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in the unaffected base metal undercut. This standard does not classify existing welding defects according to their origin but only to their appearance. mainly evenly distributed pores start defects nest of pores locally repeated pores weld is too wide excessive seam width line of pores pores arranged in a line burn through through-going hole in or at the edge of the seam worm hole elongated gas inclusion in weld direction © ISF 2002 br-er09-02. Welding Defects 108 Figures 9.cdr © ISF 2002 Defect Class: Lack of Fusion.9.cdr Defect Class: Shape Defects Defect Class: Cracks and Cavities Figure 9.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er09-01. Insufficient Through-Weld Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 lack of fusion between passes lack of fusion between weld passes or weld beads root lack of fusion lack of fusion in the area of weld root flank lack of fusion lack of fusion between weld and base metal insufficient through weld insufficiently welded cross section insufficiently welded root one or two longitudinal edges of the groove are unfused br-er-09-03.1 to 9. continuous unfused longitudinal seam edge longitudinal crack in the HAZ in the unaffected base metal in weld metal in fusion zone undercut open end crater end crater with reduction of weld cross section transverse crack in weld metal in the HAZ in the unaffected base metal in weld metal in the HAZ globular gas inclusion nominal star shaped crack weld reinforcement pore too small throat thickness nominal porosity surface defects at a start point many.3 .4 give a rough survey about the classification of welding defects to DIN 8524.
The development of the most important welding defects is explained in the following paragraphs. i. but a working range is created (lower part of the figure). Welding Defects 109 A distinction of arising defects by their origin is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. a definite melting of flanks cannot be ensured.6 explains © ISF 2002 br-er-09-04.5 Melting rate (resulting from selected welding parameters) and welding speed define the heat input.cdr feed speed (thus also Welding Defects melting rate) as shown in the middle part of the figure. Lack of fusion is defined stringer type inclusions slag line different shapes and directions as unfused area between weld metal and base material or previously welded layer. arc characteristic lines of MAG welding are shown using CO2 Defect Class: Solid Inclusions Figure 9. This happens when irregular slag inclusions single slag inclusions the base metal or the previous layer are not completely or insufficiently pore nest locally enriched molten. Figure 9.4 welding joint defects welding defects due to manufacture welding defects due to material and mixed gas. As it can be changed within certain limits. The welding voltage depends on welding current and is selected according to the joint type. too high welding speed. With present tension. the welding current is fixed by the wire © ISF 2002 external weld defects internal weld defects hot cracks cold cracks cavities with weld metal spatters and start points undercuts seam shape defects lacks of fusion slag inclusions mechanical pore formation solidification cracks remelt cracks hydrogen cracks hardening cracks lamellar cracks precipitation cracks metallurgical pore formation crater formation br-er-09-05.9. If the heat input is too low.cdr the influence of welding parameters on the development of lack of fusion.e.5. In the upper part. melting rate and welding speed do not limit each other. Due to the .
i. The arc is not directed into the base metal.e..cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Welding Parameters on Formation of Lack of Fusion Influence of Torch Position on Formation of Lack of Fusion Figure 9. A negative inclination leads to narrower beads. but onto the weld pool. The second part of the figure shows the torch orientation transverse to welding direction with multi-pass welding. the seam gets wider with a positive inclination together with a slight reduction of penetration depth.6 Figure 9. as it provides a reliable melting and a proper fusion of the layers. The upper part of the figure explains the terms neutral. too low welding speed. With a false torch orientation.7 Figure 9. a lack of fusion occurs. Thus lack of fusion may occur in such areas. the weld pool gets too large and starts to flow away in the area in front of the arc. lack of fusion is the result. To avoid weak fusion between layers. When welding an I-groove in two layers. the perpendicular flank is insufficiently molten. welding direction Welding voltage CO2 mixed gas Welding current positive torch angle torch axes neutral negative torch angle torch axes Welding current correct correct Wire feed Melting rate lack of fusion due to too low performance false false approx.7 shows the influence of torch position on the development of weak fusion.2 ing ra ng e Welding speed wo rk false correct lacks of fusion due to preflow 90° br-er09-06.9. positive and negative torch angle. and flanks are not entirely molten. Compared with a neutral position. 45° 1. the torch orientation is of great importance. Welding Defects 110 poor power. it must be ensured that the plate is com- .. This effect prevents a melting of the base metal. The third figure illustrates the influence of torch orientation during welding of a fillet weld. With too high heat input.cdr Melting rate © ISF 2002 br-er09-07.
As 12 1 2 9 Uhr 3 9 Uhr 12 1 2 3 12 an example. In contrast to faulty fusion.9. The lower figure illustrates variations of torch orientation on seam formation. A false torch orientation may lead to lack of fusion between the layers.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Torch Position on Formation of Lacks of Fusion diameter groove Figure 9. melting 9 Uhr 3 6 6 6 br-er09-08. Figure 9.8 rate.8 shows the influence of the torch orientation during MSG welding of a rotating workpiece.9 lists causes of a mechanical pore formation as well as possibilities to avoid them.e. This orientation depends on parameters like and shape. they must occur isolated and keep a minimum distance from each other. There are two possible mechanisms to develop cavities in the weld metal: the mechanical and the metallurgical pore formation. as shown in the lower figure. To over-weld a cavity (lack Figure 9. Welding Defects 111 pletely fused. and welding speed. workpiece thickness. Both may cause lack of fusion. the upper fi1 2 gure shows the desired torch orientation for usual welding speeds. pores in the weld metal due to their globular shape are less critical. i. provided that their size does not exceed a certain value.9 . the weld pool does not flow in front or behind of the arc. Figure 9. Secondly. A torch orientation should be chosen in such a way that a solidification of the melt pool takes place in 12 o'clock position.
12 Growth and Brake Away of Gas Cavities at the Phase Border photograph of a pore which developed in this way.cdr © ISF 2002 of the weld pool. insufficient gas flow at start and at completion of welding too large gas nozzle distance excentric wire stick-out false gas nozzle shape false gas nozzle position (with decentralised gas supply) turbulences through: to high shielding gas flow spatters on gas nozzle or contact tube irregular arc reduce gas flow clean gas nozzle and contact tube eliminate wire feed disturbances. dry wire feed hose after ingress of water reduce penetration by decreasing arc power or increasing welding speed clean welding area before welding protect welding point from draught suitable gas pre. ensure good current transition in contact tube. If the solidification is carried out so fast that this gas bubble b) high crystallisation speed a) low crystallisation speed cannot raise to the surface br-er-09-12. avoid visible gas nozzle slots search and eliminate leaks. doors. Figure 9.11 of fusion. center contact tube select proper gas nozzle shape for joint type position gas nozzel behind torch . increase voltage. remove slag of previously welded layers weld on backing or with root forming gas reduce weld pool size reduce preheat or interpass temperature reduce torch inclination.9. overlaps etc.cdr © ISF 2002 Metallurgical Pore Formation Figure 9. tighten leaks in gas line. if wire electrode splutters. The welding heat during welding causes a strong expansion of the gasses contained in the cavity and consequently a development of a gas bubble in the liquid weld metal. the pore will be caught in the weld metal. Welding Defects 112 gas/gas developing material air -nitrogen -hydrogen causes avoidance too low shielding gas flow through: too low setting leaking lines too small capillary bore hole too low supply pressure for pressure regulator insufficient gas shield through: open windows.possibly increased by chimmney effects with one-sided welding too high weld pool temperature too high work piece temperature injection effects water carbonmonoxide leaking torch (with water-cooled types) remelting of seggregation zones remelting of rust or scale br-er09-11. gaps.) of a previous layer can be regarded as a typical case of a mechanical pore formation.10 shows a X-ray Figure 9. fans etc.pressure regulator Pressure of bottles or lines must meet the required supply pressure of the pressure regulator thermal current .if possible correct settings search and eliminate leaks correct combination capillary . as well as a surface and a transverse sec- . correct earth connection.and post-flow time reduce distance straighten wire electrode.10 Figure 9.
the transition of liquid to solid condition causes a leapwise reduction of gas solubility of the steel.13 shows a X-ray photograph. This pore formation shows its typical pore position at the edge of the joint and at the fusion line of the top layer. Figure 9. Reason of this pore formation is the considerably increased solubility of the molten metal compared with the solid state. a surface and a transverse section of a seam with metallurgical pores. During solidification. a higher solidification speed may lead to a case where gas bubbles are passed by the crystallisation front and are trapped as pores in the weld metal. Welding Defects 113 tion. As a result. Figure 9. the bubbles have enough time to raise to the surface of the weld pool. A pore formation is mainly caused by hydrogen and nitrogen.11 summarises causes of and measures to avoid a metallurgical pore formation. lower part of the figure. Figure 9. Oxygen is Figure 9. However. Pores will not be developed.13 ways of ingress of gasses into the weld pool as an example during MAG welding.9. solved gasses are driven out of the crystal and are enriched as a gas bubble ahead of the solidification front. With a slow growth of the crystallisation front.12 upper part. The evenly distributed pores across the seam and the accumulation of pores in the upper part of the seam (transverse section) are typical.14 shows the Figure 9. Figure 9.14 .
Figure 9. Figure 9.9. part 3.15 classifies cracks to DIN 8524. In contrast to part 1 and 2 of this standard.15 . but also by their development. Welding Defects 114 bonded in a harmless way when using universal electrodes which are alloyed with Si and Mn. are cracks not only classified by their appearance.
forming at the end of solidification a very much enriched crystalline solid. thus the crystals are enriched with alloy elements much slower than in a case of the binary system (lower line).9. no diffusion of alloy elements in the already solidified crystal takes place. Welding Defects Figure 0010 TS 0011 0012 0021 800 0020 400 MS 0022 0023 0024 0025 103 Time 0027 115 9.cdr 0023 area of hydrogen crack formation 0024 area of hardening crack formation 0025 area of tearing crack formation 0026 area of ageing crack formation 0027 area of precipitation crack formation 0028 area of lamella crack formation © ISF 2002 Crack Formation During Steel Welding Figure 9. the concentration of the melt exceeds the maximum equilibrium concentration (C5). As defined in the beginning. but no diffusion takes place in the crystalline solid. Principally there is a distinction 0026 0028 104 105 106 s 107 0 1 10 between the group 0010 (hot cracks) and 0020 (cold cracks). whose melting .17. 102 0010 area of hot crack formation 0011 area of solidification crack formation 0012 area of remelting crack formation 0020 area of cold crack formation 0021 area of brittle crack formation 0022 area of shrinking crack formation br-er-09-16. the rest a tension tension tension of molten metal is enriched with alloy elements b in accordance with the liquidus line. Its concentration can be taken from the solidus line. a crystalline solid is formed when the liquidus line is reached.cdr tension segregation in base metal aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa melt © ISF 2002 Development of Remelting and Solidification Cracks As a result. under the provision that a complete concentration balance takes place in the melt ahead of the solidification front. In the course of the ongoing solidification. The upT per part illustrates solidification conditions in a simple case of a binary system.16 allocates during the 1600 °C 1200 Temperature cracks according to their appearance welding heat cycle. When a melt of a composition tension tension TmA C5 TmB A C0 C’5 B CB C0 cools down. Figure 9.17 br-er09-17.16 A model of remelting development and solidification cracks is shown in Figure 9.
If the base material to be welded contains already some segregations whose melting point is lower than that of the rest of the base metal. rests of liquid may be trapped by dendrites. If the joint is exposed to tensile stress during solidification. but it is sufficient to understand the mechanism of hot crack formation. Such concentration differences between first and last solidified crystals are called segregations. If tensile stresses exist (shrinking stress of the © ISF 2002 Crystallisation of Various Bead Geometries Figure 9. the melt between the crystalline solids at the t end of solidification has a considerably solidus a: non-preferred bead shape b <1 t br-er-09-18. b: preferred bead shape b >1 t c: non-preferred bead shape indicated by the black areas.19 . The middle part of the figure shows the formation of solidification cracks.18 welded joint). Welding Defects 116 point is considerably lower when compared with the firstly developed crystalline solid. then these zones will melt during welding. The lower part of the figure shows the development of remelting cracks. A hot cracking tendency of a steel is above all promoted by sulphur and phosphorus. This model of segregation development is very much simplified. Due to the segreb b gation effects described above.9. because these elements form with iron very Figure 9. and the rest of the material remains solid (black areas). then these areas open up (see above) and cracks occur. the liquid areas are not yet able to transfer forces and open up.cdr t decreased As temperature.
22 . In the Figure 9. With narrow.18.21 Figure 9. Welding Defects 117 low melting phases (eutectic point Fe-S at 988° C) and these elements segregate intensely.9. entrapping the remaining melt in the bead centre.20 case of flat beads as shown in the middle part of br-er09-21. As shown in Figure 9. also the geometry of the groove is important for hot crack tendency. In addition. With the occurrence stresses. hot crack tendency increases with increasing melt interval.cdr © ISF 2002 Macrosection of a SA-Weld Figure 9. of hot shrinking cracks may develop. deep grooves a crystallisation takes place of all sides of the bead.
9. chemical composition (C-equivalent) welding consumables humidity on welding edges residual stresses (yield stress of steels and joints) cooling rate (t8/5) cooling rate (t8/1) additional stresses (production conditions) 5 mm section plane br-er09-23. An unsatisfactory structure composition promotes very much the formation of cold cracks (hardening by martensite). the composition of base crack in heat affected zone etching: HNO3 5 mm and filler materials and of the cooling speed of the joint. Such a classification does not provide an explanation for the origin of the cracks.22 classifies cold cracks depending on their position in the weld metal area.18.24 br-er09-24. The melt cannot be trapped. The example of a hot crack in the middle of a SA weld is shown in Figure 9. The case in figure c shows no advantage. structure (hardness) hydrogen stresses The section shown in Figure 9. the remaining melt solidifies at the surface of the bead. the resulting welding microstructure depends on both.21 is similar to case c in Figure 9. This crack developed due to the unsuitable groove geometry. hot cracking is not possible. Welding Defects 118 the figure.cdr © ISF 2002 Causes of Cold Crack Formation Figure 9.cdr transverse cracks in weld metal © ISF 2002 Cold Cracks in the Heat Affected Zone and Weld Metal .20 shows an example of a remelting crack which started to develop in a segregation zone of the base metal and spread up to the bead centre. One can clearly see that an existing crack develops through the following layers during over-welding. Figure 9. Figure 9. As explained in previous chapters.19.23 0.2 mm 5 mm Figure 9.23 shows a summary of the three main causes of cold crack formation and their main influences. because a remelting crack may occur in the centre (segregation zone) of the first layer during welding the second layer. Figure 9.
9.2 70 % 0.26 .17 ceptibility is a higher hydrogen content.18 0.5 0.Typ 1.20 °C 0. A measC a hydroure is t8/1 because only below 100° gen effusion stops.5 stored and rebaked Water Content of Coating After Storage and Rebaking Figure 9.9 0.12 1.0 Water content of coating 119 Another cause for increased cold crack sus- 18 °C 1.39 0. Or a crack occurs only when superimpose of residual stresses on outer stress.27 0. The cooling speed is also important because it determines the remaining time for hydrogen effusion out of the bead.28 0.4 0. An increased hydrogen content in the weld metal leads to an increased cold crack tendency.6 0.3 0.4 0.21 50 % 0.16 0.24 shows typical cold cracks in a workpiece.0 % Water content of coating 20 °C / 70 % RH 3.35 0.cdr 1.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Storage time 6 7 days 0.7 0.1 0 30 40 50 60 Relative humidity 70 % 80 © ISF 2002 basic electrode 1 year storage time at 18 .46 0.17 0. a spontaneous occurrence is typical of hydrogen rectly cracking.74 AWS A5.0 2.8 0. br-er-09-26. The weld metal hydrogen content depends on humidity of the electrode coating (manual metal arc welding) and of flux (submerged arc welding). 4.0 1.Ni . Mechanisms of hydrogen cracking were not completely understood until today.8 0. Figure 9.0 % 0. The hydrogen content is very much influenced by the condition of the welding filler material (humidity of electrodes or flux. Depending on material condition and the two already mentioned influencing factors. lubricating grease on welding wire etc.cdr 0 1 Storage time 10 Tage 100 © ISF 2002 A crack initiation is effected by stresses. However.25 ate a crack. respectively how much hydrogen remains in the weld.2 % 1.6 0.43 on the groove edges.2 0.0 0 br-er09-25.83 90 % RH basic stick electrode Mn . even residual stresses in the workpiece may actu- Water Pick-up of Electrode Coatings Figure 9.Mo . Welding Defects 1.) and by humidity 9 0.22 35 % 0.0 0. welding Such but Water content of coating cracks do not appear diafter hours or even days after cooling.4 0.
It can clearly be seen that a behaviour as shown in the upper picture applies only to some electrode types.26 shows the effects of this 400 s 500 © ISF 2002 0 br-er-09-27. Figure 9. The lower picture shows that this behaviour does not apply to all electrode types. .cdr 100 200 300 Cooling time between 800 and 1000°C measure. this is the rea- 40 cellulose coated stick electrode 30 son why electrodes are backed before welding to limit the water content of 20 basic coated stick electrode 10 the coating. Figure 9. the more time is available for hydrogen to effuse out of the weld metal even in higher quantities. The longer the steel takes to cool. The upper picture shows that during storage of an electrode type the water content of the coating depends on air humidity. but diffusion speed increases sharply with temperature. 60 ml 100g 20 50 Diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal preheat temperature in °C 80 100 In practice. The water content of the coating of this electrode type advances to a maximum value with time. Welding Defects 120 Figure 9.25 shows that the moisture pick-up of an electrode coating greatly depends on ambient conditions and on the type of electrode. The values of a high hygroscopic cellulose-coated electrode are considerably worse than of a basic-coated one.27 shows the influence of cooling speed and also the preheat temperature on hydrogen content of the weld metal.9. It can be seen that even electrodes stored under very damp conditions can be rebaked to reach acceptable values of water content in the coating. however both show the same tendency: increased cooling speed leads to a raise of diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal. but basically a very different behaviour in connection with storage can be noticed. The characteristics of 25 welding electrodes stored under identical conditions are plotted here. Humidity values after rebaking are plotted in the lower curve. Reason is that hydrogen can still effuse all the way down to room temperature. The upper curve shows the water content of the coating of electrodes which were stored at constant air humidity before Influence of Preheat Temperature on Cooling Speed and Hydrogen Content Figure 9.27 rebaking. such constant storage conditions are not to be found.
29.) 5 7 10 15 means of sound emission measurement.e.29 assessment of the crack size. Figure 9. This crack type occurs typically during stressing a plate across its thickness (perpen- . However.30 represents the result of such a measurement of a welded component. Welding Defects 121 The table in Figure 9. a classification of weld metal to DIN 32522 into groups depending on hy- br-er-09-28. A solid-borne sound microphone is fixed to a component which measures the sound pulses generated by crack development. after completed cooling a multitude of developing sounds can be registered. i. The observation is carried out without applying an external tension.cdr © ISF 2002 H2-Bestimmung nach DIN 8572. At first this is due to the cooling process. Figure 9. Based on this assessment.32 shows that most cracks occur relatively short after welding. cracks develop only caused by the internal residual stress condition. It is remarkable that the intensity of late occurring pulses is especially high.28 shows an assessment of the quantity of diffusible Designation high medium low very low Hydrogen content ml/100 g deposited weld metal >15 £ 15 and > 10 £ 10 and > 5 £5 in ISO 2560 classified as Hcontrolled electrodes hydrogen in weld metal according to DIN 8529. The intensity of the pulses provides a qualitative br-er-09-29.2 Diffusible Hydrogen of Weld Metal to DIN 32522 Figure 9. Figure 9.31 shows a characteristic occurrence of lamellar cracks (also called lamellar tearing).28 A cold crack development can be followed-up by Abbreviation HP 5 HP 7 HP 10 HP 15 Hydrogen content ml/100 g deposited weld metal (max.cdr © ISF 2002 Assessment of Diffusible Hydrogen During Manual Metal Arc Welding drogen is carried out. Figure 9. This behaviour is typical for hydrogen induced crack formation. Figure 9.9.
Zones enriched and depleted of alloy elements are now close together. During steel production. thus the strength of the workpiece is that of the weaker microstructure Figure 9. When stressing lengthwise and transverse to rolling direction. the individual structure bands may support each other and a mean strength is provided. With following production steps. a formation of segregation cannot be avoided due to the casting process. this formation can be hardly avoided.9. This is caused by a different mechanical behaviour of different microstructures. This effect which can be well recognised in Figure 9. The upper picture shows joint types which are very much at risk to formation of such cracks.30 stretched in the rolling direction. In practice. Such support cannot be obtained perpendicular to rolling direction. Banding in plates is the reason for worst mechanical properties perpendicular to rolling direction. such segregations are Figure 9. During cooling. zones with enriched alloy elements develop a different microstructure than depleted zones. These concentration differences influence the transformation behaviour of the individual zones.31 . Welding Defects 122 dicular to rolling direction).31. is called structure banding. The two lower pictures show the cause of that crack formation.
6 mm vulnerable.32 Shrinkage Values of T-Joints With Various Joint Shapes above the tensile strength. a lamellar crack propagates through weaker microstructure areas.7 mm 12 8 shrinkage value 0.33 . They occur in the coarse grain zone close to fusion line. carbides are dissolved in an area close to the fusion line. Consequently.4 mm carbide developers are not completely re-precipitated. is it also called undercladding crack. Welding Defects 123 areas.cdr 100 3 6r 50° 50° 2 © ISF 2002 stresses perpendicular to magnitude Figure 9. Nb.33.32 illustrates why such t-joints are particularly joint shape. and partly a jump into the next band takes place. V). plane may of generate br-er-09-32. During welding such steels. As this type of cracks occurs often during post weld heat treatment of cladded materials. Undercladding Cracks Figure 9. these welds show to some extent a con12 100 siderable shrinking. Figure 9. Depending on shrinkage value 0. the shrinkage value 1.cdr © ISF 2002 the following cooling. This can cause lamellar tearing. A welded construction which greatly impedes shrinking of this the joint.9. Precipitation cracks occur mainly during stress relief heat treatment of welded components. Dur- coarse grain zone 1 base metal: ASTM 508 Cl (22NiMoCr3-7) ing br-er09-33. Especially susceptible are steels which concrack formation in these areas of the coarse grain zone weld bead 2 3 4 tain alloy elements with a precipitation hardening effect (carbide developer like Ti. Figure 9.
. a re-precipitation of carbides takes place (see hot ageing. causing the cracks shown in Figure 9.33. Plastic deformations during stress relieving are carried out almost only in these areas. Welding Defects 124 If a component in such a condition is stress relief heat treated. chapter 8). With this re-precipitation. which have a considerably lower deformation stress limit compared with strengthened areas. precipitation-free zones may develop along grain boundaries.9.