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TSUNAMIS OF SEISMIC ORIGIN -Science, Disasters and MitigationN. SHUTO Faculty of Policy Studies, Iwate Prefectural University Iwate 020-019 , !a"an Abstract Present knowledge of tsunamis are reviewed and discussed. The tsunami generation mechanism is not yet fully understood. Theories are examined in relation to observed tsunami henomena. !onditions to be satisfied in numerical simulation are summari"ed. #n addition to loss of human lives$ several disasters are tabulated. %efense works including coastal structures$ city lanning and revention systems are briefly introduced. Three sub&ects in urgent needs are the dee 'sea measurement of tsunamis$ transfer of tsunami knowledge and strengthening of coastal cities against tsunamis. 1. Introduction Since ()*+,s$ tsunami science and technology have been develo ing remarkably$ assisted by the rogress of seismology and com uter science. #n ())+,s$ more than ten disastrous tsunamis occurred in the Pacific. #nternational coo eration is successfully established to survey tsunami heights and to understand the tsunamis. #n the resent a er$ the knowledge commonly used in these works is reviewed and the roblems to be solved in the near future are discussed.

-. !. .al/0ner$ 1. Pelinovsky$ 1. Okal$ !. 1. Synolakis 2eds.3$ Submarine 4andslides and Tsunamis ('5. 67++8 9luwer -cademic Publishers. Printed in Netherlands

The most of causes are submarine earthAuakes. 4ater B7C gave a more com lete set of analytic formulas to com ute the surface dis lacement due to a fault laced in an elastic homogeneous half's ace. The wave height is ? m. #n the ()*+. #t is often noticed that the initial tsunami rofile based u on fault arameters should be made nearly double in order to ex lain the measured tsunami traces. These short wave com onents are not im ortant in case of a far'field tsunami. the initial tsunami rofile$ can be estimated. This difference may be due to heterogeneity of fault movement$ existence of sub'faults$ dynamic movement of fault$ or so on. !auses are submarine earthAuakes$ landslides$ and volcanic action. . !ombined these two$ the final dis lacement caused by an earthAuake$ i. 1ntra ed and scattered by islands and seamounts on the route of ro agation$ their systematic wavy sha e will be lost. Not the ground shaking but the vertical sea'bottom deformation generates a tsunami. This rise may be caused by a sub'fault.2 2. This long wave is considered to correlate with the ma&or energy of the earthAuake and is$ therefore$ estimated from the fault arameters. #n ()*($ =ansinha and Smylie B(C ro osed a method to estimate sea bottom dis lacement caused by an earthAuake if fault arameters were given. This rule is a licable to the ordinary tsunamigenic earthAuake with a serious exce tion$ tsunami' earthAuake. -long the direction of the short axis of the deformation area$ the tsunami initial wave is about >D+ km long with one trough and one crest. Since the Nicaraguan tsunami in Se tember ())7$ more than ten tsunamis gave damages in the Pacific. There is only one exam le of the measured tsunami rofile. Near its crest$ a shar rise was found. #n case of a near'field tsunami$ short eriod com onents that are not estimated from seismic information are very im ortant and are considered to be the ma&or reason of the discre ancy between the measured tsunami heights on the shore and the com uted. This method has been most o ularly used since then.( :1N1.s$ the method to determine the tsunami initial rofile generated by submarine earthAuake was develo ed. #n ()*>$ 9anamori and !i er B8C o ened the way to calculate fault arameters from seismic records with the aid of the advancing high's eed com uter$ by using the ()?+ !hilean earthAuake as an exam le.e. Three of them were tsunami'earthAuakes. Science of Tsunamis 7. This rise about ? m high and 8+ km wide at its base$ although its contribution to tsunami height is a arently im ortant$ can not be estimated from seismic information. Plafker B>C determined the vertical dis lacement caused by the ()?> :reat -laska earthAuake$ by dis lacement on islands and by com arison with a re'earthAuake to ogra hy. Sometimes$ however$ the tsunami initial rofile thus determined cannot satisfy the tsunami energy distribution measured along the shoreline. The greater an earthAuake is$ the larger the vertical dis lacement is and conseAuently the greater tsunami is generated. Only long eriod com onents can arrive at distant shores$ not disturbed so much by to ogra hy along the ath.-T#ON O< TSUN-=#S Since Thucydides$ a :reek historian$ recogni"ed in >7? @! that a tsunami on 1uboea #sland was the result of an earthAuake$ many tsunamis were generated and recorded in the world.

Tsunamis run u on land and leave sediments as a roof of their existence.roaching further the shore$ a tsunami shows many faces in relation to water de th$ bottom slo e$ wave height and wave length. . The linear long' wave theory is successfully a licable if the travel distance is not long. <or a tsunami with an undular'bore front$ higher order dis ersion terms are reAuired. #t is long and small com ared to the ocean de th of several kilometres. Tanioka et al. Since eAuations in the 1ulerian descri tion cannot ex ress the front condition$ a roximate moving boundary conditions are introduced. . . #n the rare cases of very stee slo e$ the vertical acceleration of water flow becomes non'negligible and other eAuations than the shallow'water eAuations are reAuired.7 P. The boundary between the linear long'wave theory and the shallow'water theory is a roximately the water de th of 7++ m. <or ordinary to ogra hy on land where the slo e is gentle$ the shallow'water theory in which the vertical acceleration is neglected is a licable. #f a tsunami with breaking front comes nearly normally to the shore$ the shallow'water theory is also a licable if the tsunami runu height is the ma&or concern. #f a tsunami with breaking front runs along the shore as an edge bore that follows sometimes the ordinary refraction law de ending u on the water de th but sometimes ro agates neglecting the law$ there is no theory a licable at resent. .roaching the shore$ the wave height increases and the water de th decreases.ma&or tsunami in the ocean is several tens kilometres long and several meters high. Then$ non'linear characteristics of water motion reAuire the shallow'water theory including the bottom friction term$ in which the am litude dis ersion term becomes im ortant. over the Pacific Ocean$ other consideration is reAuired. The generation mechanism by other causes is not yet clearly understood$ although many researchers have been studying.UN'UP . 7. @ut accuracy and limit of these eAuations are not yet well determined.3 The mechanism of tsunami earthAuake is not yet clearly understood. Thirdly$ the freAuency dis ersion term of the first order a roximation should be included$ if the 9a&iura arameter relating to the dimension of the source$ the travel distance and the water de th is smaller than > B*C. Secondly$ the !oriolis term should not be missed. No work succeeded until now to ex lain the magnitude and movement of aleotsunamis from sediment sam les. B?C consider that tsunami earthAuakes at the Ea an Trench are the result of the horst and graben structures of sea bottom$ which gives the scattered contact "ones in the subducted sediments along the inter late boundary. Under these conditions$ the linear @oussinesA eAuation is often used. The @oussinesA eAuation$ Peregrine eAuation or :oto eAuation should be used in accordance with the strength of non'linearity. =any aleotsunamis were excavated. <or a long travel$ e. <irstly$ the eAuations should be described with the s herical co'ordinate system$ because the earth is a s here. Tsunamis finally run u and down the shore. #f a tsunami is like a ra id tide without breaking front$ the shallow'water theory is successfully a lied.hydraulic ex eriment revealed that a slight change in the side boundary condition resulted in a big change in waveform B5C.g.OP-:-T#ON -N% . <ukao BDC ex lained two tsunami earthAuakes at the 9urile Trench by sub'faults in the thick sedimentary wedge at the leading edge of the continental lithos here.

%isease caused by swallowing alien substances during drifting. :rid lengths should ex ress well tsunami diffraction and refraction due to local to ogra hy.ails buried by sands. %estroyed. The first one is the initial condition and the second the sea bottom topography. <ishery . !ollision of shi s in harbour. 4ifelines Fater su lies %estruction of hydrants by collision of debris. Highway %is lacement and falling down of bridges.1. the main purpose of which is to ensure the route of navigation. Houses Fashed away. !losure of traffic by debris on roads. #n addition to the !<4 condition that is reAuired for the wave eAuation$ several other conditions should be satisfied. This method often misses sea topography im ortant in refraction. The most popular sea bottom topography is the chart. There are two crucial factors in the due evaluation of the computed results. <1=$ numerical inaccuracy due to truncation error should be examined well. Scattering and subsidence of concrete blocks. #$%&' 1( )inds. #n&ured hit by debris etc.g. 1lectricity Overturning and washed'away of electric oles. <looded. !losure of ort entrance by fishing gears washed'away. @urnt.8 %1S#:N O< NU=1. There is no criterion to design s atial length in relation to to ogra hy$ although several attem ts are made. Fhen difference eAuations are solved$ several conditions should be satisfied to ensure the accuracy of the results and the stability of com utation. ty"es and causes of tsuna*i disaster Human 4ives %rowned. particularly in case of a near-field tsunami. . An initial profile constructed from seismic data always requires. !ut'off of underground tele hone line at the &unction to the aerial lines. Traffics . Submergence of tele hone receivers.#!-4 S#=U4-T#ON %ifference eAuations are not the original differential eAuations but are the a roximate eAuations of the latter. Tele hone %amage to tele hone lines and oles. Numerical errors are inevitable. some adjustment as described in 2.ailway 1rosion of embankments. 1rosion of embankment. =ore than D+ s atial grids are necessary at the front of runu waves$ if an a roximate moving boundary condition is used B)C. %is lacement of rails and bridges. The sea bottom topography that governs refraction then determines the path and convergence of tsunami. is not always precise data. Harbour !hange in water de th 2erosion and de osition3 !losure of ort area due to trans orted debris and cars. !oastal Structures Toe erosion$ dis lacement and overturning of sea walls$ sea dikes$ breakwaters and Auay walls. #n case of other schemes$ e. @uried by sands. Power lants flooded. #n case of the lea frog scheme used in <%= com utation$ more than 7+ s atial grids are reAuired within one local wavelength. Overturning of bridge abutment by scouring. The area far from the route is sparsely measured and imprecisely determined by interpolation.4 7.

$ tsunami height$ is done by com aring them with the tide records and tsunami trace data. Tsunami trace data are often biased because many surveyors are attracted to measure only high values. There is no attem t to validate the com uted velocity$ wave rofile$ wave forces and so on$ exce t one B((C. Soil erosion. 1lectricity short circuit caused by seawater. Physiological damage by seawater and sands. Submerged batteries of fishing boats.e. Oil s ill 1nvironmental ollution. The validation of the com uted results$ i.5 %amage to fishing boats. -griculture Physiological damage to cro s due to submergence. Heating. !losure of irrigation channels filled by sands and debris. 4oss of fishing nets and other fishing gears. . S read of fires. 1ngine room of fishing boats. %estruction and loss of rafts$ fishes and shells in aAuaculture. <orest Physical damage 2breaking and overturning of trees3. !ollision to gasoline tanks. <ire 2causes3 9itchen fire. !ommerce %e reciation of goods by submergence. Some ty e of tide gauge has hydraulic filtering effect that reduces short' eriod com onents B(+C. %amage to farms buried by sands.

S read of oil can be numerically simulated$ if eAuations for movement of oil are simultaneously solved with eAuations for tsunami B(DC. . ". Table ( summari"es disasters caused by tsunamis$ collected from documents in the ast. Miti#ation of Tsunami $a%ards >.U!TU. No one has ever succeeded to numerically simulate these to ogra hical changes$ artially due to the inaccuracy of com uted currents and artially due to the lack of knowledge about the movement of sediment under tsunami effect. #f a shi or a boat meet a tsunami on the sea dee er than 7++ meters$ they are safe because of small tsunami height and gentle tsunami front slo e. Once caught by a water flow even as thin as *+cm$ a erson may be swallowed to drown$ because the current velocity is Auite strong. On an average$ a wooden house is com letely destroyed if the tsunami height above ground exceeds 7 meters. Hiolent currents induced by tsunamis are the cause of erosion and de osition.6 .einforced concrete buildings are strong. There were five exam lesI three in -laska$ US-$ one in !alifornia$ US-$ and one in Niigata$ Ea an. fire started from overturned houses and about >+ houses were burnt.7 TSUN-=#$ O#4 -N% <#. Not only local scouring at the toe of coastal structures but also to ogra hical change of large scale often occurs. -ccording to records$ every reinforced'concrete buildings were not damaged exce t for windows and gates and were resistant enough to rotect weak wooden houses behind them. -n em irical formula is ro osed to estimate the si"e of the burnt area in terms of the volume of stored oil B(?C. #f an earthAuake or a tsunami damages oil tanks$ and if the oil s read by the tsunami catches fire$ or if the burning oil is trans orted by the tsunami$ the result is devastating. -t night on Eanuary 7*$ (*++$ a tsunami suddenly hit the village of =iyako$ Sanriku !oast$ Ea an$ with no recedent earthAuake. #m act force of one lumber is formulated by hydraulic ex eriments B(>C. =any fishermen want to bring their boats to the dee sea when a tsunami warning is issued. !isasters 8. %etailed analysis is carried out in relation to tsunami intensity B(7$ (8C. -ll of them occurred in ()?>. %estructive force is not only the tsunami force but also im act of lumbers$ fishing boats and houses trans orted by tsunamis. %amage to fishing boats moored andGor laced near the shoreline begins with the tsunami height of 7 m. The tsunami was generated at the !ascade subduction "one off the western coast of US-. #n the future$ the most ha"ardous effect will be given to the coastal industrial areas by the combination of tsunami$ oil and fire.( 9#N%S O< %#S-ST1.( !O-ST-4 ST.1 1ven in olden days$ tsunami'related fires occurred. Fooden houses are weak. This action may lead them to the very dangerous situation that boats get aground by tsunami ebb near shore and get turned by the next flood before they arrive at the safe lace. 8. . 4oss of human lives de ends much u on the action of eo le on and near the shore when an earthAuake occurs.1S Tsunami countermeasures consist of three arts from hard wares to softwareI structures$ city lanning and systems.

Only one exce tion is a lighthouse that was hit by the ()>? -leutian tsunami 7+ m high above ground.ecently in Ea an$ tsunamis that may be generated by the largest earthAuake ex ected from seismo'tectonics are also taken into consideration. #n the coastal industrial area$ fishing harbor and leisure boats anchorage$ storage tanks of inflammable materials should be carefully located and rotected against tsunami effects. #f the tsunami height is higher by more than D m$ they do not work at all B(*C. . .ST1=S #n addition to structures and city lanning$ software should be taken into consideration to com lete the tsunami defense work. Since olden days$ the movement of residence to high ground is one of the most effective methods in tsunami defense work. The tsunami'free high ground is outside of the area thus determined. P4-NN#N: The ma&or items in the city lanning are movement of residences to Jtsunami'freeK high ground and establishment of the tsunami'resistant building "one near the shoreline. !oastal forests are also one of defense structures. The tsunami revention system consists of forecasting$ warning$ evacuation$ ublic education$ drills$ inheritance of disaster culture$ and the relief o eration after disaster.8 TSUN-=# P. .well'designed coastal forest of the Ea anese red' ine trees works well to sto boats and other floated debris if the tsunami height above ground is smaller then 8 meters B(7C. =any countries have their own tsunami forecasting and warning systems.7 !#T. The forecasting system in <rench Polynesia uses the mantle magnitude and is effective for a tsunami earthAuake$ too. Tsunami breakwaters are constructed at the mouth of a bay where the water is dee $ in order to limit the water discharge into the bay. -nother rule is Ja loud booming noise could mean a tsunami is coming.1H1NT#ON S.K This noise may be generated by the breaking front of a tsunami higher than 7. Since they are ex ensive$ only a few are constructed. This is the rule to save the lives from the danger of the near'field tsunami generated by tsunamigenic earthAuake. #n many documents and after'tsunami survey re orts$ it is recorded that reinforced' concrete buildings are strong enough to resist tsunami force. =ost of them use the em irical relationshi s between earthAuake magnitude and tsunami magnitude for tsunamigenic earthAuakes.7 Sea walls and coastal dikes are the ty ical defense structures. This fact leads to the idea of the tsunami'resistant building "one that cannot erfectly sto the tsunami water intrusion but is ex ected to sto more dangerous floated materials. They are effective if the tsunami height is lower than their crown height$ or a slightly higher 2may be$ D+ cm or ( m3. #f the tsunami height above ground is less than D m$ all the buildings can withstand B(7C.tsunami gate at the river mouth sto s the tsunami invasion into the river$ in lace of heightening long river embankments. 4eave the beach as soon as ossible and climb u to a ground higher than 7+ m.D meters B(8C. >. . The last way to save human lives is an early evacuation based on the forecasting and warning. The highest tsunami runu measured andGor com uted for the biggest tsunami in the ast is usually used to determine the tsunami'flooded area. -n earthAuake that makes you unable to stand by yourself on a beach is a natural warning of a tsunami. >.

. 9a&iura$ 9. Tanioka$ .ecords of broadband seismogra hs are used to make the correction for a tsunami earthAuake. #n the Sanriku region$ the most tsunami'risky area in the world$ s ecial drills once a year have been carried out on the =emorial %ay of the ast tsunamis with artici ators constantly reducing in number. #t is very rare for any erson to ex erience lural large tsunamis in his life. Satake 2())*3 Fhat controls the lateral variation of large earthAuake occurrence along the Ea an Trench$ #+e Island $rc$ )$ 7?('7??. Fith these data$ a further develo ment in tsunami research becomes ossible. 8. . Thirdly$ kee ing the fact in mind that disastrous tsunami occurs once er tens or hundreds years$ the coastal residents should make their town resistant to tsunamis at every occasion when the town is changed and develo ed. The second is the continuation of tsunami knowledge to future generation as well as the transfer of it to those who live in tsunami'risk areas but have no clear tsunami history. Ocean'bottom seismogra hs near tsunami sources are indis ensable to understand the details of fault movements. @ut it is Auite difficult is to kee coastal residents.ril ()))$ the Ea an =eteorological -gency renewed its forecasting system based u on numerical simulation for nearly (++$+++ cases.E. The most difficult is to find an effective way to continue this knowledge for several tens or hundreds years. This knowledge should be transferred to the future generation and to coastal residents in every tsunami'risk areas. 5. ."$ 78+8'78(> ?. Plafker$ :. 2#n Ea anese3. D.$ 58D'5?). #f a erson has a sim le knowledge that a tsunami will come after an earthAuake$ and if he behaves wisely to climb u to high ground$ he will be saved.uff and 9. The knowledge for this reinforcement should be given in terms of building codes and Gor manuals. and %. Public Forks .eo"+ysical -esearc+$ .1.esearch #nstitute$ ((8 .. 2()5D3 Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half's ace$ %ulletin of t+e Seis*ological Society of $*erica$ *&$ ((8D'((D>.. =ansinha$ 4. >.$ 4. *.8 #n . Uda$ T. <ukao$ . &. et al. University of Tokyo$ ". 2()*)3 Tsunami earthAuakes and subduction rocesses near dee 'sea trenches$ !( . 9anamori$ H. 2()?D3 Tectonic deformation associated with the ()?> -laska 1arthAuake$ Science$ 1". %ee 'ocean tsunami gauges will catch tsunamis at or &ust after their birth. 7. 2()553 Two'dimensional deformation of nonlinear long waves on a beach$ -e"ort 0o(2122. #n order to solve this roblem$ we need observation networks in the ocean. continuous attention. 1very means such as ublic education$ TH media and others should be used. .$ (?*D'(?5*. This is also for tsunamigenic earthAuakes. The ublic education is the crucial key to save human lives. New technologies such as satellite hotometry are desirable to obtain a lan of tsunami rofile.ua/e -esearc+ Institute. Okada$ . To find a way to break this situation is an urgent task. Conc'udin# Remar(s The most urgent sub&ect in research as well as in ractical a lication is the im rovement of the method to determine tsunami initial rofiles with seismic data alone. !i er 2()*>3 <ocal rocess of the :reat !hilean 1arthAuake$ =ay 77$ ()?+$ P+ysics of 'art+ and Planetary Interiors$ +$ (75'(8?. Smylie 2()*(3 The dis lacement field of inclined faults$ %ulletin of t+e Seis*ological Society of $*erica$ )1$ (>88'(>>+. and E. 2()*+3 Tsunami source$ energy and the directivity of wave radiation$ %ulletin of t+e 'art+. References (.

(D. Shuto$ N.ractical formula for estimating im ulsive force due to driftwood and variation features of the im ulsive force$ !( 4ydraulic. @ernard 2ed. Proc( !a"an Society of 6ivil 'ngineers$ No. Shuto$ N. 6oastal and 'nviron*ental 'ng($ Ea an Society of !ivil 1ngineering$ No. (+. 2())D3I Tsunamis$ disasters and defence works in case of the ())8 Hokkaido'Oki 1arthAuake Tsunami$ $dvances in 0atural and #ec+nological 4a5ards -esearc+$ "$ 7?8'7*?. N. Shuto$ N. 2())83 Tsunami intensity and disasters. 2()5D3 . 2())*3 . Satake$ 9.(*('()(. 2())(3 Numerical simulation of tsunamis'#ts resent and near future$ in 1.?++$ ##'>>$ (()'(7> 2in Ea anese3.9 ). :oto$ !. Takahashi$ T. 2()5*3I S read of oil and fire due to tsunamis$ Proc( I#S372$ (55'7+>. #mamura and N. 2()))3 . (>. (7. et al. $dvances in 0atural and #ec+nological 4a5ards -esearc+$ ($ ()*'7(?.3$ Tsunami Ha"ard$ 9luwer -cademic Publishers$ %ordrecht$ . (?. (8. Shuto 2())83 Numerical simulation of to ogra hy change due to tsunamis$ Proc( I#S39 $ 7>8'7DD. . Shuto$ N.natural warning of tsunami arrival$ $dvances in 0atural and #ec+nological 4a5ards -esearc+$ +$ (D*'(*8.8D*$ ##'8$ 7(*'778 2in Ea anese3. Shuto$ N. 2()553 Tide gauge res onse to tsunamisI =easurements at >+ tide gauge stations in Ea an$ !( Marine -es($ ")$ DD*'D*(.$ <. =atsutomi$ H. (*. ((.simulation method of oil s read due to tsunamis.

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