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Tools & Techniques for Analyzing Livelihoods & Making Intervention

Tools & Techniques for Analyzing Livelihoods & Making Intervention

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Published by S.Rengasamy
Teaching material compiled by Mr.S.Rengasamy to supplement the class room teaching for MSW students specializing in community development in the colleges affiliated to Madurai Kamarai University,Tamilnadu, India
Teaching material compiled by Mr.S.Rengasamy to supplement the class room teaching for MSW students specializing in community development in the colleges affiliated to Madurai Kamarai University,Tamilnadu, India

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Published by: S.Rengasamy on Oct 11, 2009
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10/08/2013

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After having looked at the factor conditions in the area, we have to look at the demand
conditions. The activities that people take up at the local level are shaped by the local demand
conditions. Therefore, it may be useful for us to look at the activities people are involved in
from the perspective of understanding the demand condition as well.

Marketing and Research Team (MART), New Delhi, has developed a methodology, 3M

S.Rengasamy- Tools & Techniques for Analyzing Livelihoods & Making Effective Intervention

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Social Metabolism… Like any living system, a community consumes material and
energy inputs, processes them into usable forms, and eliminates the wastes from the
process. This can be seen as "metabolism" of industry, commerce, municipal operations,
and households. Understanding the pattern of these energy and material flows through a
community's economy provides a systemic reading of the present situation for goal and
objective setting and development of indicators for sustainability.

Extractive vs. empowering methods

Adoption of an SL approach indicates acceptance of the fact that answers are not known, and that
learning processes that involve poor people are required. In this context, tension often arises
between
extractive (extracting information for use by others) and empowering (seeking to empower those
who participate) objectives of various field methods. It is becoming clear, however, that the
objectives of the two are complementary rather than conflicting.
This section of the Guidance Sheets is mainly concerned with finding out about livelihoods in order
to inform project design, monitor the effects of development activity and evaluate outcomes. It
therefore tends to emphasize more extractive methods. It is not about project implementation,
nor about ways to ensure that projects involve and empower intended target groups. However,
many projects whose goal and mode of implementation are empowering in character are preceded
by quick and effective extractive exercises to discover pre-project conditions and interim project
effects.
For example, ranking methods used to reveal community priorities for primary healthcare
(extractive) can lead to a healthcare delivery project that incorporates participation in establishing
the operational guidelines for healthcare workers (empowering).

(micro-planning, micro-markets, micro-finance), which can be used for looking at the
demand conditions in a local economy. A two-step process adapted in the 3M methodology
can help us understand the demand conditions in the local economy.
- Identify enterprises existing in the area…
- Mapping all the products and services that go out and come in

3.1 Identify enterprises existing in the area

Identifying of enterprises (enterprise here means all economic activities that people take up in
the area) existing in the area needs to be done at two levels: at the village level and at a
market center that caters to the area.

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