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BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN & DRAFTING

BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN & DRAFTING

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Published by Eisa Ibrahim Eisa
Electrical Design manual for commercial & residential projects:

design of the electrical installation in building used to be simple and straight forward . Such installations generally included electrical service from an electricity board company, power distribution within the building for sockets (receptacles ), air conditioning and other electrical loads ,lighting and few specialty system such as fire alarm and telephone.
Electrical Design manual for commercial & residential projects:

design of the electrical installation in building used to be simple and straight forward . Such installations generally included electrical service from an electricity board company, power distribution within the building for sockets (receptacles ), air conditioning and other electrical loads ,lighting and few specialty system such as fire alarm and telephone.

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Published by: Eisa Ibrahim Eisa on Feb 26, 2014
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BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN &
DRAFTING

Engineer : AMJED OSMAN ELSAYED

INTRODUCTION

design of the electrical installation in building used to be
simple and straight forward . Such installations generally
included electrical service from an electricity board company
, power distribution within the building for sockets
(receptacles ), air conditioniong and other electrical loads ,
lighting and few specialty system such as fire alram and
telephone .

Generation , transmission and distributions
of electrical energy

Transmission of Electricity

From power station to consumer

Yard
transformer

Regional
Substation

Zone
Substation

Distribution
Substation

11kV, 17kV,
22kV, 23kV

330kV,
500kV

60kV,
132kV

11kV,
33kV

Generation

Primary
Transmission

Secondary
Transmission

High Voltage
Distribution

230/400V

Power Station

Distribution of Power

5
5

High Voltage and low voltage distribution system

1

2

3

4

Delta/Star
transformer

Three phase four wire distribution
low voltage 230/400V

Consumer 1 and 2: 230V two wire
Consumer 3 : 230/400V three wire
Consumer 4 : 230/400V four wire

Three phase, high
voltage distribution

Bulk Supply Consumer

Three Phase
Star System

Line 1(A)
Line 2(B)
Line 3(C)
Neutral

Types of phase:-

There are 3 phase types:

1. Red phase or phase (A)
2. Yellow phase or phase (B)
3. Blue phase or phase (C)

Phase system:

There are 3 types of phase system :
1. One ø system or 1 phase system
2. Tow ø system or 2 phase system
3.Three ø system or 3 phase system

ELECTRICAL CODES AND STANDARDS:

Electrical codes :- the principles used in electrical design and
installation are know as electrical codes.

Examples :
UK- UAE- QATAR- OMAN- SUDAN:-

UK, UAE, Qatar ,Oman,Sudan follow B.S (British standards) know
IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission)

USA-KSA:-

USA,KSA follow NEC codes (National electrical codes) which is
chapter no 70 in NFPA book (National fire protection association )

European countries:

European countries follow IEC standards (international electrical
technical commission ).

Voltages and codes around the world

U.K → U.K follow B.S codes (also know as IEE regulation )
Normal voltages 230/400V 50Hz.
USA→ USA follow NEC (NFPA 70)
Normal voltage 110/220 60Hz
220/380 60Hz
KSA→ KSA follow NEC (NFPA 70)
Before 2010 KSA was having 2 voltages
127/220 V 60Hz
220/380 V 60 Hz

In 2010 the ministry of electricity decided that new project after
2010 will have only one voltage through out KSA 220/380 60Hz

Voltages and codes around the world

UAE → UAE follow B.S
Normal voltage 230/400v 50 Hz

SUDAN → Sudan follow B.S
Normal voltage 240/415v 50 Hz

Qatar → Qatar follow B.S
Normal voltage 240/415v 50Hz

SWITCH

used for on or off purpose of small equipment like light – ceiling fan
–exhaust fan - socket – water heaters – washing machine – cooking
range- window and split A/C – small water pumps.etc
Rating of switch : the maximum current which can flow through
switch safety without any damages for switch is know as rating of
switch

Standard Rating of Switch

5A
10 A
15 A
20 A
25 A
30A or 32 A

Note

In Gulf we used 10 A switch for light only
In Gulf we used 20 A switch for W/H – W/M etc

Types of Switch

One way switch

Two way switch

Intermediate switch

back box

In Gulf they are 2 standard back box size

1. 3×3
2. 6×3
Gang : represents no. of switch in back box

1 Gang 2 gang 3 gang

Gang

four gang five gang six gang
4 G 5G 6G

Sockets

Types of S/O in BS (Sudan , Oman, Qatar, UAE )
3pin → 13A general s/o
→ 15A s/o for A/C
→ 45A flex outlet for W/H , W/M , C/R

K.S.A : S/Os in NEC standard are know as receptacles
Receptacles → 15A/20A , 220 V
Receptacles →15A or 20A , 127 V

Sockets

Other classification
1. Single S/O outlet : The back box has only one s/o inside .the
back box size is used 3×3.

2.Double or twin S/O outlet : The back box has two s/o , the
back box size is used 6×3

3.Shaver outlet : (110_ 220 v)

WIRES AND CABLES:-

Wire : conductor + insulation (small size)
Cables : conductor + insulation + sheath (large size )
Bare conductor : only conductor (no insulation). Ex, over
head lines in Sudan
Units of wires and cables :
mm² → Sudan and B.S countries (UAE, K.SA,Qatar)
OR
AWG →(American Wire Gnage )
mm² : it is cross sectional area of conductor without
insulation

Equivalent of mm² to AWG

MM²

AWG

REMARK

1.0 mm²

18 AWG

AWG For KSA

1.5 mm²

16 AWG

AWG For KSA

2.5 mm²

14 AWG

AWG For KSA

4 mm²

12 AWG

AWG For KSA

6 mm²

10 AWG

AWG For KSA

10 mm²

8 AWG

AWG For KSA

16 mm²

6 AWG

AWG For KSA

25 mm²

4 AWG

AWG For KSA

35 mm²

2 AWG

AWG For KSA

50 mm²

1 1/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

70 mm²

2/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

95 mm²

3/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

120 mm²

4/0 AWG

AWG For KSA

150 mm²

250 kc MIL

AWG For KSA

185 mm²

350 kc MIL

AWG For KSA

240 mm²

400 kc MIL

AWG For KSA

300 mm²

500 kc MIL

AWG For KSA

CORE OF CABLES

Core (c) represents the numbers of conductors in the cable , there are two
types of the cable based on the cores of cables

1.Single core cable (1c)

2. Multi core cable

(a) 2 core cable (2c)

CORE OF CABLES

(b) Three core cable (3c)

(c)Four core cable (4c)

(d)3 ½ core or 3.5 core

Run of cable:-

Run of cable represents the no .of single core or multi core

Always the earth is separate run and 1c only . no multi core for earth

wire

We prefer multi core cables above 6mm², avoid single cables above

6mm²
1.5 mm² → single core (1c)
2.5 mm² → single core (1c)
4 mm² → single core (1c)
6 mm² → single core (1c)

10 mm² → (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)
16 mm² → (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)
25 mm² → (2c ,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

:
:

300 mm² → (2c,3c , 4c, 3.5c)

Earth wire sizing

Earth wire is dependent on phase size

Wire or cable size for phase and N

Earth wire or cable size

1.0mm²

1.0 mm²

1.5 mm²

1.5 mm²

2.5 mm²

2.5 mm²

4 mm²

4 mm²

6 mm²

6 mm²

10 mm²

10 mm²

16 mm²

16 mm²

25 mm²

16 mm²

35 mm²

16 mm²

50 mm²

25 mm²

70 mm²

35 mm²

95 mm²

50 mm²

120 mm²

70 mm²

150 mm²

95 mm²

185 mm²

95 mm²

240 mm²

120 mm²

300 mm²

150 mm²

Conductor materials :

1.Copper (cu)

2.Aluminum (al)

Insulation materials

1. PVC :(Poly-Viny Chloride)

PVC insulated wires are used for smaller
loads like light , fans , s/o , w/m , w/h , c/r
They can with stand up to 60 C,

2. LSOH : Low Smoke zero Holagen
LSOH insulated wires are used for smaller
loads like lights , fans , s/o , w/h , w/m . c/r .

Insulation materials

XLPE : cross linked polyethylene
XLPE insulated cables are used as main
feeder cable (service wire) for DB OR SMDB
OR MCC OR T/F etc. and for heavy mechanical
load like chiller – AHU – Boilers
XLPE cables can with stand up to 90º c

FR : Fire Retardant or MICC (Mincal Insulated Cable
Conductor )
FR cable are professed for emergency load like
lights fire fighting pumps , emergency lights
,fire alarms cables

Types power cable :

1.Un armoured cable

2. Armoured cable

a)SWA (Steel Wire Armour )
b)AWA(Aluminum Wire Armour)
c)SSA (Steel Strip Armour )
d)ASA (Aluminum Strip Armour)

Voltage classification :-

1. H.V → High Voltage (above 1000 v)
2. M.V → Medium Voltage (250 to 1000v)
3. L.V → Low Voltage (30 to 250 v)
4. ELV → Extra Low Voltage (voltage less
than 30 ac or 54 v dc)
Grade of cable :
means the with stand voltage whether the
cable is for LV or MV or HV.

Color codes of cable

PHASE

In sudan or gulf
countries

New color code
in europe

Phase (A) or (1) Red

Brown

Phase (B) or (2) Yellow

Black

Phase (C) or (3) Blue

Grey

Neutral

Black

Blue

Earth

Green or Y/G Y/G

Final representation of cables :

1×4c×10mm² ,XLPE/SWA/PVC.Cu,0.6/1kv + 1×1c×10mm², pvc /pvc ,cu Y/G

1 → run
4c→ core
10mm²→size
XLPE → insulation
SWA→ armour
PVC→ sheath
Cu → conductor material
0.6/1kv → M.V /L.V grade
Earth
1 → run
1c→ core
10mm²→ size
PVC → insulation
PVC→ sheath
Cu → conductor material
Y/G → Earth

Electrical faults

Types of electrical faults :

Over load
Short circuit
Earth –fault or shock
Over voltage
Under voltage

1. Over load

Over load mean current more than rated current of

equipment
Ex : 10 A rated switch
2A→ safe
6A→ safe
10A→ safe
11A→ un safe (over load current)
When over load current passes then the s/w gets
damage.

2. Short circuit

When any phase of neutral or any two phase meet
each other then infinite current flows through them.
Usually thousands of current in 1 ms (KA of current
in 1ms ), this increase the temperature is know as
short- circuit condition

3.Earth – fault or shock

When any phase meet earth wire or any conducting materials eg
(metals – human body – water – etc. ) some a mount of current
passes in to ground through the earth wire or any conducting material
This current passing to earth from phase wire is know as earth –
leakage current and the fault is know as earth – fault .

Good conductor

Bad conductor

Silver (best)

wood

Cu and AL

Rubber

All metals expect few
semi- conductor

Plastic – paper – glass

Human body

porcelain

Water

Air

Summary

P + N → Short circuit
P – P → Short circuit
P – E or human body → earth fault –
shock
N – E or human body → No effect
E – human body → No effect

Productive devices

The devices which protected from electrical faults are knows
as protective devices

Types of protective devices

1.Fuse → protective from over load only
2.Circuit breaker → protects from over load and s.c faults
3.RCB or ELCB or GFCI→ protects from earth faults or
shock
4.RCBO or RCCB → protects from over load , s.c and
earth faults
5.UVR (Under Voltage Relay)→ protects from under
voltage

Circuit Breaker : The CB is protective devices which can be
operated manually and automatically it trips in case of over load and
short- circuit condition

Standard C.B Rating

5 A to 40 A MCB (Miniature circuit breaker )

50 A to 600 A MCCB
(Modulate Case circuit breaker )

800 A to 3500 A ACB
(Air Circuit Breaker)

Standard short – circuit rating of C.B :

1. 6KA
2. 10KA
3. 6KA
4. 25KA
5. 35KA
6. 50KA
Example

TYPES OF C.B

1.MCB → Miniature Circuit Breaker
2.MCCB→ Modulate Case Circuit Breaker
3.ACB → Air Circuit Breaker

other breaker used in H.V (power plants and s/s )

4.VCB → Vacuum C.B
5. OCB → Oil C.B
6.SF6

Types of MCB

B curve MCB

C curve MCB

D curve MCB

Application of B,C,D curve MCB

1. B curve MCB is preferred for lighting circuit.

2. C curve MCB is preferred for small heavy like W/H –
W/M – C/R

3.D curve MCB is preferred for machine like (backing
machine ).

MCCB(Modulate Case circuit breaker )

Rating 50 to 600A

Types of MCCB

1. Adjustable MCCB:

here we can set the tripping value normally

2. Fixed or un adjustable MCCB

ACB : Air Circuit Breaker

Rating 800 to 3500A
1.Motorized with drawable ACB :

Here the start and stop push buttons are
operated by a motor which is required to
be energized and after it is off we can with
draw the ACB to avoid are flash

2.Motorized non_ with draw able ACB

Here the start and stop push buttons are
operated by a motor which is required to
be energized and after it is off/on we need
to with raw ACB

RCD or ELCB or GFCI

B.S (Sudan and UAE,Qatar)

→RCD (Residual Current Devices )

→ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)

NEC (KSA)

→ GFCI : Ground fault Circuit Breaker

Working principle of RCD

The RCD continuously monitors the current difference
between phase and neutral . if the leakage current is
equal to sensitivity of RCD then the RCD is trip
Recommended sensitivity of RCD :
For lights use 100mA RCD (0.1A)
For sockets use 30 Ma RCD (0.03A)
For W/H- W/M- C/R use 30 ma (0.03A)
For A/C use 100ma RCD (0.1A)
For under water lighting use 10ma RCD (0.001A)

Note: the RCD is provide with a test buttons to verity that RCD
is working propyl

Working principle of RCD

No .of poles :

Since neutral is compulsory in RCD we have

1. Two poles RCD

2. Four poles RCD

Examples

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