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The Cold War

The Last Tsar
The Romanovs held power in Russia for hundreds of years

Tsar Nicholas II had gotten Russia into the World War I

Nicholas II and his friends

Wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels Capitalism exploited workers, who should receive the benefits of their work

Believed in evolution of nations towards communism

V.I. Lenin
Privileged background

Brother executed by the Tsar
Lived in Germany, Switzerland, and England before moving to Petrograd

Lenin Addressing a Crowd

Spin off of Marxism Need revolution to speed up the path to socialism! A vanguard party could lead the way to a socialist democracy

The Russian Revolution
Communist Bolsheviks overthrow the Tsar Bolsheviks clash with White Russians loyal to the Tsar

Massive Rallies

The Soviet Union
Soviet- council to execute state policy and give people a place to express opinions
Each Soviet covered one area (ex. Petrograd Soviet)

Russia now aligned with other Soviets= one nation

Lenin Dies
Leads the USSR starting in 1922 Dies in 1924

Who leads the USSR?

Leon Trotsky
Intellectual and military leader

Had very different ideas than Stalin but loses power struggle anyway

Purges and sending people to the gulags

Leads Soviets in WWII after the Great Terror of the 1930s

WII "Allies"
Slow 2nd front

Warsaw Uprising

Bleeding them out!

Truman comments

Tehran Conference

U.S. and Britain would open a second front that year

Yalta Conference
Feb 1945Poland is moved, free election in Soviet occupied areas Germany will be divided

Potsdam Conference
July 1945New leaders and ideas
Final conference Nuclear weapons threat by U.S. to Japan

Harry Truman
Before the war says we should help Germans if necessary Replaces FDR at Potsdam- tells Stalin of "new weapon"

The Iron Curtain
Churchill speech in U.S. about division of Europe

American capitalism vs Soviet communism

The United Nations
Allies become permanent Security Council members = veto

Idea of all Socialist Republics in USSR joining rejected

Occupation Zones
Berlin divided too!

French zone created from U.S. and British

Frontline: Berlin

Free Elections
The Soviets guaranteed fair elections in their occupied areas after the war

Didn't happen!

Not pro- Soviet, old government had been in exile in London

Firmly behind the Iron Curtain

Truman Doctrine
Greece and Turkey facing revolutions

What should the U.S. do?
From détente to containment...

Idea of diplomat George Kennan in 1946

U.S. should actively try to stop the spread of communism

Marshall Plan
American plan to help rebuild Europe, at least non- Commie Europe

Capitalism and investment in West Berlin undermined East Germany


The Air Lift

Currency Problems
Old Reichsmark was valueless as the Soviets kept printing it West offers Deutschmark to fix this

The Blockade
Stalin hoped to make West Berlin dependent on the Soviets so he could eventually take it over

Cut off American and British supply lines via railroad and truck

The Air Lift

The Air Lift
U.S. , Britain, and colonies supply West Berlin with over 200,000 flights

What kind of stuff do you think they brought in?

- 1.5 m tons of coal - 500,000 tons of food - Steam rollers - Electrical plant machinery - Medical Supplies - Newspapers - Chocolate

Stalin gives up and allows normal transport again in 1949

Cold War heating up- both sides show intentions

NATO- 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization A defense group that linked Western Europe to the U.S. Protect nations in Europe vs Soviet threat

Warsaw Pact- 1955
Mutual defense treaty of the Soviet states and satellites Response to NATO adding West Germany and denying the Soviet Union entry

French Worries
1958France pulls out of NATO temporarily

Worried about AngloAmerican dominance and sincerity of U.S. to help if invaded

Berlin Wall
1961Split Berlin in two
Symbol of the Cold War and divided Germany Keep Eastern Bloc residents in East Berlin!

Checkpoint Charlie
Most famous Berlin checkpoint

Only one foreigners or military personnel could use

Jelly Donut

"Ich bin ein Berliner"

"I am a Berliner"

Hungarian Uprising
1956Student protests in Budapest

Hungarian State Police fire on protesters

Militia groups form and overthrow government

New gov wants to withdraw from Warsaw Pact Soviets act...

2,500 dead Hungarians

Soviets crush the rebellion How does this look?

Soviets appear brutal (like they are) to the world

Manhattan Project

Trinity Test

Hiroshima and Nagasaki hit with atomic bombs in a U.S. effort to shorten the war...

And scare Stalin

Arms Race
U.S. and Soviets are convinced they are vulnerable to attack Both create and maintain strong militaries Soviets know they need a nuke

1949- "Joe One" detonated far sooner than Americans expected Race to create more, stronger weapons

Thermonuclear weapons- use fusion and not just fission*

More powerful!

Race now to make them deliverable...
*Its far more complicated than that

Nuclear Proliferation
Spread of nuclear weapons:

Britain- 1952 France- 1960 China- 1964
Countries with nukes try to stop others from getting them

Mutually Assured Destruction
Any attack would mean destruction of both sides (and the world)

U-2 Stealth Jets
U.S. worried about a "Bomber gap" ...
"Bison" Bombers, which could reach the U.S. U.S. could do overflights with U-2

Khrushchev focuses on missiles after he loses edge

V-2 Rockets
Germans had developed them during WWII Race to snatch up this tech and scientists

Missile technology a big focus: -Range -Payload

Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles


MIRV: Multiple Independently- targetable re-entry vehicles

Nikita Khrushchev
Stalin dies in 1953
Led Ukraine soviet before war, at Stalingrad, wins power struggle Turns his back on Stalin!

"Secret Speech"
"Cult of Personality" with Stalin
Denounced purges, moved back to Leninism

"Khrushchev thaw"

Space Race
Why would the Soviets and U.S. want to go to space?

More about image than military
Being the technological leader of the world!


1957Soviets put first human object in space!

"Fellow Traveler"

U.S. is hurting now... Push to make American schools more science and tech oriented

Bragging rights for Soviets

Americans respond in 1958 with Explorer 1

Yuri Gagarin
1961First human in Space and to orbit Earth

Only orbits for 90 mins

Vostok 1

Man on Moon

Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on moon in 1969 on Apollo 11 mission

Star Wars

Strategic Defense Initiative


Neighbors China and Japan Japanese occupation from 1905 WWII left it in a political vacuum

Soviets "help" in the Pacific at end of WWII Occupy Manchuria and Korea north of 38th parallel

"Red" China

Mao keeps an eye on the situation

Kim il Sung
Soviet backed leader of North Korea Volunteers in China for communists Reunite Korea!

Two Koreas
Syngman Rhee is leader of the South
Poor U.S. administration in South. Government is corrupt and repressive

Military Power
The South was a farming economy
Most industry in the North How are wars won?

Domino Theory
Korea only a problem because it could spill over into other countries Cold War becomes "hot"


South Korea forms a defensive perimeter around the city of Pusan

UN Response
First test for UN Soviet Union protesting the U.S. refusal to acknowledge China on the Security Council

UN approves action

Douglas MacArthur
WWII generalmade famous in the Philippines Stubborn, arrogant, PR genius

Incheon Landing
Big flanking maneuver

Traps North Korean army in the south! Easy push North

Yalu River
UN forces push all the way North to the edge of the peninsula

Mao feels threatened...

Chinese cross the Yalu

Mao's "Volunteers"


Chosin Reservoir

Demilitarized Zone


Autocratic, poor, few allies


Wealthy, democratic, internationally supported

Led by military strongman Fulgencio Batista
Ruled as dictator as he was about to lose election

Fidel Castro
Studied law, became anti- imperialist Moncada Barracks attack--> 1 year in prison Goes to Mexico with brother Raul and meets Che...

"Che" Guevara
Med student who travels South America

Best way to fix poverty, illness, education is with socialism

Extra Credit


Sierra Maestra
26th of July Movement lands in Cuba, begins guerilla war

Missile Crisis

USA had put missile bases in Turkey What is the response?

Fidel allows Soviets to build missile sites on Cuban soil

Missile Crisis
As Soviet ships near Cuba, Americans make an ultimatum... Khrushchev has the ships turn around just before blockade

Lech Walesa
Electrician in shipyards

Arrested many times- leads a strike in 1980

What is a labor union?

Why would you need a labor union in a communist country?

Shipyards of Gdansk, Poland

Labor organiszation"Independent SelfGoverning Trade Union"

Gdansk Agreement
Originally wanted higher wages Solidarity works with communist government to create independent and free labor unions

Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet leader after Khrushchev

Expands military, undoes reforms

Era of Stagnation

From mid 60s to mid 80s, Soviet Union does not change

Brezhnev Doctrine
All socialist countries should be concerned when capitalism threatens one

Help out!

Socialist government struggles to control Afghanistan- "ask for help" from Soviets

"Those who cannot remember the past are doomed to repeat it"
- George Santayana

Do you agree with this?

Afghanistan has been invaded 3 times by western powers
By the British twice in the 1800s, by the Soviets in 1979, and by the U.S. in 2001

Who are these guys?

"That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important lesson of all the lessons that history has to teach" - Aldous Huxley

Mujahideen are U.S. funded

U.S. boycotts 1980 Moscow Olympics

Congress supports aid to mujahideen and Taliban

Soviet "Vietnam" Lose 10,000 soldiers and accomplish little

Think of Stalin and Lenin. What was the Soviet Union like under them?

What kind of reforms or changes would you make to fix the Soviet Union?

Ronald Reagan

Margaret Thatcher

Mikhail Gorbachev



What ended the Cold War? Thatcher? Reagan? Gorbachev?

None of the aboveThe corrupt, inefficient USSR system was so rotten that Gorbachev's reforms caused it to collapse

Overhaul of the Soviet system to make it more efficient


Transparency in Soviet government would help get rid of corruption

Soviet public began to know about government problems

Soviet Problems
Widespread corruption in the Party

Industry was uncompetitive and inefficient
Military expense was up with Afghanistan

Where is this?

Prague Spring
Czechoslovakia 1968

Alexander Dubcek brings changes:
- Personal Rights - Democratization Soviets move in!

1989 is one of the most important years in history

Revolutions will sweep through Europe in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania,and Hungary. Communist China will be challenged in Tiananmen Square, Poland will have free elections, and the Berlin Wall will fall...

After 1980, Solidarity was illegal again...

1989- more strikes will make the Commies do something

1989- Commies recognize Solidarity and allow them to run for office

Hold first real election!

Solidarity wins in a landslide...

Commies humiliated

Poland has first non-Communist leader in Sovietcontrolled area and Soviets allow it

Vaclav Havel
Czech poet and writer Signs Charter 77 with other dissidents, focusing on human rights Protests in late 1980s

Velvet Revolution
Begins as student protests in 1989, grows...

2 hour general strike- everyone in the country

Velvet Divorce

1993Czechs and Slovaks agree to split

DissolutionNow Czech Republic and Slovakia

Hungary- Austria Border Fence
"Tourism" to Hungary skyrockets!

Marshall Tito

Communist dictator of Yugoslavia

Serb dominated Yugoslavia falls apart
Not so smooth...

Serbs commit genocide on Muslim Bosnians during war

Commie leader Nicolae Ceausescu was brutal and repressive- a true Stalinist

Had security forces fire on protesters- major revolt happens

East Germany
Turn to democracy and market economy in 1989- 1990

9th of November 1989

Tearing down the wall leads to talks of reunification

One Germany
Germany reunited in 1990. West Germany helps fund the East and Deutschmark is the currency

Tiananmen Square

Boris Yeltsin
President of Russian Supreme Soviet

Initially friends with Gorbachev, eventually dislikes his policies

1991Hardline Communists try to overthrow Gorbachev

Soviet Union will break up in 1991 into 15 independent republics

Etching away Lenin in Azerbaijan

Constitutional Crisis

"Shock Therapy"

Velvet Divorce