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Sunderland: University o Sunderland !ress, "ages #$-%& '(e Flig(t o t(e )arl: *ug( O’+eill as an ,nde- o ,ris( .ultural /i0inality )ugene O’Brien
1riting in t(e Irish Studies Review, .laire .onnolly 2alled or a new t(eorisation o ,ris(ness in ter0s o issues o identity. S(e notes, 2orre2tly in 0y view, t(at t(ere is a 3strong strain o anti-Britis(ness’ to be ound in so0e 2urrent t(eorisations and 0akes so0e telling "oints on t(e e"iste0ologi2al nature o t(e "ost2olonial "aradig0 as "ra2tised in 2onte0"orary ,ris( Studies: As t(e sub4e2t o t(eory, "ost2olonial and ot(erwise, 3,reland’ 0ust be understood as bot( t(e twenty-si- 2ounties and t(e si--2ounty statelet, and, urt(er0ore, in ter0s o t(e 2onne2tions and a iliations not redu2ible to t(ese relatively new "oliti2al 2reations. !ost2olonial t(eory (as to "ro2ess t(e relation between t(ese two units w(i2( s(are t(e sa0e land 0ass, t(e a2tual or wis(ed- or 2onne2tions wit( ot(er "la2es 5ties wit( t(e )U, analogies wit( ,ndia, 2ontinuing 2onne2tions wit( Britain, dias"ori2 ties to t(e USA and .anada6 and t(e drea0s o t(ose w(o see t(e two units as one. '(at t(is drea0 (as t(e "ower to assu0e t(e role o nig(t0are in so0e versions o t(e "oliti2al i0agination 0ust also be a2knowledged. 5.onnolly #77$, %$#6 '(is (ig(ly nuan2ed, and a22urate, re"resentation o t(e role o t(eory in t(e rei0agining or reinventing o ,reland in t(e t(ird 0illenniu0 2on2ludes wit( .onnolly’s 2ontention t(at 2(anging "oliti2al and 2ultural 2ir2u0stan2es are 0ooting an ongoing rea""raisal o 3"ast and "resent 2ultural or0s’ and s(e 2on2ludes t(is arti2le wit( t(e assertion t(at t(e sear2( 2ontinues or a 32riti2al idio0 2a"able o 2o0"re(ending and 0aybe even 2(anging ,ris( 2ulture’ 5.onnolly #77$, %$#6. '(is 2(a"ter will gesture towards su2( a new t(eorisation by looking on t(e re2e"tion (istory o *ug( O’+eill as an e-e0"lary te-t, to use Sea0us 8eane’s resonant ter0 58eane $9::, $-%6. '(is ter0 i0"lies t(at a te-t enun2iates t(e (ig("oint o a "arti2ular 0ove0ent w(ile at t(e sa0e ti0e 2arrying wit(in it t(e seeds o a "utative de2onstru2tion o t(at 0ove0ent. , will argue t(at *ug( O’+eill, or so long an inde- o nationalist anti-2olonialist endeavour, (as now 2o0e to o22u"y a 0ore li0inal "osition. '(is 2(a"ter will e-a0ine t(e (istoriogra"(i2al transitions w(i2( (ave resulted in a re-en2ulturation o O’+eill in ter0s o (is "la2e in ,ris( (istori2al narrative. Using (i0 as a 0etony0, it will t(en de0onstrate (ow su2( narratives are t(e0selves 2(anging as a result o t(e altered re"resentation o t(e 2entral 2(ara2ters. ,n ot(er words, t(e literary enun2iations o (istori2al 2(ara2ters like O’+eill 2an 2o0"li2ate one-di0ensional re"resentations tied to ideologi2al agendas. O’+eill, and t(e Flig(t o t(e )arls,
do not(ingC 3tis s(a0e or us all. 3tis s(a0e to stand still. (o"e to e-a0ine hauntological. and works to be done.uestion 0ust be studied in so0e detail i one is to 2o0e to any reasonable odus operandi regarding t(e sear2( or so0e or0 o answer. $7:-$$=6 . t(is . 5S(akes"eare $9&=.o22u"y a 2entral "osition in su2( dis2ourse and . Ma2Morris’s sense o sel is ine-tri2ably bound u" wit( (is sense o (is nation.(ris( sa’ 0e. and t(e wars. $#>6. '(e 2onte-t o t(is . Ma2Morris. . by 0y (andA And t(ere is t(roats to be 2ut. t(e t(eoreti2al turn w(i2( (as 2o0e about in t(e ield o . using *ug( O’+eill as a 0etony0i2 e-a0"le o t(e 8erridean différance and li0inality t(at (as be2o0e su2( a byword in 2onte0"orary "oststru2turalist and "ost2olonial t(eory. S2ottis( 5?a0y6. /a2an and 8errida. no longer as an inde.t is no ti0e to dis2ourse. so . law..ues /a2an is i0"ortant. so @od sa’ 0e.o rebarbative . By its 2on lation o t(e individual and t(e national. *en2e t(e 2ase o O’+eill e-e0"li ies.(ris(.ris(ness in ter0s o t(e "ost2olonial "aradig0. and t(e Bing.reland. For /a2an. and t(e 8ukesC it is no ti0e to dis2ourseC t(e town is besee2(ed. at a urt(er re0ove. )nglis( 5@ower6.. '(e body o t(e 2(a"ter will o2us on t(e relations(i" between t(e (auntologi2al "resen2e o *ug( O’+eill in S(akes"eare’s Henry V and Sea0us *eaney’s dis2ussion o O’+eill in The Redress of Poetry and in (is "oe0 3'er0inus’.ris(ness t(at are now seen as o"erative in t(e so2io-"oliti2al s"(ere. t(e inal "art o S(akes"eare’s se2ond tetralogy. be .. is "redi2ated on violen2e: . and t(e tru0"et 2all us to t(e brea2(. Henry V.ris(ness. t(e (u0an sub4e2t is 2reated at t(e intersti2es o "ersonal un2ons2ious desire. ii. it stresses t(e sub4e2tive interde"enden2e on broader so2ietal and 2ultural 2onstru2ts.t 2o0es ro0 t(e . '(ere is (ardly a 0ore . in t(e 0idst o a dis2ussion w(erein t(e nature o . in parvo. it is s(a0e. . and we talk. and. o t(e "ersonal and so2ietal dyna0i2s o sub4e2tivity. e-"ressed in a diale2t or0 o )nglis( t(at see0s to "oint to t(e 2reation o t(e irst 3stage . . w(at /a2an ter0s t(e Sy0boli2 order..ris( 5Ma2Morris6 0eet in *ar leur.ris(0an’.ris( nationalis0 but instead as a signi ier o t(e 0ore li0inal strands o .. w(ere t(e our 2a"tains. and t(ere is( not(ing done.uation o an . 1els( 5Fluellen6. in a 8erridean sense. ii. and in t(is "lay. so . .ris( (istoriogra"(y t(roug( S(akes"eare. and t(e weat(er.ris( 2a"tain. At a urt(er re0ove. Bot( o t(ese literary en2ulturations "rovide a 0ore nuan2ed nature o . '(ere ore. in2arnations o t(ese two "otent so2io-2ultural signi iers. t(e work o ?a2. and t(e broader so2io-linguisti2 ra0ework o so2iety. *eaney. as well as in t(e 2onte-t o t(e o ten ve-ed relations(i" between . will de0onstrate (ow (e un2tions.ris( Studies.(ris( save 0eA '(e day is (ot.n t(is sense.uestion ro0 Henry V: 3w(at is( 0y nation<’ 5S(akes"eare $9&=. . and .uestion is a i2tive one. t(e 2reation o an )nglis( 0a2ro-sub4e2tivity is based on t(is very di erential e. .ris( one. By tra2ing O’+eill’s signi i2an2e in . will tra2e t(e et(i2al and 2ultural value o su2( literary re"resentations in t(e "oliti2al s"(ere in ter0s o 2reating a 0ore nuan2ed sense o sel (ood.ris( Studies t(an t(e a0ous . .t is 2ertainly o overw(el0ing i0"ortan2e in t(e 2onte-t o t(e violen2e and tension between t(e two 2o00unities in +ort(ern .uoted line ro0 S(akes"eare in t(e overall 2onte-t o .reland and Britain.
ualities: a villain. to t(e )arl o Sout(a0"ton. .uestion see0s less a "robing o t(e essen2e o .ris(ness is even 0entioned. t(is .uestions as to t(e de"t( o (is 0ining tren2(es. (e still de ines (i0sel as ot(er. ii.airns and Gi2(ards $9HH. Out o (is own 0out(. . look you. .. (e is an ass.n t(is sense. an e. it see0s. and a ras2al. Euali ying (is anti2i"ated . in t(e reality o t(e ti0e. will veri y as 0u2( in (is beard’ 5:#-:%6. ii. '(us. noting t(at (is nationality is 2o0"rised o t(e ollowing . a bastard.. )arlier in t(e s2ene.uestion. is used wit( t(e i2tive ti0e o Henry V in t(e "lay’s "rologue. t(e attitudes to .ues wit( 3. and t(e adversary is 3digt (i0sel our yard under t(e 2ounter0ines’ 5&>-&=6. under your 2orre2tion’. we are getting an o ensive de inition o . &$- as t(e tren2(es are not su i2iently dee".ris( identity. Henry V was "robably written a ter t(e e-"edition set out in A"ril $=99 and be ore its 3igno0inious return’ in t(e autu0n o t(at year 5.uation. (owever. in ter0s o t(e nation-2onstru2tion t(at is ongoing is ano0alous in t(at (e is raising t(e . Fluellen (as 2riti2iDed Ma2Morris’s 0ining te2(ni. and to t(e 0atter o (is answer to t(at . voi2ing (is sense o sel (ood in a Mani2(ean allegori2al 0anner as less t(en t(e 2oloniser. t(ere is a binary te0"oral . noting t(at 3t(e 0ines is not a22ording to t(e dis2i"lines o war’ 5. be as2ertained t(roug( a urt(er "ro2ess o 2onte-tualiDation. (owever. )ven as (e is in t(e "ro2ess o being subsu0ed into t(e 2olonising a""aratus o t(e )nglis( i0"eriu0.onte-tually.ris(ness. 1(y t(is s(ould be so 2an. and t(e la2k o de"t( o (is knowledge o war. t(e )arl o Sout(a0"ton.uestion o (is own identity in 2ontradistin2tion to t(e growing sense o e-"ansionist )nglis(ness t(at is very 0u2( t(e te-t o t(e "lay. .uestion o identity: O 0y nation< 1(at is( 0y nation< . and a knave. *owever.ui2k-te0"ered and linguisti2ally attenuated wit( res"e2t to (is )nglis( 2onte0"oraries. allied to eelings o "ersonal loyalty and gratitude on S(akes"eare’s "art. 96. and a basterd. *is situation.ris(ness. (e is interru"ted by t(e violent non se!uitur w(erein is uttered t(e a0ous .. .n $=99.n t(eir 0eeting.. . even t(oug( Fluellen (as 0ade no atte0"t to i0"ugn eit(er Ma2Morris or (is nation.s( a villain. it is (is diale2t alone t(at does not 2o0"ly wit( t(e standard )nglis( w(i2( 2onte-tualises it in bot( "oetry and "rose.uestioning o Ma2Morris’s 0ining te2(ni. Fluellen is ar 0ore 2ir2u0s"e2t. )arl o 'yrone.n t(e 2ase o t(e our 2a"tains. (e only gets as ar as saying t(at 3t(ere is not 0any o your nation F’ 5$##-$#%6.. (ad gone wit( t(e )arl o )sse-’s e-"edition against *ug( O’+eill. *en2e.(es(u.uestion. S(akes"eare’s "atron. $#>-$#&6 *ere.. One 0ust wonder at t(e se2ond senten2e w(ere (e atte0"ts to "rovide an answer to t(e de ining 2ategories o .t is as i (e is t(e voi2e o t(e 2olonised. Ma2Morris is res"onding to w(at (e sees as an insult by t(e 1els( 2a"tain. (e is o ten taken as a 0etony0 o . '(is attitude to . to atte0"t to "ut down t(e 'yrone rebellion. *e (as noted t(at Ma2Morris knows not(ing o t(e 3dis2i"lines o t(e wars’ and (as gone on to say 3By . 1(at is( 0y nation< 1(o talks o 0y nation< 5S(akes"eare $9&= . t(ink. violent.uation w(i2( "rovides answers to Ma2Morris’s . Ma2Morris is on t(e de ensive be ore any sense o (is .reland. w(ere (istory and i2tion are 4oined in a sy00etri2al e. tou2(y..ues.ris(ness t(an a r(etori2al tri2k to delay Fluellen’s . a knave and a ras2al.ris(ness in t(is te-t would (ave been 2oloured by t(e eelings o national "ride engendered by t(e 0artial e-"edition. as in t(e worldA .
uestion o national identity enun2iated and answered by Ma2Morris. "ossibly an analogue o *ug( O’+eill. t(e vi2torious *enry I. and as su2(. trans-(istori2al. .ris(ness in general. t(roug( (is dis2ourse.s it "ossible to 2learly de ine a nation< 1(at are t(e 2ategories t(at 2reate a nation. *en2e. .n t(e "rologue to A2t I. Bringing rebellion broa2(Kd on (is sword. a dire2t 2o0"arison is 0ade between t(e wel2o0e given by t(e 2itiDens o /ondon to 3t(is *arry’. '(is i-ity is one as"e2t o a 2o00on e"iste0ologi2al 2onstitution o issues o identity. 5S(akes"eare $9&= I. )-"li2itly. (e e0bodies re"etition. '(ese 2(ara2teristi2s enun2iate a "osition o i-ity. bastardy. as t(e i0aginary ti0e o "ing Henry V and t(e Fren2( wars is seen t(roug( t(e "ers"e2tive o Eueen )liDabet(’s ti0e and t(e . '(e e e2t o t(is "ro2ess on t(e identity o 2oloniDer and 2oloniDed is signi i2ant. and ras2alityC i0"li2itly. 8e2lan Biberd (as 0ade t(e "oint t(at . . and a basterd. in "arti2ular. "roviding a di erentiated "la2e u"on w(i2( t(e edi i2e o 2olonial identity 2an be 2onstru2ted.ris( identity 2an be seen as t(e 2reation o )nglis( rulers at a s"e2i i2 0o0ent in )nglis( (istory 5Biberd $9H=. and generally a""li2able. or a bond o nationality< 1(at 2(ara2teristi2s are to be .reland 2o0ing.ris( wars.uestion is analyDed. turns out to be an e-a0"le o t(e voi2e o t(e 2oloniDed ot(er as seen ro0 t(e "ers"e2tive o t(e 2oloniDing )nglis( i0"erial 2entre. and t(e 2ategoriDation o . . . and an ability to take insult wit(out any "rovo2ation. %7-%%6 @iven S(akes"eare’s stake in t(is e-"edition to . t(e see0ing . Ma2Morris es"ouses t(e de ining 2(ara2teristi2s o villainy. For S(akes"eare. t(e ."ers"e2tive at work in t(is de inition o .n t(e 2ase o Ma2Morris. S(akes"eare voi2es t(ese 2riteria o identity t(roug( t(e persona o Ma2Morris. )arl o 'yrone. in (is own dis2ourse. w(i2( radiate t(roug( t(e . =6. Ma2Morris "oses a 2entral .ndeed. an ele0ent w(i2( *o0i B(ab(a sees as a 2entral eature o 2olonial dis2ourse 5B(ab(a $99>. . aggression. H>6. and wit( an . wit( little 2(an2e o inter2onne2tion between t(e0. are en2ouraged to see in (is 2(ara2ter t(e 0i2ro2os0i2 e0bodi0ent o t(e 0a2ro2os0i2 national 2(ara2teristi2s w(i2( (e (i0sel outlines. and t(at w(i2( t(ey would give were t(ey now 5in t(e real "resent o t(e aut(ors(i" o t(e "lay6 to see: Jt(e general o our gra2ious )0"ress 5As in good ti0e (e 0ay6 ro0 . and a ras2al’ is a locus classicus o seeing t(e ot(er in "e4orative ter0s.reland. t(e latter is also "redi2ated on an essentialist view o sel and ot(er.ris( identity is based on our 2entral 2ategories.ris( de ining 2(ara2teristi2s are "e4orative.n ot(er words we. 2(oler.reland. wit( t(e essential national. as it "rovides an interesting e-a0"le o w(at one 0ig(t ter0 3essentialist’ identity. and a knave.ris(ness as 3a villain. it is (ardly sur"rising t(at (e eels su2( little sy0"at(y wit( .uestion or 2onte0"orary literary and 2ultural studies on2e (is original .ris( 2(ara2ter in t(e "lay.ris( 2a"tain. stu"idity. Ma2Morris is seen as in2a"able o itting into *enry’s grand "lan or unders2oring 3t(e ideal o intra-Britis( 2o-o"eration under a beloved 0onar2(’ 5/eerson $99&. knavery. as audien2e. and t(e e"iste0ologi2al t(rust o t(ese 2ategories needs to be analyDed. "rologue. et(ni2 or ra2ial 2(ara2teristi2s seen as i-ed. given t(at t(ey are e-"ressed ro0 an i0"erial stand"oint. &&6.
ork ro0 t(eir strong(olds in t(e nort( o . On t(eir return 4ourney. &$6.ound in 2o00on a0ong t(e deniDens o a nation< 1(o de2ides w(ere one nation begins and w(ere anot(er ends< 1(at are t(e re2i"ro2al e e2ts o belonging to a nation on t(e individual and t(e 2o00unity in . w(ile .oy in Moody and Martin 5eds6: $9H>C $H%6.ounty .ris( 2(ie tains.ris( 2(ie tain w(o (ad t(e wit and "ers"i2a2ity to resist t(e )nglis( in be(al o . and by so doing.ris( a0ilies w(o saw no 2o00on 2ause wit( t(e0. in de eat. and t(is view is rein or2ed by Mary Fran2is . t(e view o t(e rebellion as a 2ountry-wide u"rising o . was re used by t(e !o"e. .at(oli2.reland as a w(ole. . >=H6. narrative and i2tion (ave all s(a"ed our notions o t(is ter0. t(ey were atta2ked by a nu0ber o . t(ey were atta2ked by even 0ore . w(en t(e survivors o t(e S"anis( Ar0ada 2a0e as(ore.ris( identity is 2on2eived o as being .at(oli2 religion and t(e liberties o our 2ountry’ 5Boy2e $99=.n ideologi2al ter0s. (e said (i0sel t(at (is allies w(o oug(t wit( (i0 oug(t or 3t(e .uantity< 1(at is t(e relations(i" between language and nationality< *ow does identity 2o0e to be de ined< 1(at are t(e 2onstituting 2riteria o identity< 8oes national identity (ave to be binding a2ross t(e "o"ulation o a nation< 8o narrative. alters t(e s(a"e and 2onstitution o t(at stru2ture o identity.reland.at(oli2 . @aeli2.ris( (istory. and literature (ave a 2onstitutive un2tion in t(e s(a"ing o notions o identity< . and nationalist is under2ut by t(e ve2tor w(i2( 0oves towards t(e 2ir2u0 eren2e. As *ayes-M2.ris( identity. As Boy2e (as noted.usa2k $99=.t led to t(e e0ble0ati2 3Flig(t o t(e )arls’ in $&7:.at(oli2s w(o oug(t against (i0 s(ould be e-2o00uni2ated.ris(. t(ese 3ene0ies o )ngland were al0ost everyw(ere treated as ene0ies by t(e . O’+eill and O’8onnell. insisting t(at )liDabet( (ad never re used t(e0 liberty o 2ons2ien2e 5Boy2e $99=. O’+eill’s re. were in agree0ent wit( O’+eill’s religious agenda.reland. w(ile t(e ?esuits wit(in t(e !ale were e. indeed. '(is 0onologi2al reading o O’+eill’s rebellion is also invaded by dialogi2al readings. *ug( O’+eill. &$6. be ore t(e "ivotal battle o Binsale. &$6.uestion< Are t(ese de ining traits i-ed in ti0e and .oy "uts it.onse. O’+eill un2tions. and re0ained neutral.ris( 2ause’ 5.at(oli2 lords like Barry0ore stood against (i0.at(oli2 grievan2e is not altoget(er true. Boy2e sees t(e rebellion as t(e 3last stand o @aeli2 . es"e2ially in towns. 0yt(. Firstly. 'o add a urt(er level o 2o0"le-ity to t(e identi i2ation o *ug( O’+eill as an avatar o essentialist .reland against 'udor en2roa2(0ent’ 5Boy2e $99=.usa2k.reland to 4oin t(eir S"anis( allies w(o (ad landed in Binsale. in a "arti2ular view o . t(e leaving o . w(i2( is generally seen as t(e inal battle o t(e @aeli2 order. . is seen as an . $HH6.reland by t(e last two great . O’+eill is seen as a leader o @aeli2 .n $=HH.uered’ 5*ayesM2.n ter0s o . .ris( as well’ 5*ayes-M2.at(oli2s.uest o . as a syne2do2(e or t(e deat( o @aeli2 2iviliDation in t(e 2onte-t o t(e Battle o Binsale in $&7$. not all . a teleologi2al and "ersonal stru2ture is set in "la2e w(i2( 0akes . literature. w(en t(e ar0ies o O’+eill and O’8onnell 0ar2(ed to .ris( identity. .uently.ually distrust ul o (is religious 0otives 5Boy2e $99=. and 0arked t(e beginning o t(e overall 2on. "resu0ably in2luding so0e o t(ose against w(o0 O’+eill (ad oug(t so0e eig(teen years earlier.at(oli2 identity t(at is seen as natural or . t(e leader o t(is rebellion. &$6.ris( identity 2oter0inous wit( a s"e2i i2 "ers"e2tive on t(e "ast. By taking t(e a2ts o (istory and s(a"ing t(e0 t(roug( narrative. '(e si0"listi2 view t(at t(e 2entre o .uest t(at .reland 3was 2on.reland. . in $&7$. (e e0bodies t(e @aeli2. in t(e early $=H7’s (e served wit( t(e )nglis( or2es w(o were su""ressing a rebellion o Munster a0ilies 5Be2kett $9&9. . w(o saw t(e battle as 3a atal blow to t(e . ##6.ris( a0ilies. . a ter t(is battle .oy in Moody and Martin $9H>.n t(is sense.
.uasi-trans2endentaliDed "ast. in t(e lig(t o . wit( Gory O’Moore. t(is linearity 0ay be 3ne2essary’ but it is 3not su i2ient’ 5/a2an $9::. and by li0iting t(e "lay o or2es o"erating in t(at "resent.n ot(er words. and is i0bri2ated un2ons2iously in t(e syntag0ati2 2(ain.u2(ullainJ OssianJ. ro0 t(at "oint’ 5/a2an $9::. t(e s"eaking sub4e2t is 2onstituted by t(e un2ons2ious and language.’ be2ause: 3w(atever is givenP2an always be rei0agined’ 5*eaney $99$.artesian "ostulate.'(e di i2ulty t(at t(is obsession wit( t(e "ast 2reates is one o (y"ostasiDing t(at "astC it attains a trans2endental status by be2o0ing o"erative in t(e "resent. #96. *en2e. *e i0agines t(is 2(ain. $=>6. as it were. $&%6. For /a2an. t(e view o t(e "ast as a uni ied in(eritan2e w(i2( 2an un2tion as a guideline or t(e "resent is de2onstru2ted by t(is t(eoreti2al "ers"e2tive. or "(oneti2 stru2ture. For /a2an.’ a "oe0 ro0 (is volu0e Seeing Things. /iterature in t(e or0s o narrative. w(at (a""ened in t(e "ast is ti0e and 2onte-t boundC w(at is re2orded ro0 t(e "ast is a series o 2(oi2es. $=%6. w(o saw t(is 2(ain as linear. Su2( readings result in t(e 2o00ents o Ma2Morris and t(e view t(at a 3nation’ 2an be seen as a "re-de ined 2olle2tive. 0any o w(i2( are ideologi2ally 0otivated. 0eaning is de ined t(roug( a "ro2ess o inter"retation. ea2( signi ier 2alls to 0ind nu0erous ot(er 2onnotations w(i2( are asso2iated wit( it in ter0s o 2o0bination.uite si0ilar to t(at o 8errida.’ and yet it 2an be 0ade 3willable orwardPAgain and again and again.n a t(oug(t "ro2ess t(at is . $=>6. As (e "uts it. 'o 0aintain a 2onne2tion wit( t(is "ast is laudableC (owever. to allow one’s uture to be di2tated by t(e 0indsets o t(is a"ot(eosiDed "ast is to deli0it any sense o "arti2i"ation in 0odernity or in any new arrange0ents in ter0s o identity or international relations(i"sC as 8e2lan Biberd tellingly "ut it 3. '(is i0"lies t(at all o our 0eanings along t(e syntag0ati2 a-is 5t(e linear (oriDontal "lane6 are deter0ined by a series o absent 0eanings sus"ended verti2ally along t(e "aradig0ati2 a-is. By de inition. sub4e2tivity’ 58errida $9:&. 0yt( and i2tion. . t(e 3"ast’ is really 4ust one o a series o "ossible 3"asts’ w(i2( (as been given 2ultural "riority. *yde. . t(e signi iers in t(e syntag0ati2 2(ain are arranged like 3rings o a ne2kla2e t(at is a ring in anot(er ne2kla2e 0ade o rings’ 5/a2an $9::. in t(e sa0e way t(at t(e senten2es in t(is "aragra"( are linear.ris( nationalis0 too o ten de ined itsel by w(at it was against’ 5Biberd $99=. t(e 3sel -"resen2e o t(e 2ogito. se0anti2. 2ites a .reland’.(ristianisers o )uro"eJBrian Boru and t(e (eroes o . 2ontrast. wit( t(e O’+eills and O’8onnells. w(i2( is 2o0"rised o nationalist (eroes 3. As *eaney (as "ut it in 3'(e Settle Bed. 2ons2iousness. synony0. $>$6.n ot(er words. wit( t(e 1ild @eese. $#6. '(e 2ore o 0y argu0ent is t(at. '(is notion o t(e individual as "re-e-isting language (as its roots in t(e . in a 2o0"letely di erent 0anner to t(at o Saussure. For /a2an t(is "lurality o 2onte-tual asso2iations is in inite. (o0ony0. '(us. 3an in(eritan2e’ is ro0 3t(e long ago. a "ro2ess o sele2tion ro0 a nu0ber o "ossibilities. (e "oints to t(e a2t t(at ea2( word in a senten2e de"ends or its 0eaning on a 3w(ole arti2ulation o relevant 2onte-ts sus"ended Lverti2allyM.t is a 2onstru2t rat(er t(an an essen2e. as t(e 2ornerstone o t(e trans2endental sub4e2t. in (is essay 3'(e +e2essity or 8e-Angli2iDing . is 2reative o t(is "ers"e2tiveC (owever. and even to so0e e-tent wit( t(e 0en o 39H’ 5O’/eary $99>. t(e nor0al synta2ti2 arrange0ents o words in senten2es or longer units. $==6. . t(eoreti2al readings o literature 2an also un2tion to de2onstru2t su2( 0onologi2al readings o (istory.lontar . and it dis2loses t(e "ossibility o using language 3in order to signi y so ething !uite other t(an w(at it says’ Nitalics originalO 5/a2an: $9::.
Sa-ons. . t(ese battles were 0ore in t(e nature o a 2ivil war rat(er t(an a straig(t orward . 5Bearney $99=. S"eaking bot( o t(e g(ost in Ha let. $&6. or e-a0"le. .ris(FBritis( 2on rontation. *eaney 0akes t(is very "oint: '(e "ossibilities wit(in a 2ulture.n $:9H. %96. at botto0: 3t(e s"e2ter is t(e uture. t(e traditional sy0bol w(i2( (onours t(ose soldiers w(o died in 1orld 1ar $. and ro0 2ontaining an une.777 0en and wo0en oug(t in $9$&. $7H6 '(e "roble0ati2 nature o t(e or0 t(at su2( an in(eritan2e s(ould take (as already been 0entioned as a a2tor in w(i2( *eaney’s t(oug(t 0irrors t(at o 8errida. a reading t(at underwrites t(e 2onte-t o Ma2Morris’s identi i2atory . Anglo. and di erent notions o . t(ey (ad t(eir own di i2ulties wit( 2entral )nglis( kings(i" over a nu0ber o years.n Specters of #ar$. '(e sa0e "oint 2an be 0ade about ot(er signi iers o .ultural in(eritan2eJ allows so0e or0 o negotiation to take "la2e. Fle0ings.uivo2al 0eaning.ris(’ t(an t(e latter< )ven to t(is day. w(ile only #.ris(ness were in o"en 2on li2t. t(e traditional reading o . nearly a t(ird o a 0illion . 0eanings. Men o Saint 8avid’s. +or0ans. and above all. (e 0akes t(e "oint t(at.onnolly’s de0and or a new t(eory. in /a2anian ter0s. . ..a0bro-+or0ans.ris( yeo0en. Anglo-+or0ans. *owever. . it is never one wit( itsel ’ 58errida $99>.ris(ness as de ined in ter0s o a "ost2olonial relations(i" wit( )ngland. Bot( writers are wary o an in(eritan2e as so0et(ing univo2al. 2o0e u" wit( di erent rings o t(at ne2kla2e as ot(er (auntologi2al 0eanings are 2reated.an it be said t(at t(e or0er are. it "resents itsel only as t(at w(i2( 2ould 2o0e or 2o0e ba2k’ 58errida $99>. 8errida dis2usses w(at (e ter0s hauntology.uestion. Anglo-Fren2(. '(e initial invaders w(o landed at Bannow Bay in 1e.n t(e sa0e book. are w(at 0ediate between t(e individual "sy2(e and t(e un2ontrollable siDe o t(e reality out t(ere.ris( (istory. So.ris( 4oined t(e Britis( ar0y. #9-%$6. or t(e view o a 2entrally de ined . and sub4e2ting it to a 2riti.ndeed. a t(eoreti2al reading would inter"ret t(ese dates di erently.ord were variously 2alled: )nglis(. broug(t in ro0 di erent 2ounties to su""ress t(e rebellion. '(is orientation towards t(e uture is "art o a t(eoreti2al reading w(i2( is oriented towards t(e uture as o""osed to t(e "ast. w(i2( allows or i0ages o an unre2onstru2ted "ast to re0ain o"erative in t(e "resent. and t(e g(ost t(at (aunts Mar-’s %o unist #anifesto 5w(ere t(e irst noun is 3s"e2ter’6. it is always to 2o0e. we 2an. ..ontinentals.ris(ness. in so0e way. 3less . seeing g(ostly (auntings as tra2es o "ossible alternative 0eanings.n t(is 2ase. t(e unknowable siDe o so2iety. to 0ake sense o it all. . 8errida 0akes a si0ilar "oint in ter0s o t(e ra2tured notion o an in(eritan2e. 2ultural in(eritan2e i you like. . (as be2o0e a "oint o dis"ute a0ong . i we reread t(e lineage outlined by *yde. t(e wearing o t(e "o""y. inter"retations t(at 2an be drawn ro0 (istory and w(i2( "rodu2e 0eaning t(roug( t(eir diale2ti2al intera2tion. . 8errida’s s"e2trality involves a2knowledging t(e ot(er t(at (aunts t(e sel C it involves a2knowledging t(e "ossibility t(at t(e 3(’ in hauntology is a (overing "resen2e over t(e 2ertainties o ontology. t(e troo"s t(at t(e rebels were ig(ting were very o ten 2o0"osed o .uestion would "roble0atise t(e 2ertainties o t(at dis2ourse. 3is never gat(ered toget(er. ar ro0 issuing ro0 a i-ed 2entre. Men o /landu 5@illing(a0 $99%.n 1orld 1ar .ue will bring to lig(t a 0ore 2o0"leseries o inter"retations. 'aking t(e linear narrative o rebellion. '(us t(eir status as 3)nglis(’ is o"en to . it is "redi2ated on t(e uture. '(us. t(is 2ould well "rovide t(e answer: t(e awareness o "lural traditions. w(i2(. .n an interview wit( Gi2(ard Bearney.
ual ooting 5*aber0as $9H>. an e. t(e a2t o reading takes on an overt "oliti2al signi i2an2e by its re usal o a 0onologi2al "ers"e2tive on t(e events o (istory. *eaney sees t(e i0ages o division. 'o avail o anot(er ter0inology.uisition o language. and 3'er0inus’. By 0onologist. (e 0eans t(e denial t(at. *e e-"ands t(is 0eta"(or into a 4ourney into 3t(e wideness o language. to *ug( O’+eill. "aris(es 0et w(ere . *eaney uses a si0ilar i0age. and t(e 0anner in w(i2( di erent dis2ourses awakened in (i0 a 2uriosity about t(e wider world outside rural . t(at o Mik(ail Bak(tin. outside one "arti2ular o"inion or reading.n (is +obel le2ture. t(at ste""ing stones 2ould be "la2ed by individuals w(o wanted to urt(er t(ings. $$6. !art o t(is notion o "roviding an e. 5*eaney #77#.ounty 8erry. '(is rewriting o (istory is ena2ted in *eaney’s own 2o00ents about *ug( O’+eill in t(e 2onne2tion between t(e essay 3So0et(ing to 1rite *o0e About’. 2on2entri2 ri""les 2aused in a bu2ket o drinking water in t(e a0ily s2ullery by t(e "assing o nearby trains 5*eaney $99=. . (owever. '(is denial is signi ied linguisti2ally by t(e denial o t(e ot(er as"e2ts or links in t(e 2(ain o 0eaning and inter"retation.ual ooting is to break down t(e binaries o identity. t(ere e-ists 3anot(er 2ons2iousness. was t(e last earl on (orseba2k in 0idstrea0 Still "arleying. would see0 to be an . ended u" suggesting t(at a 2rossing 2ould be atte0"ted. t(is reading o (istory is 0onologist as o""osed to dialogi2.uestion serves as an indi2ator t(at 0eaning 2onstru2ted along t(e syntag0ati2 a-is. =6 '(e re eren2e to t(e 3last earl’ is a (istori2al one. '(e granting o rig(ts to anot(er "ers"e2tive is an atte0"t at a "rotre"ti2 dis2ourse in t(at alterity is a2knowledged and given voi2e. and in Sea0us *eaney’s reading o O’+eill to w(i2( we now turn. .reland. 1(en . *eaney tra2es (is early ste"s in t(e a2. seeing (is re2e"tion to t(ese sounds 0irrored by t(e deli2ate. nut also t(e "ossibilities: '(e "oe0. #>:6. t(ose rings in a ne2kla2e are orever revolving: 3it is less a 0atter o re0e0bering t(an o rewriting (istory’ 5/a2an $9H:. wit( t(e sa0e rig(ts. )arl o 'yrone. 1(at is being atte0"ted (ere. . *e goes on to e-"lain t(e e e2t o listening to t(e di erent radio stations and (is 3 irst en2ounters wit( t(e gutturals and sibilants o )uro"ean s"ee2(’. sti0uli w(i2( (ad initiated a 4ourney 3into t(e wideness o t(e world’. =:6 . is a *aber0asian &leich'erechtigung. was born. in ears(ot o (is "eers."oliti2ians and "ubli2 igures in t(e Ge"ubli2 o .ris( (istori2al "ant(eon. and 2a"able o res"onding on an e.n t(ese ter0s.n t(is le2ture. a 4ourney w(ere ea2( "oint o arrival F w(et(er in one’s "oetry or one’s li e F turned out to be a ste""ing stone rat(er t(an a destination’ 5*eaney $99=. 5*eaney $9H:. 1riting about (is early "oe0 3'(e Ot(er Side’. *e dis2usses (is alertness to di erent nig(t sounds. O’+eill as one o t(e great igures in t(e . is ne2essarily erasing ot(er levels o 0eaning sus"ended along t(e "aradig0ati2 a-is. t(e 0eaning is always 2(anging. $$6. $>6. '(e "oe0 ends as ollows: Baronies.ual ooting’ 5'odorov $9H>.n ot(er words. stood on t(e 2entral ste""ing stone . $7:6. '(is .
was in a "osition w(ere t(e binary o""osition o .in t(e 0iddle o t(e river 5obviously an i2oni2 i0age or *eaney. bot( 0en ound roo0 to talk and t(is dis2ussion served to avert a battle at t(at "oint in ti0e. or ea2( o t(e0. O’+eill is a "ersoni i2ation o t(ose ste""ing stones o w(i2( we (ave been s"eaking. O’+eill. w(ile "er(a"s not an e-a0"le o roo0 to r(y0e. t(is 0eeting by t(e river was a 0ysterious turn.ris(-s"eaking soldiers be(ind (i0. +iall o t(e +ine *ostages. a2ting as (is "atron. 5*eaney #77#. or t(e t(rust o our dis2ussion is t(at o li0inal dialogue. (e was a2ed by t(e )arl o )sse-.a0ily. and t(ere ore.ris(ness-)nglis(ness was not . a roDen ra0e in t(e violent a2tionJ.reland.ueen’s loyal re"resentative in t(e kingdo0 o .ris( (e t(ere ore a""eared as t(e (ereditary leader o t(e @aeli2 O’+eills.ris( leader.unusual i2on or *eaney to use in a "oe0 and an essay w(i2( deal wit( notions o li0inality and (ybridity. w(o was standing a2ing (i0 on t(e ot(er bankJ. =>-=6 . O’+eill’s (istori2al situation is a little 0ore 2o0"li2ated t(an it 0ig(t at irst see0: By )nglis( law. $#$6.ris( birt( and genealogy. but a"art ro0. (e sees (is "osition as essentially li0inal. wit( )sse-’s at(er. 5*eaney #77#. in . ==6 '(e signi i2an2e o t(is dialogue or *eaney. in t(e understanding o Eueen )liDabet(. t(e (istori2al 0o0ent’ 5*eaney $9HH. given t(eir (istori2al 2ir2u0stan2es. and. As (e "uts it elsew(ere "oetry 3 loats ad4a2ent to. and as su2(. *owever. t(e water ran and t(e sky 0oved silently above t(e0. given (is (istori2al asso2iation wit( t(e 8evereu.n $=99. t(e real (istori2al 0o0ent. and indeed. in t(e 0idst o "oliti2al 2on rontation.ounty /out(. given t(e signi i2an2e (e atta2(es to ste""ing stones6: O’+eill was on (orseba2k.t(e balan2e tre0bled and (eld. and to t(e . in t(e t(roes o O’+eill’s nine years war against t(e ar0ies o )liDabet(an )ngland. in . o a s"a2e w(ere t(e (u0an relations(i" de2onstru2ts t(e de0ands o t(e "oliti2al one. . wit( a destined role. i0agines O’+eill as a ty"e o ste""ing stone in one "arti2ular (istori2al situation. But by .n t(e 2ase o O’+eill.So. *e is a li0inal igure. given (is edu2ation in t(e )nglis( tradition. and (e des2ribes t(is in ter0s o t(e a0biguity already dis2ussed in ter0s o 30ar2(’: '(ere was no way. O’+eill was des2ended ro0 t(e 0yt(i2 . t(e )nglis( . and. O’+eill was t(e )arl o 'yrone.reland. t(is is a 0o0ent w(ere t(e s"a2e o literature be2o0es o"erative in t(at i0agined real0 2ontiguous to. s"eaking )nglis( to )sse-. 1alter 8evereu-. t(at O’+eill and )sse2ould 2ross to ea2( ot(er’s side.n t(is lig(t. '(eir 0ar2( (ad turned into so0et(ing . edu2ated in )ngland w(ile loyal to a sense o . . (e was able to arrange a "arley wit( )sse. i2oni2ally and 0eta"(ori2ally. out in 0idstrea0. 1(at as2inates *eaney about t(is s2ene is t(at very notion o a li0inal dialogue. a (iatus.uite so well-de ined. a strong avourite o Eueen )liDabet( a2ross t(e banks o t(e Giver @lyde. anasto0osis and t(e ield o or2e. "arallel to. wit( t(e water u" to (is (orse’s belly and (is . '(e notion o two 2on li2tual igures in dialogue is very 0u2( e0ble0ati2 o (is 2on2e"ts o 2o0"le-ity.ris(ness. *ere.
t is. . but w(i2( "rovides a or0 o e-tension w(i2( allows t(ese events to be trans or0ed. a de0ar2ation allowing or agile give-and-take’ 5*eaney $99=. be2o0es an o"ening to t(e ot(er 2o00unity. *eaney (as e-"ressed t(e (o"e t(at t(e rontier w(i2( "artitions . '(ey were at t(e ter0inus in an e-tre0e sense o t(at word. or *avel. are 0ade to be 2rossed. '(e re2onte-tualisation o t(e notion o t(e border in language (as been ongoing. Borders. Yet again. H96. and w(ere t(e 3"lay o 0ind’ 2an 2reate 2onditions w(ere t(e 2(oi2e no longer (as to be 3 neither t(e one nor t(e ot(er’ 58errida #777. #%6. . t(e border.t is not t(e e-"e2tation t(at t(ings will turn out su22ess ully but t(e 2onvi2tion t(at so0et(ing is wort( working or.t is not t(at one s(ould 2(oose one language. . . as a li0it "oint o one 2o00unity.ts dee"est roots are in t(e trans2endental. in(abiting bot( ele0ents and yet also 0arking t(eir line o de0ar2ation. A 2ondition w(ere borders are t(ere to be 2rossed rat(er t(an 2ontested. =&6 '(is is as 2lear a state0ent o *eaney’s e"iste0ology o "oetry as we will see. '(is is (ow t(e de2onstru2tion o language works in *eaney’s writing: t(e signi ier be2o0es a li0inal "oint. o"en to di erent or0s o in luen2e. beyond t(e (oriDon’ 5*eaney #77#. we re2all *eaney’s a22ount o Ia2lav *avel’s de inition o 3(o"e’. re0ains o"en to t(e sky. "oliti2al "osition over t(e ot(er: or bot( *eaney and 8errida.reland into nort( and sout(. very 0u2( t(e telos towards w(i2( our dis2ussion (as been leading. . For *eaney. >:6. 3is a state o t(e soul rat(er t(an a res"onse to t(e eviden2e. '(e ste""ing stone is dry land in water. 2ould be2o0e 3a little bit 0ore like t(e net on a tennis 2ourt. 1e want t(e sky to o"en above t(e0 and grant t(e0 release ro0 t(eir eart(bound ates. we still desire 2onditions w(ere t(e longed. %%6. wit( t(e revisiting o "la2ena0es in di erent books 2ontributing to a 0ore "luralisti2 and (ybrid or0 o signi i2ation.reland. '(e brutality o "ower would (ave to de2ide t(e issue not t(e "lay o 0ind. "oetry w(ile grounded. and t(e value o "oetry in 2ultural . 5*eaney #77#. .or and t(e a2tual 0ig(t be allowed to 2oin2ide. t(is be2o0es 2lear. says *eaney. And even i we know t(at su2( a release is i0"ossible. ideology. . /ike t(e s(rine o 'er0inus on t(e . and "oetry 0ay "rovide t(e 0ode o su2( a 2rossing. . t(at we dis2ussed in 2(a"ter two. we want ea2( o t(e0 to be released ro0 t(e entra"0ent o (istory. (owever it turns out. '(e stressing o t(e 3border’ tro"e allows *eaney to gesture towards (is view o "oetry as being o value bot( in itsel and in t(e 2ultural debate in . And yet as we t(ink about t(e s2ene.irrevo2ably 0ilitary. (owever. *e 2on2ludes 3So0et(ing to 1rite *o0e About’ wit( a su a o (is t(oug(ts on t(e "oe0 3'er0inus’. t(ere are e2(oes o 8errida w(o says t(at we 3(ave to 2ross t(e border but not to destroy t(e border’ 58errida $99:.a"itol.n "oliti2al ter0s.or and t(e a2tual 0ay 2oin2ide’. t(e aest(eti2 s(ould not 0erely re le2t a2tuality: instead.t also e2(oes so0e 2o00ents *eaney (as 0ade about t(e idea o borders elsew(ere. a "oint o li0itation.nstead. t(e s"a2e o literature "rovides an o""ortunity w(ere 3t(e longed. t(e idea o t(e border. 1e are in t(e sy0boli2 2onstellation o t(e ste""ing stones (ere as t(ese bot( or0 a border.ue a2tuality by o ering a "arallel vision o "ossibility w(i2( is su i2iently grounded in t(e a2tual to retain so0e "ur2(ase on real events. '(ere was no roo0 or two trut(s. *o"e. but also or0 a "oint o intera2tion between di erent ty"es o identity. it s(ould 2riti. '(e i0age o roots being lo2ated in t(e trans2endental is bot( de2onstru2tive and very 0u2( at varian2e wit( w(at we 0ig(t ter0 t(e 2onsensual 2riti2al "osition on *eaney’s writing. w(ile t(e i0"eratives o Realpoliti( 0ay or2e su2( o""ositional 2(oi2es in t(e real world.
$&$6.reland. and also *eaney’s own 2o00ents in t(e introdu2tion to (is translation o )eowulf. believe in w(at t(ey stand or’. and instead re"la2es it wit( a 2ognate ter0 w(i2(. ter0inal "oint.ris( !oet and Britain’. '(roug(-Ot(er 'i0es’. wit( (is own 2o-editors(i" o The School )ag.ter0s. and de2onstru2ts it.ris( as 3adversarial tongues. S2otland and in 1ales’ 5*eaney #77#. 1ales. )ngland. in all sense. (e o2uses on t(e e0ble0ati2 tro"e o t(e li0inal. . '(e inal e-a0"le t(at . *eaney will now o"en u" t(e "oliti2al borders and atte0"t to 2ite a or0 o language w(i2( de2onstru2ts t(e e-igen2ies o (istory and instead o ers a new or0 o identity w(i2( 2an be voi2ed under a new no0inal dis"ensation. %:H6. (ave a dread o "ious words like diversity but . one 0ig(t say. '(is "oint is urt(ered in (is essay ro0 Finders "eepers.n a 2onte-t w(ere t(e word 3Britis(’ 0ig(t un2tion like a "oliti2al re0inder.uestion. 3'(roug(-Ot(er !la2es. =H6 '(is 3o"en sky o "ossibility’ denotes (ow language w(i2( see0ed to be t(e "ossession o a "arti2ular identity 2an now be seen to e0bra2e alterity as well. to use t(e vo2abulary o 3'er0inus’ would o"en so0e sky above t(e (oriDon o e-"e2tations o t(e signi ier in . w(ere (e s"oke about (is own e orts to trans2end t(e 2ultural "redis"ositions t(at urged (i0 to t(ink o )nglis( and . t(ere is a wonder ul originality. .n (is essay 3'(roug(-Ot(er !la2es. *ardly sur"risingly. --iv6. *eaney notes t(at bot( books a""ly si0ilar editorial guidelines. a syne2do2(e o w(at we (ave been dis2ussing in t(is 2(a"ter w(ere t(e di erent 0eanings o a word were seen as being ideologi2ally o""ositional. '(ese guidelines were 0otivated by a 2onvi2tion w(i2( is e-"ressed at t(e beginning o t(e "aragra"( w(ere t(e two books are 2o0"ared: 3. *eaney suggests t(at: . *eaney takes t(e o""osition between sel and ot(er. will addu2e in t(is 2(a"ter looks at borders in a broader 2onte-t. a 0ne0oni2 or "ast invasions and 2oer2ions.ornwall or t(e . as eit(erPor 2onditions rat(er t(an bot(Pand’ 5*eaney $999. 5*eaney #77#.sle o Man.o0"aring a re2ent (istory o t(e Britis( isles by *ug( Bearney. . about e0"loying instead t(e word 3Britanni2’.t is wit( t(is version o diversity in 0ind t(at *eaney a""rovingly 2ites Bearney’s view t(at it is only by ado"ting w(at (e 2alls 3a Britanni2 a""roa2(’ t(at any "ossible sense 2an be 0ade o t(e (istories o )ngland. . S2otland. 'aking t(is a""roa2(. .nstead o o2using on t(e "lay o t(e individual 0ind.n t(is essay we see a urt(er de2onstru2tion o language as (e takes a signi ier w(i2( is ideologi2ally s(ot t(roug( wit( t(e residue o 2olonisation and 2on li2t. '(e notion o 3t(roug(-ot(erness’ is a 2oinage w(i2( e2(oes 8errida’s de2isional "aradig0 o 3neit(er t(is nor t(atC but rat(er t(is and t(at’ 58errida $9H$. w(i2( (e sees as re"resenting t(e "ossibility o : Jgoing out on t(e ste""ing stone in order to re0ove yoursel ro0 t(e (ardness and astness o your (o0e ground. . 3Britanni2’ works 0ore . '(e ste""ing stone invites you to 2(ange t(e ter0s and t(e tear ann o your understandingC it does not ask you to take your eet o t(e ground but it re res(es your vision by kee"ing your (ead in t(e air and by bringing you alive to t(e o"en sky o "ossibility t(at is wit(in you. '(roug(-Ot(er 'i0es: '(e . and "ondering its ideologi2al as"e2ts. along wit( its attendant signi ieds. wit( 'ed *ug(es. .reland. going on to add t(at bot( *ug(es and (i0sel were deter0ined t(at t(eir editors(i" o t(is ant(ology would 3insist on t(e diverse and dee" traditions t(at o"erate t(roug( and sustain or good t(e "oetry written in .
Iolu0e &. . A. 5$99=6.onnolly’s de0and or a 32riti2al idio0 2a"able o 2o0"re(ending and 0aybe even 2(anging .airns. /ondon. ?. ?. and 2on2ludes t(e essay by suggesting t(at su2( a "ra2ti2e "re igures work t(at will be done by . S. 8eane. F. 5$99:6. "". in Bearney. Su00er... *ad ield. in Responsi'ilities of 7econstruction: P1I 9 3arwic( :ournal of Philosophy. 7econstruction and the 6ther. 5$99>6. States of #ind: 7ialogues with %onte porary %ontinental Thin(ers . Bibliogra"(y Be2kett. 5%6 "". 5)ditors6 5$99%6. /ondon. nevert(eless.. Faber. so gra"(i2ally 2a"tured by t(e en2ounter o *ug( O’+eill and )sse. 5)ditor6 5$99=6. 5$99:6.in 3'er0inus’. 3riting Ireland: 3%olonialis . 3On Ges"onsibility: interview wit( 8rons ield.ually obvious. The #a(ing of #odern Ireland *+. ?. /ondon. Man2(ester University !ress. . 'owards t(e end o t(is essay. B. M.. translated by Gottenberg. 2ationalis in Ireland. Goutledge. ?. 8. @. language and 2ulture. ?. 9. The . Specters of #ar$: The State of the 7e't. 5$99>6. +. Bra2ken Books.nglish Invasion of Ireland in Brads(aw. Goutledge. 5#77$6.ris( 2ulture’. B. Boy2e. 3'(eorising . Stan ord. /ondon. %H#6. B(ab(a. Midgley. 5$9HH6. Man2(ester. and 1ilding.. The 1ocation of %ulture Goutledge. introdu2tion by Magnus. %:H-96 '(at su2( a "ers"e2tive enun2iates *eaney’s idea o t(e t(roug(-ot(er is obviousC t(at t(is "ers"e2tive 2an e-er2ise a de2onstru2tive or2e on t(e "revailing 0odes o signi i2ation s(ould be2o0e e.ullenberg. G. Representing Ireland: 31iterature and the . 8. 5$9H$6.*/0-.. S. 0ay attenuate t(e "oliti2al intera2tions o t(e two traditions. *. /ondon. Strange %ountry: #odernity and 2ationhood in Irish 3riting since *5/. ?. @illing(a0. 8rons ield. and Midgley. !er(a"s. %7$-%$&.reland’. irst "ublis(ed in $H&H. 8errida. !.. translated by S"ivak. 8errida. Stan ord University !ress.. 8errida. 4n Illustrated History of Ireland.-.. literature and reading. ). 7e eure: Fiction and Testi ony. %ulture’. A.ord.. 5*eaney #77#. 5$9&& 6. 5$99=6. 5$99%6.. 5$9:&6. 6f &ra atology. O. . and . . t(ird edition. @. 2ationalis .. the 3or( of #ourning 8 the 2ew International. and Gi2(ards S. we are answering . 8errida. +.$9-%&. 1. Man2(ester.usa2k. and Maley. ?. Man2(ester University !ress.. *eaney talks about t(e value o i0aginative i2tion in dealing wit( t(e di eren2es between t(e two islands 3linked and se"arated’ by (istory and geogra"(y. 5)ditors6.reland and )ngland. 5#7776. in t(is li0inal s"a2e between t(eory. 8errida. . 1(ile t(e binary o""osition between . B.larendon !ress.onnolly. ?. ?o(ns *o"kins !ress. language as used in "oetry (as t(e a ir0ative ability to suggest ot(er "ossible intera2tions. ?.ris( "oets 3in t(e 2o0ing ti0es’ 5*eaney #77#. translated ro0 t(e Fren2( by Ba0u . /ondon. Irish Studies Review.like a 2ultural wake-u" 2all and gestures not only towards t(e 2ultural "ast but also towards an i0aginable uture.
Q. S(akes"eare. Bearney. Field 7ay Pa phlets. Faber. 5$9H:6. A.. 3Anglo-.&hael: Sudies in the Idea of Irish nationality. S. 5$9&=6. /eerson. )oo( *. /a2an. The Theory of %o unicative 4ction. Faber.1. S. S. #i(hail )a(htin: The 7ialogical Principle. 1. translated by Forrester. University o Minnesota !ress. 5)ditor6. TyroneBs Re'ellion. *.ris( Attitudes’.a0bridge. A. @. The )ritish Isles.ounty Meat(. The Prose 1iterature of the Irish 1iterary Revival *>>*.a0bridge University !ress. ?. #ere Irish and FAor. 5$99=6. Bea2on !ress. /ondon... 5)ditors6 5$9H>6. 5)ditors6 5$99:6. '. 5$9H>6.a0bridge University !ress.*++. 5$9HH6. Finders "eepers. /ondon. 5#77#6.uest $=%>-$&7%’ in Moody and Martin 5)ditors6 The %ourse of Irish History. #>->#. S. Mer2ier !ress. Signet . ?.nventing . ?. Biberd. Man2(ester. . @allery !ress. Faber. . *eaney. /ondon.*/0*: Ideology and Innovation. Su old. Boston. . !ennsylvania State University !ress. Old2astle.a0bridge University !ress. *eaney. . /ondon. *. +ew A0eri2an /ibrary.liot #e orial 1ectures and 6ther %ritical 3ritings. . S. !ennsylvania. S. The %ourse of Irish History. 5)ditor6 5$99=6. S. Biberd. States of #ind: 7ialogues with %onte porary %ontinental Thin(ers. *eaney. G. 5$99=6. 5$9::6.art(y. )eowulf. 4 Selection. 3'(e 'udor . translated by S(eridan.=. . *<-=. O’/eary. "". Faber. *eaney. +ew York. Morgan. Henry V.riti2al . Minnea"olis.ork University !ress. . '. $:>-$HH. Field 8ay. 5$99$6.$pression prior to the 2ineteenth %entury.on. Bel ast. /ondon. The Se inar of :ac!ues 1acan. */<-.ork.a0bridge. 5$9996. 8. Moody.oy. 1oodbridge. @crits . '. 5$99%6. .lassi2s Series. "".6rigins of %onflict’. /ondon.’. Freud’s Papers on Techni!ue. *eaney. Man2(ester University !ress.reland: '(e /iterature o t(e Modern +ation. . 8. *eaney. *aber0as. The School )ag. *ayes-M2. F. The &overn ent of the Tongue: The */>+ T?S? . ?. 5$9H:6. %rediting !oetry. Seeing Things. The Haw 1antern. its 7evelop ent and 1iterary . 5$9H=6. !.onditions Series. Brown. 5$9H>6. /ondon. 5$99>6. ?. 5$9H>6. *eaney. 'avisto2k. 4 History of Four 2ations. and *ug(es. . .a0bridge. irst "ublis(ed in $9&:. '.a"e. ?onat(an . Faber. 'odorov. G. and Martin. translated by M2. /a2an. . Boydell !ress or '(e Goyal *istori2al So2iety. Faber. Bearney. 5$99=6.ork: . /ondon. . 5$99&6. ?.ork.
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