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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,

sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

PHN I: TNG QUAN


1.1. Cng ngh sn xut thc vt bng nui cy m
1.1.1. Lch s v thnh tu t c trong nhn ging invitro thc vt

1.1.1.1.

Trn th gii
Nm 1902: Haberlandt xut phng php nui cy m t bo n bi
tuy nhin cha mang li thnh cng m mn.
Nm 1934 m thc vt mi c cy bi A Carrel.
Nm 1939,1943,1945: Ln lt Nobeccourt, White, Gautheret cng b
thnh cng sm nht v phng php nui cy m trn mi trng thch.
Theo tin s White (1943) th lch s ca nui cy m t bo thc vt c
t lu v mang ngha quan trng trong lch s pht trin sinh hc, tim nng ca
n c ng dng trong vic ci tin cht lng v nhn nhanh ging cy trng.
Nm 1951, Skoog v Miller pht hin ra cc hp cht c th iu khin
s nhn chi.
Nm 1960: Tin s Morel l ngi bt u phng php nui cy nh sinh
trng. ng l ngi a ra k thut nui cy m a lan pht trin thnh qui
m cng nghip v nghin cu thnh cng cy nho sch bnh bng phng php
nui cy m(1945-1948).
Nm 1962, Murathige v Skoog ci tin mi trng nui cy nh du
mt bc tin trong k thut nui cy m. Mi trng ca h dng lm c s cho
vic nui cy nhiu loi cy v vn cn c s dng rng ri cho n nay.
Nm 1964, Ball l ngi u tin tm ra mm r t vic nui cy chi
ngn.
Nm 1981: Takayama v Misawa thnh cng trong t ng ho vi nhn
ging bng cc h thng bioreactor. n nay, ngnh nui cy m khng nh
vai tr quan trng ca mnh bng mt kho tng s cc cng trnh nghin cu
ca mnh v thc vt in vitro.
u th k 21, hng lot cc cng ty v vi nhn ging cy trng thng mi
vi qui m ln ln lt ra i trn khp th gii con s ln n hn 600 cng ty.
Nh vy, k thut nui cy m thc s m ra mt cuc cc mng trong nhn
ging thc vt.
1.1.12. Vit Nam
T nhng nm 1960 cng ngh nui cy m t bo thc vt c du
nhp vo nc ta bt u ti min Nam.
n u nhng nm 1970 th c ti min Bc.
Sau 1975, phng th nghim nui cy m v t bo u tin c xy dng
ti vin Sinh vt hc, vin Khoa hc Vit Nam do tin s L Th Mui ng u.
Hin nay, cc hng nghin cu ng dng nui cy m v t bo thc vt
c pht trin mnh: dung hp cy lai t bo cht v chuyn gen, nui cy bao
phn to dng thun, nui cy cc cy dc liu qu bo tn ngun gen v
to cc dng t bo c hm lng cc cht sinh hc.
Tuy nhin ch t cui nhng nm 1980 tr li y cng ngh m - t bo

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

mi pht trin mnh m v nhanh chng, nhiu phng th nghim, nghin cu


c xy dng v trin khai hu khp cc tnh thnh trong c nc nh: H Ni
Thnh Ph H Ch Minh, Nng, Bnh nh,... Lnh vc p dng rng ri ca
cng ngh nui cy m t bo thc vt l: bo qun ngun gen cy trng, s nhn
ging v tnh trn qui m ln, to ht nhn to, sn xut cy ging sch bnh
Nhu cu cy ging trng rng nhn ging bng phng php v tnh nh
cy: xoan ta, ch ch, cng l, d bu... ang ngy cng pht trin, i hi phi u
t nghin cu xy dng cc quy trnh cng ngh nhn ging bng nui cy m.
Bn cnh , phong tro trng cc loi hoa mang tnh hng ha nh phong lan,
ng tin, cc... ang ngy cng pht trin cng i hi ngun cy ging v tnh
ln, ng nht m ch c sn xut bng cng ngh nui cy m - t bo mi p
ng c.
1.1.2. Phng php nhn ging v tnh invitro thc vt
1.1.21. Nhn ging v tnh invitro thc vt
nh ngha
Nhn ging v tnh invitro thc vt hay cn gi l nui cy m t bo thc
vt. y l k thut cho php nui cy d dng nhng t bo thc vt hay m phn
sinh sch bnh trong mi trng nhn to thch hp to ra nhng khi t bo
hay nhng cy hon chnh trong ng nghim.
u im
K thut invitro m ra kh nng lai khc loi to ra ging mi v lm
tng nhanh tnh a dng di truyn, to dng cy sch bnh.
Phc trng ging cy trng b bnh.
Nhn nhanh, tng nhanh h s nhn ging, lm tr trung ha cy trng.
Sn phm cy ging ng nht, nng cao cht lng cy ging, tit kim
khng gian.
D vn chuyn v sn xut quanh nm.
i vi mt s loi cy trng c gi tr thng mi ln, k thut nui cy
invitro em li nhng hiu qu kinh t ht sc r rt.
Hn ch ca nhn ging v tnh invitro
Hn ch v chng loi sn phm: trong iu kin hin nay khng phi tt c
cy trng u c nhn ging thng phm bng vi nhn ging. Nhiu cy trng
c gi tr kinh t hoc qu him vn cha th nhn nhanh p ng nhu cu
thng mi hoc bo qun ngun gen. Nhiu vn lin quan n nui cy v ti
sinh t bo thc vt invitro vn cha c gii p.
Chi ph sn xut cao: vi nhn ging i hi nhiu lao ng k thut thnh
tho nn gi thnh sn phm cn kh cao so vi cc phng php truyn thng
nh chit, ghp v nhn ging bng ht.
Hin tng sn phm b bin i kiu hnh: cy con nui cy m c th sai
khc vi cy m ban u do hin tng bin d t bo soma. Kt qu l cy con khng
gi c c tnh qu ca cy m. T l bin d thng thp giai on u nhn
ging nhng c chiu hng tng ln khi nui cy ko di v lm tng hm lng

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

cc cht kch thch sinh trng.


ng dng ca phng php nhn ging v tnh invitro
Thi gian ngn ( 1-3 nm ): vi nhn ging, sn xut v bo qun cy sch
bnh.
Thi gian trung bnh ( 3-8 nm ): bin d di truyn, nui cy phi soma, cu
phi v lai to ging qua nui cy n bi.
Thi gian di ( 8-15 nm ): lai t bo soma v siu sn xut cc cht th cp
c hot tnh sinh hc.
1.1.2.2.

Cc phng php nhn ging invitro thc vt

a. Nui cy nh sinh trng


Nui cy nh sinh trng bao gm nui cy chp nh v chi bn. Sau khi
v trng mu, mu c nui cy trn mi trng thch hp. Mi trng thch
hp s thay i theo tng loi cy trng c a vo nui cy nhng c bn mi
trng cha y cht dinh dng khong v c, hu c v c b sung cht
kch thch sinh trng thch hp.
T mt nh sinh trng, sau mt thi gian nui cy nht nh s pht trin
thnh mt hay nhiu chi. Sau , chi s tip tc vn thn, ra l, ra r v tr
thnh mt cy hon chnh. Cy con c chuyn ra t c iu kin pht trin
bnh thng. y l mt chu trnh ngn nht v tin li hn cc phng thc
nhn ging thng thng.
Dng to ra dng cy sch bnh, hon ton khng c virus vi h s
nhn ging cao. Tuy nhin, phng php ny ch c th thc hin c mt s
loi thc vt nht nh.
b. Nui cy m so
Trong iu kin s cn bng cc cht kch thch sinh trng trong thc vt
thay i, c th trong t bo nh sinh trng hay nhu m c tch ra nui cy
ring r trn mi trng giu auxin th m so c hnh thnh.
M so l mt khi t bo pht trin v t chc, c mu trng. Khi m so
c kh nng ti sinh thnh cy hon chnh trong iu kin mi trng khng c
cht kch thch sinh trng to m so.
Nui cy m so c thc hin i vi cc loi thc vt khng c kh nng
nhn ging thng qua nui cy nh sinh trng.
Cy ti sinh t m so c c tnh ging cy m v t mt cm t bo m
so c th ti sinh cng mt lc nhiu chi hn nui cy nh sinh trng nhng
phng php ny to ra mc bin d t bo li cao hn.
c. Gieo ht lan ny mm trong iu kin in-vitro, ri ti sinh thnh cy hon
chnh
Thng sau khi th tinh, mt cy lan cn thi gian t 6 thng n 1 nm
qu chn. Thng thng ht lan tung ra v pht tn nh gi. Tuy nhin, ht lan rt kh
ny mm trong t nhin (ch ny mm t 1-2%) do ht lan khng c cha
anbumin v mt phi cha phn ha, c kch thc rt nh nn khng cha cht
d tr. V vy trong t nhin ht lan ny mm n cn cng sinh vi nm. C 3

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

loi nm cng sinh trn nhiu ging lan khc nhau c bit:
Rhizoctonia repns c bit cho Cattleya, Laelie, Cypripedium
Rhizoctonia mucoroides cho Vanda v Phalaenopsis
Rhizoctonia lanuginosa cho Oncidium, Miltonia
Nm s cung cp ng nui cy, phn gii cc cht hu c kh hp thu.
B li cy s cung cp nc cho nm, ch , cc khong cht m n thu c t
sng.
Da trn nguyn tc ny, cc phng th nghim nui cy m to mi
trng gieo ht lan trn mi trng dinh dng nhn to c khong, ng v ht
lan ny mm vi t l rt cao. Hin nay, phng php nui cy m l phng
php duy nht c th nhn ging lan trn qui m cng nghip.
Tri lan khi hi phi gi v cha b nt c em kh trng. Mi
trng cy chuyn l mi trng gieo ht nhng b sung thm 10% nc da cho
protocorm pht trin nhanh.
Khi chi ln chuyn sang mi trng nh mi trng c bn, sau
khong 6 - 7 thng ty ging khi cy cao t 4-5 cm, ra r v c t 4 - 5 l l c th
mang ra ngoi trng.

Hnh 1.1. Ht lan ny mm sau 30 ngy bng phng php nui cy m


d. H thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi trong nhn ging Lan H ip lai
Phalaenopsis hydrid
H thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi l mt h thng khng nhng tn
dng c cc u im ca nui cy lng v nui cy trn thch m cn hn ch
c nhc im ca hai h thng nui cy trn gip to ra mi trng nui cy
thong kh, cy con khe mnh, t l sng st cao, gim chi ph nhn cng, tit kim
v gim chi ph mi trng nui cy do s dng t mi trng trn mt mu cy v
khng s dng thch, h s nhn c gia tng nhiu ln so vi khi nhn ging
trn h thng nui cy thng thng.
ng dng h thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi trong nhn ging cy Lan
H ip lai (Phalaenopsis hybrid) nhm mc ch kho st kh nng ng dng
ca h thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi trong nng cao s lng cng nh cht
lng ca cy ging H ip khi so snh vi cc h thng nui cy thng
thng gp phn m ra kh nng sn xut vi s lng ln cy ging c
cht lng tt p ng vi nhu cu th trng ti Vit Nam.
1. H thng RITA

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

pT1 Electric-valve

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

() Pump

Filter

Hnh 1.2. H thng RITA, Pha 1: m khng ngp trong mi trng,


Pha 2: hin tng ngp c hot ha, cc van m ra cho kh i qua cc mng
lc y mi trng lng ln ngp m cy, Pha 3: s trao oi kh trong h thng
RITA, Pha 4: chu k kt thc, cc van ng li v mi trng lng rt xung
ngn bn di.
H thng RITA (Hnh 1) l cng trnh ca Teisson v Alvard vo nm
1995. Mt bnh cha 1 L gm c hai phn, phn trn cha mu cy v phn
di cha mi trng. Mt p sut vt mc tc ng vo mi trng lng
cha trong phn di v y chng dng ln ngn cha mu cy. Mu cy
c ngp chm trong mi trng lng lu hay mau ty theo thi gian p sut
vt mc c duy tr. Trong sut thi gian ngp, khng kh c sc vo
trong mi trng lng, mi trng c chuyn ng lm cho mu cy xoay
tr c cc mt tip xc vi b mt mi trng, p sut vt mc sau
c thot ra bn ngoi nh mt ng ra pha trn u h thng.
2. H thng bnh sinh i BIT
(2)

r
%

*
u

L J

=hf-<B

(1) Air p ump


(2) Solenoid valve
(3) Bacteral air vent

Hnh 1.3. H thng bnh sinh i BIT

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

H thng bnh sinh i BIT c thit k bi Escalona v cng s (1998)


c d nh nhn ging s lng ln qua con ng pht sinh phi soma. i vi
nhn ging theo con ng pht sinh c quan kch thc mu cy i hi mt h
thng c th tch ln hn v r hn. Con ng d dng nht t c trng
thi ngp chm tm thi theo chu k nht nh l ni hai bnh thy tinh hay plastic
c kch thc t 250 mL - 10 L bng mt h thng ng dn, v iu khin to ra p
sut vt mc a mi trng vo bnh cha mu v ngc li. H thng
BIT c thit k p ng vi nhng yu cu trn.
Trong nghin cu ny, h thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi s dng trong
nhn ging thc vt sn xut ti i Loan, Plantima c s dng v so snh vi
phng php nui cy thng thng c s dng bi cc phng nui cy m
Vit Nam nh nui cy trn thch, nui cy lng, lng c lc trong vic nhn
nhanh Protocorm-like bodies - PLBs, ti sinh chi t PLBs v nui cy cy H
ip con hon chnh. i tng th nghim l mt loi Lan H ip lai c tn gi
l Doritaenopsis Taida Salu.
3. H thng Plantima
H thng ny c thit k tng th tng t nh h thng RITA tuy
nhin c thay i v ci tin mt s chi tit nh h thng bm v v tr cc mng
lc. H thng ny c sn xut v cung cp bi Cng ty A-tech Bioscientific ti
o i Loan.
Pumping system 1

Basket

U I

0u

solution

( 0

3
u.

Funnel
Filter

y Silicone tube

Hnh 1.4. Cc thnh phn ca


h thng Plantima

Hnh 1.5. H thng Plantima vi


h thng iu khin chu k ngp

Trong nghin cu ny, h thng nui cy ngp chm tm thi s dng


trong nhn ging thc vt sn xut ti i Loan, Plantima c s dng v so
snh vi phng php nui cy thng thng c s dng bi cc phng nui
cy m Vit Nam nh nui cy trn thch, nui cy lng, lng c lc trong vic
nhn nhanh Protocorm-like bodies - PLBs, ti sinh chi t PLBs v nui cy cy
H ip con hon chnh. i tng th nghim l mt loi Lan H ip lai c
tn gi l Doritaenopsis Taida Salu.
Trong th nghim ny, h thng TIS c s dng nui cy cc chi H ip
in vitro nhm so snh hiu qu ca chng khi so vi h thng i chng l nui

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

cy trn thch thng thng trong bnh tam gic 500 ml, loi bnh ny thng

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


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c cc nh nhn ging in vitro H ip i Loan s dng trong giai on ra


r c s dng nh l mt i chng thc t.
e. Trng lan bng phng php thu canh
Trng Cao ng Temasek sng ch ra mt h thng trng lan theo
phng php thy canh c iu chnh chnh xc dng dung dch i vo [Precise
Influx Hydroponic Growth System (PIHGS) ]. H thng ny s dng my t
ng phn pht mt lng chnh xc dung dch dinh dng vo vng r ca
lan m khng lm cho gi th qu m t.
Cch ny khc phc c mt cch c hiu qu vn thi r m cc
nh nui trng lan bng phng php thy canh ang phi i mt. Cng trnh
hp tc nghin cu 3 nm gia trng Cao ng Temasek v c quan AgriFood Veterinary Authority ca Singapore (AVA) chng minh h thng
PIHGS khi kt hp vi mt cng thc dinh dng thy canh do trng Cao
ng Temasek nghin cu to ra mt cng ngh mang li li nhun cao cho
vic sn xut hoa lan ct cnh bng phng php thy canh. H thng mi ny
c cc cng dng sau:
Cho php trng nhiu cy lan trn mt n v din tch.
Loi tr cng vic phun phn bng tay t nht v vn to pht sinh.
B bt vic phi thay chu nh k cho nhng cy ln, v gim lng
phn bn s dng.
Lm tng ng k cht lng v s lng ca hoa ct cnh khi so snh
vi cc phng php trng truyn thng.
Nghin cu ny xc nhn mt ln na tnh cht a dng ca cng ngh
thy canh trong vic sn xut thng mi hoa ct cnh ngay c i vi nhng
cy d b thi r nh lan. Cng ngh nui trng lan theo phng php thy canh
mi ny c cp giy php cho mt ngi trng lan v v mt cng ty cng
ngh sinh hc trng th nghim quy m nh.
1.2.

Lan H ip
Lan H ip l mt trong nhng ging lan rt c yu thch khng ch
v mu sc, kiu dng m cn mang mt nt p rt sang trng v trang nh.
Chnh v vy, n nhanh chng tr thnh sn phm trng trt mang li hiu
qu kinh t khng ch Vit Nam m cn nhiu nc trn th gii nh i
Loan, Nht Bn, H Lan, M...
H ip l mt loi hoa rt kh nhn ging, thng cho h s nhn thp
trong iu kin vn m. c c s lng ln cy ging ng thi p ng
nhu cu th trng th cn phi kt hp cng ngh nui cy invitro v k thut
lai to cho t l sng st cao, hn na cng cho thm s a dng v hnh dng
v mu sc.
1.2.1. Tn khoa hc v phn loi
Lan H ip l ging lan c tn gi Phalaenopsis Blullle, 1825 , thuc h
ph Vandoideae Tng Vandeae. Lan H ip c tn khoa hc l Phalaenopsis
amabilis l loi lan c hoa ln, p, bn.
Ging Phalaenopsis gm 21 loi lan pht sinh, a nng c bn o M
Lai, Indnxia, Philipin, cc tnh pha ng n v Chu c.

_____________________________________________________________________

Lan H ip c khm ph vo nm 1750, u tin c ng Rumphius xc


nh di tn l Angraecum album. n nm 1753, Linn i li l Epidendrum
amabile v 1825, Blume, mt nh thc vt H Lan nh danh mt ln na l
Phalaenopsis amabilis Bl., v tn c dng cho n ngy nay.
Tn gi Phalaenopsis bt ngun t ting Hi Lp trong Phalaina c ngha l
con bm v Opsis c ngha l ging nh.
Phalaeopsis c ngun gc ng Nam v Chu c, mc cao 200400
m, kh hu m, nhit t 20-350C.
Trn th gii, lan H ip c trn 70 loi v cng ngy cng lai to ra rt
nhiu.
Vit Nam c khong 5-6 loi Lan H ip thun, bao gm Phalaenopsis
gibbosa Sweet, Phalaenopsis lobbii (Rchob.f), Phalaenopsis fuscata Rchob.f.. Hu
ht u c hoa nh nhng mu sc sc s v hng thm c o.
Hoa Lan H ip gm cc phn
sau:
- Cnh i hoa bn ngoi c kch
thc nh nhau v mu sc ging nhau.
- Ba cnh bn trong l ba cnh hoa
nm xen k vi ba cnh i bn ngoi. C
iu hai cnh bn c kch thc ln hnh
dng ging nhau v c cng mu sc, cnh
hoa th ba cn li c hnh dng v mu
sc ni bt hn, quyn r hn hai cnh
bn nn c t tn ring l cnh mi.
- gia hoa l phn tr hoa, y l
c quan sinh dc ca hoa lan, gm c nh
c v nh ci (non). S th phn ca hoa
lan cng ging nh s th phn Hnh 1.6.
Cu to hoa lan H ip ca hoa nhiu ging cy tri khc, cng
nh vo cc loi cn trng nh ong, bm...
T ngy non c th phn cho n ngy tri chn, ty theo tng loi,
nhanh nht l vi thng, v chm nht l c nm.
Trong thin nhin cc ht lan s ny mm vo ma ma, khi mi trng
xung quanh m t, ht lan ny mm nh mt loi nm k sinh nhim vo trong cc
ht , l nm Rhizoctonia. Cc loi nm ny c th l:
Rhizoctonia mucoroides: gip ny mm ht lan Vanda, Phalaenopsis.
Rhizoctonia repens:
gip ny mm ht lan Cattleya, Laelia,
Paphiopedilum...
Rhizoctonia lanugiosa: gip ny mm ht lan Oncidium, Miltonia,
Odontoglosuum...
Ngy nay tt c cc cng vic trn u do con ngi m nhn c th th
phn c theo mun. Cng vic ny c thc hin mt cch n gin v nhanh
chng, ch cn dng 1 que g vt nhn, cy b np ct nhy, th khi phn s bm
dnh ly u chic que; sau y chng ta s a ton b khi phn dnh vo que
t trn u nhy ngay pha di phn ca hc phn._________________________

1.2.2. Mt vi c im ca Lan H ip
Lan H ip gm cc loi cO hoa ln p, cung ngan gom li thnh nhng
chm lng lo : n hay phn nhnh. L di v cnh hoa phng, tri rng, thng th
l i ging v gn bng cnh hoa. Mi lin tc, c gc trc ko di, v mang mt
im nh nh gc, phin bn tri rng hay hng ln mt t, phin gia tri ra
nguyn vn hay c 2 phin di, hp v c da, nhng b phn ph c dng thay i :
tr bn nguyt dy bn trn, thng hay hi cong.
Lan H ip c mu sc phong ph, khng thua km bt c ging lan no
khc t trng, hng, , vng, tm n cc loi h ip c sc nm ngang hoc thng
ng, hoc c m to hay nh v.v...

Hnh 1.7. Lan H ip


Nhng loi lan ny lun bm cht vo nhng ci cy trong rng su hoc
bm vo . Chng c nhng ci l to, rng mng nc v cung hoa un cong mang
nhiu hoa. Thng mt cy c 5 n 10 l v nhiu r mu trng. Mt s loi cung
hoa mang nhng hoa trn to. Nhng loi c cung hoa ngn v hoa c mu sc s
gm mu trng, hng, vng, hoc cnh hoa c s pha trn cc sc, vin hay m.
Ngoi nhng loi ny, mt s ln ging lai c kh nng thch nghi trong iu kin
nhn to hn so vi mi trng t nhin. Mt yu t quan trng ca lan h ip l
trong iu kin nhn to thi gian hoa tn l 3 thng. Mt s loi khc v ging lai
th thi gian hoa tn c th ko di hn. Mt s ging c th ra hoa quanh nm. Ma
lan bt u n hoa t thng 12 n cui thng 5.
Lan h ip c nhiu hnh dng v kch c. Bn c th t n vo chu ring
hoc b chung vo mt chu. Nhng ci chu thng thng cha c nhiu cy v
cy c th ra hoa trong vng hai nm, nu chng c chm sc hp l. Cc cy con
c sn trong phng th nghim s c a ra ngoi v kch thc ca cy ph thuc
vo ln cu l, m rng ca l c o t nh l n imi din. Thng
thng, mt cy c chiu di l khong 20cm hoc ln hn c xc nh khi cy c
hoa u tin n, tuy nhin mt s loi chiu di l ch t 10cm khi hoa va mi n.
Yu cu v nh sng v nhit
Lan h ip cn nh sng pht trin tt. Trong nh, lan h ip a thch
mt v tr gn ca s c nh sng nhng nh sng mt tri trc tip th khng nn,
c bit hng mt tri chiu vo lc sng sm hoc chiu mun l l tng. Bn c

th cho n chiu sng nhn to. Cc n chiu sng nn t pha trn ca cy v


nn chiu t nht 12 n 16 gi hng ngy. Trng hp trong nh knh, bn nn che
bng tm vi nht l trong ma h.
Loi lan ny cn nhit ban ngy l 18-29 0C v nhit ban m l 13-180C.
Trong sut ma thu, nhit nn duy tr di 16 0C lin tc trong 3 tun khi cm hoa
bt u xut hin. Thng thng s thay i bt thng v nhit v m c th
l nguyn nhn lm rng n.
m v nc ti
Lan h ip cn 50-80% m. Nu m thp hn bn c th dng mn
che, nhng thnh thong vic lm ny c th gy ra nm bnh. Mt bin php
phng khc l gi cy trong mt ci bt c cha si hay cui v nc. Bn phi
m bo cy phi trn si, cui v khng chm vo nc. Vic ti nc cho
nhng cy ny l quan trng v nn thc hin mt cch cn thn. Vo ma h, bn
c th ti nc cho cy khong 2-3 ngy mt ln, ngc li vo ma ng, khong
10 ngy ti mt ln Thi gian tt nht ti nc l bui tra, v l s kh cho ti
ti. Nc dnh li c th dn n s thi l. V th, cch tt nht l ti nc cho cy
ph hp vi tng ma, ng thi cng xem xt nhu cu nc v gi th s dng (gi
th thng c s dng l v cy, trn chu, v cy dng x, than ci).
Phn bn v thuc tr su
Phn bn nn c s dng thng xuyn hn vo ma h, khi cy ang
trong giai on tng trng. Trong ma ng, cy s s dng t hn. Lun ti nc
cho cy y trc khi bn phn. Loi phn bn vi cng thc n nh nh l NPK
14-14-14 l tt nht cho cy. Cy ang ra hoa s dng cng thc c hm lng
photpho cao hn. (10-30-20). Sut nhng thng ma ng bn c th gim lng
phn bn xung v bn cho cy mt ln trong mt thng.
Rt c li khi lp li vic bn phn cho cy trong sut thi gian cy n hoa.
Lan h ip i lc cng thu ht su hi ging nh su c n, nhn, rp, c sn. Khi
nhng con su hi bm vo l s c loi b bng nc x phng sau ra sch li
bng mt ming vi mm. Thm ch bn c th s dng thuc tr su thng mi.
Kch thch ra hoa
Hoa lan h ip tn sau khi n 3 thng. Sau khi hoa tn, bn c th iu khin
cho cy ra hoa li bng cch ct b ton b cung hoa. Thnh thong vic lm ny
cng c th cho mt cm hoa mi, m n c th xut hin trong vng 9 thng.
Phng php ny rt tt nu cung hoa gi v c mu nu. Nhng, nu cung hoa
cn mu xanh, bn c th ct mt t trn cung hoa. on cnh ct b di khong
10-12cm. iu ny c th gip hnh thnh mt cnh mi trong vng 23 tun.
Thay chu
Lan h ip c thi gian sng rt di. iu c ngha l cc bn s phi bit
khi no v lm nh th no thay chu cho cy. C hai l do m cy cn c thay
chu, hoc l cy khng sinh trng c trong chu ang trng hoc gi th b
phn hy v khng khng kh duy tr cho r pht trin tt
Vic thay chu c th thc hin mt ln trong mt nm hoc hai nm. Ma
thch hp nht thay chu l ma xun.
R cy pht trin lan ra s ph ln chu v gi th trong chu lm bt kn

cc khe h gia cc r, khng c khong trng gia gi th v r cy. im bt u


ca thn cy nn c gi mt on ngn di gi th. Sau khi thay chu nn gi
cy trong bng mt v ti nc sau 3 ngy.
Trng lan khng kh hay cu k. Bn c th t ho s hu nhng cy lan
nhp ni vi nhng bng hoa y mu sc. Hy t tin, chn lan h ip lm cho
cuc sng ca bn trn y mu sc v hng thm.
1.2.3. Nhu cu v gi tr kinh t ca Lan H ip
Lan H ip l loi hoa vng gi, vi v p vng gi, qu phi nn khp
ni trn th gii ngy cng c nhiu ngi thch chi hoa Lan. Chnh v vy, hoa Lan
l sn phm trng trt lun c gi tr kinh t cao. Bt kp th hiu ny, ngy nay
xut hin nhiu c s kinh doanh hoa Lan vi nhiu chng loi, gi c khc nhau. Th
trng hoa lan hin nay rng, nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng rt cao nhng c mt
thc t l ta vn phi nhp hoa thnh phm t Thi Lan, i Loan... Ging hoa a s
cng nhp t nc ngoi hoc mt hnh thc to ging ph bin l cy m t ging
ca ngi ta v trong nc cung cp khng ging cung ng.
Theo kho st ca S Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn TP.HCM, din tch
trng lan TP.HCM hin khong trn 50ha, tng gp 2 ln so vi cch y 2 nm.
th ha nng thn, din tch t sn xut ngy mi thu hp khin ngnh trng hoa
lan cng l r u th ca n: ch cn din tch nh nhng thu c li nhun cao.
Trn mt ha t trng hoa lan ct cnh, c th thu v trn mt t ng mi nm.
Cui nm 2005, Trung tm Ging v K thut cy trng Ph Yn cung cp
20.000 cy lan con c sn xut t cng ngh nui cy m cho mt i tc TP H
Ch Minh xut khu i i Loan v Canada. Nm 2006 c th cung cp
300.0 - 500.000 cy lan cy m theo yu cu ca khch hng.
Khc vi nhiu loi cy trng khc, i vi ngh trng lan ct cnh, ging mi
lun l yu cu t ra hng u, bi th trng kh nhy cm vi mt hng ny. Mi
thng, ring v ging cy lan, TP.HCM nhp khong 40.000 cy lan ging, gi trung
bnh 45-50.000/ cy. Tnh s s, tin mua ging cho lan ct cnh, mi thng, TP.HCM
phi chi gn 2 t ng.
TP.HCM l mt th trng tiu th hoa lan cc loi cc k ln, mi nm tiu
th hng triu cy hoa cc loi, ring hoa lan th cng khong 1 triu cy. C th ni
hin nay sn xut hoa lan nui cy m kinh doanh th khng phi lo lng nhiu v
th trng. H s xut m rng phng m nu nhu cu s lng ca pha i tc
tng cao. Khng nhng phi nhp v ging lan, ngay c lng hoa lan ct cnh sn
xut ti ch cng ch p ng 15% nhu cu th trng, 35%
ngun t Lt ch v v 50% cn li phi nhp t cc nc Thi Lan, i
Loan.
Ch Hng, ch ca hng hoa ti ch Bn Thnh cho bit, khch hng kh
chung lan ct cnh ca Thi v i Loan bi tnh a dng ca n. Trung bnh
mi tun, th trng TP.HCM nhp hn 20.000 cnh lan Thi v 15.000 cnh t
i Loan. Gi nhp ty loi, giao ng t 4.000-6.000 ng. Nh vy, ch tnh
ring ngun lan ct cnh t hai nc ny, mi nm, thnh ph phi nhp gn 9
t ng.
Trong gii trng hoa lan ct cnh, trc ht phi ni n anh Trn Vn
Bch ( Q.Tn Bnh, Tp HCM), c mnh danh l t ph trng lan ct cnh.

Nm
1996, anh Bch u t 2.000 cy lan ging. V u, mi tun ct hai ln, thu
li khong 5 triu ng/ thng. n nay, vi trn 1ha lan ct cnh c trn
50.000 cy, li nhun anh thu v mi nm gn t ng.
Ti vn lan ca anh Thanh, mi cy lan c gi trung bnh t 100.000 n
200.0 ng, c cy thuc loi hng c gi ln ti 4 - 5 triu ng.
T khi trng ti lc thu l khong 40 ngy; dng ko sc ct cnh, ng
gi, giao cho cc ch u mi. Gi bn t 4.000 - 14.000 /cnh; cy ging
25.0
- 45.000 /cy (tch t cy m). Qua vic trng lan - ct cnh, mi nm
gia nh ch Gm thu nhp trn di 500 triu ng, t vic bn hoa v lan
ging.
1.3.

Cc m hnh vn m Lan H ip

1.3.1.

Nh knh
Nh knh l mt khu vc sn xut bc cao ca vn m vi kt cu sau:
+ Khung gin lm bng st chng gi
+ Lp cc khung bng nhng tm knh trong sut hoc nha
polyethylene + C 1-2 ca ra vo v c ca s bng kch thc ca s ca
nh bp.
+ Nha bc nh knh l polyethylene t 3-5 lp, c ph li mu en
hoc xanh en.

+ H thng ti phun, xt nhng git nc ng dng v c lp t cui


im nh knh, c mng xi thot nc, ca tri ng knh 1,3m- chnh gia mi
nhp ti im cao nht ca kt cu nh knh.
+ V tr nh knh nn chn ni quang ng, c nh sang, c h thng thot
nc, nhng nh knh s dng lu di phi c ngun nc ngm thp v m bo
sch s lm bng gch s bn hn. Cc thit b nh thit b phun ti, thit b tng
nhit, thit b gi m, thit b che bong, cc gi hoa v gin treo.
Tu tng vng, tng a phng hoc tu chc nng m nh knh c th c

phn loi nh sau:


+ Nh knh mi ch A + Nh
knh mi dng vm + Nh knh
mt mi nghing
+ Nh knh sinh sn ( vi chc nng cung cp ht, gim cnh chm sc cy
con. h thng thot nc c treo trn trn)
+ Nh knh vi tnh ho (phn mm v phn cng my tnh cho php kim sot
t ng nc phn phi v kh hu trong nh knh).
Nh knh c nhng u im ni bt nh:
+ iu tit nhit , nh sang, m, to ra mt khu vc c kh hu nhn to
ph hp vi loi cy ang trng trong nh knh hin ti. Hn ch ra tri t
+ Phng chng su bnh, ngn chn vi sinh vt c hi xm nhp cy trng
pht trin v tng nng sut cht lng.
+ Quay vng s dng nhanh, cho php ti u s dng phn bn v phn phi
s lng trong sut ma v gieo trng.
+ Kim tra thng s sn xut bao gm kh hu, phn bn, kim tra sinh hc
bnh cy v cn trng.
Bn cnh nhng u im ni tri nh knh c mt vi nhc im:
+ Cc thit b t ng hu ht nhp t nc ngoi v, trong nc khng t sn
xut c. i hi vn u t v xy dng cao. Chi ph bo hnh cc thit b tng
i ln.
+ Yu cu ngi vn hnh cc thit b phi c chuyn mn cao, bit s dng
cc thit b mt cch thnh tho cc my mc lp t trong nh knh.
1.3.2.

Nh li
Trc y nh li c xy dng kh n gin vi nhng khung bng g
chng, bao quanh li thp v trn ph li nha nhng hin nay nhng ngi nng
dn s dng ct b tng, x st v u t mt cch chc chn. Chiu cao ca nh
li ti thiu l 2m. Li lp mi c 2 x 2 mm, li treo xung quanh c 1 x 1
mm. Nh li c th lp t cc h thng phun ti, lm mt nhng cn th cng
hn so vi nh knh.
Hin nay c cc kiu nh li ph bin trong sn xut nh:

ACN2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh
r

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh1.9. Nh li kn (tri) v nh li h (phi)


Loi nh li kn
+ Ph hon ton bng li c trn mi cng nh xung quanh, c ca ra vo
cng c ph bng li kn.
+ Mi bng v mi nghing 2 bn.
+ Khung nh lm bng ct b tng hoc khung st hn hoc bt c vt.
+ Chiu cao h=2-3 m, din tch S=500-1000m2
+ Li che bng vi mng mu trng hoc xanh l cy.
Loi nh li h
+ c che ch yu trn mi v 1 phn bao xung quanh
+ Kiu mi bng v mi nghing 2 bn.
+ Khung nh: ct b tng hoc khung st hn hoc bt vt.
+ Chiu cao ca nh li loi ny l h=2-2,5m vi din tchS=500-1000m2
+ Mi lp bng li hoc nylon mng np bng dy in,
mi trn
mi
di cch nhau mt khe h 25-30 cm ( c tc dng i lu)
Mc d nh li c vn u t t, d lm trong quy m tng h gia nh
nhng n cng c nhng nhc im c bn v vt liu nh bn khng cao, thi
gian s dng ngn, thi gian s dng tt nht l khong 6-8 thng sau li b rch
v h hng. Nhng vn m nh li cng cha th gii quyt c nh:
+ Quy trnh k thut canh tc cy trng trong nh li cha c nghin cu
mt cch khoa hc m ch yu p dng t quy trnh canh tc ngoi ng rung. Vn
su bnh pht sinh trong nh li do canh tc lin tc.
+ Cha gii quyt c bi ton nh hng ca gi, nhit cao trong nh
li. Cha m bo kn gi do d dng b cc loi su hi c kch thc nh
xm nhp.
+ Quy m, din tch nh li cha c xc nh bao nhiu l ti u ph hp
s lng xc nh, kh nng c gii ho, hiu qu kinh t.
1.3.3. M hnh vn m kt hp
Cng nh trn th gii, Vit Nam hin nay c nhng m hnh kt hp gia
nh li v nh knh to ra mt quy m vn m kh hon chnh, va tit kim chi
SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph
Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 16 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

ph m vn thu c nng sut v cht lng cao. p dng cho m

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 17 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

hnh sn xut thu hiu qu kinh t cao th vn m chia lm cc khu nh


nh nh khu hun luyn cy m, khu chm sc cy con, khu chm sc cy trng
thnh, khu chun b t, phn bn, gi th v cc nguyn vt liu khc.. .Cc khu
nh nh ny c chc nng ring bit ng vi tn gi. Chng c phn cch bng
cc lung t hoc cc tm li che bng tre hoc li st c mt nh. Cc li i
thng nhau trong cc nh nh ny khong 1-1,5m. Bn cnh , cc gin ti phun,
cc h thng gi m, h thng lm mt, h thng iu chnh nh sng c nhng im
khc nhau nhm phc v mc ch ring ca tng khu nh.

PHN II QUY TRNH SN XUT LAN

2.1. Quy trnhcng ngh sn xut lan H ip

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 18 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 2.1. S quy trnhcng ngh sn xut lan H ip


2.2. Thuyt minh quy trnh sn xut lan
2.2.1. Ly mu
H ip l mt loi lan rt kh nhn ging, thng cho h s nhn ging
rt thp, p ng nhu cu vo mu vi s lng ln. Hn na, chng ta
khng th dng nh sinh trng cho qu trnh ny c do phng php ny
thc hin kh mt cch thnh cng, nh sinh trng qu b nh nn khng th

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 19 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

ti sinh hoc cht i qua bc kh trng. Chnh v th ta dng pht hoa lm vt


liu nui cy, pht hoa H ip c cha cc mt ng phn gc, c b mt nhn
bng d kh trng t l thnh cng cao m vn to c dng cy v mt di
truyn.
Chn pht hoa: Pht hoa lan H ip c thu khi hoa n ht trn
cnh. Chn nhng pht to kho, ct nhng t cha mt ng di 4cm, tch b
v bao quanh mt ng. Tnh trng mt ng phi cn trng xanh hay hi ca
mu pht hoa, loi b nhng mt ng b ho en v b try st.
2.2.2. X l mu
Lau nh mt ng bng cn 700.
Tin hnh lc vi x phng long trong 3 pht v ra li bng nc sch
loi b ht x phng
Trong t cy, mu c ngm trong cn 70 0 trong 1 pht, sau c
kh trng vi dung dch javel c nng 1:5 trong 25 pht
Tin hnh ra li mu bng nc ct v trng (3-5 ln)
Loi b cc phn b hng, cy mu ln mi trng MS c b sung BA
3mg/l.
iu kin nui cy: mu nui cy c t trong iu kin 250C,
chiu sng 12h v m l 80%.
Sau 10 tun nui cy, cc chi sinh dng hnh thnh t mt ng pht
hoa v mang cc l non rng lm nguyn liu khi to protocorm t m
l.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 20 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 2.2. Ti sinh chi t pht hoa


2.2.3. To cm chi
Cc mu l thu c t cc chi sinh dng c ct theo kch thc 5x5
mm. Cc mu l c t nui trn mi trng MS c b sung cc cht iu ho
sinh trng thc vt NAA 1mg/l, BA 10 mg/l, Adenin 10mg/l.
thun tin cho vic pha cac mi trng nui cy ngi ta thng
chun bi trc di dang m c (dung dch m), sau o chi can pha loang khi
s dung. Cac dung dich m c c bao quan dai ngay trong tu lanh thng
hoc tu lanh su. Cc dung dch m sau khi pha ch, s dng ti a trong 3
thng, v tt nht l s dng trong thng.
Chun bi mi trng Murashige - Skoog (MS, 1962)
Chia mi trng MS ra lam 5 phn, pha ring tng phn.
Bng 2.1. Thanh phn 1 lt mi trng MS
Dung dich m
Nng
Dung tich dung
m /L
( g )
cho 1 L mi
MSi

MS2
MS3

MS4
MS5

KNO3
KH2PO4
NH4NO3
MgS04.7H20
CaCl2.2H2O
H3BO3
MnSO4.4H2O
CoCl2.6H2O
CuSO4.5H2O
ZnSO4.4H2O
Na2MoO4.2H2O
KI
FeSO4.7H2O
Na2-EDTA
myo-Inositol
Thiamine. HCl
Pyridoxine .HCl
Nicotinic acid
Glycine

1900
170
1650
370
440
6,2
22,3
0,025
0,025
8,6
0,25
0,83
27,8
37,3
100
0,1
0,5
0,5
2

trng
20 ml

10 ml
10 ml

10 ml
10 ml

Ly 20 ml dung dich me MS1, 10 ml MS2, 10 ml MS3, 10 ml MS4 va 10ml MS5

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

cho vao cc thUy tinh th nht.


Bo sung cac cht iu khin sinh trng cn thit cac nOng khac nhau
vo dung dich MS:
D

Nc da 15%

NAA 1 mg/l

BA 10 mg/l

D
D

Adenine 10 mg/l
Thm 20 g saccharose vao va khuy tan.
Ly 8 g agar cho vao 1 cc thuy tinh khc , b sung 300 ml nc ct va un
si cho n khi agar tan ht.
dung dich MS cc th nht vao cc th hai ng agar ri thm nc
ct, nh mc n 1l ri khuy u
mi trng a chun bi vao cac bnh nui cy, th tch 40 ml/l bnh. Cn
chia xong mi trng tht nhanh trc khi dung dich ngui xung di 50 oC.
Dng nt bng khng thm nc y kn lai ri em hp kh trung nhit
121oC, ap sut 1 atm/15 - 30 phut.
ngui va rao nc trn b mt mi trng thi mi dung nui cy
(thng thng mi trng sau khi nu 2 ngay la cO th cy c).
Sau 10 tun nui cy, cc protocorm c hnh thnh ch yu t cc mnh
l phn gc v t cc mnh l phn nh.
Sau mt thi gian, cc chi xut hin xung quanh mp l ( ni c vt thng
) tip tc pht trin trong khi phn m l ban u b hoi i. Phin l ban u
c s dng nh ngun dinh dng khi u cho protocorm v cho chi sau ny
nhng h thng mch ca chi c hnh thnh th hon ton c lp vi h thng
mch ca m m.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 2.3. Th protocom


2.2.4. Cy chuyn
Trung bnh c mt cm chi ban u sau 2 thng s cho 6 cm chi mi.
Cc cm chi ny c th chia ra v tip tc nhn ln. Thc hin thao tc cy
chuyn nh sau:
- Dng que cy ly ht cm chi trong bnh nui ra a petri sch v trng,
dng dao cy phn ct cm chi thnh cc cm nh, trung bnh c 1 cm chi ta
chia c 6 phn nh.
+ Ly 1 phn nh em i nui cy trong bnh c cha mi trng MS b
sung sau c th nhn tip.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 23 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

+ 5 phn cn li ta nui trong bnh nui cy c cha mi trng


Knudson C ti sinh cy. Nh v, h s nhn ch y l 5. C 1 phn nh s
cy trong mt bnh mi trng ti sinh cy.
Cc bnh sau khi nui cy, em nui trong gin nui cy vi iu kin nhit
22-27 0C, cng chiu sng l 2000 - 4000 lux.
2.2.5. Ti sinh thnh cy hon chnh
Sau khi nhn nhanh ta tin hnh ti sinh thnh cy hon chnh c y
cc b phn dinh dng bng cch cy chuyn vo mi trng Knudson C ti
sinh cy. Qu trnh ti sinh cy ph thuc rt ln vo thnh phn mi trng,
thng thng chng ta c th dng mi trng Knudson C bnh thng nhng
qu trnh ny nhanh hn th thng b sung thm BA (1mg/l) vo mi trng ny.
Bng 2.2. Thanh phn 1 lt mi trng Knudson C
Thnh phn

Hm lng trong 1 lt mi

Ca(NOs)2.4H2O

trng
1
g

KH2PO4
FeSO4.7H2O
MgSO4.7H2O
(NH4)2SO4
ng saccharose
Agar
Nc ct va

0,25 g
0,025 g
0,25 g
0,50 g
20 g
10 g
1 lt

Lan c kh nng ti sinh thnh cy hon chnh trong iu kin invitro kh


lu nhit 22- 270C, cng chiu sng 2000 - 4000 lux, quang k l 14 gi,
thi gian khong 4-6 thng.
2.2.6. To cy con hon chnh
Sau khong 6 thng cy lan nui cy m s t kch thc khong 8-10 cm
c y cc b phn dinh dng th c th c xut ra th trng tiu th
nhng ni c yu cu. V cy nui cy m nm trong bnh nn rt d vn chuyn i
xa.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

2.2.7. Hun luyn lan nui cy m hon chnh


Trc khi a cy lan ra nh knh nui lan chng ta cn hun luyn nhm
mc ch cy lan quen dn vi nhit bn ngoi vn m bng cch: chuyn
cc bnh cha lan ra nhit bnh thng bn ngoi, trnh nng trc tip chiu ri
vo cc bnh nui cy lan, thi gian ngoi c th t 1 n 2 tun.
Chai hoc hp nui cy m ly ra t phng th nghim c t vo k
vn m cho thch nghi dn iu kin vn m.
- Ly lan con ra khi chai hoc hp m bng cch cho nc sch vo chai
hoc hp lc nh tch lp thch v cy ra. Sau dc ngc vo thau nc sch
cho thch v cy tut ra khi chai/hp.
- Ra sch mi trng bm trn lan con bng cch ra nhiu ln nc sch
trong thau nha. Trnh lm tn hi n l, r... v loi b cc l b h thi. Khng
nn cy con qu lu trong mi trng nc v l, r c b thng th d b ng,
thi cht.
- Ngm lan con vo thau nha cha nc pha thuc nm nng 1%0 trong
vng 2 pht, sau vt ra cho vo r nha, sp xp cc cy theo th t ln nh
cho ro nc.
2.2.8. Chun b chu v gi th
Chun b chu
Chu trng bng nha hay t nung, c l xung quanh u khp, kch c
tu loi v tui. Chn chu khng su, nh, mu trng hoc trong sut th thun
li cho b r pht trin.
Thng chn chu c nhiu l thong d thot nc v lu thng
kh...Tu theo giai on v tui cy m thay dn cc chu ln hn cho ph hp.
Cc ch lan cn chn cng kch c, cng ging, cng tui, b tr theo tng khu
vc d chm sc.
Chun b gi th
S dng than g, x da, mn da, v da, ru nc, than g, gch non,
bt bazan, dn cng, dn mm, ru Chi L, mt s loi khong t nhin...lm
gi th trng lan.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 25 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

- Than g cn cht khc, kch thc 1 X 2 X 3 cm, than phi ngm, ra


sch, phi kh.
- Cm da c sng sch, loi b tp cht, ngm trong nc vi 5% trong
3 ngy, vt ra ri ngm ra sch nc vi, phi kh v bo qun ni kh ro
- X da x cho ti ngm khong 1 tun cho bt tanin ri em phi kh.
Mn da cng cn ra sch phi kh. V da cht khc 1 X 2 X 3 cm x l bng
nc vi 5%.
T l phi trn gi th cho lan H ip
Lan t 0 - 6 thng tui: dng gi th l 100% cm da hay dn trng . Cc
gi th trc khi trng phi c ngm v x nc nhiu ln v phi x l thuc
nm phng bnh.
- Tin hnh trng cy ra v nha, bn di mi y ly ta lt mt ming xp
gip ht nc v thot nc. Cch trng: qun quanh lp r bng ming x
da hoc l dn trng . Sau cho vo v hoc chu.
- Cho v trng ra ni thun dng. Dng bnh xt ti nc 2-4 ln/ngy tu
theo ma nng hay ma ma. Ch ch ti nc t l.

Hnh2.4. V trng lan


Lan t 6 thng tui tr ln: 60% than ci +20% v da cht khc +20% ru
nc (nu l ru Chi L th cng tt).

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 26 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh2.5. V da cht khc


2.2.9. K thut chuyn chu
Sau khi a t bnh thy tinh ra trng trong khay nha, khong 3-4 thng
c th chuyn chu 1 ln. i vi Lan H ip, thi gian t khi trng cy cy m
n lc ra hoa l khong hn 1 nm.
T cy con, sau khong 3- 4 thng trng, chng ta s chuyn chu v cy
con s pht trin thnh cy trung. C th sau khong 3- 4 thng trng, chng ta
tip tc chuyn chu, cy trung s pht trin thnh cy i ri thnh cy vi mang
n hoa v bt u tr bng. Bn cnh , ch dinh dng, nhu cu nc ti,
nh sng, m... cn c cung cp v iu chnh hp l theo tng giai on.
+ K thut chuyn chu ln th nht
Sau khi trng c t 4 - 6 thng, lan c chuyn sang chu c ng
knh 8,3cm. Ly cy ra khi bu, tch b gi th c v thay bng gi th mi ri
trng li vo chu mi nh nhng trnh lm tn thng n r. Di y chu nn
lt 1 - 2 ming xp gip chu thot nc tt, trnh lm cy b ng.
chm sc cho cy sau khi thay chu ln 1 phi phun dung dch dit
khun. Trong t 3 - 5 ngy u khng cn ti nc nhng vn phi gi m cho
cy cng nh mi trng xung quanh.
+ K thut chuyn chu ln th hai
Lc ny cy c t 16 - 20 thng, ng knh chu chuyn sang phi t
12 cm. Cch thay chu ln ny tng t nh ln u nhng ch dng dao, ko
sc ct bt cc r gi trc khi trng li.
SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph
Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 27 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Ch trong giai on ny ch che sng nh sau: nh sng ma h gim


t 60-70%, ma ng gim 40-50%, nhit t 20 - 280C, m t 70 - 85%.
Sau khi chuyn chu ln th 2: t 5-6 thng cy c t 4 l v bt u phn
ho mm hoa. Trong thi gian ny cn duy tr nhit thp t 18 - 25 0C hoc
nhit chnh lch ngy m t 8 - 10 0C. Lan H ip c hoa lin tc do x l
nhit thp cng di th hoa cng nhiu, khong cch gia cc hoa cng ngn.
Nu nhit trn 25 0C th khng th phn ho hoa v di 15 0C th khng ra n,
ra hoa.
2.2.10. Chm sc lan
Yu cu v nh sng v nhit
Lan h ip cn nh sng pht trin tt. Lan h ip a thch mt v tr
gn ni c nh sng nhng nh sng mt tri trc tip th khng nn, c bit
hng mt tri chiu vo lc sng sm hoc chiu mun l l tng. Ta c th cho
n chiu sng nhn to. Cc n chiu sng nn t pha trn ca cy v nn
chiu t nht 12 n 16 gi hng ngy. Trng hp trong nh knh, ta nn che
bng tm vi, nht l trong ma h.
Loi lan ny cn nhit ban ngy l 18-29 0C v nhit ban m l 13180C. Trong sut ma thu, nhit nn duy tr di 16 0C lin tc trong 3 tun khi
cm hoa bt u xut hin. Thng thng s thay i bt thng v nhit v
m c th l nguyn nhn lm rng n.
m v nc ti
Lan h ip cn 50-80% m. Nu m thp hn bn c th dng mn
che, nhng thnh thong vic lm ny c th gy ra nm bnh.
Ma h ti nc 7 ngy/ln; ma ng ti nc 10 ngy mt ln.
Nc ti cho lan phi l nc sch, nu nc ging khoan phi qua h
thng lc. Lan H ip c c im chu m, nhng khng chu nc do chng
ta ch nn ti nc cho lan gc. Nu nc nhiu tng git trn l, l s d b
thi. Khi c nc ng trn l, l s c nhiu m en ri thi nhn. Cho nn nh
knh trng Lan H ip thng c mi che lm bng tm lp nylon trong, va c
sng va che c nc ma nh git ng thi trnh vi khun, mm bnh c

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 28 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

th hin din trong khng kh.


Thi gian tt nht ti nc l bui tra, v l s kh cho ti ti. Nc
dnh li c th dn n s thi l. V th, cch tt nht l ti nc cho cy ph
hp vi tng ma, ng thi cng xem xt nhu cu nc v gi th s dng (gi
th thng c s dng l dn trng, v cy dng x, than ci....).
Phn bn v thuc tr su
Phn bn nn c s dng thng xuyn hn vo ma h, khi cy ang
trong giai on tng trng. Trong ma ng, cy s s dng t hn. Lun ti
nc cho cy y trc khi bn phn.
Ch dinh dng cho cy nh sau: Cho vo mi chu 1 vin phn tan
chm v s dng phn NPK c t l 20:20:20, ti hoc phun 10 ngy/ ln (nng
2-3g/ 10 lt nc sch).
thi k ra hoa, cy c ti hoc phun dinh dng NPK. Khi thy cy
lan nh hoa ti phn NPK 6:30:30 nng 2g/lt nc, thi gian phun 7-10
ngy/ln, cho hoa mp hn, bn v sc hoa ti lu hn. Ngoi ra hoa c
bn lu, khong 1-2 thng cn t cy ni thong mt, nhit thch hp 2025oC, nh sng che bt 70%.
c bit khi cy n hoa ngi trng khng nn ti nc hoc dinh dng
ln hoa v nc s lm hoa ng hoc b chy nng. Khi hoa n gn tn, cy c hin
tng yu i nn ct ngay cnh hoa v ti phn NPK 30:10:10 dng cy.
Lan h ip i lc cng thu ht su hi ging nh su c n, nhn, rp, c
sn. Khi nhng con su hi bm vo l s c loi b bng nc x phng sau
ra sch li bng mt ming vi mm. Thm ch ta c th s dng thuc tr su
thng mi.
Kch thch ra hoa
Hoa lan h ip tn sau khi n 3 thng. Sau khi hoa tn, bn c th iu
khin cho cy ra hoa li bng cch ct b ton b cung hoa. Thnh thong vic
lm ny cng c th cho mt cm hoa mi, m n c th xut hin trong vng 9
thng. Phng php ny rt tt nu cung hoa gi v c mu nu. Nhng, nu
cung hoa cn mu xanh, bn c th ct mt t trn cung hoa. on cnh ct b

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 29 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

di khong 10-12cm. iu ny c th gip hnh thnh mt cnh mi trong


vng 2
3 tun.

PHN III TNH CN


BNG VT CHT
3.1. Nng sut ca trung tm
Cy con trong ng nghim:

a = 800.000 cy/1 nm.

Cy con 3 thng tui:

b = 500.000 cy/1 nm.

Cy ly hoa:

c = 300.000 cy/1 nm

3.2. T l hao ht qua cc giai on


Bng 3.1. T l hao ht qua tng giai on

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 30 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh
Giai on

Nui cy m

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

hp ra

T l hao ht

Ra hoa

Chuyn cy t Chuyn cy t
nh knh

nh knh

sang chu

10 %

3%

13 %

5%

3.3. Tnh ton


3.3.1. S cy lan trng thnh ly hoa
S cy ly hoa: c = 300.000 cy/1 nm T l khng ra
hoa: 5 %
S cy trng thnh cn:
300.000
Cl = --------------------- x 100 =

315.789,474 (cy)

100 - 5
S cy trng thnh ly hoa cn: 315.790 (cy)
S cy t nh knh chuyn sang chu T l hao ht
khi chuyn sang chu l 3 %.
315.790
c2 =

--------------------- x 100 =

325.556,701 (cy)

100 - 3
S cy t nh knh chuyn sang chu: 325.557 (cy)
S cy t hp nui cy m chuyn sang nh knh
T l hao ht khi chuyn t hp ra ngoi l 10 %.
S cy chuyn sang vn m:
325.557
c3 =

--------------------- x 100 =

361.729,066 (cy)

100 - 10
S cy chuyn sang vn m: 361.730 (cy)
S cy cn nui cy m

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 31 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

T l nhim khi nui cy l 13 %


S cy nui cy trong 1 nm:
361.730
c4 =

--------------------- x 100 = 415.781,61 (cy)


100 - 13

o Vy s cy ly hoa cn nui cy m trong 1 nm: 415.782 (cy)


S chi ng cn nui cy ban u
Trong mt cm chi c th phn lm 6 phn, mt phn ti sinh cm
chi v 5 phn nhn tip.
5 phn ny tip tc tin hnh cy chuyn nhn nhanh s lng, tin
hnh nhn tip 5 ln na. M c 1 phn li nhn ra lm 5 phn. Vy sau 5
ln c s protocom nh l: 5 x 55 = 15.625 (protocom nh).
Qu trnh tin hnh tip tc l c 1 protocom nh s to nn 5 cy con.
Vy s cy nhn ra c l: 15625 x 5 = 78.125 (cy con)
Nh phn tnh ton trn th s cy cn nui cy trong mt nm p
ng nhu cu cy hon chnh l 415.780,536 cy th s chi ng cn cy lc ban
u l: C = 415.782 : 78.125 = 5,322 (chi)
Vy s chi ban u l: 6 chi ng t cc pht hoa
3.3.2. S cy lan 3 thng tui
S cy ly hoa: b = 500.000 cy/1 nm
S cy t hp nui cy m chuyn sang nh knh
T l hao ht khi chuyn t hp ra ngoi l 10 %.
S cy chuyn sang vn m:
500.000
b1 = ----------------------- x 100 = 555.555,556 (cy)
100 - 10
S cy chuyn sang vn m: 555.556 (cy)
S cy cn nui cy m
T l nhim khi nui cy l 13 %
S cy nui cy trong 1 nm:

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 32 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

555.556

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 33 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

x 100 = 638.570,115 (cy)

b
2

100 - 13
S cy con 3 thng tui cn nui cy m trong 1 nm: 638.571 (cy)
S cy con 3 thng tui cn nui cy m trong 1 qu:
b3 = 638.571 : 4 = 159.642,75 (cy)
o Vy s cy 3 thng tui cn nui cy trong 1 qu: 159.643 (cy)
S chi ng cn nui cy ban u
Trong mt cm chi c th phn lm 6 phn, mt phn ti sinh cm chi v
5 phn nhn tip.
5 phn ny tip tc tin hnh cy chuyn nhn nhanh s lng, tin hnh
nhn tip 5 ln na. M c 1 phn li nhn ra lm 5 phn. Vy sau 5 ln c
s protocom nh l: 5 x 55 = 15.625 (protocom nh).
Qu trnh tin hnh tip tc l c 1 protocom nh s to nn 5 cy con. Vy
s cy nhn ra c l: 15625 x 5 = 78.125 (cy con)
Nh phn tnh ton trn th s cy cn nui cy trong mt nm p ng
nhu cu cy hon chnh l 638.569,604 cy th s chi ng cn cy lc ban u l:
B = 638.571: 78.125 = 8,17 (chi)
Vy s chi ban u l: 9 chi ng t cc pht hoa
3.3.3. S cy con trong ng nghim
S cy con trong ng nghim: a = 800.000 cy/1 nm.
S cy cn nui cy m
T l nhim khi nui cy l 13 %
S

cy nui cy trong 1 nm:


800.000
a1 =
x 100 = 919.540,23 (cy)

100 -

13

o S

cy trong ng nghim cn nui cy trong 1 nm: 919.541 (cy)

Mi tun trung tm nui cy m s lm vic 5 ngy, ngh th 7, ch nht v

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 34 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

cc ngy l ln trong nm (tng cng l 8 ngy). S


tun lmt vic trong nm:
365

52 tun
7
S ngy lm vic trong 1 nm l:
n = 365 - (52 X 2 + 8) = 253 ngy S cy con trong ng nghim cn
nui cy hng ngy:
919.541: 253 = 3.634,549 (cy)
<=> Vy s cy trong ng nghim cn nui cy hng ngy: 3.635 (cy)
S chi ng cn nui cy ban u
Trong mt cm chi c th phn lm 6 phn, mt phn ti sinh cm chi v
5 phn nhn tip.
5 phn ny tip tc tin hnh cy chuyn nhn nhanh s lng, tin
hnh nhn tip 5 ln na. M c 1 phn li nhn ra lm 5 phn. Vy sau 5 ln
c s protocom nh l: 5 x 55 = 15.625 (protocom nh).
Qu trnh tin hnh tip tc l c 1 protocom nh s to nn 5 cy con. Vy
s cy nhn ra c l: 15625 x 5 = 78.125 (cy con)
Nh phn tnh ton trn th s cy cn nui cy trong mt nm p ng
nhu cu cy hon chnh l 919.540,23 cy th s chi ng cn cy lc ban u l: A
= 919.541 : 78.125 = 11,77 (chi)
Vy s chi ban u l: 12 chi ng t cc pht hoa
3.3.4. Lng ha cht trong mi trng MS c b sung cc cht iu ha sinh
trng
1 hp nui cy cha khong 40 ml mi trng, 12 cm chi.
S cy ly hoa cn nui cy m trong 1 nm: 415.782 cy
o 34.649 cy/thng.
1 cm chi to 5 cy con nn s cm chi:
34.649 : 5 = 6.930 (cm chi)

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 35 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

S cy con 3 thng tui cn nui cy m trong 1 nm: 638.571 cy


o 53.215 cy/thng.
1 cm chi to 5 cy con nn s cm chi:
53.214,134 : 5 = 10.643 (cm chi)
S cy trong ng nghim cn nui cy trong 1 nm: 919.541 cy
o 76.629 cy/thng.
1 cm chi to 5 cy con nn s cm chi:
76.629 : 5 = 15.326 (cm chi)
=> Tng s cm chi cn nui cy trong 1 thng:
6.

930 + 10.643 + 15.326 = 32.899 (cm chi)

Vy s cm chi s dng trong 1 thng: 32.899 (cm chi)


1 hp nui cy cha khong 40 ml mi trng, 12 cm chi.
Lng hp nui cy to cm chi s dng trong 1 thng:
32.899
hMS = --------------------

= 2.741,58 (hp)

12
Vy s hp mi trng to cm chi s dng trong 1 thng: 2.742 (hp) Lng
mi trng MS c b sung cc cht iu ha sinh trng:
V = 2.742 X 40 = 109.680 ml = 109,68 lt

Bng 3.2. Lng ha cht cho mi trng MS c b sung


cc cht iu ha sinh trng cn s dng trong 1 thng
Dung dich m
Nng
Tnh cho 109,68 lt mi
(mgA)
trng MS
(m )

MS1:

KNOs
KH2PO4

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

1.900
170

g
208.392
18.645,6

- Trang 36 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh
NH4NO3
MgSO4.7H20
MS2:
CaCl2.2H2O
MS3:
H3BO3
MnSO4.4H2O
C0CI2.6H2O
CUSO4.5H2O
ZnSO4.4H2O
Na2MoO4.2H2O
KI
MS4:
FeSO4.7H2O
Na2-EDTA
MS5:
myo-Inositol
Thiamine.HCl
Pyridoxine.HCl
Nicotinic acid
Glycine
Cac cht iu ha sinh trng

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

1.650
370
440
6,2

22,3
0,025
0,025
8,6
0,25
0,83
27,8
37,3
100
0,1
0,5
0,5
2

108.972
40.581,6
48.259,2
680,016
2.445,864
2,742
2,742
943,248
27,42
91,0344
3.049,104
4.091,064
10.968
10,968
54,84
54,84
219,36

Nc da 15% (~ 150 ml/1 lt mi trng MS c b sung)


V = 150 X 109,68 = 16452 ml

NAA 1 mg/L:

m= 1 X 109,68 = 109,68 mg

BA 10 mg/l:

m = 10 X 109,68 = 1096,8 mg

Adenine 10 mg/l:

m = 10 X 109,68 = 1096,8 mg

ng saccharose 20 mg/1 lt mi trng MS c b sung cht iu ha


sinh trng: m = 20 X 109,68 = 219,36 mg
Agar 8 mg/1 lt mi trng MS c b sung cht iu ha sinh trng m =
8 X 109,68 = 877,44 mg Nc ct 850 ml/1 lt mi trng MS c b sung
cht iu ha sinh trng
V = 850 X 109,68 = 93.228 ml = 93,228 lt
3.3.5. Lng ha cht trong mi trng
Knudson C <=> Tng s cy cn ti sinh trong
1 thng:
34.649+ 53.215 + 76.629 = 164.493 Lng hp nui cy cha
mi trng ti sinh cy s dng trong 1 thng:
164.493

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 37 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh
h

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Knudson C

------------------

= 13.707,75 (hp)

12
Vy s hp mi trng ti sinh cy s dng trong 1 thng: 13.708
(hp) Lng mi trng Knudson C:
V = 13.708 X 40 = 548.320 ml = 548,32 lt
Bng 3.3. Lng ha cht mi trng Knudson C cn s dng trong 1 thng
Thnh phn
Ca(NOs)2.4H2O

Hm lng trong 1 lt

Tnh cho 548,32 lt mi

mi 1trng
g

trng
548,32 g

0,25 g
0,025 g
0,25 g
0,50 g
20 g
10 g
1 lt

137,08 g
13,708 g
137,08g
274,16 g
10.966,4g
5.483,2 g
548,32 lt

KH2PO4
FeSO4.7H2O
MgSO4.7H2O
(NH4)2SO4
ng saccharose
Agar
Nc ct va

PHN IV TNH TON V CHN THIT B


4.1. Phng chun b bnh nui cy
4.1.1. Hp nha nui cy
Hp nha vung c th cha c 12 mu/hp, do Vit Nam sn
xut. ng knh ming: 65 mm Chiu cao bnh: 95 mm ng knh
y: 65 mm

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 38 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 4.1. Hp nha nui cy m


Nguyn liu: nha Polycarbonate.
bn: Hp nha trong sut, thi hn s dng t nht 30 ln hp kh
trng (iu kin kh trng 121oC, p sut 1 atm trong thi gian 20 pht).
1 tun ngh 2 ngy, s ngy lm vic trong thng: 30 - (4 x 2) = 22 (ngy)
S lng hp s dng trong 1 ngy:
X = (2.742 + 13.708 ) : 22 = 747,7 (hp)
D tr: 20 (hp)
Vy s hp cn c trong 1 ngy: 768 (hp).
4.1.2. Ni hp tit trng (Autoclave)
c s dng tit trng hp nui cy sau khi ra sch, tit trng
mi trng, tit trng hp nui cy s dng.
S lng hp mi trng nui cy cn tit trng trong 1 ngy: 748 (hp).
Th tch 1 hp: 0,65 x 0,65 x 0,95 = 0,4 (dm3) = 0,4 (lit)
Th tch cc hp cn hp trong 1 ngy: 748 X 0,4 = 300 (lt)
Ta chn ni hp tit trng hiu:
HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL MODEL do hng
TOSHIBHA-n sn xut Th tch: 180 lt
Kch thc (LxWxH): 1200x600x1500 mm Trng lng:
95 kg
SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph Lp: 09SHLT

Hnh
5.7.
Mi
kh
trng

Hnh 4.2. Ni hp tit trng

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Cng sut: 10 kW
Ngun in: 220V-50 Hz
p sut : 0,235 Mpa
Nhit ln nht: 135 0C
Thi gian kh trng: 0-250 pht/ln.
Mi ngy ta cn hp 2 ln nn s ni cn hp tit trng l:
300 : (180 x 2) = 0,833 (ni hp)
Ta cng cn thm 1 ni kh trng hp cha mi trng sau khi cy nui cy
m c cy chuyn sang hp mi trng mi.
Vy ta cn 02 ni hp kh trng
4.1.3. T sy
S lng hp cn sy trong 1 ngy: 748 (hp)
Din tch 1 hp: 0,65 x 0,65 = 0,43 (dm2) = 0,0043 (m2)
Ta chn t sy nhn hiu: MOV-212 do hng SANYO sn xut Th tch:
157 lt
Kch thc (LXWXH): 730X645X870 mm
Trng lng: 63 kg
Cng sut: 1300 W
Ngun in: 220V- 50Hz
Nhit : 40-250 0C

Hnh 5. s. T s y Hnh 4.3. T sy

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 40 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Din tch 1 sn sy: 0,4 m2.


H s xp: 0,6
S hp sy trn 1 sng: (0,4 : 0,0043) x 0,6 = 56 ( hp )
1

my c 4 gin sy, sy 2 ln 1 ngy, nn s hp sy trong 1 ngy:


(56 x 4) x 2 = 448 S t sy cn phc v: 748 : 448 = 1,67

Ngoi ra cn c 01 t sy dng c th nghim cho phng cy.


Vy s lng t sy cn s dng: 03 t
4.1.4. My ra bnh t ng
S hp nui cy cn ra trong 1 ngy: 748 hp (mi hp nui cy c ra
4 ln).
Vy ta chn my Automatic Bottle Washer ca hng Accutek.
Kch thc: L X D X H = 40 X 30,5 X 60 = 1.016 X 774,7 X 1.524
mm Trng lng: 90,71 kg Tc : 200 bnh/gi Cng sut: 1,1 kW
p sut hot ng: 110 PSI ~ 0,7584
MPa S lng: 01 my

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 41 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 4.4. My ra bnh t ng

4.2. Phng chun b mi trng


4.2.1. T lnh
c dng bo qun dung dch m (s
dng trong 5 tun) v cc ha cht khc nhit
thp, gi c tnh cht ca n.
Ta chn t hiu: MPR-513 do hng SANYO
sn xut.
Th tch: 489 lt
Kch thc (LXWXH): 900X600X1790 mm
Trng lng: 163 kg Cng sut: 225 W
Ngun in: 220V - 50Hz.
Nhit : 2-14 0C
Vy s lng thit b cn: 01 ci

Hnh 5.9. T bo qun ha cht


Hnh 4.5. T lnh bo qun

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 42 -

4.2.2. Cn k thut
c s dng cn cc loi ha cht pha mi tru
trnh nui cy vi lng cn nh nht l 0,01 g/1 ln cn.
Ta chn cn nhn hiu : 572-35 do hng KERN-c
Kh nng cn ti a : 1210 g
c : 0,01 g
lp li: 0,01 g
tuyn tnh : 0,03 g
Khi lng mu nh nht : 0,03 g

Hnh 4.6. Cn ky thut

Giao din RS 232 vi thit b ngoi vi


Chc nng cn m vi tham chiu 1, 5, 10 v 20 mu
Cn chun ngoi
Hin th kt qu bng mn hnh tinh th lng
Bn cn bng thp khng g kch thc: 0 150
mm Kch thc (LxWxH): 310x180x90 mm
Trng lng : 2,5 kg Ngun in : 220V-50 Hz
Vy s lng thit b cn: 01 ci
4.2.3. Cn phn tch
c s dng cn cc loi ha cht pha mi
trng phc v cho qu trnh nui cy vi lng cn nh
nht cc ha cht c chnh xc l 0,001 g/1 ln cn.
Ta chn cn nhn hiu: EW 220-3 NM do hng
KERN-c sn xut
Kh nng cn ti a : 220 g
c : 0,001 g lp li : 0,001g
tuyn tnh : 0,002g Khi
lng mu nh nht : 0,02g

Hnh 4.7. Cn phn tich

Giao din RS 232 vi thit b ngoi vi Chc nng cn m vi tham


chiu 10, 30, 50 v 100 mu Cn chun ngoi
Hin th kt qu bng mn hnh tinh th lng Bn cn bng thp khng
g kch thc: 0 118mm Kch thc (LXWXH): 235X180X75mm Ngun
in : 220V-50Hz Vy s lng thit b cn: 01 ci
4.2.4.

My ct nc
Nc ct c s dng pha ch mi trng nui cy, trng hp cho nui cy

m. Lng nc ct s dng pha ch mi trng MS trong 1 ngy:


109,68 : 22 = 5 (lt)
Lng nc ct s dng pha ch mi trng Knudson C trong 1 ngy:
548,32 : 22 = 25 (lt)
Mi hp cn khong 0,2 lt trng ra, vy lng nc ct cn s dng
trng ra hp nui cy trong 1 ngy: 748 X 0,2 = 150

(lt)

Vy lng nc ct cn s dng trong 1 ngy:


5 + 25+ 150 = 180 (lt)
Ta chn my ct nc 1 ln Model W4000 ca hng
BIBBY (STUART) - Anh sn xut.
Thng s k thut
-Cng sut: 4 lt/gi (~ 32 lt/8 gi)
-Cht lng nc ct:
pH: 5,0 n 6,5
dn in: 1,0 n 1,5 mS/cm
in tr: 0,7 n 1,0m0hm-cm
Nhit : 25 n 350C
Pyrogen: free

Hnh 4.8. My ct nc1 ln

- Nc cung cp:
Lu lng: 2 lt/pht p lc nc:
3 n 100 psi
- Kch thc (W X D X H): 550 X 410 X 410 mm
- Ngun in s dng: 01 phase, 220V, 50/60 Hz
- Cng sut: 6 kW
S lt nc ct sn xut c trong 1 ngy: 4 x 8 = 32 (lt)
S lng my cn phc v trong nui cy: 180 : 32 = 5,625 (my)
Vy s lng my ct nc 1 ln cn dng l: 06 (my)
4.2.5.

My khuy t
c dng khuy khi pha ch mi trng nui cy.
Lng mi trng cn c pha ch trong 1 ngy:
(109,68 + 548,32 ) : 22 = 30 (lt)
Ta c th chn my khuy t gia nhit c th tch ln Mode CB302

- Vt liu b mt bng Ceramic chng n mn


- C n bo an ton khi gia nhit
- C chc nng bo v khi qu nhit
- Lc khuy mnh Thng s k thut
- Th tch khuy: 15 lt
- Tc khuy: 100 n 1.500 vng / pht
- Nhit : 4500C
- Vt liu b mt: Glass ceramic
9

Hillh
My khl|y t

- Kch thc b mt: 300 X 300 mm


- Kch thc vng gia nhit: 200 X 200 mm
- Kch thc my (W X D X H): 300 X 365 X 105 mm
- Trng lng: 7 kg
- Cng sut gia nhit: 1.200 W
- Ngun in s dng: 230V, 50Hz
Ta tin hnh khuy 2 ln/ngy, mi ln khuy 15 lt mi trng.

ACN2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

S lng my cn c: 30 : (15 x 2) = 1 (my)


Vy s lng my khuy t cn s dng: 01 (my)
4.2.6. My opH
Mi trng nui cy m i hi c pH chnh xc nht nh.
Da vo mc ch s dng trn ta chn thit b hiu: pH meterdo hng
TOSHIBHA-n sn xut.
Kch thc (LxWxH): 275x176x175mm Di
o: pH: 0^14
mV: 0^1999 Khong nhit o:
0^100 0C chnh xc: pH: 0,01 pH mV:
1 Ngun in: 220V-50Hz Vy s lng thit
b cn: 01 ci
4.2.7.

Bp un

Hnh 4.10. My o pH

c dng un mi trng agar


1>

,1 ___________/V __________4*

lm gi th nui cy m lan h ip.


Lng agar cn pha ch trong 1 ngy:
(0,87744 +5.483,2) : 22 = 249,3 (g)
Ta chn bp Model CB 500.
Thng s k thut
- iu khin bng analogue
- Nhit : 375o C
- Vt liu b mt: Glass ceramic
- Kch thc my (W x D x H): 520 x 360 Hnh 4.11. Bp un
x 130 mm
- Trng lng: 12 kg
- Cng sut gia nhit: 2.250 W
- Ngun in s dng: 230 V, 50/60 Hz
SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph Lp:
09SHLT

- Trang 46

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn


ging,
sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct
cnh
s lng thit b cn: 01 ci
Vy

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

4.2.8. Pipette
c dng ht chnh xc cc dung dch

L-

ha cht trong qu trnh pha ch mi trng. Chn


pipet c chia ti thiu 2 ml.
Ta chn pipet loi Model L - 20ML ca
hng METTLER TOLEDO, vi khong th tch
2 ml - 20 ml.
chnh xc: 5,0%, 100 ^l

Hnh 4.12 Cc loi pipette

Vy s lng thit b cn: 01 ci


Ngoi ra d tr thm 1 pipet c chia 1 ml (pipet Model L - 10ML ca
hng METTLER TOLEDO, c khong th tch 1 ml - 10 ml).
4.3. Phng cy v trng
4.3.1. T cy (laminar)
T cy c dng cy m vo hp trong iu kin v trng, gip m
cy nng cao sc sng trong iu kin invitro .
Lng mu cn cy trong 1 ngy l: 748 x 12 = 9.216 (mu)
Ta chn t cy hiu: MCV-B91S/F do hng SANYO sn xut.
Kch thc (LxWxH): 930x811x1890 mm
Cng sut n UV: 15 W
Cng sut n chiu sng: 30x2 W
Ngun in: 220V-50Hz
Tc gi: 10 m3/pht
Cng sut tng: 227 W

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

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ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn


ging,
sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct
cnh
Trng lng: 209 kg

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

- Trang 48 -

Hnh 4.13. T cy
Mt ngi cy trung bnh 1 ngy c 600 mu, ta chn 2 ngi cng cy 1
t nn s t cy cn s dng: 9.216 : (600 x 2) = 7,68 (t)
Vy s lng t cy cn s dng l: 08 (t)
4.3.2. Cc dng c cy khc
Gm n cn, giy thm, ng ong cha cn, kp, dao m, ko, a
petri, a khuy bng thy tinh.

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

Hnh 4.15. Dao m

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Hnh 4.16. Panh cy

Hnh 4.14. Cc loi a petri

Hnh 4.17. Giy thm

Hnh 4.18. Giy nhm

Hnh 4.21. a thy tinh Hnh 4.22. ng ong cha cn

Hnh 4.19. Ko

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

Hnh 4.20. n cn

- Trang 50 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Mi t cy dng 02 b, vy phi c 16 b dng c cy.


4.4. Phng nui
4.4.1 Gin n hunh quang nhiu ngn
Cy lan nui cy m sau khong 5 thng mi c xut ra th trng, nh vy
gin n hunh quang phi c kh nng cha hp nui cy trong 5 thng. Lng hp
ti sinh cy trong 5 thng:
13.708 x 5 = 68.540 (hp)
Kch thc gin n hunh quang:
W x D x H = 1.600 x 800 x 1.800 mm Kh
nng cha ca 1 ngn:
(1.600 x 800) : (65 x 65) = 303 (hp)
Nh vy 1 gin 4 ngn c th cha c: 303 x 4 = 1.212 (hp).
S gin n hunh quang cn c: G1 = 68.540 : 1.212 = 56,55 (gin)
Vy s gin n nui lan ti sinh cy: 57 gin

Hnh 4.23. Gin n hunh quang


Cm chi sau khong 2 thng th c s dng, nh vy gin n hunh quang
phi c kh nng cha hp chi trong 2 thng.
Lng hp chi trong 2 thng: 2.742 x 2 = 5.484 (hp)
S gin n hunh quang cn c: G2 = 5.484 : 1.212= 4,53 (gin)

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 51 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Vy s gin n cho nui chi lan: 5 (gin)


Chn d tr l 2 gin
Vy tng s gin n: G = 57 + 5 + 2 = 64 (gin)
4.4.2. My iu ha nhit
iu chnh nhit trong phng nui c nhit thch hp cho s
pht trin ca cy nui cy m. d qun l ta lm 2 phng nui, nh vy mi
phng c 32 gin n hunh quang.
Ta chn my iu ha hai mnh, treo
tng ca hng Trane c kch thc phng
lp t: 32 H- 45 m2.
Thng s k thut'

Hnh 5.12. Thit b iu ha nhit

Cng sut lnh: 24.000 Btu/h


Hnh 4-24- My iu ha nhit

- Lu lng gi: 800 CFM


- M hiu dn lnh: MCW524GA
- M hiu dn nng: TTK524MA
- in ngun: 220V/1ph/50Hz
- Cng sut tiu th in (lnh/si): 2300/2160 W
- Dng in: + dn lnh: 0,27 A
+ dn nng: 11,6 A
- Dng my nn: rto
- iu khin tc qut: 3 tc + auto
- V tr lp t: tng
- Thng s dn lnh: W X D X H = 1.120 X 200,5 X 295 mm
- Khi lng: 13 kg
- Thng s dn nng: W X D X H = 830 X 330 X 590 mm
- Khi lng: 52 kg
Nh vy 01 phng s dng 02 my. Tng s lng my cn: 04 ci

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 52 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

4.5. Nh knh nui lan


c tnh vi kh nng lu tr trong 1 nm.
Qut

IbDg gi

Qut thi

Hnh 4.25. Nh knh nui lan

4.5.1. Gin nui cy lan c chuyn ra t bnh nui


cy
S cy nui cy m hon chnh c chuyn t
bnh nui cy ra ngoi:
(361.730 + 555.556) : 4 = 229.321,5 (cy)
Mt : 170 cy/m2
Vy din tch gin nui cy lan:

Hnh 4.26. Gin nui cy lan

S = 229.321,5: 170 = 1.348,95 m2 Gin c chiu


cao: 0,5 m, chiu rng: 1 m, chiu di: ty theo cch
b tr trong nh knh.
Thit k nh knh c din tch gin m:
6 x12 = 72 m2 S nh
knh cn thit: n = 1.348,95 :
72 = 19 (nh)
Vy s nh knh: 19 (nh)
Hnh 4.27. Qut thng gi

4.5.2. Qut thng gi

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 53 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

Chn qut thng gi loi APB 30A ca cng ty AGIA.

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 54 -

Thng s k thut
in p: 220V
Cng sut: 48W
Lu lng: 18 m3/pht
Kch thc: 500 mm X 500 mm
ng knh cnh qut: 450 mm
Mi nh knh cn 2 ci, vy s lng qut cn c: 19 x 2

= 38

ci
4.5.3. Qut thi
Chn qut Model VF36CS2 ca hng J & D [27]. Thng s k
thut
- ng knh cnh qut: 915 mm
- Kch thc ngoi: A = B = 1016 mm
- Tc : 317 rpm
-

Cng sut: 100 W

Hnh 4.28. Qut thi

Mi nh knh cn 2 ci, vy s lng qut thi cn c: 19 x 2 = 38 ci


4.6. Nh li nui lan
4.6.1. Chu
c s dng trng cc cy c chuyn ra t nh knh.
S dng chu t nung c: ng knh ming 17 cm.
ng knh vnh ngoi: 18 cm
Khong cch gia cc chu l 2 cm, trung bnh 1 chu chim din tch
l: (18+2)2 = 400 cm2 =0,04 m2 Mi cy c trng trong 01 chu.
S chu ln c s dng trong 1 nm: 315.790 (chu)
D tr: 30 chu
Vy tng s chu c s dng trong 1 nm: 315.820 (chu)

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

4.6.2. Gi ch u

Hnh 4.29. Gi chu

chu c s dng trong 1


nm: 315.790 (chu)

Gi

chu: - Cao: 0,5 m


-C

hi

rng: 1 m rng gia cc thanh thp: 18 cm


(t chu lan)
2 cm (khong cch gia cc
h Din tch gi cn thit l: 315.790 x 0,04 = 12.632 m2.
4.7. Tnh kch thc cc cng trnh
4.7.1 Nh nui cy m
Theo quy trnh thit k, cch b tr thit b, nh nui cy m c kch thc:
- Chiu di: 30 m
- Chiu rng: 18 m
- Chiu cao: 4,8m
4.7.2 Nh knh m lan
Theo quy trnh thit k, cch b tr cc gin nh knh c kch thc: o
Chiu di: 12 m o Chiu rng: 6 m o Chiu cao: 3 m Din tch gin m
lan yu cu: 1.348,95 m2 Din tch gin m lan trong 1 nh knh: 72 m2
S nh knh cn thit: 19 nh

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 56 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

4.7.3 Nh li nui lan


Khong cch gia cc gi: 0,533 m
Khong cch li i chnh: 1,5 m
- Chn chiu di nh li 30m
- Chn chiu rng nh li 21m
- Do khch thc ca chu ta chn:
- Chiu rng ca gi l 2,4m
- Chn s gi l 7
- s chu mt hng ngang ca gi l 12
- S chu mt hng dc ca gi l 140
=> Vy s chu hoa trong mt nh
li l:
7x12x140 = 11.760 chu hoa
S nh li nui lan l:

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 57 -

ACN 2: Thit k trung tm nhn ging,


sn xut cy con, hoa phong lan ct cnh

GVHD: T Ngc Ly

315.790 :11.760=27 nh
o Chn 27 nh

SVTH: H Hong Thin Ph


Lp: 09SHLT

- Trang 58 -