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Table of Content

1he Þaleo uleL Þg 4

PealLh 8eneflLs of Lhe Þaleo uleL Þg 6

lrulLs and vegeLables Þg 8

Consumlng a Modern uay Þaleo uleL Þg 9


The Paleo Diet

1he paleo dleL ls one of Lhe mosL lnLrlgulng dleLs LhaL have come ouL ln recenL years. lLs
revelaLlons may seem new, buL Lhe formulaLlon ls acLually based on Lhe eaLlng paLLerns of our
mosL anclenL hunLer gaLherer ancesLors - Lhe early humans of Lhe paleollLhlc (sLone age)
perlod, who roamed Lhe earLh mllllons of years ago.

Cver Lhe course of human evoluLlon (unLll around 10,000 years ago), all hunLer gaLherers had
Lhe same dleLary approach - Lhey consumed only Lhose foods provlded and avallable by
naLure. 1hey obLalned Lhelr food from hunLlng wlld game and gaLherlng dlverse frulLs,
vegeLables, planLs, nuLs, and seeds avallable over Lhe seasons of Lhe year.

1he foods our ancesLors consumed remaln Lo be Lhe foods besL adapLed Lo our meLabollsms
Loday. Puman genes have noL changed enough over Lhe lasL few Lhousand years Lo adapL Lo
our new agrlculLure-based dleL. ln facL, our presenL genes are sLlll 99.99° ldenLlcal ln makeup
Lo Lhose of our paleollLhlc ancesLors.

8esearch flndlngs provlde ample lndlcaLlons LhaL hunLer gaLherers were very healLhy. 1hey
were Laller, had beLLer bullds and blgger bralns. AlLhough Lhelr llfe expecLancy was shorLer,
deaLhs were ofLen caused by ouLslde facLors such as exLreme weaLher condlLlons, accldenLs,
lnfecLlons, and predaLory anlmals. 1hey dld noL suffer from chronlc or degeneraLlve dlseases
such as dlabeLes, cancer or hearL dlsease. 1hese dlseases emerged only when we shlfLed Lo
agrlculLure - modern dlseases are Lhe consequence of clvlllzaLlon, Lhe resulL of a mlsmaLch of
our geneLlc makeup and our llfesLyle.

Cur ancesLors were always physlcally acLlve - hunLlng and gaLherlng for food. 1helr physlcal
challenges were exLreme, as Lhey raced Lo hunL wlld game. Some hunLer gaLherers would walk
approxlmaLely 19km (12 mlles) a day on average looklng for prey, lncludlng bursLs of qulck
acLlvlLy and runnlng speeds when game was spoLLed.

Pumans have evolved Lo meeL Lhe challenges and opporLunlLles of our naLural envlronmenL.
Cur ancesLors bodles where fueled by healLhy prlmal foods whlch allowed Lhelr bodles Lo work
aL peak efflclency all Lhe Llme. 1helr bodles were perfecLly adapLed Lo Lhe food Lhey aLe, noL
for Lhe foods modern Lechnology brlngs.

1he dleLary hablLs of our anclenL ancesLors have been Lhoroughly sLudled ln recenL years. 1he
phenomenal ablllLles of our ancesLors are rooLed ln Lhe dleL Lhey consumed and Lhe llfesLyle
Lhey llved.

MeaL from wlld game as well as flsh gave Lhem proLelns and essenLlal faLLy aclds. nuLs and
seeds provlded olls and oLher essenLlal faLLy aclds, frulLs and berrles for low Cl carbohydraLes
and nuLrlenLs. 1hey dld noL have any dalry producLs, gralns or processed foods, as Lhese came
only wlLh agrlculLure and Lhe domesLlcaLlon of anlmals.

Accordlng Lo nuLrlLlon experLs speclallzlng ln Lhe eaLlng paLLerns of Lhe paleollLhlc perlod, Lhe
average hunLlng-gaLherlng Lrlbe had a dleL LhaL very llkely conslsLed of one-Lhlrd hunLed food
and Lwo-Lhlrds gaLhered food.


MeaL comprlsed of 63° of our ancesLors LoLal energy lnLake. 1here ls a key dlfference ln Lhe
energy and nuLrlenL conLenL from Lhe meaL of wlld game and Lhe meaL we commonly consume
from our domesLlcaLed anlmals Loday. Wlld anlmals produce meaL LhaL conLalns less Lhan 10°
LoLal faL on Lhe average - our currenL domesLlcaLed caLLle average abouL 30° LoLal faL. 1here ls
also a quallLy dlfference ln Lhe faLLy acld makeup of Lhe anlmal - domesLlcaLed anlmals conLaln
mosLly fully saLuraLed faLs, whereas wlld game has a hlgher proporLlon of polyunsaLuraLed faL.

As a resulL, our dleLary cholces Loday resulL ln us havlng four Llmes less omega-3 faLLy aclds
compared Lo our ancesLors and 1.3 Llmes less monounsaLuraLed faL. Some of Lhe nuLs and
seeds our ancesLors consumed also conLalned omega-3 faLLy aclds, whlle Lhey where
consumed ln raw form, Lhe reLenLlon of Lhese heaL-senslLlve faLs was maxlmlzed.

ÞaleollLhlc nuLrlLlon researcher ur. Loren Cordaln, Þhu, provldes Lhe followlng comparaLlve
dally nuLrlLlonal lnLake of our ancesLors and Lhe common wesLern dleL.

(° of dleL) ÞaleollLhlc uleL Average WesLern uleL

ÞroLeln 31 16
laLs 38 33
CarbohydraLes 31 49
[lrom !"# %&'#( )*#+ (2002) by Loren Cordaln]

1he avallablllLy of meaL our ancesLors had was dependenL on hunLlng success and Lhe season.
Slnce anlmal supply was noL sLeady year round, Lhe greaLer parL of Lhe food consumed ofLen
came from unculLlvaLed vegeLable foods gaLhered from Lhe wlld, such as berrles, bulbs, seeds,
frulLs, flowers, melons, nuLs, leaves, rooLs, sLalks.

Cne lmporLanL parL abouL Lhe dleL of our ancesLors ls Lhe facL LhaL Lhelr foods could noL be
sLored for a long Llme, so food was dlsLrlbuLed and consumed fresh afLer foraglng or afLer Lhe

lood was very dlverse and varled wldely wlLh Lhe changlng of Lhe seasons and by Lhe locallLy
where our ancesLors llved, allowlng Lhem Lo consume a greaL varleLy of foods.

1he paleo dleL can be furLher characLerlzed by Lhe followlng:

• Calorlc lnLake (around 63°), came from eaLlng all Lhe edlble parLs of verLebraLe anlmals
(wlld game and flsh).

• A slgnlflcanL parL of our ancesLors dleL conslsLed of fresh frulLs, planLs, nuLs, seeds, flowers,
leaves, and bulbs. 1hese were all consumed raw, whlch maxlmlzed Lhe reLenLlon of
nuLrlenL rlch conLenL and dlsease-prevenLlng compounds.

• Cralns where never presenL ln any slgnlflcanL quanLlLy. Lven Lhough Lhey where around,
Lhe gralns and small seeds were never mllled or ground lnLo flne parLlcles and cooked ln
order Lo be consumed safely.

• Sodlum salL, when presenL, was ln very mlnlmal amounLs.


Health Benefits of the Paleo Diet

AgrlculLure has lnLroduced wlde-sweeplng changes ln Lhe way we eaL Loday, yeL our genes
have noL changed as rapldly. Cur bodles are sLlll deslgned for Lhe hlgh-proLeln, low-
carbohydraLe food consumpLlon paLLern of our hunLer gaLherer ancesLors. 1hls means we are
geneLlcally lll-equlpped Lo handle Lhe hlgh-carbohydraLe, low-proLeln dleL of modern Llmes.

1hls sLaLe of beLLer healLh ls Lrue even among Lhe lndlgenous culLures LhaL have survlved lnLo
Lhe presenL day and conLlnue Lo follow a dleL of foods avallable Lo Lhem ln Lhelr naLural
surroundlngs. When anLhropologlsLs compare Lhese prlmlLlve, hunLlng-gaLherlng peoples wlLh
Lhelr modernlzed, graln-eaLlng nelghbors, Lhe close assoclaLlon beLween dleL and dlsease ls
very clear. ?ou wlll noL flnd hearL dlsease, cancer, dlabeLes, arLhrlLls or oLher ºdlseases of
clvlllzaLlon" among Lhe hunLer gaLherers. 8uL all Lhese condlLlons exlsL among Lhelr
modernlzed relaLlves, wlLh Lhelr dleLs of graln producLs, sugar laden and processed foods.

Modlfylng our dleL so lL becomes closer and more slmllar Lo Lhe dleLary paLLerns of our
paleollLhlc ancesLors, who aLe only naLural - noL manufacLured - foods, our body wlll be
healLhler and we wlll be aL lower rlsk of sufferlng from Lhe many lllnesses and dlseases ln
socleLy Loday.

1he paleo dleL provldes Lhe body wlLh healLhy low-Cl carbohydraLes from naLural food
sources, whlle avoldlng our modern dleL's over-consumpLlon of hlghly processed
carbohydraLes. Cur bodles are noL geneLlcally equlpped Lo handle processed carbohydraLes,
leL alone an excess of Lhem. ?eL, we are ofLen consumlng excesslve amounLs whlch can resulL
ln a weakened lmmune sysLem, dlabeLes, obeslLy and many oLher chronlc lllnesses.

Lxcesslve carbohydraLe consumpLlon ls rare wlLh Lhe paleo dleL. 1he maln source of
carbohydraLes ls frulLs and vegeLables - Lhe same way lL was for our ancesLors. lrulLs and
vegeLables generally have a much lower glycemlc response Lhan cereal gralns and dalry
producLs whlle provldlng plenLy of anLloxldanLs and assorLed phyLochemlcals whlch proLecL
agalnsL free-radlcal damage and Lhe carbohydraLe need for Lhe body on a dally basls.

1he paleo dleL wlll provlde Lhe body wlLh a hlgher proporLlon of faL Lhan Lhe average WesLern
dleL whlch provldes for an addlLlonal healLh beneflL as Lhls ls Lhe body's preferred energy
source and ls whaL wlll help Lhe body perform opLlmally. 1he faL sources found ln our modern
dleL ls generally unhealLhy, conslsLlng largely of LransfaLs. lL ls lmporLanL Lo reallze LhaL Lhe
human body needs a cerLaln level and quallLy of faL Lo enable many body processes, for
example, faL-soluble nuLrlenLs such as vlLamlns A, u, L, and k and Lhe coenzyme CoC10 cannoL
be absorbed wlLhouL faL, and each of Lhese vlLamlns (and many more) are exLremely lmporLanL
ln order for Lhe body Lo avold nuLrlenL deflclencles.

Cur ancesLors evolved wlLh omega-3 faLLy aclds, and many fundamenLal blochemlcal processes
ln our bodles sLlll requlre Lhls faLLy acld. 1he consumpLlon of omega-3 faLLy aclds ln Lhe
modern dleL ls subsLanLlally lower Lhan LhaL of omega-6 faLLy aclds, anoLher famlly of
polyunsaLuraLed faLLy aclds. 1he dleL of our ancesLors showed a 1:1 raLlo for omega-3 Lo
omega-6. 1he modern dleL has a much lower raLlo of 1:20, or even less.

Cmega-3's are known Lo beneflL Lhe human body ln many ways. Cordaln belleves omega-3
faLLy aclds were key facLors ln lncreaslng Lhe braln slze. 1hey provlded Lhe dleLary supporL LhaL
allowed Lhe formaLlon of braln Llssue. 1hey are essenLlal ln malnLalnlng sLrucLural funcLlons,
such as creaLlng Lhe membranes ln your cells Lo keep Llssues healLhy, as well as ln supporLlng
blochemlcal processes and body meLabollsm. A favorable omega-3:omega-6 raLlo ls lmporLanL
for physlcal as well as menLal healLh, lncludlng buL noL llmlLed Loo lmmune sysLem sLrengLh,
cardlovascular sysLem sLrengLh and a healLhy dlgesLlve sysLem.

1he modern dleL, wlLh lLs excesslve consumpLlon of sugar and slmple carbohydraLes and
dangerous faLs upseLs Lhe naLural balance of Lhe bodles ecosysLem.

Cne of Lhe mosL effecLlve dleLary soluLlons Lo Lhe healLh problems we face Loday can be found
wlLhln Lhe power wlLhln Lhe paleo dleL. lL ls necessary for good healLh Lo resLore Lhe hlgh-
proLeln, hlgh-faL, and low-carbohydraLe balance and Lo regaln Lhe quallLy of Lhe nuLrlenLs
whlch has been losL ln modern day food processlng and farmlng. 8y sLrlvlng Lo dupllcaLe Lhe
nuLrlLlonal lnLake of our hunLer gaLherer ancesLors, Lhe paleo dleL enables us Lo have a clear
paLh Lowards Lransformlng physlcal and lnLernal healLh.


Fruits and Vegetables

lL ls noL always easy Lo deLermlne whlch foods flL ln Lhe paleo dleL. lor purlsL followers of Lhe
dleL, Lhe rule ls Lo eaL only Lhose foods LhaL our anclenL ancesLors had avallable Lo Lhem,
however, we are now aL an advanLage greaLer Lhan our ancesLors ln LhaL we have Lhe ablllLy Lo
consume a greaLer range of nuLrlLlonally rlch frulLs and vegeLables and use Lhem Lo creaLe a
nuLrlLlonally rlch meal.

lL's lmporLanL Lo noLe however, LhaL sLarchy Lubers usually are noL recommended for lncluslon
ln Lhe paleo dleL as Lhey are Loxlc when noL-cooked, hold a hlgh-glycemlc lndex, are low ln
phyLosLerols, whlle also conLalnlng enzyme blockers and lecLlns. SweeL poLaLoes (yams) hold a
hlgher nuLrlLlonal value Lo LhaL of poLaLoes and some oLher Lubers and are recommended as
an alLernaLlve food source for nuLrlLlonally deprlved hlgh carbohydraLes when needed - such
as for aLhleLes.

lrulLs are accepLable for lncluslon ln Lhe paleo dleL, however should be consumed sparlngly Lo
avold a hlgh carbohydraLe lnLake as well as provldlng Lhe body wlLh an overload of
frucLose/sugars and a dally carbohydraLe excess.

nuLs and seeds should be consumed sparlngly, as Lhey would have been for our hunLer


Consuming a Modern Day Paleo Diet
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<-*/#.4*+= 0"( *4 >&44*(-&+# &?(:+ 9(-4+&-+'= #@>'(.*-2 0&=4 +( *;>.(/# ":;&- "#&'+"
&-7 >#.6(.;&-9# &-7 "#'>*-2 (+"#.4 +( &9"*#/# +"#*. "#&'+" &-7 6*+-#44 2(&'4A

1he pa|eo d|et |s def|ned by eat|ng meat, f|sh, vegetab|es, fru|ts, p|ants, nuts and seeds. 8ut
shou|d we be concerned, or at |east aware of the modern mod|f|cat|ons we often |mp|ement
to create a mea|? Are we eat|ng pa|eo w|th too many mod|f|cat|ons, or do we ho|d the ab|||ty
to create an even more nutr|t|ous|y dense mea| and obta|n better hea|th than our ancestors?
What |f we cou|d f|nd out the exact foods our c|osest genet|c ancestors ate and m|m|cked
that to our d|et as c|ose as poss|b|e, wou|d we obta|n the same good hea|th our ancestors
had, or has our env|ronment changed too much that our bod|es now requ|re more?

1o obta|n a better |ns|ght I spoke w|th Greg 8attag||a.

1he pa|eo or pa|eo||th|c d|et |s one wh|ch bases the concept of the foods ava||ab|e to our
hunter gatherer ancestors, wh|ch u|t|mate|y breaks down to foods prov|ded and found |n
nature, w|thout the necess|ty or add|t|on of modern food techn|ques, chem|ca|s,
preservat|ves or process|ng. 1he fundamenta|s of the pa|eo d|et prov|de us w|th the bas|c
gu|de||nes and pr|nc|p|es we shou|d app|y to our d|ets and ||festy|e today, not necessar||y the
exact foods ava||ab|e to our ancestors w|th|n the|r env|ronment.

8ut the quest|on then ar|ses, are we u|t|mate|y |n a pos|t|on now where we are fortunate
enough to have a |arge range of food sources we can choose from - and have the ab|||ty to
ach|eve even greater hea|th than our ancestors because of th|s. Cr shou|d we poss|b|y be
avo|d|ng many of the food sources our ancestors wou|dn't have had ava||ab|e and]or |n the
amount they wou|d have had ava||ab|e, because our genes are st||| adapted from the more
m|n|ma| food sources our ancestors consumed and had ava||ab|e?

It |s known that our ancestors had good hea|th and d|dn't suffer from chron|c |||ness as we
do today. U|t|mate|y the d|et of our ancestors var|ed somewhat depend|ng on where they
||ved, the|r env|ronmenta| c||mates as we|| as other factors.

Ancestors ||v|ng around Canada wou|d ||ve most|y of fresh sa|mon, deer, e|k, berr|es and
p|ants. Whereas ancestors ||v|ng around Afr|ca wou|d have ||ved on p|ant roots and an|ma|s.
And then there are the Abor|g|na|s |n Austra||a who ||ve off the |and who eat an|ma|s, bugs,
p|ants, nat|ve nuts and honey.

8ut research shows a|| our ancestors had good hea|th - because they where eat|ng natura|
food sources ava||ab|e. 8ut |f th|s changed, and Abor|g|na|s sudden|y ||ved |n Canada, eat|ng
sa|mon and berr|es, and ancestors |n Afr|ca sudden|y ||ved |n the outback of Austra||a -
wou|d they a|| st||| have v|brant hea|th?

1hls ls a greaL quesLlon LhaL l've pondered myself self many Llmes. l can'L say LhaL l have an
exacL answer. l personally look aL paleo as an explanaLlon for why cerLaln dleLary sLraLegles
work raLher Lhan a prescrlpLlon, per se. lor lnsLance, Lhe facL LhaL many people are gluLen
lnLoleranL can be explalned uslng Lhe paleo model. lf gluLen dldn'L cause any problems we
wouldn'L Lell people Lo noL eaL gralns slmply because our ancesLors dldn'L. l guess whaL l'm
saylng ls LhaL Lhe paleo model can gulde our ldeas, buL ulLlmaLely solld sclence musL be Lhere
Lo conflrm lL.

ln Lerms of dleLs dlfferlng based on geographlc locaLlng, Lhere ls some evldence LhaL lsolaLed
groups develop adapLaLlons Lo cerLaln foods. lor lnsLance, Lhe people on Lhe lsland of Cklnawa
have developed a sallvary enzyme LhaL ls used speclflcally for breaklng down sLarches
conLalned ln rlce, whereas people of Luropean descenL do noL have Lhls speclflc enzyme. 1hls
ls obvlously due Lo Lhe facL LhaL Cklnawans have been eaLlng a loL of rlce for a long Llme and
somehow were able Lo develop some adapLaLlons Lo lL.

l Lhlnk lL's also lmporLanL Lo conslder LhaL probably noL all of our ancesLors ln Lhe ÞaleollLhlc
were necessarlly healLhy. Some probably had Lo survlve long perlods on llmlLed food sources
and lndeed developed deflclencles. CLhers probably survlved ln a lush envlronmenL wlLh a
wlde varleLy of nuLrlenL dense foods and flourlshed wlLh excellenL healLh. l Lhlnk aL Lhe end of
Lhe day Lhe goal ls Lhls:

1. CeL all essenLlal nuLrlenLs needed
2. Avold Lhlngs LhaL cause problems (posslbly gralns, dalry, legumes)

WheLher all of our ancesLors were able Lo do Lhls or noL ls lrrelevanL Lo our modern needs. 1he
facL LhaL Lhe AusLrallan Aborlglnals, Lhe lnulL, and Lhe kalaharl 8ushmen were able Lo survlve
for so long suggesLs LhaL all of Lhelr dleLs meL Lhe 2 prevlous requlremenLs. lf Lhey dldn'L, Lhey
would have dled off preLLy fasL, as l'm sure happened Lo plenLy of culLures LhaL falled Lo Lhrlve.
l Lhlnk Lhe maln reason LhaL paleo works so well ls because lL slmply removes Lhe sLuff LhaL we
know Lo cause problems. WheLher you eaL loLs of flsh, broccoll, splnach, and collard greens or
loLs of beef, caullflower, carroLs, and sweeL poLaLoes (noL saylng LhaL you can eaL [usL Lhose
foods and meeL all nuLrlLlonal requlremenLs) and end up meeLlng all your macro and
mlcronuLrlenL and calorle needs you'll be healLhy slnce you meL your needs and avolded Lhe
sLuff LhaL's golng Lo cause damage ln Lhe flrsL place.

Cur current env|ronment and ||festy|e |s far d|fferent from that wh|ch our ancestors had.
What other aspects of our hunter gatherer's ||festy|e shou|d we cons|der to |mp|ement |n
add|t|on to fo||ow|ng the pa|eo d|et food pr|nc|p|es, wh|ch cou|d u|t|mate|y enhance our
hea|th even further?

l Lhlnk an area LhaL ls ma[orly lacklng ln many dlscusslons of evoluLlonary flLness (buL cerLalnly
noL all) ls Lhe psychologlcal aspecL of evoluLlonary flLness. We ofLen hear abouL whaL we
should eaL, how we should exerclse, how many hours of sleep Lo geL each nlghL, whaL
supplemenLs Lo Lake, and oLher Langlbles. 8uL whaL we don'L ofLen address ls Lhe prlmal mlnd
and how our evoluLlonary envlronmenL has shaped our mlnds and way Lo opLlmlze Lhe
funcLlon of mlnd Lo adapL Lo lndusLrlal llvlng whlle remalnlng happy and healLhy.

SomeLhlng LhaL l've noLlced and l say Lhls ouL of compasslon, noL crlLlclsm, ls LhaL we
someLlmes adopL a prlmal llfesLyle ln Lhe Langlble sense buL do noLhlng Lo change our mlnd-
seL. We sLlll aLLach our ldenLlLy Lo maLerlal Lhlngs and seek happlness and graLlflcaLlon from
exLernal Lhlngs llke shopplng, waLchlng 1v, drlnklng, and possesslons. We even ldenLlfy
ourselves by how much money we make, or whaL cloLhs we wear and aLLempL Lo use Lhls as an

aLLempL Lo aLLaln fulflllmenL. ConLrasL Lhls wlLh our hunLer-gaLherer ancesLors who had few
possesslons and llved a nomadlc exlsLence. 1he only Lhlngs Lhey needed for happlness were
food and shelLer, soclal lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhelr Lrlbe and lnLlmaLe relaLlonshlps. now don'L geL
me wrong, l fall lnLo Lhese same maLerlallsLlc and consumerlsL holes someLlmes, and l'm
cerLalnly noL perfecL, buL l do feel LhaL lL ls crlLlcal Lo Lake some measures Lo Lake a sLep back
and make noLe of whaL ls really lmporLanL ln our llves and puL our maln focus on Lhose Lhlngs.
lndeed, research has shown LhaL money only lmproves happlness Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL lL helps
one achleve Lhelr baslcs needs of llvlng and comforL, whereas healLh ls a much more accuraLe
lndlcaLor of happlness.

So, ln essence, Lhe Lake-home message of Lhls ls LhaL our menLal perspecLlves should, ldeally,
be focused on Lhe Lhlngs LhaL really maLLer ln llfe, llke healLh, famlly, frlends, and whaL we're
passlonaLe abouL. 1haL's noL Lo say we should all [usL go llve ln shack somewhere and noL make
money, buL LhaL we should noL lose slghL of whaL ls mosL lmporLanL and noL sacrlflce quallLy of
llfe [usL Lo make more money LhaL ls noL really needed for happlness.

A good way of lmprovlng our prlmal mlnds LhaL our ancesLors dldn'L have Lo use ls medlLaLlng.
Cur ancesLors cerLalnly weren'L slLLlng around medlLaLlng or pracLlclng sLraLegles Lo become
more presenL-mlnded- Lhey had enough down Llme durlng Lhelr dally acLlvlLles Lo noL need any
sLress rellef Lechnlques Lo keep Lhelr sLress response ln check- buL medlLaLlon has been
supporLed by sclenLlflc flndlngs Lo lower Lhe sLress response, promoLe a sLronger lmmune
sysLem, decrease blood pressure, reduce chronlc paln, lmprove cognlLlve funcLlon, and
lmprove sleep quallLy. 1he good news ls LhaL you don'L have Lo slL around wlLh your legs
crossed llke a 8uddhlsL monk Lo geL Lhe beneflLs of medlLaLlon (unless you wanL Lo, of course).
1he followlng are some greaL ways Lo ºmedlLaLe":

1. locus on your breaLh. When you feel sLressed and are Lhlnklng abouL a mllllon Lhlngs [usL
slow down and focus on your breaLhlng. uo Lhls for aL leasL a mlnuLe and focus on breaLhlng ln
deeply and Lhen lmaglne LhaL every breaLh ouL ls a release of all Lhe bullL up Lenslon ln your
body. 8e compleLely aware of your body...feel your body, so Lo speak, and feel lL become
relaxed and loose. 1hls can be very helpful.

2. 8ecome more aware of your body and surroundlngs. A good quoLe by Lhe famous
psychologlsL Lrlk Lrlkson's wlfe, !oan Lrlkson ls ºCeL ouL of your mlnd and lnLo your body."
WhaL Lhls means ls LhaL you focus on your senses. MosL people ln wesLern socleLles have so
many responslblllLles LhaL our mlnds are always acLlve Lo Lhe polnL where Lhe body goes lnLo
auLoplloL and we compleLely lose Louch wlLh Lhe presenL momenL. We become compleLely
focused on, and worrled abouL, whaL we have Lo do for Lhe fuLure or dwelllng on Lhlngs LhaL
happened ln Lhe pasL raLher Lhan focuslng solely on Lhe presenL momenL. 1he key Lo Laklng a
break from all Lhls consLanL Lhlnklng ls Lo focus on our senses. WhaL do we see, hear, feel,
smell, or LasLe aL Lhls momenL? locus on lL and you'll be presenL.

3. ÞracLlce flow. llow ls a menLal sLaLe ln whlch a person ls compleLely lmmersed ln an
acLlvlLy LhaL Lhey are currenLly dolng and any concepL of Llme has been sLrlpped away. lL ls an
lnLensely en[oyable sLaLe Lo be ln and everyone has felL Lhls aL one Llme or anoLher. 1he key Lo
acLlvaLlng lL ls Lo do any acLlvlLy LhaL you en[oy buL LhaL also offers a challenge, buL noL so
much of a challenge LhaL lL sLresses you ouL..

4. AccepL fully whaLever clrcumsLances arlse ln your llfe aL any polnL ln Llme. 1haL's noL Lo say
LhaL you don'L Lry Lo change undeslrable clrcumsLances lf you're capable of dolng so, lL [usL
means LhaL you don'L complaln or worry abouL whaLever ls happenlng ln reallLy. lor lnsLance,
leL's say you seL up a plcnlc and Lell all of your frlends Lo come because Lhere's supposed Lo be

nlce weaLher. ?ou geL everyLhlng seL up, brlng your grlll, a lrlsbee for some fun afLerward, eLc.
8efore you know lL sLarLs pourlng raln as soon as everyone shows up. 1he naLural lnsLlncL ls Lo
fllp ouL or complaln, geL aglLaLed, feel llke a vlcLlm, eLc. 8uL Lhls does noLhlng buL make Lhe
slLuaLlon worse. lnsLead, lf we slmply accepL Lhe slLuaLlon for whaL lL ls and Lake acLlon Lo flx lL
as besL posslble we wlll avold much sufferlng.

lf someLhlng goes wrong we slmply Lake acLlon Lo flx lL lf posslble, or lf we can'L flx lL,
compleLely accepL lL for whaL lL ls. lf we emoLlonally reslsL a slLuaLlon LhaL cannoL be changed lL
only causes unneeded sLress LhaL accompllshes noLhlng oLher Lhan Lo decrease our quallLy of
llfe and healLh. lf we complaln or feel bad for ourselves lL only lnLenslfles our negaLlve
percepLlon of Lhe slLuaLlon. 1hls sounds llke common sense, buL we humans can be hlghly
lrraLlonal belngs, and Lhls reslsLance Lo whaLever Lhe clrcumsLances currenLly are ln llfe ls
wldespread ln wesLern culLure.

AnoLher greaL way Lo lmprove your healLh LhaL lsn'L always menLloned by proponenLs of
Þrlmal llvlng ls by fosLerlng good relaLlonshlps and compasslon for oLher human belngs. ln our
Lechnologlcally advance socleLles lL becomes lncreaslngly easy and LempLlng Lo [usL Lhrow on
Lhe 1v, compuLer, lpod, or whaLever oLher dlsLracLlons are avallable and lgnore oLher people.
ln facL, many people do [usL Lhls on a dally basls and have mlnlmal lnLeracLlon wlLh oLher
human belngs, aL leasL on any sorL of compasslonaLe level. lnsLead, Lurn LhaL sLuff off and Lalk
Lo a frlend, famlly member, or [usL spark random conversaLlon wlLh lnLeresLlng people LhaL you
meeL. uo Lhlngs wlLh people, sLay soclally acLlve, laugh, smlle, compllmenL people and go wlLh
Lhe flow. Þeople wlll sense Lhls and good relaLlonshlps wlll be born.

Also, l know Lhls response ls a blL phllosophlcal ln naLure overall, buL anoLher good one LhaL
our ancesLors probably dldn'L Lhlnk abouL, or dldn'L have Lo aL leasL, was whaL Lhelr purpose
was ln llfe. Pavlng a purpose ln llfe ls someLhlng LhaL can propel us forward and keeps us
happy and moLlvaLed ln day-Lo-day llvlng. Many people ln our socleLy are Lold whaL's
lmporLanL Lo Lhem, how Lhey should Lhlnk and acL, and whaL asplraLlons Lhey should have ln
llfe. MosL people go Lo a [ob everyday LhaL Lhey haLe [usL Lo pay Lhe bllls. 1hey use Lhelr [ob as
a means for maklng money only, and don'L en[oy Lhe process. Cn Monday Lhey can'L walL unLll
Lhe weekend because of Lhelr undeslrable clrcumsLances. 1hls ls anoLher cause of Lhe lack of
presenL-mlndedness menLloned above.

Cur hunLer-gaLherer ancesLors llkely found purpose ln Lhelr dally hunLlng and oLher acLlvlLles
and en[oyed Lhe process. ln our culLure we need Lo Lhlnk abouL lL and develop an honesL ldea
of whaL's lmporLanL Lo us ln llfe and Lhen embrace lL fully and puL all of our hearL lnLo lL. l Lruly
belleve LhaL ls a ma[or key Lo boLh healLh and happlness LhroughouL Lhe llfespan.

Cn a more Langlble noLe, someLhlng else LhaL l Lhlnk ls good for people llvlng ln more norLhern
cllmaLes ls a llghL box. Some people ln norLhern cllmaLes llLerally do noL see a slgnlflcanL
amounL of brlghL sunllghL for weeks or monLhs dependlng on Lhe locaLlon and season. A
10,000 lux llghL box can be used Lo slmulaLe Lhe effecLs of sunllghL and has been well-
researched and shown Lo have proven beneflLs ln lmprovlng mood and prevenLlng/LreaLlng
depresslon. 1he greaL parL ls LhaL some lnsurance plans cover Lhese Lhlngs lf your docLor
prescrlbes lL. lL can be Lurned on ln Lhe mornlng whlle eaLlng breakfasL and sLlmulaLes sensors
ln Lhe eyes LhaL help Lo regulaLe clrcadlan rhyLhm, resulLlng ln more alerLness and energy
durlng Lhe day and an easler Llme falllng asleep aL nlghL.

l promlse Lhls ls Lhe lasL one, buL l Lhlnk recreaLlonal danclng ls a greaL addlLlon Lo a prlmal
llfesLyle. Cur ancesLors had rlLuallsLlc dance ceremonles around camp flres durlng Lhe nlghL Lo
enLerLaln Lhemselves and honor Lhelr gods. l'm personally a Lerrlble dancer and lL's noL

someLhlng l even Lake serlously (lL doesn'L really need Lo be for our purposes anyway), buL lf l
go ouL Lo a bar wlLh a group of frlends and muslc ls playlng l'll ofLen dance around and have a
good Llme [usL Lo sorL of [oke around and have a good laugh. lL's greaL exerclse, lL makes me
laugh, and my frlends geL a klck ouL of my Lerrlble danclng skllls, whlch Lles ln wlLh Lhe whole
soclal aspecL of prlmal llvlng. l don'L Lhlnk Lhls one ls necessary, buL for people who are more
ouLgolng lL's deflnlLely someLhlng fun and ls acLually really good, pumpy exerclse LhaL geLs Lhe
clrculaLlon golng.

W|th a|| the outs|de env|ronmenta| factors we are faced w|th on a da||y bas|s wh|ch |mpacts
on our hea|th negat|ve|y, |.e. stress, po||ut|on and rad|at|on, we are |n a pos|t|ve pos|t|on
where we have the ab|||ty to take extra nutr|t|on through supp|ementat|on wh|ch can be a
means of he|p|ng to ba|ance out the negat|ve |mpact our env|ronment has on our body.
What supp|ements shou|d we cons|der to add |nto our d|ets to he|p |ncrease our nutr|t|on?
I|sh o|| seems to be a b|g one.

When lL comes Lo healLh, l belleve LhaL supplemenLs should be kepL Lo a mlnlmum. 1he maln
purpose of any supplemenL wlLhln Lhe conLexL of prlmal/paleo eaLlng ls Lo puL someLhlng back
lnLo your dleL LhaL you would be geLLlng lf you were eaLlng an opLlmal paleo dleL based on all
of Lhe hlghesL quallLy foods llke pasLured anlmal producLs and organlc planL foods.

unforLunaLely, noL all of us can manage Lo do LhaL and lnevlLably some supplemenLs wlll be
needed Lo opLlmlze healLh. Llke you menLloned, flsh oll ls an excellenL on LhaL every paleo
dleLer should be Laklng lf Lhey aren'L eaLlng all pasLured anlmal producLs. 3g per day ls whaL
mosL sLudles have found Lo have Lhe healLh beneflLs of Laklng flsh olls.

AnoLher one LhaL has worked well for many people ls a hlgh quallLy probloLlc. Cur paleo
ancesLors consumed Lhe organ meaLs of Lhe wlld anlmals LhaL Lhey hunLed and Lhe beneflclal
bacLerla LhaL came along wlLh Lhe cerLaln organs llke Lhe small lnLesLlnes. 1hey also consumed
adequaLe dleLary flber from non-cereal planL foods and never had a chance Lo consume
reflned sugar, whlch can dlsrupL Lhe balance of lnLesLlnal bacLerla.

AnoLher supplemenL LhaL ls an absoluLe musL ln my book (along wlLh flsh oll) ls vlLamln u.
lndoor llvlng has dramaLlcally reduced our exposure Lo sunllghL and consequenLly resulLs ln
low serum vlLamln u levels. 2000 lu's/day ls a safe upper llmlL for vlLamln u supplemenLaLlon lf
you haven'L had a blood LesL Lo measure your vlLamln u sLaLus. Powever, for some people
2000 lu's wlll noL be enough Lo brlng serum level lnLo Lhe opLlmum range. 1haL belng sald, l
hlghly suggesL LhaL all people Laklng vlLamln u geL Lhelr blood levels LesLed perlodlcally Lo
deLermlne Lhe dosage LhaL ls approprlaLe for Lhem.

CLher Lhan LhaL, Lhere are a few supplemenLs LhaL are opLlonal buL could be very beneflclal for
some people. Cne of Lhese ls ZMA, whlch should be Laken 30 mlnuLes prlor Lo bedLlme. lL
helps Lo lmprove quallLy of sleep and recovery from exerclse, whlch ls very useful for hlghly
acLlve lndlvlduals and aLhleLes.

L-gluLamlne ls an amlno acld LhaL can be Laken durlng Lhe LranslLlon phase from a Lyplcal
wesLern dleL Lo a lower carbohydraLe paleo dleL. 1he body can use L-gluLamlne Lo fuel Lhe
braln durlng Lhe adapLaLlon perlod Lo faL meLabollsm, whlle blood glucose level wlll be low and
cognlLlon wlll suffer. lL baslcally helps Lo ease Lhe sympLoms experlenced whlle swlLchlng Lo
belng a faL burner lnsLead of a sugar burner.

CreaLlne monohydraLe can be used Lo lmprove work capaclLy wlLhln an anaeroblc domaln and
has some nlce research Lo back lL up. lL also may have oLher healLh beneflLs llke lmproved
cardlac funcLlon and cognlLlon.

A|though our ancestors wou|dn't have comb|ned foods, we are now ab|e to eat more than
one nutr|t|ous food source at any one t|me. Add|t|ona||y, comb|n|ng certa|n foods can he|p
the synergy of nutr|ents and he|p w|th d|gest|b|||ty. W|th that |n m|nd, shou|d we be
concerned w|th h|gh ca|or|e mea|s, h|gh carb mea|s or ||qu|d mea|s even |f 100¼ of the
|ngred|ents are pa|eo fr|end|y? And does th|s u|t|mate|y beg|n to go outs|de the bas|c
pr|nc|p|es of the pa|eo d|et?

When lL comes Lo food comblnlng, l keep a very slmple rule: never eaL a meal LhaL ls boLh hlgh
ln faL and carbs. All meals should be elLher hlgh ln faL and proLeln or hlgh ln proLeln and carbs,
buL never hlgh ln boLh faL and carbs. 1he reason for Lhls ls LhaL Lhe lnsulln splke LhaL follows
carb consumpLlon slgnals for faL molecules Lo be sLored aL Lhe nearesL adlpose slLes. lf blood
lnsulln levels and blood faL levels are slmulLaneously elevaLed body composlLlon wlll suffer
along wlLh performance, as Lhe body wlll be runnlng on glucose raLher Lhan Lhe more
conslsLenL burnlng faL.

uon'L geL me wrong, calorles sLlll counL when lL comes Lo faL loss and body composlLlon, buL so
do macronuLrlenLs raLlos and comblnaLlons. Powever, lL's also lmporLanL Lo undersLand when
Lo consume a proLeln/carb meal. 1he besL Llme ls posL-workouL lf you have a performance
goal. lf l don'L workouL on a parLlcular day l keep all of my meals hlgh ln proLeln and faL and
low ln carbs, slnce my muscle dldn'L need any glycogen Lo be replace, hence Lhe absence of a
posL workouL meal conLalnlng sLarchy carbs.

Pere would be my recommendaLlon:

lor general healLh/longevlLy: 90° of Lhe Llme eaL hlgh proLeln/hlgh faL meals, even posL
workouL. LaL meals hlgher ln paleo carbs occaslonally Lo re-callbraLe lnsulln senslLlvlLy.

lor performance goals: LaL a hlgh-carb(sLarchy paleo carbs such as sweeL poLaLoes, squash,
yams, eLc.)/hlgh proLeln meal posL workouL afLer meLabollc condlLlonlng workouLs, buL noL
afLer sLrengLh work. 1he resL of your meals should be hlgh proLeln/hlgh faL/low carb.

lor faL loss: keep lL low-carb and zlg-zag your calorle lnLake. lor lnsLance, lf you need Lo
consume 1300 calorles per day Lo lose welghL you would eaL 1000 kcals one and Lhen 2000
kcals Lhe nexL day Lo "Lrlck" your meLabollsm and hang onLo muscle whlle sLlll loslng faL. 1hls
acLually has worked very well for me ln Lhe pasL and l hlghly recommend lL. When l keep my
calorle lnLake Lhe same everyday whlle cuLLlng l sLarL Lo noLlce problems wlLh waLer reLenLlon,
and lndlcaLlon of excesslve corLlsol producLlon. l also Lend Lo lose muscle mass wlLh LhaL
meLhod. Cn Lhe zlg-zag approach l lose faL and keep muscle much easler.

When lL comes Lo llquld meals and hlgher carb paleo meals Lhe above suggesLlon should be
consldered. lL really depends on your goals. lrom a healLh perspecLlve llquld meals are Lo be
avoldlng due Lo lnsulln splkes, and llke l sald hlgher carb paleo meals from solld food should be
kepL occaslonal. Some people can beneflL from llquld posL workouL meals, buL oLhers wlll sLlll
presenL slgns of hypoglycemla and hyperlnsullnemla. 1haL belng sald, whole food ls always
besL, unless your runnlng a maraLhon or some oLher long-dlsLance deaLh grlnd LhaL requlres
hlgh calorle/carb lnLake on Lhe go LhaL doesn'L requlre Lons of dlgesLlon.

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l Lhlnk lL's lmporLanL Lo undersLand LhaL everyLhlng ls goal-dependenL. lf you wanL Lo llve really
long and be super healLhy you're golng Lo have a dlfferenL plan Lhan lf you wanL Lo run a
maraLhon and a dlfferenL plan Lhan lf you wanL Lo become super sLrong. Powever, slnce Lhe
paleo llfesLyle ls one based on healLh, longevlLy, and quallLy of llfe l Lhlnk lL's key Lo sLay wlLh
he baslcs.

LaL whole paleo foods, keep carb and faL meals separaLe, moderaLe calorle lnLake and don'L
gorge, load up on veggles and pasLured meaLs, lncorporaLe some lnLelllgenL lnLermlLLenL
fasLlng, develop some sLress reduclng Lechnlques, exerclse [usL enough Lo geL Lhe beneflLs, buL
noL enough Lo geL ln[ured or cause long-Lerm wear and Lear. When you have goals LhaL go
beyond LhaL, such as performance or body composlLlon goals, you have Lo sLreLch Lhe paleo
concepL and make some compromlses wlLh your llfesLyle and someLlmes wlLh your healLh and

The Paleo Cookbooks provide you with a range of dishes for
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Simple and Easy to Create Recipes with clear step by step
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