudo, reto, rico, robo, etc. Double rr is always pronounced as a strong roll: ferrocarril, perro, carro, error, etc.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Ask students to think of an event they know about, an article or book they have read, or a film they have seen and write three sentences about it without using sequencing words. Tell them to mix the sentences up and read them in random order to the rest of the class. The other students must put the sequence of events in the correct order using sequencing words. The student who wrote the sentences indicates if the sequence is correct. Choose several students to do the same.

3 + (Learning ability: to connect topic and


personal experiences). Ask students to work in pairs or small groups. Tell them to read the statements (a h) and rank them from the least to the most important characteristic when choosing a job or profession. Tell pairs / groups to compare their choices.

4 + (Learning ability: to make predictions).


Students try to predict the subject of the text they are going to listen to, based on the previous exercise. Do not check answers at this point. Remember that predictions help to increase students motivation and interest, as they connect what they are going to listen to or read with their background knowledge, clues

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TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION

27

PAGE 65 WHILE YOU LISTEN

around culinary experience hiring Mediterranean necessary races regular required restrictions resume salary secretary starring write
You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation of pronunciation, focusing on the production of the sound /r/, but also considering general pronunciation. Feedback: words are not recognisable: needs a lot of extra pronunciation work; words are recognizable, but many sounds are just like in Spanish: good, but could improve with extra pronunciation work; most sounds just like a native speaker would say them: very good, could try to help classmates who did poorly.

7 + 29 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Play the recording once or twice and ask students to check their predictions in Exercise 4. Check answers orally. Answers a., b., e., g., h.

8 ++ 29 (Learning ability: to identify sequence).


Read the three names of jobs with the class and make sure students identify the correct pronunciation. Ask them which of the three jobs they find the most interesting. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each one? Then play the recording at least once more so that students can identify the words in the recording and place a number next to each one, indicating the order in which they appear. Check answers orally. Answers 1. Assistant chef. 2. Film extra. 3. Legal secretary.

6 + 28 (Learning abilities: to identify and


pronounce key words). Tell students that these key words will appear in the listening texts, and that it is important that they know their meaning and what they sound like. Go through the words with them, give them a few minutes to check meanings in dictionaries, and then play the recording. First they only listen to the words and then they listen and repeat. Answers Crew = all the people working on a ship, plane, etc. = tripulacin. Crowd = a large number of people. = multitud. Feature film = a main film with a story. = pelcula de fondo. Frustrated = feeling annoyed and impatient because you cannot do or achieve what you want. = frustrado/a. Hiring = employing people for a short time to do a particular job = contratando. Shoot = an occasion when somebody makes a film = filmacin.

9 ++ 29 (Learning ability: to transfer


information to a graphic organiser). Ask students to copy the chart into their notebooks, making it bigger than in the book; this way, they will be able to place all the necessary information. Play the recording again. Ask different students to complete the chart on the board.

TRANSCRIPT VOCABULARY crew crowds feature film frustrated hiring shoot

28

PROFESSIONS

111

Answers Job Working title hours Assistant Ten to twelve chef hours per day, seven days a week, for six weeks at a time. After that, two weeks off. Film 9 am - 6 pm extra for ten continuous days. Legal Regular work secretary hours, from nine to five.


Salary Location Good. How to apply Cruise ship. Application letter to Jennifer Spells, of The Mediterranean Cruise Company. Not Call Noel at mentioned. 07 - 654 32 56. Contact Tanya Wood on 07 - 324 30 33 or at tanya. wood@ hays. com.au.

30 dollars a day.

20,000 Outside dollars Brisbane. a year.

10 + + 29 (Learning ability: to discriminate


between correct and incorrect information).

This is an activity to improve fine listening skills and help students to discriminate between words / sounds. It might be necessary to play the relevant parts of the recording more than once. Answers a. prepare and serve. b. resume. c. types. d. in cinemas.
29 TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - ADVERTISING FOR JOBS All the speakers have an Australian accent. Announcer: If you are looking for a job, listen carefully to these advertisements from our community service. Speaker I: If you enjoy cooking, love travelling around the world and have the necessary qualifications, youd better pay attention to this one. The Mediterranean Cruise Company is looking for an assistant chef. Its a full time position for this

summer so, if job stability is your thing youd better not apply for this job. You will be required to prepare and serve meals to both passengers and the crew. The salary is good, but you should be able to work ten to twelve hours per day, seven days a week, for six weeks at a time. After that, you get two weeks off. You should have a minimum of two to four years experience in the culinary or restaurant industry, and extra training is available. So, if you want to apply for this job, youd better get your resume ready because the interviews are starting next week. Interested parties should send their CV and a short letter of application to Jennifer Spells, of The Mediterranean Cruise Company, PO Box 201, Sydney. Speaker II: This one will certainly attract the crowds. Ever considered yourself a frustrated entertainer? Youd better get your pen ready and write down the details because this is the job for you. Aussie Films is looking for 35 extras for a major feature film starring Daniel Craig and Emma Watson. Extras should be on set from 9am to 6pm for ten continuous days. Lunch and snacks will be provided during the shoot. There are NO restrictions - the film company needs all types of people, all races, any age, and any nationality. The bad news is that you get paid only 30 dollars a day, but the up side is that youll see your face in cinemas around the world. Call Noel on 07 - 654 32 56. Speaker III: And last but not least anyone looking for fast promotion and extra benefits should apply for this job. A law firm is hiring a legal secretary. Salary: 20,000 dollars per year. To be considered for this position, candidates should have extensive previous secretarial experience in the legal industry. Youd better have your own car too because the firm is based outside Brisbane. Regular work hours, from nine to five. To apply or to find out more information, please contact Tanya Wood on 07 324 30 33 or at tanya. wood@hays.com.au

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AFTER YOU LISTEN

PAGE 66
Language Note

11 + (Learning ability: to infer the relationship


between content and new information). This exercise is based on Blooms taxonomy of learning. Through this exercise, students apply their cognitive learning and also get emotionally involved with a situation, expressing their opinions and attitudes. They combine the six steps defined by Bloom as necessary for an effective and complete learning process. 1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorise, name, order, recognise, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce, state. 2.Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognise, report, restate, review, select, translate. 3.Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatise, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practise, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. 4.Analysis: analyse, appraise, calculate, categorise, compare, contrast, criticise, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. 5.Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organise, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write. 6.Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, defend, estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.
Taken from: Designing and Managing MCQs: MCQs and Blooms Taxonomy. Retrieved on May 18, 2009, from: http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.html

HAD BETTER VERSUS SHOULD This section deals with the differences between general and specific recommendations, namely should versus had better. Both of them express an emotional, practical, or other reason for doing something, but in the case of had better we refer to a specific situation, while should is used for general recommendations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Had better is also used to say what is the best thing to do in a situation that is happening now. In most cases, had better is stronger; the speaker sees the action as necessary and expects that it will happen. Example: Wed better hurry or well miss the train. Also, with had better, there is always a danger or a problem if you dont follow the advice. Should only means it is a good thing to do while had better implies that there will be bad consequences. Both should and had better are followed by an infinitive without to. Examples: You should come immediately. Id better go immediately. More useful information can be found at http://www. englishgrammarsecrets.com/hadbetter/menu.php

12 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a


language point). Help students with prompts and questions to talk about the situations in the photos. What is happening? Why? How can the situation be changed? Tell students to read the three statements and then write a recommendation using had better for each one. Check answers orally.

Answers a. Film extra. b. Assistant chef. c. Legal secretary.

PROFESSIONS

113

Possible answers a. Youd better take the bike to the garage and get the tyre repaired. - Picture 3. b. Youd better get inside and get out of the rain. Picture 1. c. Youd better not swim now; the waves are too big. Picture 2. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY Photocopy or draw this table on the board. Ask fast learners to match the two parts of sentences to express recommendations. Youd better find You might to finish by 6 oclock. for directions. the key or we will not be able to get into the We should try house. Theyd better ask want to cook some vegetables with the fish. Jack should not swim some suntan lotion. Wed better use in the pool because he is too small.
American v/s British English

Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

30

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice the different spelling of the word. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

13 ++ 30 (Learning ability: to consolidate a

The employer has a German accent. Employer: The rules are simple. You should arrive at 8:30 am and leave at 6 pm. You should never be late. As soon as you arrive, you should mark your attendance card in the employee time clock. You should also mark it before leaving. We work from Monday to Friday, but you might get a few extra hours once a month, on a Saturday morning. You can either come by car or you can take the bus. You might want to talk to your colleagues to ask where to take it. We all have lunch here in the shop, so youd better bring your lunch; the nearest restaurant is 20 minutes from here! The warehouse where youll be working is quite dusty, so we will give you a uniform; you should wash it every week, either at home or ask someone to do it for you. Youd better talk to Mrs Stephens about it she knows some people who do this kind of work. You might have some questions later, so youd better write them down and I can answer them next week. You might also want to talk to the other employees about other issues. Well, good luck on your first day!
PAGE 67

language point / to imitate a spoken model / to role play a monologue).

14 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is

Ask students to work in groups of three or four. Help them to revise when we use might, had better, and should. Tell them to read the monologue and share ideas to complete it. Play the recording several times, first for them to check their answers, and then to listen, repeat, and practise the monologue. Suggest they divide the text among the members of the group so that each student practises only three or four lines. If this is too difficult for your class, form groups of more students. Choose a few groups to role play the monologue in front of the class.

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lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. Possible answers a. Hed better tell his parents right away. b. Shed better leave the cat alone. c. Hed better turn off the gas. d. Theyd better hurry up or theyll miss the bus.

By completing this task students will: adapt a CV to their own needs; role play being interviewers and interviewees; ask for and give feedback on performance; talk about how they felt playing the different roles; evaluate their own and others performance. contents of the lesson and relate them to own experiences). This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of content and language. Tell them to work in groups and share their answers with other groups. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations. AVOID THIS MISTAKE

16 +++ (Learning ability: to reflect on the

15 APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING

(Learning ability: to create and role play a job interview). See notes on this section on Page 7 of the Introduction. It is important to prepare the setting for the exercise. Make sure that the classroom is turned into an interview room it will help students to get the feeling of a real interview situation. Let them work in groups they feel comfortable with. In groups, they choose the job they like the most and assign or draw roles interviewees and interviewers. They can later change roles. Give them at least 10 minutes to prepare the questions indicated in the instructions. At this stage, they can read them from their notes. The interview should last between five and eight minutes. Go around the room to different groups to check pronunciation and grammar. Make notes to give students feedback after the exercise. At the end, ask students how they felt. Were they comfortable with their roles? What was the most difficult task? How could they improve their performance? Discuss their body language and gestures. Ask the interviewers what they thought about the interviewees and vice versa.

Draw students attention to question d. of the exercise, and ask what they notice about the use of the apostrophe. Apostrophes are used in time expressions, also called `temporal expressions. In a temporal expression, the apostrophe is positioned before the s for single units of time and after for multiple units of time. Examples: I never did a days work in my life. It was all fun. (Thomas A. Edison) That is the equivalent of one years pay. Doras car came with two years free insurance.
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Ask students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Add or s where appropriate. a. That is the equivalent of one year pay. b. There is six months interest-free credit on all sofas. c. Applicants should have at least 3 years experience. d. We have to present our findings in three days time. e. The manager offered them a month paid holiday. Answers a. That is the equivalent of one years pay. b. There is six months interest-free credit on all sofas. c. Applicants should have at least 3 years experience. d. We have to present our findings in three days time. e. The manager offered them a months paid holiday.
American v/s British English

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Time is usually short when teaching, so there is a tendency to omit wrap up exercises. Most teachers say that their lessons usually end in one of three ways: 1. the rest of the lesson that could not be finished in class is assigned as homework; 2. the teacher wraps up the lesson quickly because the class has come to an end; 3. the teacher asks: Are there any questions? (to which the answer is usually silence). It is of the utmost importance to do a wrap up activity (see notes on Blooms taxonomy of learning on Page 112 of this book). If there is no wrap up, three whole parts of the learning process are missing. 1. Analysis 2. Synthesis 3. Evaluation Here are a few other wrap up activities applicable to this lesson and to other end of class activities. Give students one minute to write the most important thing(s) they learnt, the biggest question(s) they still have, etc. Ask students to write a note to themselves about what they want to focus on in the next class / week / course, etc. Ask students to try and remember 10 points about what they learnt in the lesson. Ask students to name at least one word from the lesson for each letter of the alphabet. Allow each student the opportunity to think about something they would do differently if they had the day / class over again. Have students draw a mind map of the information they learnt in the class. Give each pair of students an index card. Ask them to write down everything they can remember about the days content. Adapted from: Meier, M. & Panitz, T. (2006). End on a High Note: Better Endings for Classes and Courses. Let the Adventure Begin. Retrieved on May 20, 2009, from http://www.capecod.net/~tpanitz/tedspage

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice the different spelling of the word. Generally, the final l is doubled in British English. Examples: cancel cancelled; compel - compelled; control - controlled; distil distilled; equal equalled; fulfil - fulfilled; propel - propelled, travel - travelled, etc. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

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PAGES 68 - 69 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction.

There was a tank of live lobsters in the restaurant. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Circle the word live and write the correct pronunciation, / l v / or / la v /. a. /_________/ Most of my friends live in the country. b. /_________/ Our local TV station is preparing live coverage of the Olympics. c. /_________/ Pamela needs to find somewhere to live. d. /_________/ Sams children still live at home. e. /_________/ The interview was done in front of a live audience. f. /_________/ We saw a live rattle snake! g. /_________/ Where do you live? h. /_________/That club has live music most nights. Answers a./ l v / . b. / la v / . c. / l v/. d. / l v/. e. / la v/. f. / la v/. g. / l v/. h. / la v/.

1 Ask students to have a look at the three

advertisements, check vocabulary they might not know, and then ask them to read and complete the sentences (a f).

Possible answers a. If you want to buy decorations for your cake, you should visit The Cake House, at 94, Elm Grove Rd, London. b. If you want to decorate your house for your party, you might go to Fiesta House, at 22, Sydenham Road, London. c. If you want to surprise your girlfriend on St. Valentines Day, you might organise a Saint Valentines Day party with products from Fiesta House. d. John wants to have karaoke at his birthday party. He should contact DJ Services. e. To contact DJ Services, you can go to their office at 8d, Moss Hall Crescent, London, or phone 0786 456876, or e-mail them at jbtrex@ djservices.uk. f. To get to Fiesta House, youd better find the lift. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to the first word in this sentence of the second advertisement: Live music, karaoke, DJ services, party presenters, etc. Help them to notice that this is not the verb to live / l v / , but an adjective / lav/, meaning (of a performance) broadcast, recorded, or seen while it is happening. Examples: This evening, there will be a live broadcast of the debate. This is a live recording of their latest concert. This adjective also means alive, having life. Examples: Millions of live animals are shipped around the world each year.

2 Students use the visual clues to complete the


e-mail. Answers (1) supermarket cashier. (2) numbers. (3) pilot. (4) licence. (5) school. (6) languages. (7) chemistry. (8) like / love. a. Celia is telling Julio that he should choose something that he is good at and something he really loves doing. b. If he wants to be a supermarket cashier, he should be good with numbers. If he wants to work in tourism, he should be good at languages. If he wants to be a sports coach, he should be good at sports. If he wants to work in a pharmacy, he should be good at chemistry.

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ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Offering advice / suggestions / recommendations. a. Prepare some 10 pictures cut out from a magazine or a newspaper, depicting different situations. b. Show students one of the pictures, ask them to describe it and then ask them: i. What should this person do? ii. What would you recommend? iii. What would you suggest? PAGE 70 JUST FOR FUN See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Remind students that they should do the activities on their own, without much intervention from you, but help and support when necessary. Answers I. The men were musicians. II. Not a single one because he has a pear tree. III. The man carries the chicken across the river, leaves the chicken, and comes back. He gets the fox, leaves the fox, and gets the chicken. He leaves the chicken and takes the corn. He leaves the fox and the corn and gets the chicken. IV. He omits to count the camel he is on. IV. The fat dog is the little dogs mother. PAGE 71 CHILEAN CONNECTION Let students read the section on their own and then comment on it in their groups. Promote comparison between the foreign and the Chilean contexts encountered in this short text and in the unit, making sure students give each one its own value. Ask students if they have ever seen a lighthouse from close up. What type of people do they think would choose a job as a lighthouse keeper? What characteristics would one need to do this type of job?

PAGES 72 - 74 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Answers READING WOMEN AND CLAY 1. a. Piln is a small rural town near Cauquenes, in the Maule region. b. The Piln women artists are known as the loceras de Piln. c. Delfina learnt her craft from her mother and grandmother. d. The women make their figures by hand and dont use a wheel. e. Delfina had 12 children. f. For Delfina, it is an honour to be part of the tradition. 2. a. At the handicrafts fair in Parque Bustamante. b. She has long braids, bright eyes, and a refreshing smile. c. Her mother died. d. Her daughter works in a car repair garage. e. No, they dont. They think they should be doing other jobs. LISTENING APPLYING FOR A JOB 3. a. i. b. ii. c. ii. 4. a. No, I have no mobile phone. b. Here, in Montreal. c. N 1223. 5. Personal Information: a. First name: Jennifer Last Name: Grant. b. Address: Montreal, 235 Oak Street. c. Home phone number: 359 62 79. Mobile phone number: ---Employment History: d. Last Position: nurse. e. Where: Montreal Childrens Hospital. f. Worked from: May to: November. LANGUAGE 6. a. should I. b. should not eat. c. d better take. 7. If you are hungry, you should eat something. Your head still hurts? Then youd better take some aspirin. When you go to Rio de Janeiro, you might want to see Sugar Loaf Mountain.
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SPEAKING 8. Assign points according to the following criteria. Task Correct description of problems and appropriate advice. Correct description of most of the problems, mostly appropriate advice. Correct description of some of the problems, fairly appropriate advice. Poor description of problems, weak advice. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

Possible answers A combination of ought to, had better, might want to. a. A: I need to buy an inexpensive gift. B: You might find something at the crafts fair. b. A: Im in love, but I am keeping it secret. B: You should tell the person how you feel. c. A: Im not sure what to study in the future.

B: You should consider your skills and what you really like. d. A: I would really like to have a pet. B: Youd better talk to your parents first, and then visit a pet shop or a vet. e. A: I would really like to invite him / her out. B: You should call or text him / her now and invite him / her to the cinema.

WRITING 9. Assign points according to the following criteria. Task Wrote the job advertisement following all the indications. Wrote the job advertisement following most of the indications. Wrote the job advertisement following some of the indications. Tried to write the job advertisement, but followed very few of the indications. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling, format, and number of paragraphs. A few spelling mistakes, slightly incorrect format and number of paragraphs. Several spelling mistakes, rather incorrect format and number of paragraphs. A lot of spelling mistakes, incorrect format and number of paragraphs. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - APPLYING FOR A JOB The employer has a German accent. Jennifer speaks with a Canadian accent.

32

Jennifer: Hello, is this Royal Victoria Hospital? I am calling about the advertisement in yesterdays paper. Could you put me through to the Personnel Department, please? (Pause) Thank you. I will hold. (Pause) Hello, is this the Personnel Department? (Pause) Im calling about the ad in yesterdays paper. I would like to apply for the position of nurse. (Pause) Do I have an application form? No, sorry; I dont. Could I just give you the details on the phone? (Pause) Yes? Great! OK, Im ready. (Pause) Jennifer. Jennifer Grant. (Pause) Here, in Montreal. The address is Montreal, 235 Oak Street. Phone number is 359-6279. (Pause) No, I have no mobile phone. (Pause) Fully qualified paediatric nurse. (Pause) Code? Im sorry.What code? (Pause) Oh, just hold on a minute. I will look. (Pause) Here it is. N 1223. (Pause) Yes, of course I can give you my employment history. Im unemployed at the moment, but my last job was at the Montreal Childrens Hospital. I was replacing a nurse on maternity leave. I started in May and finished in November. (Pause)

Thats right. The last day of November. (Pause) Salary? 420 dollars a week. It was just part-time and I was replacing someone. (Pause) Excuse me? Could you repeat that, please? I think theres something wrong with the line (Pause) When do you think youll be calling for an interview? (Pause) Sure, no problem. I do hope you call me. Yes. Thank you so much. Bye.
PAGE 74 FINAL REFLECTION

Give students enough time to analyse what they have done and learnt in this unit. Encourage them to follow the tips suggested and to share ideas in their groups. PAGE 75 SELF-EVALUATION See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation sheet with students. Remind them that there are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE. For YOUR TEST RESULTS, they have to work out their score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read their results, and reflect on them. Help them to think of what they can do to improve results, solve problems, give or get help, etc. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection on their involvement with the main OATs discussed in the lessons and invites them to think about their learning strategies and attitudes.

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PHOTOCOPIABLE ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES UNIT 3 Jobs


1. Find 12 jobs and professions mentioned in the two lessons of this unit in this Word Search puzzle. They are written horizontally or vertically in the grid.

UNIT 3

e b b d r i v e r b s p v

n f k h a s s a p a k h b

t i c d b k e k h s d o d

e l o v d s c d y b v t a

r m o b a k r s s v h o k

t e k v b t e k i s d g d

a x k b v r t a c b m r h

i t h a s a a s i a o a b

n r v b d i r k a s d p s

e a a v b n y d n b e h b

r h v b s e s a s m l e k

d v a s a r t i s t v r d

k p i l o t s t a m e r b

d v s s d k d k s b l v h

m e c h a n i c h l d
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h b

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2. Match the professionals in column A, the places in column B and the tools he / she uses or the clothes he / she wears in column C. a. Write the corresponding words in the spaces provided. Use a dictionary if necessary. b. Say sentences using the three elements. Add more if necessary. Example: A lawyer works in a legal office. He / She uses lots of law books.

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122

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A B C

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UNIT 3

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ADDITIONAL READING TEXT UNIT 3 Woman work, by Maya Angelou


WOMAN WORK by Maya Angelou I've got the children to tend The clothes to mend The floor to mop The food to shop Then the chicken to fry The baby to dry I got company to feed The garden to weed I've got shirts to press The tots to dress The can to be cut I gotta clean up this hut Then see about the sick And the cotton to pick. Shine on me, sunshine Rain on me, rain Fall softly, dewdrops And cool my brow again. Storm, blow me from here With your fiercest wind Let me float across the sky Till I can rest again. Fall gently, snowflakes Cover me with white Cold icy kisses and Let me rest tonight. Sun, rain, curving sky Mountain, oceans, leaf and stone Star shine, moon glow You're all that I can call my own.

Taken from: Angelou, M. (1994), The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou. New York: Random House, Inc.

1. Read the poem and list at least five actions the woman must do. 2. What is the other subject of the poem, apart from work? a. Entertainment. b. Sports.
Global English 3o MEDIO

c. The weather.

3. In Unit 2 you learnt a structure that can be found in this poem. Which one is it? a. The Imperative. b. The First Conditional. c. The Interrogative. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Maya Angelou was born in 1928; her parents divorced when she was only three years old, and she and her brother, Bailey, went to live with their grandmother, whom they called Momma, in Stamps, Arkansas. After going back to live with her mother in St. Louis, Maya was abused by her mother's boyfriend. Shortly after his trial, her rapist was found murdered; Maya felt that she had killed him and for a while she stopped speaking. Maya's early life is the subject of her autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970). Her life story is continued throughout her other autobiographies. At a very young age, Maya had to deal with many issues, such as her rape and her identity as a black person. Her poetry "draws heavily on her personal history, but employs the points of various personae" (Britannica Online 9/17/98). Maya Angelou's poetry is often short; the lines of the stanzas are often short as well. An incident that will forever keep Angelou's poetry in the mind of Americans is her delivery of a poem that she wrote for President Clinton's inauguration on January 20, 1993. On a television programme, Maya Angelou discussed this as her "crowning moment as a poet" (Hagen 134). Angelou was only the second poet and first female to deliver a poem at such an event.

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UNIT 3

UNIT 3

EXTRA TEST UNIT 3


READING - HOW TO SUCCEED AT JOB INTERVIEWS

e looking for next job interview, ar ur yo t ou ab us xio an and want to If you are you might get asked, ns tio es qu h ug to e e site for you. answers to th xt great job, this is th ne at th r fo d ow cr e most stand out from th getting the job, and u yo ps sto at th n tio ac candidates just do Often, it is some tiny majority of interview st va e Th it. se ali re r ey leave the people neve tition long before th pe m co e th of t ou e not know they ar interview room. at next job Before you go into th u. yo to en pp ha at ink about if you Do not let th things you should th of d kin e th ow kn interview, get to e job. really want to get th I.

C Interview Guide Adapted from: CP

PROFESSIONS

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ping they ey are asked, and ho th ns tio es qu at wh s waiting to see rn up at job interview tu s ee iew rv te in t os M e. Learn how to at is a mistake. job than anything els e th ng tti can just manage. Th ge th wi ve more to do rviewer. the interview will ha g bells with your inte rin y all re ll wi at What you do before th ts ckground all the poin pick out from your ba at the b is how you perform jo e th u yo II. ts ge at rview but wh may get you the inte A good resume or CV ts the ions on who finally ge cis de e th of % 90 , ct interview itself. hear much more interviewers - in fa st what they see and powerful impact on a tru s es ha ni ce pa an m ar co e pe us ap Visual terview, beca e made during the in job in a company ar . than what they read should prepare s stay in control. You ay alw ld III. ou sh u yo t repeatedly, iew, bu ur key points across re during your interv yo t su es ge u pr r yo de d, un ke el as fe e You may estion you ar ll ensure, whatever qu the job. a point plan, which wi u are truly ready for yo at th er iew rv te in and convince the t an offer. In why they did not ge to as led zz IV. pu n te of ite well are ich put them off. o thought they did qu bits of applicants wh ha or s irk qu n tio Some interviewees wh en ten m , interviewers will of rejecting candidates else you interview. Whatever b jo a r fo go V. u yo e ember any tim the key things to rem /Interview-Guide We have mentioned refront of your mind. fo e ribd.com/doc/26138 th .sc at /es ts p:/ in htt m po e fro , es 11 , 20 remember, keep th .Retrieved August 8th

Global English 3o MEDIO

1 Read the web page and put these headings

back into the correct places (I V). 5 pts. a. The Interview! b. Presenting Yourself On The Day c. Final Words of Advice d. Dos and Donts e. Before The Interview (that you should and you shouldnt do) to succeed in a job interview. Write them in the chart. 6 pts.

2 Read the text again and identify six actions

b. What is the young man doing? i. Applying for a job. ii. Asking for a favour. iii. Requesting information. c. What is the woman doing? i. Asking difficult questions. ii. Demanding clear answers. iii. Offering useful tips.

4 33 Listen to the conversation again and circle

YOU SHOULD...

YOU SHOULDNT...

LISTENING - PREPARING A CV

the word you hear. 6 pts. a. I saw an advertisement for a job that could / might interest me. b. Youll probably need / require an interview to meet them face to face. c. Education references are also quite / very important. d. You might also include / provide contact information for the references you mention. e. In an application form, the format is usually free / set. f. Most / Some cover letters are only three short paragraphs. mentioned. 4 pts. Covering letters. a. Information that must be included. b. Organisation of document. c. Proofreading of document. d.

5 33 Number the issues in the order they are


Global English 3o MEDIO

LANGUAGE

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3 33 Listen to a conversation and choose the


best answer. a. Who is the woman? i. A consultant. ii. A mother. iii. An employer.

6 Complete this advice for a new employee on

3 pts.

his / her first day at work. Use should / shouldnt / had better and the verbs in the box. 5 pts.

arrive
a. b. c. d. e.

go to bed

listen

say

wear

You clothes that are too casual. early on the first day. You You early the night before. You that your last job was better. to any useful advice your You workmates give you.

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7 Use had better to complete these sentences

WRITING

with a suitable recommendation. 3 pts. a. Its getting late. now. We b. The test is next week. I c. Its getting cold. You right now. the window.

9 When sending a resume, most people include a

SPEAKING

cover letter to introduce themselves. Imagine you are applying for a job and write a cover letter to introduce your CV. Remember that most cover letters are only two or three short paragraphs and they should capture the future employers attention. Be careful with spelling and grammar too. 10 pts.
0 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 39 40 to 52 52 PTS

8 Work in pairs and role play a conversation in which Student A has to prepare her / his CV and student B offers advice and recommendations. Use the expressions and the vocabulary you learnt in the unit and pay attention to pronunciation and intonation. 10 pts.

Keep trying

ReView

Well done! Excellent!

TOTAL

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UNIT

BEING ACTIVE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
READING: to locate specific information in itineraries and poems that contain the communicative function of describing events from the recent past, consider the importance of having a healthy and active life, and complete charts, programmes and itineraries. identify specific components. infer information. sequence pictures and corresponding events. WRITING: to write an itinerary using own and provided ideas. LISTENING: to find and classify supporting and specific information in a TV quiz that contains the communicative function of expressing certainty and uncertainty, knowledge or lack of it and compare and discriminate ideas. find and match information. provide correct answers. identify speakers.

SPEAKING: to role play dialogues and monologues and participate in a quiz, using knowledge from other areas.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS Use additional materials such as travel brochures, cut-outs from English language newspapers and magazines with travel destinations, sports articles, activities for young people, etc. Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, notes.

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PAGE 76 INTRODUCTION Invite students to examine and describe the photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of the unit and make comments on the things they already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. Elicit from students what values they think will be paid more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what issues will be discussed in connection with them. When teaching students from different backgrounds remember that: many factors affect early literacy and subsequent performance, including aspects of their home environment, school experiences, and community resources; students from rural and urban areas will have different performance due to their geographic location. Additionally, there may be differences in educational backgrounds. students should be treated as individuals and you should try to get to know them in order to give them the right type of assistance in class. PAGE 77 GETTING INTO THE UNIT Explain to students that this page of each unit will contain activities meant to identify and activate their previous knowledge of the topic and related vocabulary, to establish the starting point for the activities that will follow. They will also help to detect weaknesses that will require extra work and support, contextualise the contents that will be developed, and present cognitive challenges. Give students time to form groups and discuss the exercises that can be done in groups; encourage them to reflect and be honest when doing those that require individual responses. Discuss with them or ask them to talk in groups about the name of the unit, how active they think they are, the importance of physical and mental activity, etc.

1 Before doing this exercise, offer a few

UNIT 4

statements and ask students to say if they think they are true or not, using the expressions provided in the exercise: Im sure / not sure, Im not quite certain, etc. Try to relate your statements to the contents of this unit.

Examples: Travelling by hot air balloon is really dangerous. A hovercraft is a flying machine. People do sports because they want to lead healthy lives. Ask students to read the statements and express their certainty / knowledge about the information provided. BACKGROUND INFORMATION At the beginning of the 20th Century, many efforts were underway to become the first people to fly. Most inventors of the day were impulsive and undisciplined. They would build a plane one day and try to fly it the very next day, with either disastrous or simply unproductive results. However, Orville and Wilbur Wright were much more scientific and methodical in their approach. As bicycle mechanics, the brothers believed in testing out their ideas laboriously before proceeding with further advancements. To help gauge their progress, they built a wind tunnel - the first one built for the purpose of checking an aircraft wing design. In the years preceding their first flight, the Wrights successfully conducted almost a thousand flights in gliders before they felt ready to begin production of a motor-powered flyer. They requested a patent application for a flying machine nine months before their successful flight in December 1903. The first plane flew to an altitude of 3 metres, travelled 40 metres, and landed 12 seconds after takeoff. After making two longer flights that day, Orville and Wilbur Wright sent a telegram to their father, instructing him to inform press. Two British aviators, Alcock and Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight in June 1919. They flew a modified World War I Vickers Vimy bomber from Newfoundland to Ireland. An airship or dirigible is a lighter than air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers.

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Answers All the statements are true.

1 Before doing this activity, you can help students


to practise telling the time using a real, a toy, or a cardboard clock. It is important that students know how to tell the time both on analogous and on digital clocks.

2 Ask students what they do to relax and if they


participate in any competitive activities. Ask them if they know any competitive activities that are not sports, like quizzes, karaoke games, card and board games, etc.

Tell them to discuss the six pictures in pairs and indicate which ones are competitive activities and which ones are for relaxation only. Answers For relaxation: Picture 1: flying kites. Picture 5: going to art galleries. Picture 6: going to concerts. Competition-based: Picture 2: playing basketball. Picture 3: flying in a hot air balloon. Picture 4: swimming.

Answers a. I usually get up at seven fifteen a.m. / quarter past seven in the morning. b. By seven forty five / By quarter to eight, I am on the bus to go to school. c. I have basketball training on Tuesdays and Fridays at four thirty p.m. / half past four in the afternoon. d. My parents dont let me stay up late, so Im normally in bed by ten p.m. / ten in the evening.

2 Remind students that a preposition links

3 If the class is good, ask students to read the

nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. There are some 100 prepositions in the English language and they are some of the most commonly used words.

adjectives on their own; if you think your students will find this too difficult, ask some students to write the list of adjectives on the board and go through them one by one with the class. Take advantage of the fact that many of them are cognates and ask students how cognates help them to understand texts or spoken messages and how they can be misleading some times.

Answers a. at. b. in. c. after. d. for. e. near, around. BACKGOUND INFORMATION A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial, or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence. In these examples, a preposition locates the noun book in space or in time. Examples: The book is on the table. The book is under the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. Alison held the book over the table. Barney read the book in class.

Answers Will vary, but check that students sentences make sense and express their opinions. PAGES 78 - 79 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT Before starting this unit, students need to: recognise prepositions. know how prepositions are linked with other words. know how to tell the time. recognise adverbs. know how to classify adverbs according to their role in a sentence.

3 Tell students that adjectives are frequently

followed by prepositions and although it is hard to remember all the combinations, practice and lots of reading help. Remind them that if a verb follows the preposition, it ends in ing.

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Here is a list of common adjectives and the prepositions that normally follow them. accustomed to aware of doubtful about fond of opposed to related to similar to afraid of capable of enthusiastic about guilty of pleased with rich in suitable for answerable to dependent on excited about interested in popular with satisfied with suspicious of attached to different from famous for keen on proud of serious about used to sth

She quite likes chatting on the Internet and she often gets in touch with other swimmers who live in other countries, to compare experiences. She hopes that somewhere in the world there is a person who has the same dream as she does to swim in one of the big oceans. Time passes really quickly when you talk about your dreams and hopes, so she sometimes chats for hours and she nearly forgets that she must go to bed. Manner well quickly Place everywhere somewhere Frequency Time often sometimes still yet Degree very really quite nearly BACKGROUND INFORMATION Adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and a -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighbourly, for instance, are adjectives. These are some types of adverbs. Adverbs of manner Francis moves slowly and speaks quietly. Adverbs of place Gary has lived on the island all his life; he still lives there now. Adverbs of frequency Hester takes the boat to the mainland every day; she often goes by herself. Adverbs of time Irvin should be back before dark; its starting to get dark now. Jackie finished her tea first. Keith left the party early. Adverbs of degree Lane speaks really quickly. Mac is a very handsome man.

Possible answers a. I am good at English / math / sports / dancing. b. I am keen on computer games / reading / pets. c. I am thinking of you / the holidays / buying a computer. d. I often dream about travelling / babies / the future. e. I get excited about good films / winning a prize / competitions. f. I am fed up with the weather / studying / bad TV programmes. g. I am interested in music / famous writers / learning.

4 Ask students to work in pairs and first have a

close look at the plan, then say the sentences while looking at the plan, and finally complete them in their books.

Answers a. on. b. next to. c. at. d. between. e. In / behind.

5 Revise with students the function of adverbs:

they are words that modify a verb (How did Chris drive? He drove slowly.), an adjective (How fast was Debbies car? She drove a very fast car.), or another adverb (How slowly did Earl move? He moved quite slowly down the aisle.).

Answers Despite being still very young, my sister Pam loves swimming and she swims really well. She tries to swim everywhere we go, for example in a river or a lake even a pond will do. She has not swum in the ocean yet, but Im sure she will one day.

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6 Inferring is a strategy used before, during and

++

after reading or listening. Predicting is a part of inferring. Inferences need to be based on references in the text and then mixed with background knowledge. Students need to be taught how to infer what words mean, the setting(s) of a story, the answers to questions, what pronouns refer to, features of characters, the underlying message from the author, and to differentiate fact from opinion, and explanations from events.

+ + PAGE 80 LESSON 1 READING FLYING

BEFORE YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: telling the time (refer to Exercise 1, Page 78); prepositions (refer to Exercises 2 and 3 on Page 78); how prepositions are linked with other words (refer to Exercise 4 on Page 78); adverbs (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 79); the role of adverbs in a sentence (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 79).

Notice the difference between assuming, which is an inference not backed up by facts, and inferring, which is based on evidence from the text and sometimes on background knowledge. Answer b.

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). Tell students to form small groups to answer and make comments on the questions. Answers a. Icarus is a character in Greek mythology. He is the son of Daedalus and is commonly known for his attempt to escape Crete by flight, which ended in a fall to his death when he got too close to the sun, which melted the wax on his wings. b. Aeroplane, helicopter, glider, dirigible, shuttle, rocket, hot air balloon. c. The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 9799% of the suns high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to life on earth. Over 91% of the ozone in Earths atmosphere is present here. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 10km to 50km above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. The ozone layer is currently being damaged by the use of aerosols and by human-produced pollution.
Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer

37 Play the recording corresponding to the Listening activities in Lesson 2 of this unit once and ask students to circle the correct answer.

Answers a. Manchester. b. Notting Hill. c. Julie. d. Stephen.

8 40 Play the recording corresponding to the

Listening activities in the Test your Knowledge section of this unit once and ask students to tick the correct answers. I II 3 3 3 3 III

Answers a. A course starting next semester. b. Teachers who are professional artists. c. The need for comfortable shoes. d. The translation of the activity from Japanese.

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2 + (Learning ability: to identify types of text


recognising patterns). Ask students to examine and read the three texts in detail. What differences can they see? What are the similarities? Where can they find these texts? Have they ever written a text like any of these? Answer a. A programme. b. An itinerary. c. A timeline. BACKGROUND INFORMATION A programme is a specially arranged selection of things to be done or a written or printed list of the events, performers, etc., in a public performance. An itinerary is a route or proposed route of a journey. A timeline is a representation or exhibit of key events within a particular historical period. Ask students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Circle the best alternative 1. Lets buy the itinerary / programme and see who the performers of the ballet are. 2. The cruise is following a strict itinerary / timeline: they start in the Mediterranean, go to the Canary Islands, and then sail down the coast of Africa. 3. You now know that the Wright brothers first flight was in 1903. Your task is to prepare a programme / timeline starting with their birth. 4. We should print a programme / timeline of the event to let people know what it is about. Answers 1. programme. 2. itinerary. 3. timeline. 4. programme

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3 ++ (Learning ability: to find meaning of words).


A wide and varied vocabulary is the first step to success in language learning. These are some important points to bear in mind in connection with vocabulary learning. Comprehension improves when you know what words mean. Words are the currency of communication. A wide vocabulary improves all areas of communication listening, speaking, reading, and writing. When children and adolescents improve their vocabulary, their academic and social confidence and competence improve too, both in their mother tongue and in the target language. It is also important that students learn how to use a dictionary. They will always need the skill. Answers a. harmful. b. wrath. c. take off. d. snacks / flight.

4 + (Learning ability: to make predictions).


It is important to interact with the text before, during, and after reading, listening, or viewing by setting a purpose, previewing the text, making predictions, asking questions, locating information for specific purposes, making connections, etc. Students predict the contents of the text they are going to read from the alternatives given, using also the title of the unit, the texts they have examined, and the previous exercises. Do not check answers at this point.

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American v/s British English

7 ++ (Learning ability: to locate information).


Give students more time to read the text in detail. This is a fairly difficult exercise and they might need your help. Walk around the classroom to offer help and tips. Check answers orally.

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that the word is spelled and pronounced differently in each variety of English. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm WHILE YOU READ

5 + (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Students read the text quickly and check their prediction in Exercise 4. Answer c.

Answers a. 7 a.m. b. 1 hour 15 minutes. c. we will check in at the international counter. d. will board. e. takes off at 11.00 am. f. snacks will be served. g. takes 5 hours. h. will collect our luggage. i. will take us to the hotel. j. at 5 pm.

8 ++ (Learning ability: to infer information from


provided evidence). Inference is the process of drawing a conclusion by applying rules (of logic, statistics, etc.) to observations or hypotheses. It is a technique that students will use in their everyday life in many areas. We can infer the meaning of signs in a foreign country (for example, the no smoking sign). In this exercise, students read between the lines, looking for the meaning that can be guessed from the words. Answers a. i. b. i. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY You can extend the inferring activity providing other examples. You can use signs or sentences. Ask students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. What can you infer from these sentences?

6 ++ (Learning ability: to transfer information to


a graphic organiser). Students scan the text to find the required information. Scanning is a reading strategy involving rapid but focused reading of a text, in order to locate specific information, looking for particular details such as dates, names, or certain types of words. It is processing a text at high speed while looking for answers to specific questions. When students use this technique, they must begin with a specific question which has a specific answer, for example, six places around the world. Answers a. Rio de Janeiro, Stockholm, Australia, New York, Hong Kong, Punta Arenas. b. To do business, to meet relatives, to have fun. c. Fumes, burning wood, contaminating industries, aerosols. d. Use cars less, recycle rubbish, protect our skin and eyes.

1. Travellers can take only one suitcase with them.


a. There is a limit of luggage permitted on the plane. b. The suitcase might get lost on the plane.

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2. The pilot is worried because it is snowing today.


a. Weather conditions might not permit the plane to leave. b. It is snowing, so it looks beautiful and peaceful outside. meat or animal products in it?

The volunteers arrived in Dichato to distribute clothes and food. The tourists arrived in La Tirana two days before the festivity began. The train arrived at the station 20 minutes late. The manager arrived at the meeting with three of her assistants. When we arrived at the party, everyone was having a wonderful time. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Circle the correct preposition, in or at. a. As soon as we arrived at / in Pomaire we bought a clay piggy bank. b. My father usually arrives at / in work before his colleagues. c. My friends arrived at / in Germany in the middle of a snow storm. d. Sybil arrived at / in the office directly from the airport. e. The girls arrived at / in the hotel after midnight. f. The sun was shining when Michelle arrived at / in Brighton. g. When did Richard arrive at / in Athens? Answers a. in. b. at. c. in. d. at. e. at. f. in. g. in.

3. Are you absolutely sure that the meal has no


a. The person asking the question is hungry. b. The person asking the question is a vegan. a. We cannot see. b. We cannot do our homework. Answers 1. a. 2. a. 3. b. 4. a. PAGE 84

4. The room is completely dark.

9 ++ (Learning ability: to identify sequence).


After students have read the text a couple of times, ask them to look at pictures 1 8 and put them in the correct order. They should justify their choices. As an additional activity, you can ask them to write one heading for each picture. Answers 3 5 7 4 2 6 1 8. AVOID THIS MISTAKE In connection with the verb arrive, you can explain to students that we generally use arrive in countries, cities, towns or villages, and arrive at specific, usually smaller places. Examples: The refugees arrived in Spain last Sunday. Nowadays it is possible to arrive in Santiago from practically anywhere in the world.

10 ++ (Learning ability: to identify topic).


Read the poem aloud or ask some students to do it. The meaning of the most difficult words is given in the glossary. Ask students to identify the subject of the text from the options given. Ask them to indicate the key words that helped them to answer. Answers b. From the words fire and steel, wheel, engine, wings.

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Did you know that See Page 8 of the Introduction.

d. Yesterday afternoon we took a lovely walk along the ______. Answers a. seaside. b. beach. c. beach. d. sea front. e. seaside. f. sea front. AFTER YOU READ
Language Note

11 +++ (Learning ability: to find or infer specific


information / to infer information). Ask students to write the answers to the questions in their notebooks. Check orally. Answers a. They are participating in a sports competition. b. They will go to play in Australia. c. Because her science teacher told her that it is being depleted. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Elicit or explain to students the difference between beach sea front - seaside. Beach: an area of sand, or small stones (called shingle) beside the sea or a lake. Sea front: the part of a town facing the sea. Seaside: an area that is by the sea, especially one where people go for a day or a holiday. Examples: Our science class is planning a trip to the seaside. Id love to stay at one of the beautiful hotels along the sea front. There were lots of tourists sunbathing on the beach. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Fill in the blanks in these sentences with the best alternative, beach, seaside or sea front: is what I need to recover my a. A day at the energy. , so b. It was an unusually quiet and solitary we put our towels on the sand and had a picnic. c. The children brought their rackets to play tennis . on the and had a d. We rented a house on the fantastic view of the sea. e. Why dont we go to the ______ instead of the mountains next summer?

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES See notes on Page 8 of the Introduction. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or a clause, the object of the preposition. In this book, we mainly deal with simple prepositional phrases, but be aware that a prepositional phrase might end in a clause. A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or an adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one? Example: The house in the middle of my street is white. As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer questions such as How? When? or Where? Example: We bought it before yesterdays class. Subjects and verbs can NEVER be found in prepositional phrases. We can use parentheses to mark them; then, when looking for the subject and verb of the sentence, it will narrow down the search. Example: The boy by the window on the other side of the room was looking over his shoulder at the pretty girl in the hall. The boy (by the window)(on the other side of the room) was looking (over his shoulder)(at the pretty girl)(in the hall.) Draw students attention to the Internet site where they can find more information on prepositional phrases, at the end of Page 85 of their books. Encourage them to use the site on their own, but to share information with you and with their classmates.

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Answers Point 3 We are taking a plane to Rio de Janeiro. (Where?) Our basketball teams are participating in the South American inter-school competition. (Where?) Last week, we got the itinerary from the travel agency. (Where?) We must get up really early to catch the bus to the airport. (Which bus?) They travel around the world to do business. (Where?) I have my passport ready in my handbag. (Where?) After we check in our luggage, well go through International Police control. (When?) I asked for one next to the window. (Where?) I wonder if I can see the ozone hole from the air. (Where?) Ozone is a kind of gas in the atmosphere.(Where?) Theres a big ozone hole near Punta Arenas. (Where?) All the nations in the world are now trying to help. (Which nations?) It shouldnt take that long and well be at the hotel. (Where?) After a short rest, we will go and visit the place of the competition. (When?) OPTIONAL ACTIVITY Photocopy these two poems and ask fast learners to underline the prepositional phrases and compare the results with a classmate. Later, they can share the exercise with the rest of the class. Poem 1: With arms wide open song by CREED Well, I just heard the news today; It seems my life is going to change. I close my eyes, begin to pray, Then tears of joy stream down my face. With arms wide open Under the sunlight, Welcome to this place. Ill show you everything With arms wide open.

Poem 2: Over the River (anonymous) Over the river and through the wood, To grandfathers house we go; The horse knows the way To carry the sleigh Through the white and drifted snow, oh! Over the river and through the wood, Oh, how the wind does blow! It stings the toes And bites the nose, As over the ground we go. Answers With arms wide open Well, I just heard the news today. It seems my lifes going to change; I close my eyes, begin to pray, Then tears of joy stream down my face With arms wide open Under the sunlight, Welcome to this place. Ill show you everything With arms wide open. Over the River Over the river and through the wood, To grandfathers house we go; The horse knows the way To carry the sleigh Through the white and drifted snow, oh! Over the river and through the wood, Oh, how the wind does blow! It stings the toes And bites the nose, As over the ground we go. PAGE 85

12 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a language


point). Ask students to use a pencil to underline the required phrases. Check answers orally.

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Answers a. According to Jenny, the plane left half an hour ago. b. I cant complete the report without the relevant information. c. In the case of a disaster, call this number. d. Put the posters on your bedroom wall. e. The text was corrected by a professional translator. f. They studied in England for six months.

DDITIONAL ACTIVITY Bring to class any text cut out from a newspaper or magazine, or photocopied from a book; ask students to circle all the prepositions and underline all the prepositional phrases they can find. As prepositions are very common parts of speech, students are bound to find lots of them.

14 ++ (Learning ability: to apply a language point).


This exercise has a double aim: it helps students to practise writing / asking questions (something that most students always find very difficult) and to apply what they have learnt about prepositional phrases. Ask them to use the pictures provided as props. Possible answers a. B: Where do you always take a walk? A: We always take a walk on the seafront / on the beach / by the sea. b. B: Where did you put the chair? A: I put the chair by the window / in the sunlight. c. B: When can we meet? A: We can meet next Friday, in the evening / on Friday, at lunchtime, etc. PAGE 86

13 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a language


point / to identify collocations). The prepositional phrases in the exercise are coined expressions that do not change. Answers a. for ages. b. under control. c. at the latest. d. for instance. e. In the meantime. f. by the window. Learning tip Analyse this Learning tip together with the class. Help them to notice that these suggestions will help them to learn collocations. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Prepositions are words that appear in front of nouns or their substitutes (pronouns or noun phrases). Some frequently used prepositions are about, above, across, as, at, before, beneath, by, except, for, from, in, inside, like, near, of, on, over, since, than, towards, under, up, with. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of different words, but they tend to be built in the same way: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun, called the object of the preposition. This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.

15 34 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the

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subject one more time to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. Answers a. in. b. to. c. in. d. around. e. by. f. from. g. By. h. at. i. of. j. on. k. in. l. after. m. for. n. to.

16 ++ 34 (Learning ability: to role play a


conversation / to imitate a spoken model).

Phil: And how was the flight? Antonia: Great and scary at the same time, because of the funny feeling you get in your belly at take-off and landing! Phil: Did you get a snack on the plane? Antonia: Yes, and we also had lunch. Phil: What time did you arrive in Santiago? Antonia: Just after 10 am. Phil: Who was waiting for you? Antonia: My mum and dad. Phil: Would you recommend a visit to Rio? Antonia: A hundred times yes!
PAGE 87

After checking students answers in Exercise 15, ask them to work in pairs. Encourage them to introduce their own ideas wherever possible and then role play the dialogue. Monitor pronunciation and intonation. Answers Will vary, but see transcript to check the parts that are the most likely to be replaced (indicated in bold). You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation, using the criteria in the Speaking section of the Test your Knowledge of this unit, items Language and Interaction to identify and provide feedback on performance.
34 TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Phil has a British accent and Antonia speaks with a Chilean accent. Phil: Did you have a good time in Rio? Antonia: Yes, and we did lots of things. First of all, we went to the beach. Phil: What was the water like in the ocean? Antonia: Really warm! Phil: How did you move around the city? Antonia: We mainly walked, but we also visited a few places by bus. Phil: What else did you do? Antonia: Apart from playing basketball, we visited the Botanical gardens. Phil: Ive heard they are really big. Antonia: They are! By the time we got to the end I could hardly walk.

17 + (Learning ability: to apply some


punctuation rules). The full stop is a punctuation mark indicating a strong pause. It is used most commonly at the end of a complete sentence. It is sometimes called the period. The stop is also used following many abbreviations. However, full stops are not necessary after the capital letters used as abbreviations for titles of organisations and countries, like NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation), BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), UK (United Kingdom). Possible answers iii. This is the first sentences in this exercise. iii. The full name of the company is Reservoir Ltd. iii. Where are you, Mr Black?

18 +++ APPLICATION TASK WRITING

(Learning ability: to write a text using provided and own ideas).

See notes on this section on Page 7 of the Introduction. By completing this task, students will: improve their team building skills; participate in a guided discussion; agree or disagree on certain items; do some basic Internet research;
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brainstorm and make lists of ideas; revise their own and their partners work. Ask students to read the instructions carefully and work in groups to prepare a real or imaginary itinerary. One example might be their ideal class trip; it can be a national or an international destination, but they must investigate the place and the means of transport they would use. In the brainstorming part of the exercise, encourage them to use expressions such as Im sure / not sure, I agree / disagree, etc. Tell students to check spelling and grammar before they present their itinerary to their classmates. the lesson and to relate them to personal experiences, expressing value judgements).

++

PAGE 88 LESSON 2 - LISTENING A COMPETITION

Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: adverbs (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 79) classification of adverbs according to their role in a sentence (refer to Exercise 5 on Page 79). BEFORE YOU LISTEN

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


previous knowledge). Ask students to form groups they feel comfortable with. Tell them to read and discuss the questions, and take some notes of their answers. Encourage them to give as much information as possible about the volcanoes in their area. Later, they should share their findings and opinions with another group.

19 (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents of

This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of content and language and decide if what they have done has helped them to talk about the topic of the lesson. Encourage students to discuss their answers to the questions in small groups, and to give and support their opinions with respect for their classmates at all times. Pay special attention to question b., to answer which they will have to evaluate behaviour and moral issues. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what has been learnt in real life situations.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Chilean volcanoes: according to the Global Volcanism Program, Chile has the regions largest number of historically active volcanoes - 36 - ranking it 5th among nations, behind Russias 52 and ahead of Icelands 18. Three of Chiles most watched and historically active volcanoes, Cerro Azul (Maule region), Hudson (Patagonia), and Villarrica (Araucana region) are composite volcanoes sometimes called stratovolcanos. They are typically steep-sided, with symmetrical cones of large dimensions built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs and may rise as high as 763 metres above their bases. On May 2, 2008, after more than 9,000 years of silence, Chaitn volcano in southern Chile erupted. Radiocarbon dating of the last lava flow from Chaitn volcano suggests that it had last erupted in 7420 BC, give or take a few years.

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A comprehensive list of Chilean volcanoes can be found at http://www.volcanolive.com/chile.html Volcanology: (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. A volcanologist (also spelled vulcanologist) is a person who does studies in this field. One famous modern Australian volcanologist with links to Chile is John Search. Over the past 24 years, John has travelled to the worlds most exciting volcanoes and witnessed eruptions during trips to more than 200 of them. John has worked on many award-winning television programmes. John is the founder of Volcano Live, the worlds first volcano news and travel website, which monitors worldwide volcanic activity and provides adventure tours to the worlds most exciting volcanoes. Some of his most important achievements include: 1. First person to abseil into the crater of active Yasur volcano, on Tanna Island in southern Vanuatu while the volcano was erupting, in 2010. Filmed an award winning Discovery Channel documentary. 2. Johns expedition was the first to the summit of Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland, during the 2010 eruption. 3. First scientist to climb to the summit of Chaitn volcano in Chile in 2008, after the worlds largest rhyolite eruption in 100 years. Made two visits to the volcano in 2008.

3 ++ (Learning ability: to match key words and


pictures using knowledge from other areas). Ask students to match the words in Exercise 2 with the corresponding parts in the picture. Answers a. Smoke. b. Fire. c. Crater. d. Lava. e. Cone. f. Vent. ADDITIONAL ACTI VITY You can ask students to play a scientific version of the Stone, paper, scissors game. They form pairs and say one of these words associated with water, earth or wind: The rules are: water (flood and tsunami) beats wind (hurricane and tornado) wind (hurricane and tornado) beats earth (earthquake and volcano) earth (earthquake and volcano) beats water (flood and tsunami) This game can be played online at http://www.fema. gov/kids/wwe.htm

4 ++ (Learning ability: to match key words and


pictures using knowledge from other areas). Take advantage of students previous knowledge and ask them to match the three types of volcano with their descriptions. The three words are cognates.

Answers a. extinct. b. dormant. c. active. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY You can make a few copies of this quiz to give to fast learners, or you can make multiple copies for the whole class. Students can solve the quiz either on their own or with the help of the Internet. You can assign a time limit and choose one quiz master, who has the answers, while all the other students try to beat the clock.

2 + 35 (Learning ability: to practise


pronunciation of key words). Students might be familiar with the words from their natural science classes. Furthermore, some of them are cognates. Play the recording and ask students to pronounce the words carefully.

TRANSCRIPT VOCABULARY cone crater fire lava smoke vent

35

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1. Which volcano erupted in 79 AD, destroying the city of Pompeii? a. The Hudson. b. Mount Vesuvius. 2. What do we call a volcano which erupts once in hundreds of years and then goes back to sleep? a. Sleeping. b. Dormant. 3. Which has been the loudest volcanic eruption? a. Krakatoa, in 1883. b. Chaitn, in 2008. 4. What is the worlds largest active volcano? a. Mount Etna. b. Mauna Loa. 5. What type of volcano is the Yellowstone park? b. Super. a. Extinct. 6. What is Santiagos extinct volcano? b. San Cristbal. a. Manquehue. Answers and background information 1. b. Fourteen miles southeast of Naples, in Italy lie the remains of an ancient town - Pompeii. The city flourished under the shadows of the towering Mount Vesuvius. In 79 AD, this active volcano erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Torre Annunziata. 2. b. Vulcanologists classify volcanoes into three groups: active, dormant and extinct. A dormant volcano is one that isnt currently active or erupting, but geologists think that it is still capable of erupting. 3. a. Krakatoa in Indonesia erupted explosively on 26-27 August, 1883. Its explosion was heard over 3,000 kilometres away in Australia. The collapse of the mountain into the sea created a 30-metre high tsunami (huge wave), which in turn killed 36,000 people. 4. b. Mauna Loa erupts every three or four years. The summit of the volcano is 4,170 metres above sea level and more than 9,000 metres above the sea floor that surrounds the Hawaiian ridge. Its volume above sea level, estimated to be about 40,000 cubic kilometres, qualifies it as the worlds largest volcano.

5. b. A supervolcano is a volcano capable of producing an eruption with an ejection volume thousands of times larger than most historic volcanic eruptions. Supervolcanoes can occur when magma in the Earth rises into the crust from a hotspot, but is unable to break through the crust. 6. a. Cerro Manquehue volcano went extinct and simply became a mountain; there is no chance of lava flowing. Cerro San Cristbal is a hill in northern Santiago, Chile. It rises 880 m above sea level and about 300 m above the rest of Santiago; the peak is the second highest point in the city, after Cerro Renca.

5 ++ 36 (Learning ability: to identify and


practise English sounds). Give plenty of examples of words that contain the sounds /s/ (practically the same as the /s/ sound in Spanish and /z/ (the sound bees make /zzzz/) in short phrases or sentences. Examples: /s/: Sell the dress to Sandy. Celia sent some soft sand. Stop making that rice and celery soup. /z/: Please open your eyes and cover your nose and mouth. The zebras at the zoo learnt music. Lizzy the lizard ate daisies, cheese, and zippers. a. Play the recording several times, pausing after each sentence, for students to identify which of the sounds is said in each case. Answers i. /s//s/ ii. /s//z/ iii. /s//z//z/ iii. /z//z//z/ iv. /z//s/

b. Play the recording again, with pauses, for students to repeat as a whole class. Then tell them to practise saying the sentences in their groups. You can organise a competition to discover the group that says the most sentences with the correct pronunciation.

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION The sounds /s/ and /z/ are articulated in exactly the same way, with the same position of the tongue; the only difference is that /s/ is always a voiceless sound, produced with no vibration of the vocal folds, which are open and relaxed, while /z/ is a voiced sound, produced with vibration of the vocal folds, which are in close proximity. It is easier to notice how voiced /z/ is when it is between other voiced sounds (all vowels and /b, d, g, m, n, , l, , , d /, but not so much when it is preceded or followed by voiceless sounds /p, t, k, , ,t/or by a pause. Here are some common spellings for the sound /s /. s: some, yes, must ss: class, discuss c: cent, city, nice, place sc: science, scenery Here are some common spellings for the sound /z /. z: size, prize, quiz s: busy, because, easy, visit se: these, cause, lose s: plays, goes, does, girls PAGE 89

from just looking at the pictures, they should take the whole unit as the basis for making predictions. What does the title of the unit tell them? How about the other exercises in this lesson? Do not check answers at this point. WHILE YOU LISTEN

8 + 37 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Play the recording once for students to check their predictions. Were they right or wrong? Answers a. This is the recording of a television quiz show, in which two teams are competing. b. The quiz is about volcanoes.

9 + 37 (Learning ability: to classify specific

information, comparing and discriminating between ideas).

Ask students to read the questions before playing the recording again once or twice so that they can focus their attention on the specific information provided in the questions. Help them to notice how they should mark each type of answer. Answers a. 3 b. 3 c. ? d. 3 e. 7 PAGE 90

6 ++ (Learning ability: to identify useful listening


strategies, valuing theoretical knowledge). Go through the statements with students and ask them which strategies they have already used. Have they helped them to understand a recorded message? How? Encourage them to use the strategies they find the most useful in the listening activities that will follow.

10 ++ 37 (Learning ability: to find


specific information). Ask students to read and copy the questions in Exercise 8 into their notebooks, leaving plenty of space between them to write the answers. You can ask keener students to write the possible answers. Play the recording again and tell them to check / write the answers. Check them orally.

7 + (Learning ability: to make predictions).


Listening is much more than just hearing; it is thinking about what one is going to hear and about what one is hearing. Listening skills include: predicting outcomes, differentiating words, following instructions, filling gaps, etc. The first exercise that can be done with listening extracts is predicting. Tell students that, apart

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Answers a. Mount Vesuvius. b. The crater, the vent, the cone. c. It comes from the name of the Greek god Vulcan. d. Extinct. e. Hawaii.
American v/s British English

more time and tell them to listen specifically for the scores after each question. Then tell them to work out the final score. Answers a. Question Question Question Question Question 1 2 3 4 5 100 100 100 -100

Draw students attention to the American v/s British English box, and help them to notice that different words are used in each variety of English. Students can find more examples of differences between American and British English at http://esl. about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

Red team Green team

b. i. Red team: 200 points Green team: 0 points.

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING A COMPETITION All the speakers have a British accent.

37

11 ++ 37 (Learning ability: to match information


choosing from provided options). Ask students to do the matching exercise from what they remember about the recording. Then play it again for them to check their answers. Answers a. iv. b. iii. c. i. d. ii.

12 ++ 37 (Learning ability: to identify speakers


using provided information). Ask different students to read the sentences aloud. Then play the recording again for them to write the name of the speaker next to the statement. Check answers orally. Answers a. Presenter. b. Stephen. c. Presenter. d. Julie. e. Stephen. f. Presenter.

13 ++ 37 (Learning ability: to discriminate


between correct and incorrect information).

After having listened to the recording at least three times, students may be able to determine the final scores to fill in the chart without listening again. If not, play the recording one

Presenter: Yes! Wonderful! Audience cheering and clapping for our two teams: The Red team from Manchester City Secondary and the Green team from Notting Hill. Shout a little louder, as if you were at a football match. I cant hear you! If you try a little harder, Im sure Ill be able to hear you! Thats great! Now that you are shouting extremely loudly, we can start the show. Julies the captain of the Red team and Stephens the captain of the Green team. Ready? Hands on the buzzers? Julie: Red teams ready. Stephen: Green teams ready too! Presenter: OK, so, if you are both ready, Ill read the first question. I must tell you that its a difficult question, although Im certain that both teams will know the answer. This Italian volcano is responsible for the destruction of a whole city. Whats its name? (Buzzer) Yes, Green team. Stephen: Its Mount Vesuvius. Presenter: Are you positive? No doubts? Stephen: Yes, I am 100% sure.

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Presenter: Totally correct! 100 points for the Green team. Here comes question number two. Name at least three parts of a volcano. (Buzzer) Presenter: Red team this time. Julie: The crater, the vent, the cone. Presenter: Absolutely right! 100 points for the Red team. Oops! A little technical problem, but our technicians will solve it really soon. As you know, were broadcasting live, so such problems can happen. But were OK again and heres question number three. Where does the word volcano come from? Well, teams? Whats happening? Julie: Im not quite sure. Stephen: Yeah, the same here. Presenter: It comes from the Greek god Vulcan. And youre right, you dont answer unless you have no doubts whatsoever. So, well go to question four. A volcano that hasnt erupted for many years is called dormant. If a volcanos not going to erupt ever again, what do we call it? (Buzzer) Julie: Extinct! Presenter: Very good, Julie. 100 points for your team. Which Pacific islands are completely made of volcanic lava and ashes? (Buzzer) Presenter: Yes, Green team? Stephen: I think it might be Polynesia. Presenter: Sorry, Stephen. Its Hawaii. I told you unless youre absolutely sure, its better not to answer. We must take away 100 points from your score! Sorry, kids, but rules are rules and even if you dont like them, we must respect them! And now we have the final question .
AFTER YOU LISTEN

the most useful / effective? Which ones did not apply? Answers Will vary, but encourage students to substantiate their answers.

15 ++ (Learning ability: to use information to role


play a quiz show). When students do role plays, apart from learning English and correcting their pronunciation, intonation, and accentuation, they also learn these skills, which you should stress every time you do a role play activity: cooperating; sharing; participating; following instructions; taking turns; remaining on task; accepting differences; listening; communicating and interacting with a positive attitude; being polite and courteous; respecting themselves and others. PAGE 91
Language Note

ADVERBIAL PHRASES Adverbial phrases are structures that act as adverbs in a sentence. Many adverbial phrases are made up by prepositional phrases as their base (for his mother, with a big hammer, before my next holiday). Explain this to your students to avoid confusion and tell them that sometimes the phrases do not contain an adverb, but always act as an adverb. Other adverbial phrases are made on the basis of an infinitive (to buy a car, to show it to my friends, etc.)

14 + (Learning ability: to develop study skills


valuing theoretical background). Ask students to go back to Exercise 6 on Page 89. Which techniques did they use while listening to the quiz? Which ones did they find

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Here are some examples of adverbial phrases made with prepositions. Type Manner Place Time Adverb phrase Example with a hammer next door The carpenter hit the nail with a hammer. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. We finished our project before the holidays. Jodie sends me two CDs every month. Lance bought the flowers for his mother.

Answers a. Why are you collecting money? / What are you collecting money for? b. How often do the children play football in the park? c. Where did you see the film? d. How did the painter mix his paints? Learning tip Analyse this Learning tip together with the class. Let them know that we are using complete answers for pedagogical purposes, but in real life we tend to use shorter sentences, especially when speaking. PAGE 92

before the holidays Frequency every month Purpose for his mother

Here are some examples of adverbial phrases made with an infinitive. Type Purpose Purpose Adverb phrase Example to buy a ticket to support the team I'm saving money to buy a ticket for the concert. The students all showed up to support the team. vocabulary).

17 ++ 38 (Learning ability: to consolidate


Expressing certainty or lack of certainty is a difficult task for students. It is known in linguistics as epistemic modality, a modality that connotes how much certainty or evidence a speaker has for the proposition expressed. Epistemic modality in English can be expressed: a. grammatically, through: modal verbs (may, might, must, etc.); a particular grammatical mood. b. non-grammatically (often lexically), through: adverbials (perhaps, possibly, Im certain, etc.); a certain intonation pattern.

You can find lots of information on adverbs and adverbial phrases and clauses at http://www. learn4good.com/languages/evrd_grammar/adverb. htm and http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/ grammar/adverbs.htm Answers Point 2 Now that you are shouting extremely loudly, we can start the show. Totally correct! Absolutely right! Our technicians will solve it really soon. Im not quite sure. Unless youre absolutely sure, its better not to answer.

Source: Holmes, J. (1982) Expressing Doubt and Certainty in English.


RELC Journal, Vol. 13,No. 2, 9-28

16 ++ (Learning ability: to consolidate a


language point). If necessary, provide plenty of other examples to explain the structure and meaning of adverbial phrases. Tell students that the pictures illustrate the short dialogues.

In this exercise, students practise the lexical type through the use of phrases such as Im certain, I know, Im not sure, I believe, etc. Play the recording for students to check their answers. Answers a. Guess. b. think. c. feel. d. Im not sure. e. are not certain. f. think. g. say. h. know. i. trust. j. believe.

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UNIT 1 4

18 ++ 38 (Learning ability: to imitate a spoken


model / to role play a monologue). Help students to divide the monologue among the members of their group. Play the recording with pauses for students to practise and then role play the monologue in front of the class or another group.
38 TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Julie has a British accent. Julie: Today was incredible. After months of very hard work, we took part in the quiz and we were really great. Guess what! We won! How am I feeling? I can think of a very good way to express how I feel: Im over the moon, as it was quite a difficult quiz. As for the other team, Im not sure; they were also very good, but they were more nervous than our team. We kind of kept our cool throughout the quiz. The Green team complained about the rules a little, but rules are rules and we must obey them. If you are not certain about the rules, you should speak before the competition, and the other team didnt say anything. So there! I think lots of people will say that luck is important in competitions, but its not all luck, you know. You have to trust your skills and your knowledge and we were all well prepared. The prize is important too; I strongly believe in positive motivation, and going to Brighton to spend the weekend there is that and much more. If Im not too tired, Ill record my impressions of the trip when I get back.

If a student has reached the maximum score, you can offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. You may ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. Answers a. Every weekend. b. Last Saturday. c. along the cliffs. d. very loudly. e. to look at the whale. f. With a rolling motion. PAGE 93

20 ++(Learning ability: to role play a conversation).


Elicit from students possible results of inappropriate pronunciation. They are likely to say some of these. People will not understand me. People will get angry with me. People might misunderstand me. People will not want to listen to me. I will get self-conscious and will not want to use the language. Then, elicit or offer them the following tips to improve pronunciation. Practise new words saying them several times. Listen to other people say the words. Modulate clearly and carefully, especially when you learn a new word. Learn to discriminate between different sounds in English. Students practise the dialogues in pairs and then get into small groups to role play them.

19 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a ime limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores.

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21 +++ APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING

(Learning ability: to role play a television programme using knowledge from other areas).

For more information on these activities, see Page 7 of the Introduction. By completing this task, students will: participate in a quiz; investigate a topic; negotiate an outcome / a prize; learn how to write quiz questions; learn how to assign and evaluate scores. This should be a fun activity. Students generally like doing puzzles and quizzes, so it should offer an enjoyable learning experience. Read the instructions aloud and check that students understand them. Give them time to choose the subject, to design the points system, and to prepare their questions. Once the quizzes are ready, monitor the activity throughout.

important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations. Tell students to work in groups and share their answers with other groups. Encourage them to give and support their opinions with respect for their classmates at all times. Pay special attention to how the groups deal with these questions, which invite them to express their points of view on serious moral issues. PAGES 94 - 95 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES

1 Students read the sentences, underline the


Answers Adjective or Question adverb? answered a. Before the competition, the coach revised our strategy. b. The computer on that desk is my mothers. c. The noisiest students sat at the back of the bus. d. That schoolbag on the floor is full of pens and pencils. Adverb Adjective Adverb Adjective When?

prepositional phrases, and complete the chart.

22 ++ (Learning ability: to discuss and compare


different listening strategies).

Students go back to Exercise 6 on Page 89 and answer the two questions in pairs or small groups. Try to listen to their answers and give them prompts to move the discussion forward. You can ask fast learners to carry out a survey to discover the most effective tips and then to prepare a poster with them. of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences, expressing value judgements).

Which one? Where? Which one?

23 ++(Learning ability: to reflect on the contents

2 Students study the pictures and fill in the blanks


in the sentences (a d) with the correct adverbial phrases.

This is a roundup exercise where students are asked to reflect on what they have learnt in the lesson in terms of content and language. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus
UNIT 4

Answers a. fast enough Picture 3. b. quite well Picture 1. c. incredibly loudly Picture 4. d. a little more straight Picture 2.

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3 Apart from certain knowledge of prepositional

and adverbial phrases, this exercise requires a degree of creativity. It will also require some time to replace all the highlighted phrases. The expressions in the box are not always synonyms of the highlighted expressions, but are similar in structure and / or function. Be flexible about students use of their own ideas.

Answers a. in May two years ago. b. in a different city. c. each month. d. for the kids of the family. e. very early. f. quite warmly. g. in light clothes. h. only sometimes. i. this time. j. in the house. k. to the take-off strip. l. quite high in the sky. m. extremely happy and at peace. PAGES 96 - 97 JUST FOR FUN See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Remind students that they should do these activities on their own, without much intervention from you, but help and support when necessary. Answers 1. Text I. Picture 3. Text II. Picture 5. Text III. Picture 1. Text IV. Picture 4. Text V. Picture 2. 2. AIR Text I. Zorbing. LAND Text III. Land yachting. RAIN Text II. Grass sledging. ROCK Text IV. Abseiling. WATER Text I. Zorbing. WIND Text III. Land yachting. 3. Answers will vary, but make sure students express and substantiate their preferences, showing respect for their classmates opinions. PAGE 97 CHILEAN CONNECTION Before doing this section, ask students to name at least five important Chilean sportspeople. What are their disciplines? What have they achieved? Which ones do they consider the best sportspeople in Chile? Why? Some important Chilean sports people: Swimming: Kristel Kbrich, Gian Carlo Zolezzi.

Football: Alexis Snchez, Humberto Suazo, Arturo Vidal. Tennis: Marcelo Ros, Fernando Gonzlez, Nicols Mass, Paul Capdeville. Car racing: Eliseo Salazar, Marcelo Mancilla, Cristin Mackenna. Athletics: Erika Olivera, Kael Becerra. Horse racing: Jos Santos, Cristina Pontigo. Horse riding: Alberto Larraguibel. Motor cycling: "Chaleco" Lpez, Jaime and Felipe Prohens. Archery: Denisse van Lamoen. When we ask students to read about their own culture in English, we are asking them to enter their own reality, but in a different language. The aim of this section is to apply English in situations that are very often close to students and that most of the time hold a significant interest for them. Depending on when this text is used, you can ask students about Gonzalezs performance at the Olympics and ask them what his situation is like at present. PAGES 98 - 100 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Answers READING SUMMER BREAK ACTI VITIES Please note that this text is from an American site, therefore it uses American English spelling and vocabulary (vacation, soccer, center, organization, etc.) 1. b. 2. a. Baseball field, basketball court, swim center. b. Zoo, aquarium, museum, library. c. Play an instrument, play chess, learn pottery. 3. a. VI. b. IV. c. V. d. II. e. I. f. III. 4. a. VI. b. III. c. II. d. IV. 40 LISTENING - FREE TIME ACTI VITIES 5. a. i. b. ii. c. i. 6. a. False. b. True. c. True. 7. a. Next Tuesday. b. Salsa, meringue, waltz. c. Watercolours, oils, pottery, painting on glass, jewellery making. d. Shorts, T-shirt.
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LANGUAGE 8. a. How much did it rain last weekend? / Did it rain a lot last weekend? b. Why did you borrow the tools? c. Where should I put the book? d. When does your boyfriend buy you flowers? How often does your boyfriend buy you flowers?

9. a. really carelessly. b. too quickly. c. with too much fat. d. under suspicion. e. on the last day. f. after the terrible experience.

SPEAKING 10. Ask students to talk about activities they like. Tell them to say how and where they practise them and what kind of equipment they need. The presentation should be at least one and a half minutes long. Assign points according to the following criteria. Task Correct description of activity including all the required information. Correct description of activity including most of the required information. Correct description of activity including some of the required information. Poor description of activity, very little of the required information included. Score Language 4 3 2 2 Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score Interaction 3 2 1 0 Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

WRITING 11. Students should be able to write an itinerary for a trip with at least 5 bullet points. Assign points according to the following criteria. Task Wrote the itinerary following all the indications. Wrote the itinerary following most of the indications. Wrote the itinerary following some of the indications. Tried to write the itinerary, but followed very few of the indications. Score Language 4 3 2 1 Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score Presentation 3 2 1 0 Correct spelling and format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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TRANSCRIPT LISTENING FREE TIME ACTIVITIES I Gabriela speaks with a British accent and Hugo with a Chilean accent. Gabriela: Hugo: Gabriela: Hugo:

40

Geoffrey: Sean: Geoffrey:

Gabriela: Hugo: Gabriela: Hugo: Gabriela: Hugo: II Both speakers have a British accent. Greta: Could you tell me a little more about the classes? Receptionist: All our teachers are professional artists. Greta: What else do you have apart from pottery classes? Receptionist: Well, theres painting on glass, jewellery making and, next semester, were starting oil and water colour painting. Greta: Thats great. Id be really interested in the oil painting workshop. My dad used to paint with oils and I still have some of his works. Receptionist: I could let you know when we start the course. Greta: Please do. III Geoffrey speaks with a Scottish accent and Sean is from New Zealand. Sean: So what should I take with me to the first session? Geoffrey: Not much. A pair of shorts and a T-shirt will do. Sean: I thought Id need some special clothes. Geoffrey: Not at the beginning. When you reach a higher dan, youll need a kimono. Sean: I can just about imagine myself all in white with a black belt.

Im thinking of joining Lorena in the waltz club. I never thought Lorena would be interested in this kind of things. Shes not very musical, is she? She took it up nearly three months ago and shes really good at it now. Thats interesting, but I dont really see you waltzing around a room. Well, they have also salsa and merengue. Yes, tropical rhythms are more like you. I think I shall start next Tuesday. Just make sure to take some comfortable shoes. And I might also need a partner! You must be joking! Im a football and tennis guy.

Hey, not so fast! It takes years of practice to even get to a red or green belt. And there are no weapons involved, right? Thats right. The name of the sport in Japanese means an empty hand, so no weapons are used.
PAGE 100 FINAL REFLECTION

Give students enough time to analyse what they have done and learnt in this unit. Encourage them to follow the tips suggested and to share ideas in their groups. PAGE 101 SELF-EVALUATION See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation sheet with students. Remind them that there are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE. For YOUR TEST RESULTS, they have to work out their score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read their results, and reflect on them. Help them to think of what they can do to improve results, solve problems, give or get help, etc. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection on their involvement with the main OATs discussed in the lessons and invites them to think about their learning strategies and attitudes. PAGES 102 - 105 SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 TO 4 Answers READING APPLYING FOR A JOB 1. Text I. a. - A CV. Text II. d. An e-mail. Text III. e. An interview. Text IV. c. An article. 2. b. 3. a. True. b. False. c. False. d. True. 4. a. ii. b. i. 5. a. Depending on the year the book is used: 2012: 28, 2013: 29, 2014: 30.

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b. Microsoft, Apple. c. Completed job application, certification, resume, three references. d. He / she has strong technical experience and education. LISTENING - COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD QUIZ 6. (2) Canada. (4) China. (3) India. (6) Japan. (1) South Africa. (7) The United Arab Emirates. (5) The USA. 7. a. ready. b. populous. c. answer. d. 50. 8. Question N Team Answer (3) or (7) 1 2 3 4 LANGUAGE 10. Answers will vary, but these are some possible answers. a. If John wants to become a pilot, he should start training now / hed better improve his physical condition / he ought to have good marks. Red Red Blue Red Blue 3 3 7 3 3
41

9. a. False. b. True. c. False. d. False. e. True.

b. If you want to be successful this year, you should devote more time to your studies / youd better start working harder / you ought to pay more attention in class. c. Start working now / You should start working now / Hurry up / Youd better hurry up / Get some help / You ought to get some help if you dont want to work till late. d. Unless it starts raining, well go to the seaside / well have a picnic in the park / well have lunch in the garden. 11. a. should I. b. ought to. c. d better. 12. a. Of the kids in my class. b. In an accident. c. by the window. 13. Possible answers. Accept the use of different ways of making suggestions and recommendations. Arnold: I would like to get a part-time job this summer. What should I do? Belinda: Congratulations! If you want to get a part-time job, first, you should / ought to look for a job advertisement in the paper or on the Internet. Arnold: And after that, should I send my CV? Belinda: Yes. I can help you to write it if you want. Arnold: Thanks. I should probably write an application letter too. Belinda: I can help you with that too!

WRITING 14. Students write questions to ask in a job interview to get personal information, educational background, experience, interests and hobbies, etc. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote an appropriate variety of eight to ten questions. Wrote a variety of five to seven questions. Wrote three or four questions. Wrote only one or two questions. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and presentation. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect presentation. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect presentation. A lot of spelling mistakes and poor presentation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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SPEAKING 15. Students role play a job interview using the questions they wrote in Exercise 14. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Asked and answered eight to ten questions in a job interview. Asked and answered five to seven questions in a job interview. Asked and answered three or four questions in a job interview. Asked and answered only one or two questions in a job interview. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 TO 4 - LISTENING 41 COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD QUIZ - All the speakers have a British accent. Quiz master: OK participants, buzzers at the ready? and go! Here comes the first question. Where did the 2010 World Cup take place? (buzzer sounds) Red team: South Africa! Quiz master: Correct, South Africa it is. Are you all ready for question number two? What countrys flag has a red maple leaf? (buzzer sounds) Red team: Canada! Quiz master: Correct again; thats another 50 points for the Red team. Question number three. Whats the worlds most populous country? (buzzer sounds) Blue team: India! Quiz master: Im afraid you are wrong, Blue team. Red team? Do you have the correct answer? Red team: Yes, its China. Quiz master: And that is the correct answer. 50 points for the Red team and minus 50 points for the Blue team. Here comes the final question of the round. Which country has the worlds tallest building: the United States of America, Japan or the United Arab Emirates? Blue team: The United Arab Emirates! Quiz master: Very good, Blue team; that is the right answer.
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PHOTOCOPIABLE ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES UNIT 4


1. Study the elements in this table carefully. a. Match the traveller (1 6) in column A with the place visited (i vi) in column C, and the corresponding statement (a f) in column B. b. Underline the prepositional phrase in each statement.

a. After a nice swim, I really enjoy sitting in the sun.


1 i

b. I never thought I would camp in the North Pole.


2 ii

c. It was pretty hard climbing up that steep slope.


3 iii

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d. There is so much life under the water!


4 iv

e. We are so tired now after our walk around the Big Apple.
5 v

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f. We could see several monkeys over our heads.


6 vi

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2. Find and describe at least 10 differences in the two pictures. Try to use prepositional or adverbial phrases wherever possible.

Source: http://familyfun.go.com/printables/

travel-game-find-the-difference-703948/

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ADDITIONAL READING TEXT UNIT 4 Excerpt from Gullivers travels, Chapter I


A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT (abridged version) My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire; I was the third of five sons. I became an apprentice to Mr James Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, with whom I continued for four years. My father now and then sending me small sums of money, I used them to learn navigation and other parts of the mathematics, useful to those who intend to travel, as I always believed it would be, some time or other, my fortune to do. I soon became a doctor on the Swallow, the ship commanded by Captain Abraham Pannel, with whom I continued three years and a half, making a number of voyages. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the sea and decided to stay at home with my wife and family. After three years, I accepted an advantageous offer from Captain William Prichard, master of the Antelope, who was making a voyage to the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol on May 4, 1699 and our voyage was at first very prosperous. It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble the reader with the particulars of our adventures in those seas; let it suffice to inform him that, in our passage to the East Indies, we were driven by a violent storm to the north-west. On the 5th of November, which was the beginning of summer in those parts, the sailors saw a rock within half a cable's length of the ship, but the wind was so strong that we were driven directly upon it and immediately split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having let down the boat into the sea made a shift to get clear of the ship and the rock. We rowed, by my computation, about three miles, till we were able to work no longer, being already spent with labour while we were in the ship. We therefore trusted ourselves to the mercy of the waves and in about half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry from the north. What became of my companions in the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the rock or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell, but conclude they were all lost. For my own part, I swam as fortune directed me and was pushed forward by wind and tide to the shore. Extremely tired, I fell asleep. As I woke up, I heard a confused noise about me, but in the posture I lay, I could see nothing except the sky. In a little time, I felt something alive moving on my left leg which, advancing gently forward over my breast came almost up to my chin; when bending my eyes downwards as much as I could, I perceived it to be a human creature not six inches high, with a bow and arrow in his hands. In the meantime, I felt at least forty more of the same kind following the first. I was totally astonished and shouted so loud that they all ran back in a fright; some of them, as I was afterwards told, were hurt with the falls they got by jumping from my sides upon the ground. However, they soon returned and one of them, who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifting up his hands and eyes by way of admiration, cried out in a shrill but distinct voice, HEKINAH DEGUL. The others repeated the same words several times, but then I knew not what they meant. I lay all this while, as the reader may believe, in great uneasiness. After a while, struggling to get loose, I had the fortune to break the strings and pull out the pegs that fastened my left arm to the ground. Before I could catch them, the creatures ran off a second time. Suddenly, I felt a hundred arrows discharged on my left hand, which pricked me like so many needles; besides, they shot another flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe, and many fell on my body and some on my face, which I immediately covered with my left hand. When this shower of arrows was over, I fell, groaning with grief and pain. When the people observed I was quiet, they discharged no more arrows, but by the noise I heard, I knew their numbers increased. Then, they put a ladder in front of me and one small person climbed the ladder and made me a long speech, which I did not understand at all.

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1. Circle the best alternative. a. The story is written in Old English / Modern English. b. The name of Gullivers first ship was The Antelope / The Swallow. c. Gullivers ship hit a rock / the cost. d. When Gulliver woke up, he saw giants / little creatures. 2. What is the overall topic of this text? a. Gullivers early life, education, and first adventure. b. Gullivers interest in sea travel. c. Gullivers plans for the future. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Jonathan Swift (1667 1745) was born in Ireland, of English parents. Swift's father died shortly before he was born, leaving Jonathan, his sister, and their mother dependent on his father's family. Their mother moved to England and left him with a nurse for his first three years. He attended Ireland's best schools, including Trinity College in Dublin. He was there in 1689, when civil unrest forced him and other Protestants to flee Ireland for England. In England, Swift began to work as secretary to scholar and former Parliament member Sir William Temple. In 1695 he returned to Ireland and became a protestant minister. Between 1696 and 1710, Swift wrote most of his first great work, A Tale of a Tub, a prose satire on the religious extremes represented by Roman Catholicism and Calvinism, and in 1697, he wrote The Battle of the Books. In 1720, he began work upon Gulliver's Travels, intended "to vex the world, not to divert it." Since then, it has achieved quite the contrary effect; it has become one of the most beloved childrens classics, has been filmed several times, and has even been turned into a cartoon. His last work was published in 1735 and he died in 1745.
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Advantageous: (adj.) good or useful in a particular situation. Arrow: (noun) a thin stick with a sharp point at one end, which is shot from a bow. Astonished: (adj.) very surprised, amazed. Groan: (verb) to issue a sound as if in pain. Ladder: (noun) a piece of equipment for climbing up and down, consisting of two lengths of wood or metal that are joined together by steps or rungs. Split: (verb) to divide, or to make sth divide, into two or more parts. Struggle: (verb) to fight. Weary: (adj.) very tired, especially after you have been working hard or doing sth for a long time.
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EXTRA TEST UNIT 4


READING - DOES BARCELONA COUNT AS ANOTHER COUNTRY?

y A travel blog by maryannhaggert


itecture guidebook. BARCELONA, Spain I have an arch that means a very Keating has his camera bag. Together, rds. slow walk along Barcelonas bouleva is proudly the capital While Barcelona is legally in Spain, it uage (Cataln) and of Catalonia, an area with its own lang looks like a cross of with street signs in a language that a Xs. Spanish is the Spanish and French with a lot of extr shows up, too, but second language; sometimes, English trilingual signs can look a bit silly. fully publishes a book The Barcelona city government help modern architecture. with a well-explained walking tour of Barcelona, we On our first afternoon and evening in several miles, followed it carefully (and slowly) for ular building after ctac spe ooohhing and aaahhing at one look at La Sagrada another, ending our stroll with our first masterpiece. Familia, the cathedral that is Gaudis

Saturday, may 20, 2012

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k in progress. a building The cathedral is still very much a wor re hundreds of people are laboring on whe topho see site n ctio stru con a Actually, it is the city to Park Guell, a than a century. From there, we crossed that has been in the works for more lt with the backing of a like many of his other works, was bui , This k. par lic pub a of asy fant di Gau open checkbook. patron who more or less gave him an spread about the city; we system made it simple to reach sites Barcelonas extensive underground and more. , the Joan Miro museum in Montjuic, nue Ave o dab Tibi of s sion man the saw e it a blast to rters - Barri Gotico and El Raval - mad qua old s city the of ets stre al diev The narrow me Here tour. Two of the ld only think of as the Picasso Drank seek out shops and bars on what I cou Bar and Els Quatre Gats. artist spent some time are The London nish Spa the re whe s one ous fam re mo Shadow of the nt years as one of the key settings in rece in e fam of ch tou new a ived soaked in The latter rece an bestseller, a Gothic thriller that is ope Eur a was t tha k boo a , to) Vien Wind (La Sombra del Barcelona atmosphere. Posted by Maryann at 2:44 AM
elona Taken from: Maryann (2009). Does Barc on July 11th, 2009, Count as Another Country? Retrieved logspot.com/ from http://aroundtheworldin29days.b

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1 Read the post in Maryanns blog and answer


these questions.

4 pts

5 42 Listen to the recording again. Number the


a. b. c. e. f. What would you say are the most important achievements? And you became a volunteer? What can you tell us about your experience? ____ How long does each case take you? ____ When did you feel completely engaged with the voluntary sector?

questions in the order you hear them. 5 pts

a. Why does Barcelona sometimes have trilingual street signs? b. What did Maryann and Keating use to visit the most important sites in Barcelona? c. What is Barcelonas underground system like? d. Where in Barcelona did Picasso spend some time? 2 Read the post again and fill in the blanks in these sentences. 6 pts a. is a very famous park in Barcelona. is a book in which the action takes b. place in Barcelona. is a well known Spanish architect. c. d. is the language spoken in Barcelona. and are two old quarters e. in Barcelona.

6 42 Listen to the recording once more and

choose the best answer (i iii) for these questions (a d). 4 pts

3 Read the text once more. Are these statements


true (T) or false (F)? a.

3 pts

LISTENING - AMAZING PEOPLE, AMAZING STORIES

4 42 Listen to the recording. Can you say what


a. An interview. b. A personal report. c. A piece of news.

kind of text it is? Choose an option. 1 pts

LANGUAGE

the box.

4 pts

correctly in class in Indian restaurants to go hiking in the mountains very recently


a. b. c. d. I enjoy eating  He graduated  Did he behave  You need proper shoes 
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. . ? .

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7 Complete the sentences with a phrase from

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Maryann and Keating are fond of painting. b. Spanish is the most important language in Barcelona. La Sagrada Familia was finished last year. c.

a. How did Jonathan spend his time before becoming a volunteer? i. He worked with young people. ii. He worked in industry. iii. He travelled around the world. b. Why did Jonathan answer the advertisement? i. To become a volunteer. ii. To explore potential careers. iii. To become a teacher. c. How long does each case take him? i. Three weeks. ii. Three days. iii. Three months. d. How does Jonathan evaluate his experiences in the volunteer programme? i. They were positive. ii. They were negative. iii. They were neutral.

8 Match the sentences in column A (a f) with


the phrases in column B (i vi). A a. b. c. d. e. f.

SPEAKING

6 pts

9 Use the question words in the box to exchange


information with your partner about your last holiday. 10 pts

My friend works as an errand boy We went to the pool I went to sleep Jack went outside John will meet me here The boy laughed

How
WRITING

What

When

Where

Why

10 Think about an outdoor activity you have done

B i. after midnight. ii. for some fresh air. iii. at 4 oclock. iv. incredibly loudly. v. to watch the competition. vi. at the grocery store.

lately and write a post to a blog (maximum 130 words) like the one in the reading text. Include your opinion of the place, the activities, the people, the weather, and any other information you want to share. 10 pts
0 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 39 40 to 53 53 PTS

Keep trYing

ReVieW

Well done! EXCellent!

TOTAL

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NOTES

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UNIT

AT WORK

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
READING: to find general and specific information and identify the purpose of web pages, e-mails, and magazine articles that contain the communicative function of expressing feelings and of indicating the duration of events, and: match information and pictures that represent it. summarise information. infer meaning of words and expressions. identify descriptions and make informed choices. WRITING: to write a composition about a personal experience organising the parts of the text and including details to make it interesting. LISTENING: to identify expressions of interest and correct sequence in job interviews that contain the communicative function of describing events and actions and indicating the duration of events, and: generalise from provided visual information. predict and match possible content. discriminate between correct and incorrect information.

SPEAKING: to participate in dialogues, presentations, and job interviews expressing different feelings and value judgements.

DIDACTIC RESOURCES AND METHODOLOGY TIPS If available, use additional materials such as illustrations, pictures, diagrams, application letters, website articles about voluntary work, etc. The following websites are an excellent source of information on the topic of the lesson: http://www.volunteermatch.org/ http://jobsearch.about.com/od/jobapplicationletters/Job_Application_Letters.htm Useful materials for this unit are: lists (nouns, adjectives, concept lists, etc.), dictionaries, glossaries, definitions, printed handouts, library material, and notes.

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PAGE 106 INTRODUCTION Invite students to examine and describe the photograph and relate it to the name of the unit. Form groups and ask them to read the objectives of the unit and make comments on the things they already know, what they can do, what will be new, etc. Elicit from students what values they think will be paid more attention to, and ask them to anticipate what issues will be discussed in connection with them. Also consider these factors when evaluating learning and performance. Motivation leads to increased effort and energy. If your students are motivated, they will perform better and their participation in class will be better. Remember: it is the teachers role to motivate students. Just like motivation positively affects learning, stress does so in a negative way. If you notice that a student is performing badly after a spell of good performance, try to find out if there is a stressing factor in his/her life that is affecting the way he/ she is learning. Personality types, personal values, beliefs, and attitudes related to learning can also affect performance. It is important to keep in mind that a naturally shy student might learn as well as an outgoing one, but he/she will not perform in the same way. PAGE 107 Getting into tHe UNIT Explain to students that this page of each unit will contain activities meant to identify and activate their previous knowledge of the topic and related vocabulary, to establish the starting point for the activities that will follow. They will also help to detect weaknesses that will require extra work and support, to contextualise the contents that will be developed, and present cognitive challenges. Give students time to form groups and discuss the exercises that can be done in groups; encourage them to reflect and be honest when doing those that require individual responses.

1 Ask students if they have ever been asked to fill in

UNIT 5

a form. Where? Why? Why do we need forms? What is special about them? Ask them to examine the two forms on Page 107 and identify their use from the options provided. What kind of information is required in each form?

Answers Form 1 c. Form 2 b.

2 Tell students to copy Form 2 into their notebooks


and fill it in as fully as possible with their own details. They can even invent a 'persona' to fill in all the rubrics or they can use the information of one of their parents or relatives.

3 Students will need to use structures that express

interest, surprise, sadness, lack of interest, and others if they want to communicate adequately in English. This exercise checks how familiar they are with such expressions. The topic is further developed throughout the unit.

Answers a. - Picture 3. b. Picture 1. c. Picture 2. PAGES 108 - 109 GETTING READY FOR THE UNIT Before starting this unit, students need to: recognise and use the Present Continuous tense. use the Present Perfect tense. know how to express the duration of events.

1 Although we use the Present Continuous tense

also for other things, this exercise concentrates on the use for actions that are happening right now. Ask students to work in small groups and mime actions that the other students have to guess using the Present Continuous tense. students can finish them using the Present Continuous tense. Here are some possible options. . . . ? . ?

2 Prepare six beginnings of sentences so that

a. At the moment, Esteban  b. The sun  c. Look at Patricia. She  d. Juan, what  e. At present, we  f. What 

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3 Students work on their own and write

sentences in the Present Continuous tense to describe what is happening in the picture. They then say their sentences to a partner, who has to find the person / people doing the action described.

Possible answers Two girls are walking to the right of the picture. A young man is walking with his girlfriend. Several people are buying food at the kiosks. A girl is pointing to the right. Two guards are talking under the lights, etc.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION We use the Present Perfect tense to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now; the exact time is not important. We cannot use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

5 The most common time expressions used with

4 Students work on their own and circle the

sentences that contain the Present Perfect tense.

If necessary, you can ask some students to write on the board a summary of how the Present Perfect is formed. Affirmative: I / You / We / They + have + Participle of main verb. He / She / It + has + Participle of main verb. Negative: I / You / We / They + have not (havent) + Participle of main verb. He / She / It + has not (hasnt) + Participle of main verb. Interrogative: Have + I / you / we / they + Participle of main verb. Has + he / she / it + Participle of main verb. Answers I have had this computer for two months and so far I have had no problem whatsoever. And it is really unusual for me because I am technologically impaired, as some of my friends have described me. What they want to say is that any technological object in my possession is sure to have some kind of problem. Have you ever tried to read the manuals? my friends ask. No, I havent, is my typical answer.

the Present Perfect are for, since, ever, never, just, already, yet , still, lately, so far, in recent years, many times, etc. The word yet is normally used in negative and interrogative sentences. All the words and expressions in the box can be used in sentences in the Present Perfect tense. Encourage students to use all of them.

Possible answers a. Gail has known Charles for many years / since 2002 / all her life. b. Hailey has painted two pictures this week / recently / so far. c. I havent made a decision yet / recently / till now. d. Ive lived here since 2002 / for ages / for many years. e. The painting has been stolen recently / several times / this week.

6 Ask students to read the text and establish its

purpose. They then compare their answer with another student.

Explain to students that type of text and purpose of text are not the same. For example, two letters (same type of text) can have many different purposes: to inform, to complain, to confess, to enquire, etc.

Answer b.

7 Students read the diary again and number the


actions described in the correct order.

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Answers 1. b. 3. c. 2. d. 4.

8 46 Ask students to read the card and identify

the type of information they will have to listen for. Play only the first exchange of the recording you will be working with in Lesson 2 of this unit for students to fill in the card. Check answers on the board.

tenses, more vocabulary related to voluntary work, writing application letters, etc. The third column of the chart is filled in at the end of the last lesson to see what students learning process was like and if their expectations were met. KWL CHART (Know / Want to know / Learnt) What I know What I want to know What I learnt

Answers Name of applicant: John Age: 25 City: Brighton Brothers and sisters: two brothers Occupation: tourist guide How long: since he left school

+++

PAGE 110 LESSON 1 READING VOLUNTEERING

Talk to students about volunteering in general and about their own experiences. Were they positive? Why do they think people volunteer to do something they are not paid for? Would they volunteer? Ask them to name Chilean and international organisations that do voluntary work.

BEFORE YOU READ Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: the Present Continuous tense (refer to Exercises 1 3 on Page 108). the Present Perfect tense (refer to Exercises 4 and 5 on Page 108).

Draw students attention to the Internet site where they can find more information on voluntary work. Encourage them to use the site on their own, but to share information with you and with their classmates. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Volunteering takes many forms and is performed by a wide range of people. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work in, such as medicine, education, emergency rescue, animal rescue. Other volunteers serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster or for a beach cleanup. These are some British voluntary organisations. NSPCC The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children is the UKs leading charity for child protection. Anti Slavery Organisation Worlds oldest international human rights organisation, founded in 1839. The only charity in the United Kingdom to work exclusively against slavery and related abuses.
AT WORK

1 + (Learning ability: to connect content and


personal experiences). At this stage of learning, students are ready to do some analytical work on the unit. At the beginning of each lesson, ask them to prepare a chart like the one provided here and fill in the corresponding column at different stages of the learning cycle. The two first columns of the chart should be filled in at the beginning of the lesson. You should do it together with students. For example, for this lesson, in the first column, students might write different types of voluntary work they know of. In the second column of the chart, they might want to write: other verb

165

Samaritans Provide confidential emotional support to any person who is suicidal or despairing. RSPCA Leading UK animal welfare charity specialising in animal rescue, animal welfare, and prevention of cruelty to animals. These are some American voluntary organisations. Direct Relief Non-profit organisation working with more than 1,100 clinics in all of the USA, providing them with free medicines and supplies for their low-income and uninsured patients. Volunteers of An organisation founded more than America 100 years ago that works in areas as diverse as homelessness, mental health, emergency relief, etc. American An organisation dedicated to Cancer the prevention of cancer Society and to related research. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Check how much students know about Chilean charities and voluntary work. Write these and / or other charities and government departments on the board and ask them which ones do voluntary work. Comisin Nacional de Investigacin Cientfica y Tecnolgica - Conicyt Direccin de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos Dibam Fundacin las Rosas Hogar de Cristo MINEDUC ONEMI Salvamento, Asistencia y Rescate Teletn La Cruz Roja Answers Teletn, Fundacin las Rosas, Hogar de Cristo, La Cruz Roja, and Salvamento, Asistencia y Rescate do voluntary work.

2 + (Learning ability: to activate previous


knowledge of the topic). Ask students to describe the actions in the pictures. Can they recognise the organisations? What do they normally do? How do they get their funding and recruit volunteers? Why is it important to be a volunteer? Answers All the pictures show voluntary work. Picture 1: The volunteers are distributing food. Picture 2: The volunteers are putting out a fire. Picture 3: The volunteer is helping a dog.

3 ++ (Learning ability: to discuss topic and


express value judgements). Read the two statements with the class and then discuss with students different ways of agreeing and disagreeing politely. Here are some options. Expressing your opinion politely Personally, I think that... Personally, I feel that.... Personally, I believe that... In my opinion, ... Politely disagreeing I can see your point, but ... I see what you mean, but ... I understand what youre saying, but on the other hand, ... Politely responding to someone who disagrees with you

a. If you think their arguments are convincing Hmmm. Good point. Thats a good point. Youve got a point there. b. If you dont think their arguments are convincing, and you have a good reply The problem I have with that argument is that... I have a problem with that argument. Heres why: ....

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I dont think thats a very good argument because ... I dont buy that because ... (this is quite informal). c. If you dont think their arguments are convincing, but you dont have a good reply Im not so sure about that.

In this exercise, students choose one sentence that best summarises each text. Remind them that summarising involves putting the main idea(s) into other words, but including only the main point(s).

Answers a. Text I. c. Text III. d. Text II.

4 + (Learning ability: to match words and


their definitions). Go through the words in the box with the class. Read them aloud or ask students to do it; tell them to have a look at the texts and find the words. Can they guess their meaning from the context? Ask students to match the meanings (a f) with the words. Remind students that success is a false cognate; it does not mean suceso, but xito. Answers groom d. huge a. lap c. stuff e. success b. tangled f.

8 ++ (Learning ability: to identify communicative


purpose). Different texts have different purposes and it is important for students to recognise it. For example: an advertisement is generally written to persuade us to buy something; a letter is usually written to inform about something; a manual might instruct us how to do something; an encyclopaedia entry generally gives a brief definition of something. Ask students to identify the general communicative purpose of the article and the communicative purpose of each text (I III). Answers General b. Text I d. Text II a. Text III c. ADDITIONAL ACTI VITY Ask students to match the type of text in column A of this chart with the corresponding communicative purpose in column B. You can also write short extracts from different texts or use cut-outs from newspapers and magazines and then ask students to identify the purpose. A B a. A newspaper article on music types i. To inform b. A recipe ii. To inform c. A travel book iii. To inform d. A university brochure offering courses iv. To instruct e. An instruction leaflet v. To instruct f. An invitation to a party vi. To persuade

5 + (Learning ability: to make predictions from


the context and from visual clues). In this exercise, students predict the content of the text they are going to read on the basis of provided information title of unit, pictures, and previous exercises and from the options provided. Do not check answers at this point. PAGE 111 WHILE YOU READ

6 + (Learning ability: to validate prediction).


Students quickly read the texts and check their predictions in Exercise 5. Answer c.

7 ++ (Learning ability: to relate information in


order to synthesise content).

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Answers To inform. b. To instruct. c. To persuade. d. To inform. e. To instruct. f. To inform.

9 ++ (Learning ability: to infer meaning of words


Answers a. Rufus - black and white, green eyes. b. Sooty - completely black, yellow eyes. c. Duchess - Persian, blue-eyed, long-coated. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY - GAME You can ask fast learners to play a game using the pictures of the other cats presented in Text I. Students write a short description of the cats and then take turns to read one to a partner and ask: which animal am I talking about? Alternatively, use pictures of other animals or pictures of people.

and expressions / to classify specific information).

Tell students that we can express the feelings of sadness and happiness not just by saying I am sad or I am happy, but through a varied number of idioms. Ask students to go back to the texts and study the expressions written in bold (a h). Can they guess from the context which ones express sadness and which ones happiness? After this, they should write them in the organiser and then practise them by writing sentences. Answers Pleasure / Happiness Just grins from ear to ear. Be over the moon. Youll never look back. Having the time of my life. Sadness / Regret Feeling down in the dumps. With a lump in my throat. My heart sinks.

12 ++ (Learning ability: to find synonyms).


Tell students that when we create sentences, we can make them more interesting by using words that mean the same as the word you are speaking about. This allows us to add variety to our vocabulary. You can give them an example of two sentences, one of which uses synonyms and another one which does not. Which one sounds better? a. I live in a nice little house and the house is in a nice little town in Canada. b. I live in a lovely little house and it is in a small, pleasant town in Canada.

10 ++ (Learning ability: to locate specific


information). Students read the instructions and the incomplete sentences and then read the texts again. Answers a. Text I. b. Text III. c. Text III. d. Text II. e. Text II. PAGE 114

Answers In this order in the text: a. moggies. b. feline. c. tom. d. Persian. e. kitten. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Take students to the computer lab. Prepare a text with some ten words suitable for synonym replacement. Tell them to locate a thesaurus online or in a word processing program. Tell them to select the word, click Tools on the menu bar at the top of the screen and choose Language and Thesaurus. The computer will present a list of words or expressions students can substitute for their own word. Ask them to compare texts in their groups and justify their choices of synonyms. Here is an example of text you can give your students:

11 ++ (Learning abilities: to identify descriptions


and make informed choices / To match information and visuals).

Describing in English usually involves using a lot of adjectives. If we describe actions, then we use verbs. Ask students to read Text I again, find all the words that describe the three animals mentioned, and then write them under the corresponding picture.

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Volunteering is hard to practise, but rewarding and inspiring. I never had the guts and interest to volunteer until I was in my late 20s. Working for a non-profit community organisation gave me the best experience in social interaction and interpersonal skills that I would have not learnt elsewhere. Now I live my life head high with selfconfidence to handle the challenging work of any project. I attribute this competency to volunteering. Possible answers Volunteering is difficult to practise, but gratifying and stimulating. I never had the guts and curiosity to volunteer until I was in my late 20s. Working for a non-profit community institution gave me the most fantastic experience in group interaction and interpersonal abilities that I would have not acquired elsewhere. Now I live my life head high with selfassurance to deal with the stimulating work of any project. I credit this ability to voluntary work.

14 +++(Learning ability: to discriminate between


correct and incorrect information). Ask students to read the statements (a f) and decide if they are true or false. Then they must go back to Text III to check their answers. You can ask fast learners to correct the false statements and share the information with the class once they have all finished. Answers a. True. b. False. The animals and the people are really friendly, everyone is really relaxed, and shes been having the time of her life. c. True. d. False. Very often she thinks it is bad news: another person giving up their pet. e. False. She offers advice on cats and dogs. f. False. She gives a lot of information: if she thinks an animal can be adopted or not, on adoption and euthanasia policies, on what the peoples options are. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Tell students to go back to Text II and write down all the plurals they can find. dumps places hours minutes dogs envelopes lives animals - benefits hundreds thousands creatures lots friends skills things dreams Elicit / provide the general rules for the formation of plurals. a. Most nouns add -s to their singular form. Examples: All the words in the list above except lives (plural of life). b. Words ending in -ch, -sh,-s, -x add -es to their singular form. Examples: match matches, dish- dishes, bus buses, box- boxes. c. Most nouns ending in -o form their plural adding es. Examples: tomato- tomatoes, potato - potatoes.
AT WORK

13 +++ (Learning ability: to identify specific


information). Ask students to read and try to answer the questions, and then read Text II again to check their answers. Check answers orally with the whole class. Learning tip Analyse this Learning tip together with the class. Remind them of the importance of focusing their attention when reading or listening, in this case, on the information they need to find. Answers a. An animal shelter or animal protection organisation. b. Yes, a person can work as a volunteer even just for 40 minutes a week. c. Walk dogs, stuff envelopes, or help with fundraising events. d. To help to protect animals. e. Any two of these: you get good company, you meet the new you, you can find a new career, you become part of the solution. f. They can phone.

169

d. Some words ending in -o form their plural adding only s. Examples: piano- pianos, radio- radios. e. Nouns ending in consonant + y change -y to i and add es. Examples: baby babies, family- families, fly- flies f. Some nouns ending in -f or -fe change f or fe for v and add es. Examples: life lives, knife knives, wife- wives, wolf -wolves g. Some irregular plurals do not follow any of the rules above. Examples: child children, foot feet, goose geese, louse lice, man men, mouse mice, person people, ox- oxen, sheep sheep, tooth teeth, woman women. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Write the plural of the nouns in the box in the corresponding row. baby boy bush cat cello class day echo family goose hero jelly knife leaf library man memo mouse person stereo table teacher tomato torpedo turkey witch wolf Add s: Words ending in -ch, -sh,-s , -x add es: Words ending in -o add es: Words ending in -o add only s: Words ending in consonant + y change: -y to -i and add es: Words ending in -f or -fe change f or fe for v and add es: Do not follow any of the rules:

Answers Add s: Words ending in -ch, -sh,-s , -x add es: Words ending in -o add es: boys cats days tables teachers turkeys. bushes classes witches. echoes - heroes - tomatoes torpedoes. memos cellos stereos. babies families jellies libraries.

Words ending in -o add only s: Words ending in consonant + y change -y to -i and add es: Words ending in -f or -fe change f knives leaves - wolves. or fe for v and add es: Do not follow any of the rules: geese men mice people. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Copy this sentence from Text III on the board and highlight the word for: , how long they will have to wait for a space at the shelter, Explain that the verb wait uses the particle for, except in the Imperative, when we do not include a who or a what: Wait! Dont cross the road yet! Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Fill in the blanks in these sentences with as many words as necessary. a. Ive been waiting b. Wait c. Were waiting e. Rudys waiting g. Wait! . all my life. before we go out. . . . ! I want to go too.

d. This is just the opportunity Ive been waiting f. Kelly was attacked while she was waiting

Answers Will vary, but make sure the sentences make sense. Sentences a. f. require the use of for.

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PAGE 115 AFTER YOU READ


Language Note

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS This section deals with the structure and use of the Present Perfect Continuous tense. We use it to describe an action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now. (Im tired because Ive been running). We also use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. The structure of the Present Perfect Continuous tense is: Subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb have been base + -ing has When we use the Present Perfect Continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the form of the verb have; we also sometimes do this in informal writing. I have been You have been He has been She has been It has been John has been The car has been We have been They have been Ive been Youve been Hes been Shes been Its been Johns been The cars been Weve been Theyve been

Answers a. It has been (Its been) raining since 5 oclock on Monday. b.The dog has been (The dogs been) chasing its tail since 4:30 today. c. They have been (Theyve been) working in the garden since 3 pm. d.Grandma has been (Grandmas been) knitting that sweater since last spring. e. They have been (Theyve been) playing chess since noon. f. He has been (Hes been) painting the house since 9 am. PAGE 116

16 ++ (Learning abilities: to consolidate


vocabulary / to consolidate a language point). Ask students to work in pairs and carefully study the pictures. What have the people been doing? Why do they think that they have been doing it? Tell them to fill in the blanks in the conversation using the visual clues. You can use this exercise as embedded evaluation of grammar and vocabulary. Feedback: 0 6 correct answers: needs a lot of further studying. 7 13 correct answers: good, but could improve with extra practice. 14 20 correct answers: very good, could try to help classmates who did poorly.

17 ++ 43 (Learning abilities: to imitate a spoken


model / to role play a conversation). Students listen to the recording to check their answers in Exercise 16 and then listen, repeat, practise, and role play the conversation.
43 TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE Cynthia has an American accent and Eddie has a Scottish accent. Cynthia: Look at those people over there. Eddie: There are lots of people there. Cynthia: Yes, and theyve all been doing different things. Look at the boy, for example. Eddie: Which boy? Cynthia: The boy wearing the brown sweater. Eddie: Yes, I can see him.
AT WORK

15 ++ (Learning ability: to apply a language point).


Refer students to the Language Note before doing this exercise. Provide more examples and check that students understand both the structure and its application.

171

Cynthia: What do you think hes been doing? Eddie: His face looks red. Cynthia: Is he embarrassed? Eddie: No, I think hes just come from the beach. I think hes been lying in the sun for too long. Cynthia: And what about the girl? Eddie: The one with the dirty face? Cynthia: Yes, whats she been doing? Eddie: I think shes been eating lots of chocolate. Cynthia: And the ladies? Eddie: The ones with lots of parcels in their hands? Cynthia: Hum. What have they been doing? Eddie: I think theyve been shopping. Cynthia: They certainly have! Eddie: And it seems theyve been having fun for hours!errors.

Review with students the three uses of italics. Provide some extra examples and ask them to highlight the words to be italised. Then, in pairs, they should explain which of the four rules they applied. Check answers orally and on the board. Answers a. Fill in the blanks with but, however and although. (Rule 4, words as words). b. Have you read Eclipse? (Rule 1, title of a novel) c. Tchaikovskys Nutcracker Suite is often performed at Christmas. (Rule 1, title of a long musical piece). d. The Titanic sank with almost 2,000 people on board. (Rule 2, name of a vehicle).

20 +++ APPLICATION TASK WRITING


(Learning ability: to write a text organizing content and format). See notes on this section on Page 7 of the Introduction. By completing this task students will: learn how to take notes; evaluate moral values; learn what details to select for writing purposes; revise their own work. Go through the instructions with students and check that they all understand what they have to do. Tell them to use the Past Simple tense, given that it is going to be a text about a past experience. If students tell you that they have never volunteered or worked, tell them to invent a story. Check each piece of writing and correct grammar and spelling. Discuss students performance and give feedback. of the lesson and relate them to personal experiences, expressing value judgements).

18 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


evaluate learning). This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you might want to offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more time to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit. Answers a. have been studying. b. have been waiting. c. has been correcting. d. Has it been raining. e. have not been listening. PAGE 117

21 +++ (Learning ability: to reflect on the contents

19+ (Learning ability: to identify and apply a


typeface: italics).

Students are asked to reflect on what they have discussed in the lesson and decide if what they have done has helped them to talk about the topic of the lesson. Encourage students to

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discuss their answers to the questions in small groups and to give and support their opinions with respect for their classmates at all times. Encourage them to express their honest opinions when answering questions b. and c., which raise value issues. This is also the moment when students can fill in the third part of the KWL chart.

A resum is a summary of a persons experiences and skills relevant to the field of work they are entering. It highlights a persons accomplishments to show a potential employer that he or she is qualified for the job he / she wants. It is not a biography of everything the person has done so far.

1 + (Learning ability: to connect the topic and


personal experiences). Ask students to prepare a KWL chart. In pairs or groups, students discuss the questions. Then, they discuss their answers in bigger groups and compare their options.

+++

PAGE 118 LESSON 2 - LISTENING APPLYING FOR A JOB

BEFORE YOU LISTEN Remind students to check the learning abilities they will develop with each of the activities and comment on their expectations and interests. For this lesson, students should be familiar with: how to express the duration of events. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Curriculum vitae versus resume Students should know why and how to write a good CV/resume. The general purpose is to get an interview; it needs to show what that person can do, and why he or she is fit for a job. There are several differences between a curriculum vitae and a resume. A curriculum vitae is a longer (up to two or more pages), more detailed synopsis of a workers background and skills; it includes a summary of the persons educational and academic backgrounds as well as teaching and research experience, publications, presentations, awards, honors, affiliations, and other details. Like a resume, a curriculum vitae should include the applicants name, contact information, education, skills, and experience. In addition, a CV includes research and teaching experience, publications, grants and fellowships, professional associations and licenses, awards, and other information relevant to the position the person is applying for.

2 + (Learning ability: to express opinions based


on general knowledge). What is acceptable or unacceptable will vary from person to person. Ask students to do the exercise on their own. Once they have all finished, read the options one by one and ask several students to give their opinions on each choice. Why do they think that such behaviour is acceptable or not? Can they give reasons? How would they behave in a similar situation? In general, they should agree on what is acceptable or unacceptable behaviour at a job interview. Answers Acceptable behaviour (A): a., b., c., d. (but not too loud), f. Unacceptable behaviour (U): e.

3 + (Learning ability: to connect pictures


and topic). Ask students to read the sentences in the bubbles (a c) and then match them with the pictures (1 3). The three bubbles include expressions from the recording. You can tell faster students to listen to these sentences in the recording during the listening activities and check whether they are exactly the same. Answers a. Picture 2. b. Picture 3. c. Picture 1.

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4 ++ 44 (Learning ability: to identify and


practise an English sound). Ask students to read the sentences silently and then do the exercise with a partner. Play the recording several times, first for students to check their answers and then for them to practise saying the sentences.

f. They have a horse and a sheep. Answers a. I think that Jack is a hero. 7 b. Kim is the heir to the entire fortune. c. I must depart with a heavy heart. 7 d. Sheila got an honorary degree from Oxford. 7 e. They pay an hourly rate. f. They have a horse and a sheep. PAGE 119

BACKGROUND INFORMATION In English, there are many silent letters. One of them is the letter h. The letter h is always silent in what, when, where, whether, why. The letter h is not pronounced at the beginning of many words; in this case, we use the article an before the word. Some of the most common are hour, honest, honesty, honour, heir, heiress. The letter h is pronounced at the beginning of many words. In this case, we use the article a before the word. Some of the most common are habit, hacker, hair, half, hall, Halloween, ham, hammer, hand, happen, happy, hard, harm, hat, hate, head, health, hear, heart, heaven, heavy, heel, height, hello, helmet, help, here, hermit, hero, hide, high, hike, hill, history, hire, history, hobby, hold, holiday, home, honey, hood, hooligan, hope, horizon, horoscope, horrible, horror, horse, hospital, hot, hotel, house, how, hug, huge, human, humble, humour, hundred, hurt, husband, hydrogen, hygiene, etc. Answers a. Its an honour to be here in Hove, even if only for an hour. 7 b. We have to be honest and work very hard. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY You can give fast learners these sentences and ask them to circle the h when it is pronounced and cross it out when it isnt. Ask them to write the sentences on the board for the rest of the class to copy. a. I think that Jack is a hero. b. Kim is the heir to the entire fortune. c. I must depart with a heavy heart. d. Sheila got an honorary degree from Oxford. e. They pay an hourly rate.

5 + 45 (Learning ability: to identify and


pronounce key words). Students listen to the words and repeat them. Do they know what they mean? You can write sentences on the board to provide context. It would also be a good idea to familiarise students with the names of places that will appear in the text: Brighton Hove - London.

Examples: When I worked for the shop, my duties included serving customers and accepting payments. Do you think the exercise is difficult? Not really; I think it is fairly easy. Mum, Id like you to meet my mates from school; Helen and Jack. I love kayaking, climbing, and trekking; in fact, any activity that you can do outdoors. She has an outgoing personality; she loves parties and being with people. The most important skills for this job are concentration and attention to details.

TRANSCRIPT PRONUNCIATION duties fairly mates outdoors outgoing skills


45

6 ++ (Learning ability: to relate similar meanings).


Students read the words and match them with the synonyms in Exercise 5. Answers abilities skills. extrovert outgoing. friends mates. obligations duties. outside outdoors. sufficiently fairly.

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7 ++ (Learning ability: to make predictions using


previous knowledge). Talk to students about interviews. Have they ever been interviewed for a job? What kind of information do they think an interviewer might require? Refer them to the list of questions (a f) and ask them to tick the ones they think are asked at an interview. Do not check answers at this stage. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Draw students attention to question c. in Exercise 7: What is the weather like where you come from? Because of negative transfer from Spanish, students may tend to say How is ? Point out that we generally use What is / are like? when we require a description, and How is / are ? when we require information about the state of somebody or something. Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Write questions to complete these exchanges. a. A: ? B: Adelle? Shes quite pretty and very kind. b. A: ? B: It was excellent, full of action and suspense. c. A: ? B: The beaches are wonderful, but the traffic is awful. d. A: ? B: I havent read it yet, but everyone says its very moving. e. A: ? B: They were quite friendly. Answers a. What is Adelle like? b. What was (film / play) like? c. What is (city) like)? d. What is (name of book) like? e. What were (name of two or more people) like?

WHILE YOU LISTEN

8 + 46 (Learning ability: to validate predictions).


Play the first part of the recording once or twice for students to check their predictions in Exercise 7. Answers These questions were asked: a., d., e., f.

9 ++ 46 (Learning ability: to discriminate


between correct and incorrect information).

Before playing the recording again, ask students to read the statements (a f). Play the first part of the recording once through and then with pauses for students to do the exercise. You can ask fast learners to correct the false statements and then share the information with their classmates. Answers a. True. b. False. He is the youngest of three brothers. c. False. He moved to London. d. False. He has worked as a tourist guide since he left school. e. True. f. True.

10 ++ 46 (Learning ability: to find and support


specific information). Play the recording again. Check answers orally. Ask keener students to describe a friend or a classmate using the expressions they have ticked. They can write their sentences on the board to share them with the class. Answers c. Good team player. e. Outgoing personality. f. Responsible. g. Sporty. h. Takes his duties seriously. PAGE 120

11 ++ 46 (Learning ability: to find specific


expressions). First give students examples of the type of expressions they will be looking for. Tell them that to keep peoples interest when we are face to face we can nod, look someone in the eye, make humming noises, and / or use expressions such as I see, OK, Really?, etc. Play the first part of
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the recording again and ask students to find and write the three expressions. Answers a. Oh, really? b. I see. c. Mm, very interesting.

12 +++ 46 (Learning ability: to find and match


specific information). Ask students to read the sentences and fill in the gaps. They can work in pairs. Play the recording again for them to check their answers and then check answers orally. Answers a. more. b. change. c. car. d. time. e. Spanish / French. f. big / years.

Answers Picture 1: a tourist guide, a sporty person, an adventure sports guide. Picture 2: a bus that takes big groups of tourists. Picture 3: the clock indicates the time when people have to do things. Picture 4: a birthday cake for someones 25th birthday. Then they listen and put the pictures in the order the associated events are mentioned.You can ask fast learners to write down the clues. Answers 1. The birthday cake: John, I can see from your application form that youre 25 years old. 2. The clock: Sometimes I have to start work early and finish late. 3. The adventure holiday guide: Im a sporty person. Ive been specialising in adventure holidays for a year or so. 4. The tourist bus / coach: Ive been travelling with big groups of tourists for at least two years.

13 +++ 46 (Learning ability: to predict possible


content / to validate predictions). First, students read the answers and then they write the questions they think the interviewer asks. Tell them not to worry too much about being absolutely exact. After they have written the questions, play the second part of the recording and tell them to check their answers. Answers See transcript, Part II.

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING APPLYING FOR A JOB

46

14 +++ 46 (Learning ability: to identify

sequence / to generalise from provided visual information).

In this exercise, students apply their analytical skills. They take the whole recording into consideration and analyse it to associate the pictures with specific situations. Finally, they number the pictures in the order the associated events appear in the recording. First, ask the students to describe the pictures and identify what they represent in connection with the recording.

The interviewer has a Japanese accent. John speaks with a British accent. Part I Interviewer: John, I can see from your application form that youre 25 years old. Can you tell me a bit more about yourself? John: Im from Brighton and I consider myself an outgoing, friendly person. Im the youngest of three brothers and Ive been working as a tourist guide since I left school. Interviewer: Oh, really? Why do you want to change jobs? John: As I said, Im from Brighton; I live here and my job is in Hove. I have no car, and sometimes I have to start work early and finish late. At the beginning, I used my dads car, but for the last year Ive been relying on a ride from one of my mates, since dad moved to London; its been very difficult to get to work on time. And then I saw this ad right here in Brighton.

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Interviewer: I see. Tell me, why did you choose this line of work? John: Im an outgoing person and I love spending time with other people, especially outdoors. I finished school and I wasnt really sure what I wanted to do, but Ive always been good at languages I speak fluent Spanish and French and Ive been studying German for the last five months so, I thought that tourism would be a good career for me. As Im a sporty person, Ive been specialising in adventure holidays for a year or so. Interviewer: Do you have any experience with big groups? John: Ive just taken a course and passed an exam to qualify as a professional guide. Besides, Ive been travelling with big groups of tourists for at least two years. I would say that Ive got a lot of experience. Interviewer: Mm, very interesting. Tell me, why should I hire you to work for my agency? John: Im very responsible and I take my duties seriously. I like what I do, I like being with people and showing them around, and I think Im a good team player. I think I can contribute quite a lot. Part II Interviewer: What two things are most important to you in your job? John: First of all, the most important thing is job stability and the second thing is opportunities for promotion. Interviewer: What skills and abilities do you have? John: Skills and abilities? As I said, I think Im fairly responsible, Im punctual and Im a hard worker, willing to learn new things. Interviewer: What are your salary expectations? John: I know that Id just be starting, so my salary expectations are not excessive. Interviewer: Is there anything youd like to add? John: One thing Id like to add is that Im an honest person and if you hire me, youll get an excellent worker.

PAGE 121 AFTER YOU LISTEN


Language Note

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (FOR / SINCE) We use for and since when talking about time. We use for + a period of time. A period is a length of time, for example: 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years. For means 'from the beginning of the period until the end of the period.' For can be used with all tenses. We use since + a point in time A point is a precise moment in time, for example: 9 oclock, 1st January, last Monday. Since means 'from a point in the past until now.' Since is normally used with perfect tenses. Common expressions with for and since All tenses for 20 minutes for three days for six months for four years for two centuries for a long time for ever, etc. Perfect tenses only since 9 am since Monday since January since 1997 since 1500 since I left school since the beginning of time, etc.

15 + (Learning ability: to apply new vocabulary


and structures). Refer students to the Language Note before doing the exercise. Check answers orally.

Answers a. for / since. b. for. ADDITIONAL ACTI VITY Copy this chart on the board and ask students to fill column A with for or since.

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A a. A long period of time b. Leaving Primary school c. Christmas d. Two hours e. Ages f. This morning g. Ten minutes h. I lived in New York i. A short while j. Half an hour k. The end of last year l. Last March m. Tuesday

(Answers) (for) (since) (since) (for) (for) (since) (for) (since) (for) (for) (since) (since) (since)

16 ++ 47 (Learning ability: to relate written and


oral information). Ask students to read the questions carefully. What information is required? What answers may be given? Ask them to work in pairs. Play the recording once or twice for students to check their answers. Answers See transcript.

TRANSCRIPT ORAL PRACTICE

47

Dell has a British accent. Dell: Hi, is this Hammonds International? No? Sorry, I must have dialled the wrong number. My apologies. Hi, Hammonds International? Yes? Oh, wonderful! Could I possibly speak to Mr. Mr Dustin Walker, please? Not in today? Well, then .. Miss Susan Spencer? OK, Ill hold. Miss Spencer? Hi, Im calling about the ad in last Saturdays Daily News. Sorry, what did you say? Oh, yes; my names Dell Salazar and Im 18 years old. Date of birth: 19th of February, 1993.

As I said - the ad in Saturdays Daily News. Sorry? Oh, I see; you published two ads on Saturday. Id like to apply for the position of the receptionist. It says let me find the ad Receptionist required for a busy law office in Central London. Please apply by phone. Contact Dustin Walker or Susan Spencer. I hope youre still interviewing. You are? Great! No, Ive got no experience and the ad didnt say that it was necessary, but Im willing to learn! Im a fast learner. Well, I had some French at school and I speak fairly fluent Spanish. My fathers originally from Ecuador, but Im British; I was born in Bristol. I keep the language fluent because dad speaks Spanish to us and we occasionally visit our family in Guayaquil. My qualities? Well, as I said before, Im a fast learner and Im hard-working, responsible, and I think Im a good team player. I used to play team sports at school and I believe its a good way to learn how to be part of a work group. As soon as you need me. I finished school in June and then worked for a while in a department store, but that was just a replacement and now Im free. As a matter of fact, the sooner I could start the better. Id be more than happy to go to your office for a personal interview. When would you like me to go? Tomorrow? What time would be good? 9 a.m. sounds perfect. 7 Devonshire Square. Thats right opposite Liverpool Street Station, isnt it? How long do you think its going to take? About an hour? Brilliant, no problem; see you then.
PAGE 122

17 + 47 ( (Learning ability: to role play a


conversation using previous information).

Read the questions in Exercise 16 aloud and ask students to repeat after you. Play the recording again once or twice for students to get more

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familiar with the information and to practise the girls answers. Give pairs a few minutes to practise the interview, taking turns to be the interviewer or Dell. You can ask fast learners to change the information in the answers with their own ideas. Invite pairs of students to role play the interview for the class. discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate characteristics).

You can ask students to keep track of their progress and then evaluate their overall performance in the self-check exercises after two or three units. Each line with blanks is worth 2 points. Answers a. have you been using. b. have not been using / for. c. have been playing since. d. you have been playing for. e. have been telling you for. f. have been trying / since.

18 ++ ( (Learning ability: to compare and

Group discussions provide the opportunity for important interaction among students. Additionally, you can check on what students are learning through their questions and answers. Students work in pairs. Ask them to look at the pictures, identify the jobs (Picture 1: Master of Ceremonies / MC at a circus. Picture 2: ballet dancer. Picture 3: singer / guitarist / musician. Picture 4: beautician), and then read and answer the questions. evaluate learning).

PAGE 123

20 +++ (Learning ability: to role play an interview).


This exercise is an extension of Exercise 18, where students discussed different jobs and what is necessary to apply for them. Apart from checking if they have successfully acquired the skills taught in this unit, role playing an interview is an interesting way of preparing students for a potential situation where they have to apply for a job. It is important to take into consideration students level of language and not to expect the interview to be without errors and some expressions in Spanish. Remember to provide students with concrete information and clear role descriptions so that they can play their parts with confidence. After the role play, feedback is essential. To quote Carol Livingstone:

19 QUICK SELF-CHECK (Learning ability: to


This self-check allows students to evaluate their performance in the grammar aspect of the lesson and also to consider evaluation as a continuous process throughout the book. Read the instructions aloud, make sure that all the students understand them clearly, and set a time limit to complete the task. Check answers and help students to work out their scores. If a student has reached the maximum score, you can offer him/her something more challenging and ask him/her to do another exercise or help another student who is lagging behind. If one or more students have only reached the minimum score, you should dedicate some time to going through the subject once more to make sure they are ready to continue with the rest of the unit.

Once the role play is finished, spend some time on debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students are satisfied with themselves; they feel that they have used their knowledge of the language for something concrete and useful; this feeling of satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is analysed. It might also make the students less confident and less willing to do other role plays. Livingstone, C. (1983). Role-play in Language Learning. Harlow, UK: Longman.
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Did you know that See Page 8 of the Introduction.

21 ++ APPLICATION TASK SPEAKING


(Learning ability: to give an oral presentation making use of a computer application). For more information on these activities, see Page 7 of the Introduction. By completing this task, students will: learn how to make a PowerPoint presentation; improve their team building skills; learn how to use bullet points and headings; learn how to set and respect time limits; revise their own work.

important tools for lifelong learning. It is thus important to teach students the components of metacognition. It involves before, during, and after learning activities that require reflection. Teach students to ask, What am I supposed to learn? early in the process, How am I doing? during the process, and What have I learnt? after the process. It will then help them to apply what they have learnt in real life situations. Encourage them to discuss their answers in small groups, and to give and support their opinions with respect for their classmates at all times. Pay special attention to questions b. and c., which raise interesting value issues. This is also the place where students can fill in the third part of the KWL chart. PAGES 126 - 127 CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction.

Two important recommendations for this exercise: first, do it in a new class period, given that students have had several speaking activities before (Exercises 17 and 18) and second, organise the class carefully so that students can prepare and make their Power Point presentation, either to the whole class or to another group. Read the instructions with students and make sure they understand what they have to do; get help from students who may be more familiar with PowerPoint to assist their classmates. Talk to students about different ways of introducing themselves and others; provide and elicit examples and situations. Set a time limit for the preparation and for the presentations. Help them to evaluate their performance using the points provided. PAGE 125

1 Students read the letter and answer the

questions (a d). If they answer with complete sentences, they should use the corresponding Present Perfect Continuous forms. You can decide if this is necessary or not in your class; if you are more interested in them getting the information required, just a short answer will be enough.

22 +++ (Learning ability: to reflect on the

contents of the lesson and relate them to own experiences, expressing value judgements). Students are asked to reflect on what they have discussed in the lesson and decide if what they have done has helped them to talk about the topic of the lesson. Metacognition is a term that most teachers will recognise - it refers to `thinking about how a person thinks, and is one of the most
UNIT 5

Answers a. (He has been living in Auckland) for five years. b. (He has been preparing for the test) for a year. c. (He has also been studying) traffic rules and traffic laws. d. (He has been working for the Infirmary) for two years. AVOID THIS MISTAKE Write this sentence from the letter on the board and draw students attention to the verb look forward to: I will be looking forward to hearing from you.

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Elicit or provide its meaning: wait for or anticipate something pleasant. Explain that it can be followed by a noun phrase or a verb-phrase with an -ing pattern. Examples of look forward to + noun phrase: We are looking forward to the summer holiday. Are you looking forward to the party? We are not really looking forward to the exams. Examples of look forward to + verb phrase: Im looking forward to meeting my cyber-friend. Barbara and Carl are looking forward to joining their friends at the seaside. Is Daisy looking forward to visiting her in-laws? Tell students to copy and do this exercise in their notebooks. Finish these sentences with a noun phrase (NP) or a verb phrase (VP) as indicated. a. (NP) The children are looking forward to   b. (NP) Is Eddie looking forward to   c. (NP) My parents are looking forward to   d. (VP) Francesca is not looking forward to   e. (VP) Im sure you are looking forward to   f. (VP) Why are you looking forward to   Answers Will vary, but make sure students sentences make sense and that they use an ing form in sentences d f. . ? . . . ?

2 Ask students to read the schedule with times

and activities. Tell them to pay attention to the time when the activity started and the time when Delva is looking at the programme.

Answers a. The Senior Citizens Club has been doing aerobics for one hour and five minutes. b. John Brown, Daisy Elmer, and Karl Royce have been using the machines for one and a half hours. c. Susan and Deborah Drake have been doing Pilates for 25 minutes. d. Mrs Carole Johnson has been sitting in the sauna for ten minutes. e. Gordon and Sarah Plank have been doing kick boxing for five minutes. f. The children from Tollgate School have been swimming for 40 minutes. g. Deepak Kharma has been doing yoga for nearly two hours.

3 Students look at the pictures, read the clues, and


then write sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous tense, following the example.

Answers a. They have been going to this restaurant for five years. b. He has been looking for a job since he left school in June. c. They have been painting the house for seven hours. d. She has been working out since two oclock. PAGE 128 JUST FOR FUN See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Remind students that they should do the activities on their own, without much intervention from you, but help and support when necessary. Answers a. - vi. - Picture 3. b. - v. - Picture 5. c. - ii. - Picture 1. d. - iii. - Picture 6. e. - iv. - Picture 4. f. - i. - Picture 2.

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PAGE 129 CHILEAN CONNECTION Talk to students about unusual professions they know some of them in Chile. Do they think that organ grinding is an unusual profession? Why do they think some professions disappear? You can also ask students about the strangest jobs they have ever heard about. ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY Tell students about the jobs listed below and ask them if they are real or not. (They are all real jobs!) Train pusher In Japan, a train is not full until it is 200% full and passengers need a little extra help to get on, so train stations hire passenger arrangement staff that physically shove people onto trains until they can shove no more. Dice checker Other than checking for the correct number placement (how obvious!), dice inspectors go through obsessive security measures to make sure the dice are cheat-proof. If they are found to be defective (not square, improper serial numbers, etc.) they are either destroyed or marked and sold. Human bed warmer Guests at a London Holiday Inn have the option of falling asleep in a bed that has been pre-heated by another human. According to an article in the SPEAKING

Telegraph, a staff member will dress in a full-body sleeper suit and lie in your bed for 5 minutes. Apparently, there is scientific evidence that sleep starts when body temperature begins to drop, so a warm bed is a good way to start this process. Answers Flag 1 - Mexico - corridos. Flag 3 - Spain - zarzuelas. Flag 2 - Argentina - tangos. Flag 4 - Chile - cuecas. PAGES 130 - 132 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE READING VOLUNTEERING EXPERIENCES 1. c. 2. a. i. b. ii. c. ii. d. i. e. i. 3. a. NM. b. NM. c. True. d. False. LISTENING AT A RECRUITMENT CENTRE
49

4. a. False. b. True. c. False. d. False. e. True. f. False. 5. a. Hamilton. b. Tuesday. c. 23. d. duties. LANGUAGE 6. a. have you been living. b. have been working. c. have been waiting. d. has not been feeling. e. has been building. 7. a. for. b. since. c. for. d. since. e. since.

8. Students are expected to describe a situation indicating questions asked and answers given. Task Correct description of situation and appropriate questions and answers. Mostly correct description of situation and mostly appropriate questions and answers. Acceptable description of situation and some appropriate questions and answers. Poor description of situation, very few appropriate questions and answers. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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WRITING 9. Tell students to fill in the application form with their own or invented details. They should also include a short application note where they write about their experience, hobbies, and the reasons why they want to apply. Assign points according to the following criteria. Task Filled in the form and wrote the letter following all the indications. Filled in the form and wrote the letter following most of the indications. Filled in the form and wrote the letter following some of the indications. Hardly filled in the form and wrote the letter following only a few indications. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING AT A RECRUITMENT CENTRE

49

Interviewer I has a British accent, Brenda has a Scottish accent and Interviewer II has a French accent. Interviewer I: Hello. Welcome to the Recruitment Centre. First of all, Id like to take your details. Whats your family name? Brenda: Hamilton. My full names Brenda Hamilton. Interviewer II: And what position are you applying for? Brenda: Program analyst. Interviewer I: I dont seem to be able to find your CV, Miss Hamilton. Oh, here it is. Have you filled in an application form? Brenda: Yes, I sent my application form by e-mail last Tuesday, but I have a copy with me, if you need another one. Interviewer II: No, thank you, it wont be necessary. Can you tell us something about yourself? Brenda: Well, you already know my name. Im 23 years old and Im a computer program analyst. Interviewer I: Any specific programs? Brenda: Mainly Oracle and Java, but Im also familiar with Mercury and XML.

Interviewer II: Thats very impressive. Do you have any work experience? Brenda: I graduated 6 months ago and I worked for three months as a systems analyst for a big telecommunications company in Wexford. Interviewer I: What were your main duties? I coordinated the installation of computer Brenda: hardware and software, and I also did some program analysis for our clients. Interviewer II: Why did you leave? Brenda: I was a trainee and the position was temporary. I finished last week. Interviewer I: Thank you, Miss Hamilton, well study your CV and recommendations and will let you know if you got the job tomorrow.
PAGE 132 FINAL REFLECTION Give students enough time to analyse what they have done and learnt in this unit. Encourage them to follow the tips suggested and to share ideas in their groups.

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PAGE 133 SELF-EVALUATION See notes on this section on Page 8 of the Introduction. Go through the different parts of the self-evaluation sheet with students. Remind them that there are two main parts: YOUR TEST RESULTS and YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE. For YOUR TEST RESULTS, they have to work out their score in the TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE section, read their results, and reflect on them. Help them to think of what they can do to improve results, solve problems, give or get help, etc. YOUR GENERAL PERFORMANCE requires reflection on their involvement with the main OATs discussed in the lessons and invites them to think about their learning strategies and attitudes. PAGES 134 - 137 SYNTHESIS TEST UNITS 1 TO 5 Answers READING TWO SITUATIONS Please note that the three reading texts are written in American English. 1. Form I Extract III. Form II Extract IV.

2. a. Because his credit limit has been exceeded (by over $250). b. Yes, they can come to an agreement. c. Because she lost her driving license. d. You can do it online, by telephone, by post, or you may be able to use the premium checking service. 3. a. loan. b. doubt. c. debt. d. expire. 4. a. iii. b. iii. 50 LISTENING - WELCOME TO LONDON 5. a. not cost. b. National Gallery. c. Chinese. d. park. e. corner shop. 6. 1. Carnaby Street. 2. Portobello Road Market. 3. Camden Town Market. 7. a. to cost a lot of money. b. near Trafalgar Square. c. dont need to spend any more money for the rest of the afternoon. d. check out one of Londons popular markets, (such as Portobello Road or Camden Street). e. and enjoyable day in London. LANGUAGE 8. a. has been working out. b. has been feeling. c. have not been watching. 9. a. from our grandmother. b. without the complete information. c. with good looks and intelligence. 10. a. arrive. b. will send. c. will visit. d. will take.

WRITING 11. Students choose one topic from the list to write a short composition of about 120 words describing a personal experience. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Complete description of personal experience. Quite complete description of personal experience. Acceptable description of personal experience. Poor description of personal experience. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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UNIT 5

SPEAKING 12. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Correct conversation about a personal experience; all question words used. Mostly correct conversation about a personal experience; most question words used. Acceptable conversation about a personal experience; some question words used. Poor conversation about a personal experience; very few question words used. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - WELCOME TO LONDON The guide speaks with a British accent.

50

Guide: Welcome to London; I hope you have a nice stay. First of all, let me give you todays itinerary and then we can discuss options for the rest of your visit. A day out in London doesnt have to cost a lot of money. There are plenty of free London attractions to see and visit. To begin with, at 10 am well go to the National Gallery near Trafalgar Square, where youll see paintings by the great masters, including Leonardo da Vinci, Rembrandt, Picasso, Michelangelo, Monet and Van Gogh. You can even join a free, 60-minute guided tour of the collection at 11:30am and 2:30pm, any day of the week. At 2:30, after the visit, you can bet youll be quite hungry, so how about having an inexpensive meal?

On and around Londons iconic Carnaby Street, well find affordable chain restaurants such as the Masala Zone, with Indian food and the Cha Cha Moon, with Chinese offers. At around 3:30 pm, and once youve satisfied your hunger, you dont need to spend any more money for the rest of the afternoon, as well visit Hyde Park, in the centre of London. Here you can stroll at leisure by the serpentine, sit and read or simply watch the world go by some of the best people-spotting in London is to be found here. If you cant resist a bit of bargain-hunting, check out one of Londons popular markets, such as Portobello Road or Camden Street. In the evening, at around 7 pm, we suggest that you buy a sandwich at your local corner shop or the nearest supermarket. I promise you this will be a really inexpensive and enjoyable day in London.

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PHOTOCOPIABLE ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES UNIT 5


1. Read the different voluntary job cards, choose one for yourself and one for your partner, and practise being an interviewer and an interviewee. Role play your interview in front of a group. Interviewer: find out if the reasons behind the application are genuine and what attributes that applicant has that would make him the ideal candidate. Interviewee: explain the advantages and disadvantages of your chosen voluntary job and explain why you would like to apply.

As a care volunteer in Africa, working with children in orphanages, you will be helping kids to learn life-skills that parents would normally teach. By getting involved in the day-to-day running of an orphanage, making sure children are fed, washed, and dressed, and paying them personal attention, you will be making a really positive impact on their lives. You may have the chance to make use of your talents or interests; you can teach arts, crafts, or music, which are always popular activities. Many volunteers also help to educate the children in personal hygiene and social skills.
Global enGlish 3o MEDIO

You dont have to be a teacher to volunteer for our English teaching projects in Asia. There is no need to have a degree from university to gain international work experience in any of our destinations. You dont even need to speak the language spoken at the place where you are volunteering. The program is open to all volunteers, whether you are on a gap year, at university, or wanting a career break. All we require is a good standard of spoken English. Make a difference teaching local kids English, which they can later use in their professional lives.

Wherever you travel in the world, you will always find people who love sports, and in Africa, more than anywhere else. Sports bring people together and help to build strong communities; they also contribute to the creation of healthy, happy individuals. Sports can provide a muchneeded distraction from more negative aspects of peoples lives and, to many people from disadvantaged backgrounds, they can offer a route out of poverty and a path of excitement and promise. Regular and organised sports coaching can have a very positive impact on children, together with the obvious physical and mental benefits that regular exercise provides.

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UNIT 5

One of the best ways to get in touch with a country and its people is by understanding its past. Volunteering on one of our archaeology projects in Romania is a great way to discover its rich history. You can spend time excavating ruins either in Romania or in the thrilling region of Transylvania. You dont need any previous archaeological experience to join one of our digs and they run all year long. Volunteers are based in various locations, including the ancient city of Brasov.

By choosing a Culture & Community project in Jamaica, you will become an integral part of a local community abroad. You can get involved in helping the community of St. Elizabeth to become better prepared for the next natural disaster by volunteering on the Disaster Management Project. Working in conjunction with the local St. Elizabeth Parish Council Disaster Coordinator, Disaster Management volunteers raise awareness in schools and within the community, help to develop evacuation plans, and coordinate drills.

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Some of the most important work that needs to be done in developing communities is setting up basic infrastructure. Building volunteers can work in a variety of destinations, contributing to all types of sustainable projects. Whether you want to experience rural life in Ghana or in a big city in South Africa, there are different options for you to get the most out of your building work. You can do voluntary building whether you are 16 or 60! These projects are for volunteers who are on summer holiday, having a gap year from education, or taking a career break. They run all year round. You dont need any previous building experience.

Global enGlish 3o MEDIO

2. Examine the contents of the table below carefully. a. Match the animals in column A with their names in column B and their habitat in column C. In some cases, there might be more than one correct answer. b. Answer and discuss these questions in your group. i. Which animals can be kept as pets? ii. Which animals can you find in Chile? A B Seal
1

iii. Which animals do you think are dangerous? iv. Which animals are in danger of extinctions? C

Crocodile
2

a. Forests in Alaska, Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway

Snake
3 b. African savanna

Giraffe
4

Gorilla
5
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c. Farms

Hippopotamus
6

Parrot
7

d. Oceans

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Penguin
8 e. Fresh water and brackish water

Reindeer
9

Rooster
10 f. Tropical forests
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ADDITIONAL READING TEXT UNIT 5 Lesson 1 Two Poems about dogs


A Dog Has Died by _______________________ My dog has died. I buried him in the garden next to a rusted old machine. Some day I'll join him right there, but now he's gone with his shaggy coat, his bad manners and his cold nose, and I, the materialist, who never believed in any promised heaven in the sky for any human being, I believe in a heaven I'll never enter. Yes, I believe in a heaven for all dogdom where my dog waits for my arrival waving his fan-like tail in friendship. Ai, I'll not speak of sadness here on earth, of having lost a companion who was never servile. His friendship for me, like that of a porcupine withholding its authority, was the friendship of a star, aloof, with no more intimacy than was called for, with no exaggerations: he never climbed all over my clothes filling me full of his hair or his mange, he never rubbed up against my knee like other dogs obsessed with sex. No, my dog used to gaze at me, paying me the attention I need, the attention required to make a vain person like me understand that, being a dog, he was wasting time, but, with those eyes so much purer than mine, he'd keep on gazing at me with a look that reserved for me alone all his sweet and shaggy life, always near me, never troubling me, and asking nothing. Ai, how many times have I envied his tail as we walked together on the shores of the sea in the lonely winter of Isla Negra where the wintering birds filled the sky and my hairy dog was jumping about full of the voltage of the sea's movement: my wandering dog, sniffing away with his golden tail held high, face to face with the ocean's spray.
Global English 3o MEDIO

Joyful, joyful, joyful, as only dogs know how to be happy with only the autonomy of their shameless spirit. There are no good-byes for my dog who has died, and we don't now and never did lie to each other. So now he's gone and I buried him, and that's all there is to it.

Aloof : (adv.) at a distance but within view; apart. Heaven: (noun) the sky or universe as seen from the earth; the firmament. Rusted: (adj.) corroded, covered with rust. Shaggy: (adj.) having, covered with, or resembling long rough hair or wool. Withhold: (verb) to refrain from giving, granting, or permitting.
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My Dog's My Boss by _______________________ Each day when it's three Old Dick looks at the clock, Then proudly brings my stick to me To mind me of our walk. And in his doggy rapture he Does everything but talk. But since I lack his zip and zest My old bones often tire; And so I ventured to suggest Today we hug the fire. But with what wailing he expressed The death of his desire! He gazed at me with eyes of woe As if to say: 'Old boy, You mustn't lose your grip, you know, Let us with laughing joy, On heath and hill six miles or so Our legs and lungs employ.' And then his bark was stilled to a sigh He flopped upon the floor; But such a soft old mug am I I threw awide the door; So gaily, though the wind was high We hiked across the moor.

Glossary Moor: (noun) a broad area of open land, often high but poorly drained, with patches of heath and peat bogs. Rupture: (noun) ecstasy, high emotion. Still: (verb) to silence. Zip and zest: expression referring to being energetic, vigorous. 1. Read the two poems and tick the correct column. Then compare answers and opinions with a classmate. Poem 1 a. This poem is sad. b. This poem has rhymes. c. This poem was written by a Chilean poet. d. This poem mentions the dogs name. e. This poem includes a conversation with the dog.
Global English 3o MEDIO

Poem 2

2. Write a poem about a pet. You can use the rhyming dictionary at http://www.rhymezone.com/ BACKGROUND INFORMATION Pablo Neruda (1904 1973). His first book of poems was published in 1923. He worked as a diplomat and was drawn into the Spanish Civil War. On his return to Chile, Neruda was elected to the Senate, but changes in the political climate forced him into exile. He eventually returned to Chile. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971. He was perhaps the most important Latin American poet of the 20th century. Some of his best known works are Crepusculario, Veinte Poemas de Amor y una Cancin Desesperada, Residencia en la Tierra, Espaa en el Corazn, Canto General, Las Uvas y el Viento, Odas Elementales, Arte de Pjaros, La Barcarola, the play Fulgor y Muerte de Joaqun Murieta, Las Manos del Da, Fin del Mundo, Las Piedras del Cielo, and La Espada Encendida. Robert William Service (1874 1958). After spending his childhood in Scotland, he went to Canada in 1894, working for the Canadian Bank of Commerce in the Yukon for eight years. He was a newspaper correspondent for the Toronto Star during the Balkan Wars of 191213 and served as an ambulance driver and correspondent during World War I. Some of his best known works are The shooting of Dan McGrew, The call of the wild, and The spell of Yukon.

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UNIT 5

EXTRA TEST UNIT 5


READING - VOLUNTEER SPOTLIGHT

re Easter Seals, Inc. board chair Jerry Mattimo the with er has been a volunteer lead organization for a long time. with Easter Seals has been helping individuals ilies. fam r thei and ds, disabilities and special nee l sica phy to From child development centers with rehabilitation and job training for people disabilities, Easter Seals offers a variety of ress services to help people with disabilities add ls. goa lifes challenges and achieve personal As volunteers, we are all a small part of rd important and wonderful work, says Gera that all (Jerry) Mattimore, When I think about volunteers do today and the millions and millions of lives we touch it makes me very p proud to be part of such an incredible grou of people. r at Mattimore has been working as a voluntee r ntee volu ry Easter Seals for nearly 30 years. Eve me has a unique story about how they beca gued intri ys alwa am I personally involved, and for ion to learn from others about their pass giving, adds Mattimore. the My involvement was very personal from ent nam start, he says. I played in a golf tour ed for where I met some of the families we serv the first time. I was very taken by that feel introduction and my wife Audrey and I so of incredibly fortunate to have been a part many lives. has Mattimore feels that Easter Seals mission
UNIT 5

never been more important to provide ple exceptional services to ensure that all peo r thei with disabilities or special needs (and learn, families) have equal opportunities to live, work, and play in their communities. He recently led a team of more than 350 t with volunteers from across the country to mee s tion niza orga the ng their local members duri he , Here D.C. annual convention in Washington, worked alongside fellow volunteers to pass along a timely and important message: that needs people with disabilities and other special lth hea have equal access to quality, affordable need it. care to get what they need, when they rs we It is a powerful message, and as voluntee am are also powerful advocates, he said. I er proud to be a volunteer, to be a part of East are we eve beli Seals. As volunteers today, I tions charged with shaping the many organiza that will thrive this century to serve millions more. We are on our way.

st 3rd, 2007, Jerry Mattimore, Easter Seals. Retrieved Augu Taken from: (2008) Volunteer Spotlight lunteers/stories/spotlight.jsp?id=46 from http://www.volunteermatch.org/vo

Please note that this text is written in American English, but the activities that follow are in British English.
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Global English 3o MEDIO

1 Read the article and identify its purpose. 1 pts.


a. To raise funds for the organisations next campaign. b. To engage more young people as volunteers. c. To promote the activities of the organisation.

ii. In Chile. iii. In Maine. c. At what time does the interview take place? i. In the morning. ii. In the afternoon. iii. In the evening.

5 51 Listen to the interview again and circle the


correct alternative.

2 Read the text again and answer these


questions.

5 pts.

5 pts.

a. What is the name of the organisation? b. What is Jerry Mattimores position within the organisation? c. What is the target group the organisation works with? d. How many people were under Jerrys leadership during the annual convention? e. Where did the annual convention take place?

a. Come in / on, Mr Scott. b. How long have you been working / playing with children? c. For about five months / years. d. I mean outdoor / indoor sports, Daniel. e. Youre applying for a position as a monitor in a winter / summer camp.

6 51 Listen to the recording once more. Then,

3 Are these statements true (T), false (F), or not


mentioned (NM)? a.

read the advertisement and mark with a tick () the requirements that Daniel complies with. 2 pts.

4 pts.

Global English 3o MEDIO

Jerry has been working as a volunteer since he was 30. Jerry began working when he was b. single. Jerry leads a voluntary team from c. Washington DC. Jerry is in charge of raising funds for d. the organisation.

Spend two months in Maine, USA and earn money.


for Deer Lake Summer Camp is looking n dre chil with k young people to wor between 5 and 10. They should: be 18 years or over; of like children and have experience m; working with the be interested in a number of outdoor sports; have qualifications in swimming and lifesaving; have good knowledge of life in the USA. Telephone Mrs Fenway at Working w Holidays Abroad to arrange an intervie 2 789 793 ) at our local office on (562

DEER LAKE SUMMER CAMP

LISTENING RIGHT PERSON, RIGHT JOB

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4 51 Listen to the interview. Choose the correct


answer for each question. a. What position is Daniel applying for? i. Tennis coach. ii. Camp monitor. iii. Swimming instructor. b. Where does the interview take place? i. In the USA.

3 pts.

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UNIT 5

7 51 Are these statements true or false? 5 pts.


a. Daniel has worked with children since he was 16. He likes outdoor sports very much. Daniel has got qualifications in lifesaving. Daniel has never visited another d. country. He has deep knowledge of American e. culture and life. b. c.

SPEAKING

10 Work with a partner and choose one of these

job advertisements to role play a job interview like the one in the listening text. 10 pts.

LANGUAGE

8 Complete these sentences using the Present

Perfect Continuous tense of the verbs in brackets. 5 pts. a. Carlos English for two years and hes learnt a lot. (study) b. Mary and Bob had a big argument; now, for the last two hours. they (talk) for that company for c. Patricia three years. (work) for the last 30 minutes? d. What (do) for the last three days. (rain) e. It

Best Places to Work Sundance Vacations, a national travel company, is opening a new office in the Wilkes- Barre area and is looking for enthusiastic Sales Team Members. uses, Will earn $1000 + weekly, lucrative bon paid , guaranteed salary health benefits not vacation. Sales experience helpful, but n. trai necessary. Will Call for an appointment today! Services Justice Resource Institute, Department of Youth Part time (20 hours a week) s a week, We are currently seeking one (1) part time, 20 hour Food Service Worker in Taunton, MA. ay, 8 hours Schedule: Saturday, 8 hours (10 am to 6 pm); Sund pm). (10 am to 6 pm) and Monday, 4 hours (3 pm to 7 to, Responsibilities would include, but are not limited s. preparation, distribution and handling of meal the Responsible for the maintenance and sanitation of t have a kitchen, dining room and all food storage areas. (Mus high school diploma or GED)

SALES TEAM MEMBERS

FOOD SERVICE WORKER

9 Complete these sentences using for or since.


5 pts.

a. I have been playing Playstation five hours. b. My son has been looking at Facebook 8 pm. c. They got measles. They havent been feeling two weeks. well d. Dans mother has been living with us we got married. e. Adam has been living in Dublin a long time.

WRITING

Choose one and write a short letter applying for the job. 10 pts.
0 to 19 20 to 35 36 to 49 50 to 55 55 PTS

Keep trying

Review

Well done! EXcellent!

TOTAL

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11 Read the advertisements in Exercise 10 again.

Global English 3o MEDIO

ANSWERS
Additional Activity Unit 1, Lesson 2 The First Conditional
Cut up one broken sentence for each pair of students. Hand out the pieces at random. Students then stand up and try to find the other half of their sentence by reading their half aloud. Redistribute the pieces and repeat, this time with students memorising the words. Ema will catch a cold... I wont eat it... Ill be very sad... If I need any help,... If Valerie gives me an apple,... If Walter doesnt have money, ... If you dont take an umbrella, ... If you like, ... If you see Sonia, ... If you take a map with you, ... If you write Fran an e-mail, ... If youre not careful,... My parents will be very happy... Tammyll be annoyed... Vincent will buy some ice-cream We wont save the planet... Will the children share their toys... Will you go out... Youll be late... Youll get hungry... ...if she doesnt wear warm clothes. ...if theres chilli pepper in it. ...if you decide to go away. ...Ill let you know. ...Ill give her an orange. ... he wont go to the concert. ...youll get wet. ...Ill help you with your bags. ...can you give her a message? ...you wont get lost. ...she will tell you how to do it. ...youll knock that glass off the table! ...if I pass all my exams. ...if she sees you reading her notes. ...if we give him the money. ...if we keep using so much electricity. ...if their mother tells them to? ...if its 40C? ...if you dont hurry up. ...if you dont eat something now.

Additional Reading Text Unit 1: The Fading Art Of Letter Writing


1. a. 2. (1) c. (2) b. (3) a. 3. a. Her husband died. b. Used in e-mails, posts, and twitters. OMG = Oh, My God! LOL = Lots Of Laughter / Laugh Out Loud / Lots Of Love. c. The weather, her neighbours, little everyday things. d. It is a wonderful invention, but it is ephemeral and lacks character.

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Extra Test Unit 1


Answers READING ANNES ANSWER 1. b. 2. a. ii. b. i. c. i. d. iii. e. ii. f. iii. 3. (3) a., d., e. LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING MOMENT 4. a. True. b. False. c. True. d. False. e. True. 5. a. shopping centre. b. staring. c. excited. d. funny. e. friends. SPEAKING 8. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Asked for and gave advice in all the suggested situations. Asked for and gave advice in most of the suggested situations. Asked for and gave advice in one or two of the suggested situations. Asked for and / or gave advice in only one of the suggested situations. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes, a lot of hesitation. Score Final score 3 2 1 0 16 LANGUAGE 6. Possible answers (Accept other sensible ideas). a he / she might die. / he / she might not recover. b. will visit the Gabriela Mistral museum. / will go up the Valle del Elqui. c. I want to borrow his bike. d. he didnt go to the beach. e. I have a problem? / I ask them politely? 7. Answers may vary, but make sure that the sentences make sense.

WRITING 9. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote an appropriate letter of advice. Wrote a letter of advice, but some parts of the reply are inappropriate. Wrote a letter of advice, but a good part of the reply is inappropriate. Wrote a letter, of advice but most of the reply is inappropriate. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and appropriate letter format. A few mistakes in spelling and letter format. Several mistakes in spelling and letter format. A lot of mistakes in spelling and letter format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - AN EMBARRASSING MOMENT Speaker 1 (Carla) speaks with an Irish accent. Speaker 2 (Susana) speaks with a British accent.

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Carla: Two weeks ago, I had the worst moment of my life. I was hanging out with my friends at the mall when I saw my crush. This guy is so hot. At school, hes in a grade higher than I am and he plays basketball and football. Anyway, I noticed him near one of my favourite stores and it seemed like he was staring right at me. Susana: Wow! Did you get nervous? Carla: I sure did! I tried to look away, but when I looked

back he was still staring at me, and then he smiled and waved. Susana: I bet you got really excited! Carla: I did, but then I smiled and waved back. Thats when I noticed his smile turn into a funny look! Susana: What do you mean by funny? Carla: I mean surprised. Then I noticed that his best friend was walking past me towards my crush. Susana: So the guy was not smiling or waving at you! He was waving at his friend! Carla: Yes, he was. And they both laughed at me. I just grabbed my friends and left the mall. Susana: So, whats the score now? Carla: Hes NOT my crush anymore!

Additional Reading Text Unit 2: To Build A Fire (abridged version)


1. c. 2. b. 3. a. If he hurries, he will reach Henderson Creek by six o'clock this evening. b. If he steps there, he will break through the ice into a pool of water. c. If a man stays calm, he will be all right. d. If he runs far enough, he will reach his friends at Henderson Creek.

Extra Test Unit 2


READING - AN EARTHQUAKE PROTECTION PLAN 1. a. From Jamess local Emergency Office. b. A floor plan, a rope ladder, emergency food, water, first-aid kits, fire extinguishers. c. Because earthquakes happen periodically in Chile. d. The telephone numbers of our neighbours and some information we might need in case we have no access to our home, such as the car registration number. 2. a. First of all, he suggested we should take a few minutes with the Emergency Officers to discuss an evacuation plan. First of all, he suggested we should take a few minutes with our teachers and with our families at home to discuss an evacuation plan. b. He asked us to mark on the plan the place where our family members are located. He asked us to mark on the plan the place where our emergency food, water, first aid kits, and fire extinguishers are located. c. We must write down important addresses, such as police, fire, paramedics, and medical centres. We must write down important telephone numbers, such as police, fire, paramedics, and medical centres. 3. a. Decide the location of our familys or our groups outdoor meeting place. b. We should plan a second way to exit from each room or area. c. We should sketch a floor plan of our home or school. LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME 4. a. sand. b. rain. c. bed. d. free. e. ground. 5. a. plants / birds / rocks. b. ocean / life. LANGUAGE 6. a. i. b. ii. c. i. d. ii. e. ii. 7. a. if. b. when. c. if. d. Unless. e. If. 25

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SPEAKING 8. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Asked and answered five questions. Asked and answered four questions. Asked and answered three questions. Asked and answered only two questions. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final Score

WRITING 9. The students use the information in the unit to write an action plan of not more than 60 words. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote a complete and appropriate action plan. Action plan lacks some details. Action plan has only some details. Action plan is inappropriate. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format. Score 3 2 1 0 Final Score

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - A HORSE WITH NO NAME The speaker has an American accent. On the first part of the journey I was looking at all the life; There were plants, and birds, and rocks, and things; There was sand, and hills, and rings. The first thing I met was a fly with a buzz And the sky with no clouds; The heat was hot and the ground was dry, But the air was full of sound. Ive been through the desert on a horse with no name, It felt good to be out of the rain; In the desert, you can remember your name Cause there aint no one for to give you no pain.

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After two days in the desert sun, My skin began to turn red; After three days in the desert fun, I was looking at a river bed And the story it told of a river that flowed Made me sad to think it was dead. After nine days, I let the horse run free Cause the desert had turned to sea; There were plants, and birds, and rocks, and things; there was sand, and hills, and rings. The ocean is a desert with its life underground And a perfect disguise above; Under the cities lies a heart made of ground, But the humans will give no love.

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Additional Activities Unit 3 Jobs


1. e n f t i c d r i v e r p h y s i c i a n s e c r t e r t a a i r n y e a r t i s t m p h o t o g r o a d p e h l e r t a m e r e l o r m o t e k a x i t n r e a r p i l o t m e c h a n i c

2.

a. Mechanic garage wrench. Gardener garden lawn mower. Surgeon operating theatre surgical mask Ballet dancer theatre (en pointe) ballet slippers / ballet shoes. Flight attendant aeroplane food trolley / food cart. b. A mechanic works in a garage. She or he uses a wrench and many other tools. A gardener works in a garden. He or she uses a lawn mower to cut the grass. A surgeon works in an operating theatre. She or he wears protective clothing: a surgical mask, scrubs, a disposable cap, rubber gloves, etc. A ballet dancer works in a theatre. He or she wears (en pointe) ballet slippers / shoes, ballet clothes, and accessories. A flight attendant works on an aeroplane. He uses a food trolley / trolley cart to serve meals to the passengers.

Additional Reading Text Unit 3 Woman Work, By Maya Angelou


1. Tend the children, mend clothes, mop the floor, go shopping, fry chicken, dry the baby, feed company, weed the garden, press shirts, dress the tots, clean the hut. 2. The weather. 3. a.

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Extra Test Unit 3

READING HOW TO SUCCEED AT JOB INTERVIEWS 1. a. IV. b. II. c. V. d. III. e. I. 2. YOU SHOULD prepare for the interview beforehand. YOU SHOULDNT mention / show quirks or habits which put employers off.

LISTENING PREPARING A CV 3. a. i. b. iii. c. iii. 4. a. might. b. need. c. very. d. provide. e. set. f. Most. 5. b. c. d. a. LANGUAGE 6. a. shouldnt wear. b. d better / should arrive. c. d better go to bed. d. shouldnt say. e. should listen. 7. a. Wed better go / leave now. b. Id better start studying. c. Youd better close the window.

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learn how to pick out from your background all the points that will really ring bells with your interviewer. worry about your visual appearance. always stay in control. prepare a point plan. keep these points at the forefront of your mind.

SPEAKING 8. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Asked and answered questions about preparing a CV, mentioning all the required information. Asked and answered questions about preparing a CV, mentioning most of the required information. Asked and answered some questions about preparing a CV, mentioning half of the required information. Asked and answered a few questions about preparing a CV, mentioning very little of the required information. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score 3 2 1 0 Final score

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WRITING 9. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote a cover letter that contains all the relevant information to introduce a CV. Wrote a cover letter that contains most of the relevant information to introduce a CV. Wrote a cover letter that contains some of the relevant information to introduce a CV. Wrote a cover letter that contains very little of the relevant information to introduce a CV. Score 4 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 Presentation Correct spelling, letter format, and organisation of paragraphs. A few spelling mistakes, slightly incorrect format and organisation of paragraphs. Several spelling mistakes, rather incorrect format and organisation of paragraphs. A lot of spelling mistakes, incorrect format and organisation of paragraphs. Score Final score 3

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING PREPARING A CV

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Mrs Brandon has a British accent and Mark has an Indian accent. Mrs Brandon: Hi, Mark. What can I do for you? Good afternoon, Mrs Brandon. I saw an Mark: advertisement for a job that might interest me and Im trying to prepare my CV, but I think Ill need some help. Mrs Brandon: What do you need to know? Mark: First, why do I need a CV to apply for a job? Why dont I just call the company and ask for an interview? Mrs Brandon: Well, CVs give employers the opportunity to see your qualifications and skills, and how they match the job requirements, and then youll probably need an interview to meet them face to face. Mark: What kind of information should I include in my CV? Mrs Brandon: You must include contact information, such as your name, address, e-mail address, and telephone number, and of course the type of work or specific job you are applying for. Education references are also very important. Mark: Should I mention my previous working experience? Mrs Brandon: If requested, yes, and you might also provide contact information for the references you mention.

Mark: How should I organise the information? Mrs Brandon: Well, in an application form the format is usually set. Just fill in the blanks, but make sure you follow all the instructions. Dont omit any requested information. Mark: What do I do if the format is not set? Mrs Brandon: There are many ways of organising the information you want to include, but the most important information should usually come first. Whatever format you choose, you should keep your resume short. Many experts recommend that new workers use a one-page resume. Mark: What else should I consider? Mrs Brandon: Ummm, before submitting your resume, make sure that its easy to read. Ask at least two people to proofread it for spelling and other errors and make sure you use your computers spell checker. Ah! One more thing...When sending a resume, most people include a cover letter to introduce themselves. Most cover letters are only three short paragraphs. Your cover letter should capture the future employers attention and follow a business letter format. Any other questions, Mark? Mark: I dont think so. Thank you, Mrs Brandon.

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Additional Activities Unit 4


1. a. 1. d. vi. 2. c. v. 3. b. i. 4. f. iv. 5. a. ii. 6. e. iii. b. There is so much life under the water. I never thought I would camp in the North Pole. We are so tired now after our walk around the Big Apple. After a nice swim, I really like sitting in the sun. It was pretty hard climbing up that steep slope. We could see several monkeys over our heads. 2. In picture two: the sun is shining over the hot dog truck. there is no palm tree in the middle of the picture. the mans wearing a shirt with a different pattern. the boy is wearing a T-shirt. there are two thin lines along the middle of the surfing board. there is a bumper sticker on the front fender. there is an ornament on the hood of the car. there isnt a bite in the mans hot dog. there are only three birds flying above the mountains. the grill at the front of the car is different.

Additional Reading Text Unit 4 - Excerpt From Gullivers Travels, Chapter I


1. a. Old English. b. The Swallow. c. a rock. d. little creatures. 2. a.

Extra Test Unit 4


READING DOES BARCELONA COUNT AS ANOTHER COUNTRY? 1. a. Because people speak Cataln and Spanish, and there are also some signs in English for tourists. b. They used a book with a well-explained walking tour. c. It is very extensive and useful. d. At The London Bar and at Els Quatre Gats. 2. a. Park Guell. b. Shadow of the Wind. c. Gaudi. d. Cataln. e. Barri Gtico / el Raval. 3. a. False. b. False. c. False. LISTENING AMAZING PEOPLE, AMAZING STORIES 4. b. 5. 1 - c. 2 - b. 3 - e. 4 - d. 5 - a. 6. a. iii. b. ii. c. iii. d. i. LANGUAGE 7. a. in Indian restaurants. b. very recently. c. correctly in class? d. to go hiking in the mountains. 8. a. vi. b. v. c. i. d. ii. e. iii. f. iv.
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SPEAKING 9. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Asked and answered questions about last holidays, mentioning all the information required. Asked and answered questions about last holidays, mentioning most of the information required. Asked and answered questions about last holidays, mentioning some of the information required. Didnt ask and answer questions about last holidays, didnt mention the information required. WRITING 10. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote a post containing all the required information. Wrote a post containing most of the required information. Wrote a post containing some of the required information. Tried to write a post, but used very little of the required information. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 1 0 Presentation Correct spelling and presentation. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect presentation. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect presentation. A lot of spelling mistakes and poor presentation. Score Final score 3 2 1 0 Score 4 3 Language Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension. Score 3 2 Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation. Score Final score 3 2

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING - AMAZING PEOPLE, 42 AMAZING STORIES Both speakers have an American accent. The spelling of this script is also American. Reporter: Working with young people as a volunteer gave Jonathan Rudkin an opportunity to find out what it takes to work with young people. After signing up to a volunteer program, Jonathan went on to carve out a successful career as a teacher. Jonathan, what can you tell us about your experience? Jonathan: After some time traveling around the world, I wanted to try and give something back to my community. After returning, I decided that I wanted to pursue a different type of career. By

coincidence, I came across an advertisement in the local newspaper. A local organization was looking for individuals to help support vulnerable young people within the area. Reporter: And you became a volunteer? Jonathan: I replied to the advertisement and felt the experience would help me to explore a number of potential careers. Really, after a number of years working in industry, I was unsure whether I would be able to relate to young people. Reporter: When did you feel completely engaged with the voluntary sector? Jonathan: Before starting to work, I undertook a series of training sessions. After completing the training and attending a formal interview, I received my first case.

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Reporter: How long does each case take you? Jonathan: I work on each one for approximately three months. During this time, I work closely with a number of young people, encouraging them to try new activities. Each case introduces me to a variety of challenges and helps me to understand the problems that young people face in their everyday lives. Reporter: I understand that, from this experience, you decided to pursue a career in teaching. Jonathan: Oh, youre right. My experiences as a volunteer were life-changing. They helped to give me confidence to pursue a career in teaching. When I started the program, I didnt really know what to

expect, but it was a very valuable and worthwhile experience. Reporter: What would you say are the most important achievements? Jonathan: It has helped me to gain a better understanding of how young people think and perhaps, more importantly, the day-to-day pressures and challenges they face. Reporter: Do you think its related to your work as a teacher? Jonathan: As a teacher, this can sometimes have an impact upon the classroom, and my experiences in the volunteer program really helped to understand the daily pressures many children face.

Additional Activities Unit 5


2. Picture 1 d. Penguins live (on islands and remote continental regions),in the ocean. Picture 2 b. Hippopotamus live in the African savanna. Picture 3 c. Cocks live on farms. Picture 4 f. Gorillas live in tropical forests. Picture 5 b., c., d., e., f. Snakes can live nearly in every habitat, in every continent, except Antarctica. Picture 6 b., e., f. Crocodiles live in the African savanna, in fresh and in brackish water and in tropical forests. Picture 7 b. Giraffes live in the African savanna. Picture 8 a. Reindeers live in forests in Alaska, Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway. Picture 9 d. Seals live (on beaches and sand dunes) in the ocean. Picture 10 f. Parrots live in tropical forests (but also in all other habitats, except for the Arctic and Antarctic).

Additional Reading Text Unit 5 Lesson 1 Two Poems About Dogs


Answers. a. This poem is sad. b. This poem has rhymes. c. This poem was written by a Chilean poet. d. This poem mentions the dogs name. e. This poem includes a conversation with the dog. Poem 1 4 4 4 4 Poem 2 4

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Extra Test Unit 5


READING - VOLUNTEER SPOTLIGHT 1. b. 2. a. Easter Seals. b. Board chair. c. People with disabilities and special needs. d. 350 volunteers. e. In Washington DC. 3. a. Not mentioned. b. False. c. False. d. Not mentioned. LISTENING RIGHT PERSON, RIGHT JOB
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6. 3 Be 18 years or over. 3 Like children and have experience of working with them. 7. a. True. b. False. c. False. d. True. e. False. LANGUAGE 8. a. has been studying. b. have been talking. c. has been working. d. have you been doing e. has been raining. 9. a. for. b. since. c. for. d. since. e. for.

4. a. ii . b. ii. c. ii. 5. a. in. b. working. c. years. d. outdoor. e. summer. SPEAKING 10. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Participated in job interview mentioning all the required information. Participated in job interview mentioning most of the required information. Participated in job interview mentioning some of the required information. Poor participation in job interview, mentioning very little of the the required information. WRITING 11. Assign points according to these criteria. Task Wrote an appropriate job application letter. Wrote a mostly appropriate job application letter. Wrote an acceptable job application letter. Wrote a poor job application letter. Score 4 3 2 1 Language Score 4 3 2 1 Language

Score 3 2 1 0

Interaction Fluid interaction, good pronunciation, no hesitation. Fluid interaction, a few pronunciation mistakes, a minimum of hesitation. Fluid interaction, some pronunciation mistakes, some hesitation. Interaction affected by pronunciation mistakes and a lot of hesitation.

Score 3 2 1 0

Final score

Practically no language mistakes. Very few language mistakes. Some language mistakes. Language mistakes interfered with comprehension.

Score 3 2 1 0

Presentation Correct spelling and format. A few spelling mistakes and slightly incorrect format. Several spelling mistakes and rather incorrect format. A lot of spelling mistakes and incorrect format.

Score 3 2 1 0

Final score

Practically no grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Very few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Some grammar and vocabulary mistakes. Grammar and vocabulary mistakes interfered with comprehension.

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TRANSCRIPT LISTENING - RIGHT PERSON, RIGHT JOB

NOTES
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Mrs Fenway has a British accent. Daniel speaks with an Australian accent. Mrs Fenway: Can I help you? Good afternoon. My names Daniel Scott; Ive Daniel: got an appointment. Mrs Fenway: Ah, yes. Come in, Mr Scott. Have a seat, please. How old are you, Daniel? Daniel: Im 18. Mrs Fenway: And how long have you been working with children? Daniel: Oh, for about two years, and Ive recently taken a course in childcare. Mrs Fenway: Tell me about your experience working with children. What exactly do you do? Daniel: Well, I play and give tennis lessons at the sports club I belong to. Mrs Fenway: Mm, I see. And how long have you been a member of this club? Daniel: For about five years. Mrs Fenway: What other sports are you interested in, apart from tennis? Daniel: I like computer games and chess. Mrs Fenway: I mean outdoor sports, Daniel. Daniel: Oh! I sometimes play football, but Im not very fond of it. Mrs Fenway: I see. Have you got any qualifications in swimming and lifesaving? Daniel: Well, errr, no. Mrs Fenway: But you can swim, cant you? Oh, yes. Daniel: Mrs Fenway: Mmm. You know youre applying for a position as a monitor in a summer camp in Maine, USA. Have you ever visited the USA? No, I havent. In fact, Ive never been abroad, Daniel: but Id love to go one day. Mrs Fenway: How much do you know about American culture and society? I know a lot! I watch lots of American films and Daniel: shows on TV.

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ANSWERS TO WORKBOOK ACTIVITIES


UNIT 1
READING - KEYS TO A GOOD FRIENDSHIP 1. c. 2. a. If you choose friends who arent exactly like you, you will learn new things. b. Your friend cant read your mind. c. Dont let stress affect your friendship; listen to each other. d. Choose your words wisely, because you can never take them back. 3. a. however. b. Although. c. as long as / provided that. d. so / therefore. 4. Answers may vary. These are strictly based on the text. a. ..., you will have lots of things in common. b. ..., you will accept each others flaws. c. ..., you wont be jealous when your friend has other interests as well. d. ..., you should be ready to listen in return. LISTENING 14 UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENCE 5. a. Boy. b. Mum. c. Girl. d. Mum. 6. a. problems. b. angry. c. foolish. d. noticed. e. affects. 7. c. 8. a. they will talk to their mother. b. she will give them some advice. c. they will feel better. d. they wont be so moody. e. they will be happier. VOCABULARY 9. a. difficulties. b. upset. c. silly. d. noticed. e. influences. 10.
X I H Z S E H V S Y E C W X F W Y H S V W Q U R M B R I D R S E Z O P Q E E B S I Y C F I K N L S R U V A I R N M D V E H G Y G T O R B T E G O U U N S U C T P R I M H S E C Q H D H I F E A Y O U J U H D B S S I B E S T P H H V O A I Q U H M L S F R A O T F R Y Q R W I S E H O U U H V L T M D K T P D O P Q L P K C Z A R K X L O D E P R E S S E D R E P F L X R A W X W S I E E P R H L G D A N G E R L R N T U E N I S H H U L U F Y A L P Z V T H I G

11. a. friendship. b. upset. c. sleepover. d. gloves. e. playful.

TRANSCRIPT LISTENING 14 UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENCE All the speakers have a British accent. Girl: Mum, we need to talk to you. Mom: Yes, honey. What is it? Boy: We are a little worried. Mom: Are you having problems at school? Girl: We are having problems with our classmates, we get angry very easily, the boys are awful Boy: Its not us, mom, Its the girls; they think they are all grown up, better than us. Every time I say something, they make me feel as if Ive said something foolish. Its so embarrassing! Mom: Oh, my dears; youre becoming teenagers. Youre changing and that can be very confusing. Girl: Yes, I feel I do not know my own body, its changing so quickly. Boy: Some times I feel I have four arms and four legs, theyre so long and difficult to control. Mom: Thats normal and it will pass, dont worry; and dont think I havent noticed how changeable your mood is: one moment you are laughing and the next minute, its all long faces and angry words. Boy: And you say thats normal? Mom: Yes, new hormones are starting to work in your body and this affects your mood, but believe me, itll pass. How about some lunch, now?

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UNIT 2
READING - EARTHWATCH INSTITUTE 1. b. 2. a. True. b. False. You will work side by side with distinguished field scientists. 3. a. iv. b. iii. c. iii. d. i. e. i., iv. f. ii, iv. g. i., ii., iii. 4. a. Many; it supports scientific research worldwide. b. Scientists, corporate and non-profit partners, teachers, students, and everyday citizens. 5. a. ... you want to find out what YOU can do to change the world. b. ... will work side by side with distinguished field scientists. LISTENING INTERNATIONAL RESCUE CORPS 6. a. ii. b. i. c. i. 7. a. 3. b. 2. c. 1. 8. a. He discovered that he had a skill to offer, which could help to save people. b. Eight missions abroad seven earthquakes and a hurricane and about ten in the UK. c. After the earthquake in the south of Chile, they rescued a woman who had been trapped for more than 40 hours. VOCABULARY 9. Across: 3. volunteer. 5. wardrobe. 6. climate. 7. forest. 8. microphone. Down: 1. support. 2. neighbour. 4. rescue. 10. a. scientists. b. support. c. survival. d. climate. e. neighbours.

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TRANSCRIPT LISTENING 22 INTERNATIONAL RESCUE CORPS Both speakers have a British accent. Interviewer: Paul, how did you get involved with the International Rescue Corps? Paul: One of my parents neighbours helped to set up the IRC way back in 1981, after the Italian earthquake. I joined because our neighbour helped me to discover that Ive got a skill to offer, which can help to save people. Interviewer: How many missions have you been on? Paul: Ive been on eight missions abroad seven earthquakes and a hurricane and about ten in the UK. Interviewer: What can IRC offer that other agencies cant? Paul: We offer our services free of charge; besides, we carry our own specialist equipment for finding and saving people who are trapped in collapsed buildings, like fibre optic probes, microphones and thermal imaging. Interviewer: Whats the most amazing survival story youve come across? Paul: We went to Chile after the earthquake in the south, in 2010. One woman had been trapped in for over 40 hours when we discovered she was there, and it took us another four hours to get her out. Normally, when people have been trapped for 24 hours after an earthquake, not many come out alive. What saved this woman was a wardrobe, which had fallen on top of her and protected her. She was partly inside it! Interviewer: Thank you, Paul, and the best of luck on your future missions.

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UNIT 3
READING COOLWORK SUMMER ADVENTURES 1. a. Paragraph II. b. Paragraph VII. c. Paragraph I. d. Paragraph VI. e. Paragraph V. f. Paragraph III. g. Paragraph IV. 2. Name of company: Alaska Canopy Adventures (ACA) Location: Alaska Places where they operate excursions: Ketchikan and Juneau. Available positions: Canopy Guide, Course Supervisor, Tour Coordinator, Lead Tour Coordinator, Store Clerk, Driver, Boat Captain, and Deckhand. Two requirements for candidates: strong commitment to risk management; willingness and commitment to take on responsibility of participants safety at all times. Training offered: For qualified applicants to be the best in their job. How to apply: After reviewing the complete Job Description, follow the links to download an employment application. 3. a. First of all, you should be energetic. b. To improve your possibilities, you might apply for more than one position. c. To make sure you are considered for the position, youd better apply immediately. 31 LISTENING INTERVIEW WITH A DJ 4. : a., b., d., e., g. 5. a. Brad Andrews. b. For the music. c. Three turntables and one or two CD players. 6. a. should have a great deal of co-ordination. b. should do the same as in a concert on stage, or recording a single in a studio. VOCABULARY 7. a. damage. b. prevent. c. withstand. d. homeless. 8. a. applicant. b. steel. c. wildlife. d. perched. e. variety.

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING INTERVIEW WITH A DJ 31 Both speakers have a British accent. Interviewer: Brad Andrews is one of the most famous names in dance music and club DJing of the moment. Brad, why are club DJs so popular these days? Brad: In the past, people used to go to discos and clubs to drink, talk or socialise. Now, they come for the music, so whether you have a good time or not depends very much on the skills of the DJ. Interviewer: Do you really need that much skill to put on a few records? Brad: Its not that simple. I often operate three turntables at once, sometimes using one or two CD players as well. You need a great deal of co-ordination to play with the records and use these huge decks we have nowadays. The job of DJing is mostly about mixing tracks, using several records at once to create a totally whole new sound. Interviewer: Does a gig require much preparation? Brad: It does! This is an extremely demanding job. People go to see their favourite DJs like fans go to see bands. I arrange and build a set at a club like I would do in a concert on stage, or if I was recording a single in a studio. Youre basically composing a three-hour piece of music. Interviewer: Well take a break now, but dont go away Brads going to UNIT 4
READING - BRIEF HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF PARKOUR 1. c. 2. b. 3. a. from. b. by. c. to. d. over. e. for. f. of. g. by. h. in. i. by. j. from. 4. a. Art du dplacement, freerunning. b. A method for physical and mental fitness, a lifestyle. c. Creativity, critical thinking, responsible exercise.

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LISTENING - WHATS YOUR QUESTION? 5. a. 1st caller. b. 3rd caller. c. 2nd caller. 6. a. Presenter. b. Jack. c. 3rd caller. d. 2nd caller. e. 1st caller. 7. a. low. b. would like. c. positive. 8. a. Jack Carter is with us today to answer your questions about parkour. b. Perhaps you just need to drill the movement in a different way. c. Theres also cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength. VOCABULARY 9. a. Improved. b. Strong. c. Encompasses. d. Athletes. e. Former. 10. a. Community. b. Frightened. c. Movement. d. Confidence. e. Training. f. Strength.

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Presenter: Thanks again, Jack. And the last call for today. 3rd caller: My friends and I would like to start a parkour community in Maryland, but we want to know if it is illegal or not. Jack: Parkour is legal everywhere. If you guys are serious about maintaining the legality of parkour, you should concentrate on giving parkour a positive image by respecting property, members of the public and the authorities. UNIT 5
READING A JOB WITH A DIFFERENCE 1. a. Paragraph III Picture 4. b. Paragraph IV Picture 1. c. Paragraph I Picture 2. d. Paragraph II Picture 3. 2. a. Paragraph I: they refers to the old women. their refers to the young men. b. Paragraph II: she refers to the companion. them refers to the youngest children . c. Paragraph III: we refers to the narrator and her companion . we refers to the other volunteers and the children . d. Paragraph IV: they refers to the childrens parents . them refers to the children. 48 LISTENING PHONE HELP  3. a. 3. b. 2. c. 1. 4. a. I think our society moves very quickly. b. Why did you become a Samaritan? c. You may well learn in that time that youre not quite prepared to do it yourself! 5. a. We often dont find time for people who cant cope with pressure, or who are lonely and need support. b. They should contact their local branch to ask about the organisation and how they could join. 6. a. Women have been getting water from taps for ages. b. They have been preparing for the welcome party for weeks. c. Henry has been doing extra shifts for the last three months.

TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING 39 WHATS YOUR QUESTION? All the speakers have an American accent. Presenter: Jack Carter is with us today to answer your questions about parkour. Heres our first caller. st 1 caller: Hello, my names Wanda. Id like to practise parkour, but Im scared of getting hurt. How do I overcome my fear? Jack: First of all, start slow and low. When youre frightened of doing a specific movement, ask yourself whether you are capable of doing it, and if the answer is yes, why are you still scared? Perhaps you just need to drill the movement in a different way to build confidence up and show yourself that you can do this. Finally, develop your own method of overcoming fear; everyone handles it differently, so tailor your method to suit yourself. Presenter: Thank you, Jack. Second caller. 2nd caller: Hi, Im Devin. What training can I do at home for parkour? Jack: Practising parkour movements isnt the only part of training; theres also cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength, both of which can be done in and around the house: pushups, sit ups, crunches, pull ups, anything which can improve strength in muscles used in parkour. Besides, you could go on a short run on the days youre not exercising.

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VOCABULARY 7. H E L P O R G A N I S A T I O N a. The second letter in Britains most famous writers surname. (SHAKESPEARE) b. The first letter in the name of one of the Bronte sisters. (EMILY) c. The first letter in a lovely feeling. (LOVE) d. The last letter in the road sign that indicates that you cant drive on. (STOP) e. The first letter in the name of a very famous Hollywood prize. (OSCAR) f. The fourth letter in the second month of the year. (FEBRUARY) g. The last letter in the opposite of small. (BIG) h. The first letter of the alphabet. (A) i. The first letter in the opposite of yes. (NO) j. The letter used to refer to oneself. (I) k. The letter normally used to form regular plurals.(S) l. The beginning of Alice. (A) m. The first letter in the piece of furniture with a flat top supported by legs. (TABLE) n. The second letter in the last meal of the day. / DINNER) o. This very same letter. (O) p. The first letter in a prominent part of your face. (NOSE) 48 TRANSCRIPT - LISTENING PHONE HELP Both speakers have a British accent. Interviewer: Why do you think an organisation like the Samaritans is necessary? Henry: I think our society moves very quickly and often doesnt find time for people who cant cope with pressure. Its there for people who are without support at a particularly stressful time and for people who do have support and friends, but their problem is something very private that theyd rather discuss with someone objective. The service offers something which is always there, befriending without questioning or criticism, and completely confidential. Interviewer: What kind of people call the Samaritans?

Henry:

All kinds of people. Anyone whos lonely or depressed; it could be an elderly lady who has no one to talk to or perhaps a young man whos been looking for a job for too long. Interviewer: Why did you become a Samaritan? Henry: I wanted to find a way to help just with my time and my ability to listen; besides, Im levelheaded, Im not shocked easily and Im quite compassionate. Interviewer: How much time a week do you spend doing this? Henry: A few hours each week and then once a month we do an overnight shift just to make sure that the phones are manned twenty four hours a day. However, Ive been doing extra shifts for the last three months; we are short of volunteers! Interviewer: And if our listeners want to become a Samaritan, what should they do? Henry: They should contact their local branch to ask about the organisation and how they could join. Interviewer: Is there any training? Henry: There are classes to assess your ability and your aptitude for this kind of work. You may well learn in that time that youre not quite prepared to do it yourself!

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TEST QUESTION BANK


Reading comprehension
What type of text is this? What is the purpose of this text? Who is / are the main character(s)? Where does the action take place? What is Character 1s job? Where does he / she work? What is (person / place) like? What is the relationship between Character 1 and Character 2? What are the turning points in the story? What is Character 2s favourite food / sport / music, etc.? What does Character 3 write / cook / drive / eat / drink, etc.? Where is Character 1 when ? What can you infer from these sentences in the text? What do these numbers in the text refer to? What do these words (pronouns) refer to? Write a review of a book youve read / a film or a television programme youve seen. Write a short newspaper article describing something that has just happened / happened yesterday. Write a composition about your first _____ / your best ______. Write a questionnaire / a survey to find out about ______. Write a description of a person / a picture / a problem. Write definitions of these animals / devices / rooms. Write a personal / business letter. Write a reply to a personal letter. Write an invitation to a party / a lecture / a conference / an exhibition. Write a reply accepting / refusing an invitation. Write a short biography of a person you admire.

Speaking
Interview your partner to find out about his / her interests / preferences / habits / activities last summer. Talk to your partner about an interesting item of news. Talk to your partner about interesting / frightening / unusual experiences you have had. Talk to your partner about a book youve read / a film youve seen and that you would definitely (not) recommend. Talk to your partner about your favourite food / drink / place in Chile / football team / football player / book / film / film star. Talk to your partner about your plans for this weekend / next summer / the future. Talk to your partner about what you will do if . Talk to your partner about what you do / dont do to save money / energy / time. Look at this picture with your partner and ask and answer questions about what you see. Talk to your partner about the 10 things you want to do before you are 20. Talk to your partner about how you / your best friends have changed in the last five years. Talk to your partner about how the place where you live has changed in the last five years. Talk to your partner about the three best / worst inventions ever. Give reasons for your choices. Talk to your partner about the advantages and disadvantages of learning a language / having a pet / using social networks / living in the city or in the country. Talk to your partner about what you have learnt this year in English / Spanish / social sciences / science / math.

Listening comprehension
What type of text is this? What is this conversation / presentation / announcement about? How many people can you hear? Can you identify the mood of the different speakers? What do you think Character 1 looks like? Who said the following sentences? How did Character 1 react when Character 2 ? How did the characters answer these questions? What problem did Character 1 have to solve? How did he / she solve it? Which of these two words did you hear? In what order are these _____ mentioned? What questions was X asked? How did X answer these questions? How are these sentences different from what is said? Which of these sentences did you hear?

Writing
Write a follow-up of the story you read / the conversation you listened to. Write a personal profile. Write a diary entry of a day in the country / at the seaside / in the centre of town. Write a summary of a book youve read / a film youve seen.

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GLOSSARY
Grammar and vocabulary
Complete these sentences with the (verb tense) of the verbs in brackets. Fill in the blanks in this text with the (verb tense) of the verbs in brackets. Fill in the blanks in this text with the (verb tense) of the verbs in the box. Fill in the blanks in this text with the words in the box. Fill in the blanks in this text choosing from the alternatives provided. Find the opposite / synonyms of these words in this text. Classify these words under the corresponding category. Match these words and their definitions. Change these sentences / this paragraph into (verb tense). Find the odd word. Circle the verbs in the (verb tense) in this paragraph. Circle the words in this paragraph that refer to physical descriptions / moods / parts of the house / furniture. Paraphrase these sentences using (verb tense or verb). Answer these questions or respond to these statements using (verb tense or verb). Fill in the blanks with _____, _______, or _______ to form correct collocations.

Unit 1
Awful: (adj.) extremely bad or unpleasant. Baggy: (adj.) fitting loosely, not tight. Binge: (noun) an occasion when an activity is done in an extreme way, especially eating, drinking or spending money. Challenge: (verb) to invite someone to compete or take part, especially in a game, competition, or argument. Cherish: (verb) to love, protect and care for someone / something that is important to you. Clench: (verb) to close or hold something very tightly, often in a determined or angry way. Daring: (adj.) brave and taking risks. Embarrassed: (adj.) shy, awkward, or ashamed, especially in a social situation. Encourage: (verb) to make someone more likely to do something. Fist: (noun) a hand with the fingers and thumb held tightly in. Forefinger: (noun) the finger next to the thumb. Forehead: (noun) the part of the face above the eyes and below the hair. Grab: (verb) to take hold of something or someone suddenly and roughly. Increase: (verb) to (make something) become larger in amount or size. Lend: (verb) to give something to someone for a short period of time, expecting it to be given back. Mild: (adj.) not violent, severe, or extreme. Mood: (noun) the way you feel at a particular time. Rebound: (verb) to bounce back after hitting a hard surface. Shed: (noun) a small building, usually made of wood, used for storing things. Shy: (adj.) nervous and uncomfortable with other people. Signature: (noun) your name as you usually write it, for example at the end of a letter. Sleepover:(noun) a visit to another person's home to spend the night. Slip: (verb) to go into a worse state. Stare: (verb) to look for a long time with the eyes wide open, especially when surprised, frightened, or thinking. Stuff: (noun) (informal) used to refer to a substance or a group of things or ideas. Tough: (adj.) difficult to do or to deal with. Trust: (verb) to have belief or confidence in the honesty or goodness of a person. Upset: (adj.) worried, unhappy, or angry. Wave: (verb) to raise your hand and move it from side to side as a way of greeting someone. Wonder: (verb) to ask yourself questions or express a wish to know about something.

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Unit 2
Achievement: (noun) something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing. Agreement: (noun) a decision or arrangement, often formal and written, between two or more groups or people. Awkward: (adj.) difficult to use, do, or deal with Brag: (verb) to speak too proudly about what you have done or what you own. Breathe: (verb) to move air into and out of the lungs. Compelling: (adj.) if a reason, argument, etc. is compelling, it makes you believe it or accept it because it is so strong. Disguise: (noun) something that someone wears to hide their true appearance. Equipment: (noun) the things that are needed for a particular purpose or activity. Hail: (noun) small hard balls of ice which fall from the sky like rain. Heat: (noun) the quality of being hot or warm. Heed: (verb) to pay attention to something, especially advice or a warning. Journey: (noun) the act of travelling from one place to another, especially in a vehicle. Ladder: (noun) a piece of equipment used for climbing up and down, which consists of two vertical bars or pieces of rope joined to each other by a set of horizontal steps. Land: (noun) the surface of the Earth that is not covered by water. Layer: (noun) a level of material, such as a type of rock or gas, which is different from the material above or below it, or a thin sheet of a substance. Moisture: (noun) a liquid such as water in the form of very small drops, either in the air, in a substance, or on a surface. Neighbour: (noun) someone who lives very near to you. Research: (noun) a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover information or reach a new understanding. Review: (verb) to carefully examine or consider sth again, especially so that you can decide if it is necessary to make changes. Rise: (verb) to move upwards. Rope: (noun) (a piece of) strong, thick string made of long twisted threads. Seaside: (noun) an area that is by the sea, especially one where people go for a day or a holiday. Sponsor: (verb) to support a person, organization or activity by giving money, encouragement or other help. Spread: (verb) to (cause to) cover, reach or have an effect on a wider or increasing area.

Stage: (noun) a separate part that a process, etc. is divided into. Storage: (noun) the putting and keeping of things in a special place for use in the future. Stream: (noun) water that flows naturally along a fixed route formed by a channel cut into rock or ground, usually at ground level. Strengthen: (verb) to make something stronger or more effective. Supply: (noun) an amount of something that is available for use . Taste: (noun) the flavour of something. Trade: (noun) the activity of buying and selling, or exchanging, goods and/or services between people or countries.

Unit 3
Bough: (noun) a large branch of a tree. Bulk: (noun) in large amounts. Christening: (noun) a Christian ceremony at which a baby is given a name and made a member of the Christian Church. Conference: (noun) an event, sometimes lasting a few days, at which there is a group of talks on a particular subject, or a meeting in which especially business matters are discussed formally. Current: (adj.) of the present time. Glance: (noun) a quick look. Grant: (noun) a sum of money given especially by the government to a person or organisation for a special purpose. Lecture: (noun) a formal talk on a serious or specialist subject given to a group of people, especially students. Quirk: (noun) an unusual part of someone's personality or habit, or something that is strange and unexpected. Realise: (verb) to understand a situation, sometimes suddenly. Sample: (noun) a small amount of something that shows you what the rest is or should be like. Scholarship: (noun) an amount of money given by a school, college, university or other organisation to pay for the studies of a person with great ability but little money. Search: (noun) an attempt to find something. Shortcoming: (noun) a fault or a failure to reach a particular standard. Skill: (noun) a particular ability or type of ability. Twig: (noun) a small very thin branch that grows out of a larger branch of a tree. Warehouse: (noun) a large building for storing things before they are sold, used or sent out to shops.

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Wholesale: (adj.) of or for the selling of goods in large amounts at low prices to shops and businesses, rather than the selling of goods in shops to customers.

Unit 4
Amazing: (adj.) extremely surprising. Ash: (noun) the soft grey or black powder that is left after a substance, especially coal or wood, has burnt. Attend: (verb) to go to an event, place, etc. Blast: (noun) a very enjoyable experience that is a lot of fun. Carve out: (verb) to successfully create or get something, especially a work position, by working for it Complain: (verb) to say that something is wrong or not satisfactory. Howling: (adj) loud screaming (especially of an animal or the wind.) Join: (verb) to get involved in an activity or journey with another person or group. On behalf of: (noun) representing; instead of Patron: (noun) a person or group that supports an activity or organization, especially by giving money. Proudly: (adv.) feeling pleasure and satisfaction because you or people connected with you have done or got something good. Quarter: (noun) an area of a town where a particular group of people live or work or where a particular activity happens. Relative: (noun) a member of your family. Rubbish: (noun) waste material or things that are no longer wanted or needed. Scary: (adj.) frightening. Silly: (adj.) showing little thought or judgment; foolish. Soar: (verb) go high up. Strength: (noun) the ability to do things that need a lot of physical or mental effort. Stroll: (noun) a walk in a slow relaxed manner, especially for pleasure. Unfurl: (verb) open up, stretch into distance. Weapon: (noun) any object used in fighting or war, such as a gun, bomb, sword, etc. Worthwhile: (adj.) useful, important or good enough to be a suitable reward for the money or time spent or the effort made. Wrath: (noun) extreme anger.

Blame: (verb) (I dont / cant blame you) said in order to tell someone that you understand why they are doing something and that you agree with their reason for doing it. Branch: (noun) one of the offices or groups that form part of a large business organisation. Cope: (verb) to deal successfully with a difficult situation. Deface: (verb) to damage and spoil the appearance of something by writing or drawing on it. Dull: (adj.) not interesting or exciting in any way; boring. Duty: (noun) something that you have to do because it is part of your job. Feature: (noun) a typical quality or an important part of something. Grumpy: (adj.) (informal) bad-tempered. Height: (noun) the distance from the top to the bottom of something or somebody. Hesitate: (verb) to pause before you do or say something, often because you are uncertain or nervous about it. Hire: (verb) to employ someone or pay them to do a particular job. Installment: (noun) one of a number of parts into which an amount of money owed has been divided, so that each part is paid at different times until the total is reached. Moggy: (noun) (informal) cat. Neat: (adj.) tidy, with everything in its place. Outgoing: (adj.) (of a person) friendly and energetic and finding it easy and enjoyable to be with others. Rely on: (verb) to need a particular thing or the help and support of someone or something in order to continue, to work correctly, or to succeed. Shelter: (noun) a structure that provides privacy and protection from danger. Shift: (noun) a group of workers who do a job for a period of time during the day or night, or the period of time itself. Thorough: (adj.) detailed and careful. Thrilled: (adj.) extremely pleased. Tune: (noun) a series of musical notes, especially one which is pleasant and easy to remember; a melody Weight: (noun) the amount that something or someone weighs (to have a heaviness of a stated amount). Wimp: (noun) a person who is not strong, brave or confident.
Dictionaries used: - http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/ - http://kat.ph/oxford-advanced-learners-dictionary-of-currentenglish-8th-ed-t3874647.html - http://www.ldoceonline.com/

Unit 5
Affordable: (adj.) not expensive. At leisure: (adv.) when you want to and when you have time to. Bargain: (noun) something on sale at a lower price than its true value. Behaviour: (noun) the way a person, an animal, a plant, a chemical acts in a particular situation.

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THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
Units 1 & 2 - Students world Reading Fadem, T. (2008). The Art of Asking: Ask Better Questions, Get Better Answers. (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ. USA: FT Press. Glasser, W. (2003). For Parents and Teenagers Dissolving the Barrier Between You and Your Teen. (Paperback ed.). New York, NY, USA: HarperCollins Publishers Inc. Gross, J. (2008). The New Oxford Book of Literary Anecdotes Oxford Books of Prose & Verse. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press Inc. Shapiro, B. (2007). Other Peoples Love Letters; 150 Letters You Were Never Meant to See. New York, NY, USA: Clarkson Potter. Wittington, J. (2010). Disaster! A history of earthworks, floods, plagues and other catastrophes. New York, NY, USA: Skyhorse Publishing. Listening Heaton, J. B. (1990). Longman Preliminary English Skills Longman for the Cambridge Exams. (Teachers Guide). Harlow, Essex, UK: Longman. Way, N. (1998). Everyday Courage: The Lives and Stories of Urban Teenagers Qualitative Studies in Psychology (1st ed.), New York, NY, USA: NYU Press Writing Bly, R. (2003). Websters New World Letter Writing Handbook. (1st ed.). Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Parker, S. (2002). What Shall I Write? Personal Letters for All Occasions. Concord, MA, USA: Infinity Publishing. Russell McDonald, C. and McDonald, L. R. (editors). (2002). Teaching Writing Landmarks and Horizons. (1st ed.). Carbondale, lL., USA: Southern Illinois University Press. Sandler, C. and Keefe, J. (2004). 1001 Letters For All Occasions The Best Models for Every Business and Personal Need. Avon, MA, USA: Adams Media. Speaking Fraleigh, D. et al. (2008). Speak Up An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking. Boston, MA, USA: Bedford/St. Martins. Holcomb, E. (2008). Asking the Corwin Press Right Questions Tools for Collaboration and School Change. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA:. Fadem, T. (2008). The Art of Asking: Ask Better Questions, Get Better Answers. (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: FT Press. Rogerson, P. et al. (1990). Speaking Clearly Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension for Learners of English. (Teachers Book). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Units 3 & 4 Academic world Reading Corfield, R. (2003). Preparing Your Own CV: How to Improve Your Chances of Getting the Job You Want. (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Ltd. Corfield, R. (2007). Preparing the Perfect CV: How to Make a Great Impression and Get the Job You Want. (4th ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Ltd. Pangrazi, R. et al. (2009). Activity Cards for Promoting Physical Activity and Health in the Classroom. (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA, USA: Benjamin Cummings. Thomas, D. (2006). Physical Activity & Health: An Interactive Approach. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA, USA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Listening Donoghue, P. and Siegel, M. (2005). Are You Really Listening? Keys to Successful Communication. Notre Dame, IN, USA: Sorin Books. Burley, M. (1995). Listening: The Forgotten Skill: A Self-Teaching Guide. (2nd ed.). Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Writing Lister, L. (2008). FastTrack To Job Success Getting a Job from Search to Interview, Resume Writing, CVs, Job Finding and Interview Techniques. (1st ed.). Raleigh, NC, USA: Lulu.com. Shaw, M. and Weil, R. (2007). Linking Up: Planning Your Traffic-Free Bike Trip Between Pittsburgh, PA and Washington, DC. (3rd ed.). Lawrence, KS, USA: Great Allegheny Press. Usher, H. (2007). The Definitive CV / Resume & Essential Employment Letter Guide. Pymble, Australia: Usher Publishing POD. Williams, R. (2006). London (Eyewitness Travel Guide). London, UK: DK Travel. Speaking Calcagni, T. (2007). Tough Questions Good Answers: Taking Control of Any Interview. (Capital Business & Professional Development Series). Sterling, VA, USA: Capital Books, Inc. De Luca, M. and De Luca, N. (1996). Best Answers to the 201 Most Frequently Asked Interview Questions. (1st ed.). New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill. Oliver, V. (2005). 301 Smart Answers to Tough Interview Questions. (1st ed.) Naperville, IL, USA: Sourcebooks, Inc. Powers, P. (2009). Winning Job Interviews. (Revised ed.). Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA: Career Press. Units 5 & 6 Working world Reading Alderton, D. (2008). How To Look After Your Small Pets: An Owners Guide. Leicester, UK: Annes publishing Ltd. Bourdon, R. (1999). Understanding Animal Breeding. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. Campbell, K. (2008). Companion Animals: Their Biology, Care, Health, and Management. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. Druin, A. (2009). Mobile Technology for Children, Kindle Edition: Amazon. NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. Sloman, P. (2010). Inventors and Inventions. London, UK: Black Dog Publishing.

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Listening Hoevemeyer, V. (2005). High-Impact Interview Questions: 701 Behavior-Based Questions to Find the Right Person for Every Job. New York, NY, USA: AMACOM. Kessler, R. (2006). Competency-Based Interviews: Master the Tough New Interview Style And Give Them the Answers That Will Win You the Job. (1st ed.). Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA: Career Press. Writing Innes, J. (2009). The CV Book: Your definitive guide to writing the perfect CV. Old Tappan, NJ, USA: FT Press. Silvia, P. J. (2007). How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. (1st ed.). Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association (APA). Spence, L. (1997). Legacy: A Step-By-Step Guide to Writing Personal History. Athens, OH, USA: Swallow Press / Ohio University Press. Thomas, F. (1989). How to Write the Story of Your Life. writersdigest@fwmedia.com: Writers Digest Books. Tompkins, G. (2007). Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall. Speaking Brown, S. and Lucas, C. (2008). Improve Your English: English in Everyday Life. (1st ed. w/ DVD). New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill. Folse, K. (1996). Discussion Starters: Speaking Fluency Activities for Advanced ESL/EFL Students. Lansing, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press/ESL. Kasloff Carver, T. and Douglas Fotinos Riggs, S. (2006). A Conversation Book 1: English in Everyday Life. (4th ed.). White Plains, NY, USA: Pearson ESL. Roth, E. and Aberson, T. (2007). Compelling Conversations: Questions and Quotations on Timeless Topics. Los Angeles, CA, USA: BookSurge Publishing/ Chimayo Press. Units 1 to 6 Grammar and Vocabulary Aarts, B. (2011). Oxford Modern English Grammar. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Beaumont, D. and Granger, C. (1992). The Heinemann English Grammar, an Intermediate Reference and Practice Book. Glasgow, Scotland: Heineman. Carlton, L. and Marzano, R. (2010). Vocabulary Games for the Classroom. Bloomington, IN, USA: Marzano Research Laboratory. Field, M. (2009). Improve Your Punctuation and Grammar: Master the Essentials of the English Language and Write with Greater Confidence. (How to series). Oxford, UK: How to Books Ltd. King, G. (2009). Collins Improve Your Grammar. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins Publishers. McCarthy, M. (2002). English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Straus, J. (2006). The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Jossey-Bass.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Atwell, N. (1998). In the Middle: New Understanding about Writing, Reading, and Learning - Workshop Series. (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH, USA: Boynton / Cook. Burke, J. (2003). Reading Reminders - Tools, Tips, and Techniques. (1st ed.). Portsmouth, NH, USA: Boynton / Cook. Claire, E. and Haynes, J. (1994). Classroom Teachers ESL Survival Kit. White Plains, NY, USA: Pearson ESL. Hadfield, J. and Hadfield, C. (2002). Simple Listening Activities. (Oxford Basics series). New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. Hadfield, J. and Hadfield, C. (2001). Simple Writing Activities (1st ed.). (Oxford Basics series). New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press. Hadfield, J. (2000). Communication Games Intermediate. (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson P TR. Hancock, M. (1996). Pronunciation Games. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hewitt, I. E. (1998). Edutainment: How to Teach Language with Fun & Games. (Bk & CD ed.). Subiaco, WA, Australia: Language Direct. Klippel, F. (1984). Keep Talking: Communicative Fluency Activities for Language Teaching. (Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Peregoy, S. et al. (2005). Reading, Writing and Learning in ESL A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers. (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY, USA: Pearson Education. Richards, J. (2004). Interchange Class Audio. (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Spratt, M. et al. (2005). The TKT Course (Students Book). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Turkenik, C. (1998). Choices - Writing Projects for Students of ESL. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. Some Web Sites Listening comprehension: http://www.isabelperez.com/songs.htm Song lyrics and activities for ESL; includes matching, cloze, and other interactive exercises. http://www.musicalenglishlessons.org/popsongs/index.htm Songs and languaje activities Reading comprehension: http://www.abcteach.com Free printable worksheets and activities. http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com English lesson plans & podcast for studying current events and news. Ready-to-print handouts with downloads & quizzes. Speaking http://www.onestopenglish.com Resources for teaching English including lesson plans, worksheets, audio, video and flashcards. http://www.proteacher.com Extensive list of links for school and home practice. Writing http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/bl_guided_writing.htm Guided Writing Exercises for ESL, EFL, TESOL and TEFL English Students. http://www.readingrockets.org Information and resources on how young kids learn to read, and how adults can help. http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/blwrite_informalletter.htm Differences between formal and informal letters in English. http://www.englishclub.com Lessons for learners, including fun pages like games, quizzes and chat.

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