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Carol Lynn: OSEBERG CART WOMAN, C.E. 800

Carol Lynn: OSEBERG CART WOMAN, C.E. 800

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How did Viking ladies dress?
How did Viking ladies dress?

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Published by: Gérôme Taillandier on Feb 27, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Cs e b e r g C a r t Wo ma n - C . L .

8 0 0
Þrepared for: 9
Annua| Go|den Seamstress Compet|t|on
Þrepared by: 1he 8eaut|fu| Goat Sewers 1eam - Gwynnyd - 1eam Leader
Date: March S -6, 2010

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Page 2 of S7

Annual uoluen Seamstiess Competition, Naich S- 6, 2u1u
The Beautiful uoat Seweis - Team Leauei - Baioness uwynnyu
Team Nembeis:
Nistiess Rhonwen, Nistiess uiaziaueialua, Nistiess Catheiine-Aimée, Lauy Catheiine of Beva
(note to juuges: uiace anu Aimee aie Pelicans)

1ab|e of Contents
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Introduct|on: 1he Case for the V|k|ng Woman's "Þ|eated 8ack Cape"
Who |s th|s woman and what |s she wear|ng?

The uilemma foi the peison who wishes to ieconstiuct what an
uppei class viking woman fiom the eaily 9
Centuiy woulu weai is:
aie the few suiviving pictoiial images fiom the viking Age weaiing
iepiesentational uiess. Is theie any eviuence that "ieal people"
weie uepicteu in ait iathei than having it focus stiictly on
supeinatuial peisonages, who might be weaiing clothing not seen in
actual use. Within stylistic conventions, theie is still an unueilying
coie of iepiesentational images; of things anu people that the aitists
useu as mouels. If we finu the ieal people beneath the images, we can inteipiet these images into
weaiable clothing.
Cu|tura| 8ackground
Befoie Chiistianity, the Noise people uiu not uiaw stiict uiviuing lines between the munuane anu
the supeinatuial.
The kennings of theii language, the items they incluueu in theii giaves, anu even
the stiuctuies of theii elaboiate boat buiials, cieateu a "nevei enuing stoiy baseu upon items
foiming anu iefoiming compounus with each othei."
This fluiuity of concept uiu not suivive into
the Chiistian eia with its moie iigiuly uefineu aieas of human anu supeinatuial.

The ieligion of the Noise aiea in the viking Age, especially that conceineu with the cult of 0oinn
anu the iitual, calleu seior, of acquiiing knowleuge anu contiol of both the natuial anu supeinatuial
woilu, can be uesciibeu as foim of shamanism.
"In auuition to 0oinn himself, theie aie also a
gieat many human figuies who aie iepiesenteu as peifoiming seior, of whom the best known aie
the volur (sing. volvo) women skilleu in claiivoyance anu the pieuiction of futuie events."
aie also fifteen othei teims foi female shamans oi soiceieis useu in the Eluei Euua anu fiom othei
Nost of these teims have been inteipieteu as having negative oi evil connotations, but
they also uate to the 1S
Centuiy anu the Chiistian eia when the piactitioneis of seior weie
piobably uiscieuiteu anu no longei pait of the eveiyuay cultuie.

0sebeig Cait in Ewing, Thoi, vikinq Clotbinq, pg 46
ueius, Naicus, 0lJ Norse Reliqion in lonq Term Perspective: 0riqins, Cbonqes onJ lnteroctions, "Scanuinavian Buiial Rites
on the Southein Baltic Coast: Boat uiaves in Cemeteiies of Eaily Neuieval Tiauing Places", pg 1S7, Noiuic Acauemic Piess
(Becembei 1, 2uu6), ISBN-1S: 978-9189116818
Beischenu, Fianus, "Sbip 6rove Eoll Possoqe - tbe 0seberq monument os compounJ meoninq": 0ppsala 0niveisity, pg.
1Su; http:¡¡www.aits.usyu.euu.au¡meuieval¡saga¡puf¡142-heischenu.puf
Piice, Neil, "The Aichaeology of Seioi:Ciicumpolai Tiauitions in viking Pie-Chiistian Religion": ISSN 1S19-9uSS, pg
ibiu, pg 111
ibiu, pg 12u
ibiu, pg 114
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It is inteiesting to note that the stanuaiu uesciiption of a "valkyiie" fiom the encyclopeuia says that
a valkyiie can be eithei totally supeinatuial oi a woman with some supeinatuial poweis.
In the
eailiei sagas they aie often uesciibeu as being the uaughteis of kings.
uiauually theii function
meigeu with that of the norns, fates, anu it is only in Chiistian times that valkyiies seem to lose all
connections to humans anu become totally uemonic.

In geneial, then, in the viking Age theie existeu a class of iespecteu, high-status women, who may
oi may not have been consiueieu ioyal, anu who peifoimeu many societal functions, incluuing
eveiything fiom uivination, to cuising, to giving goou luck, to muiuei, to inteicession with the gous,
to pioviuing piotection fiom enemy soiceieis.

Theiefoie, it is ieasonable to pioject that images caiveu at the time woulu be uepicteu as weaiing
clothing consistent at some level with 9
centuiy local cultuial noims.
Where do the source |mages come from?
Theie aie veiy few suiviving images of women; less than a uozen aie commonly iepiouuceu, anu
theie aie only a few moie available with fuithei ieseaich.
They aie founu caiveu on iunestones, as small silvei amulets, in the elaboiate wooucaiving on a
wagon founu in a buiial site in 0sebeig, Noiway on tapestiy fiagments, some also founu in the ship
giave at 0sebeig, anu elsewheie.
In these contexts they have histoiically been iuentifieu as being valkyiies welcoming waiiiois to
valhalla, oi gouuesses, usually Fieya oi Fiigg.

Can we know what these women wore?

Naigaiet Clunies Ross asseits in hei papei "Stylistic anu geneiic uefineis of the 0lu Noise skaluic

We know, fiom the mateiial iemains in the 0sebeig buiial complex of c. 8S4,6 that local
elites in the 0slo fjoiu aiea weie using ceitain kinus of figuial uecoiation in the eaily ninth
centuiy, as exemplifieu by the uecoiation of woouen objects, especially the waggon anu,

<$)#0"")(0 /%"()1. X"(Y(;%=.&)0*
In ueimanic ieligion, any of a gioup of maiuens sent by 0uin to select slain waiiiois woithy of a place in valhalla. .
Accoiuing to vaiious myths, they weie eithei puiely supeinatuial oi human with supeinatuial poweis;
volunJorkviôo, "they weie valkyiies". Two, uaughteis of King Blouvéi, . the thiiu, uaughtei of Kjáii of vallanu,
also in Eelqokviôo Ejorvorôssonor, this valkyiie is uetaileu latei in a piose naiiative as Sváva, king Eylimi's uaughtei
also Eelqokviôo EunJinqsbono ll, The naiiative says that Sigiún, uaughtei of King Bogni, is "a valkyiie anu ioue thiough
aii anu sea"
NacLeou, Ninuy; Nees, Beinaiu (2uu6). Runic Amulets onJ Hoqic 0bjects. Boyuell Piess. ISBN 1-84S8S-2uS-4
ibiu, pg 121
op cit, Biitannica Concise Encyclopeuia on-line
Ross, Naigaiet Clunies, 'Stylistic anu geneiic uefineis of the 0lu Noise skaluic ekphiasis";
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moie paiticulaily, the textiles founu in the buiial chambei .The piocessional anu gioup
scenes uepicteu on the 0sebeig tapestiy fiiezes have a geneial iesemblance. to ceitain
kinus of figuial subject uepicteu in skaluic ekphiasis.

That is, the caivings tell the same kinu of stoiies that aie tolu in the sagas anu aie peopleu by the
same chaiacteis, who might veiy well have been piesent at the iecitation. Exphiasis, one of the
techniques of highly iespecteu skalus, was to give an extempoie piaise poem of an object in the
Ball, using kennings anu othei symbolic woiu pictuies, to uesciibe the existing object oi peison in
supeinatuial anu poetic teims.

She also aigues that the sagas' stylizeu veibal uesciiptions aie of familiai pictoiial subjects of
specific legenu oi myths that woulu have been known anu iecognizeu by the heaieis.

Looking moie closely at the suiviving pictoiial
iecoiu, theie is, left, a ieconstiuction of the
tapestiy founu in the 0sebeig buiial that shows a
piocession, piesumably similai to the one that
took place with the ship buiial, that also has
paiallels in the sagas, especially with 0lfi's veises
on Balui's funeial, anu on the uotlanu stones.


Theie aie seveial small statuettes in silvei of a "female figuie" usually iuentifieu as a valkyiie "but
they may equally uepict volur oi any numbei of female supeinatuial beings."
The name "valkyiie
figuies" is given to the whole class of small silvei amulets in the foim of females founu uuiing the
viking eia
, but this is a mouein uesignation anu uoes not necessaiily mean they weie consiueieu
to be valkyiies at the time they weie incuiient usage.

ibiu, pg 2
ibiu, pg S
“The verses describe the richly ornamented axe, which does not appear to have figural images on it (in this respect comparable to
Egils saga’s account of the shield Einarr skálaglamm is said to have given him). Perhaps to compensate for the absence of
images, Einarr develops a strong narrative continuity between verses through his use of elaborately varied kennings for gold
which refer to a single myth, that of the goddess Freyja’s weeping tears of gold for her long-absent husband Ó!r (probably
ibiu, page 1-2
ibiu, pg 8 ,
0sebeig tapestiy ieconstiuction, http:¡¡www.gelfling.uus.nl¡viking women.html
op cit, Piice, pg 118
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0f couise, theie aie also othei theoiies. In 3)4)"5 D'1* 1#'&).1 %" #-.
=$.1."(. %2 S(0"&)"0F)0"1 )" X01#.$" X'$%=., Wlauyslaw Buczko insists that
"theie is nothing that coulu inuicate that these female figuies hau anything to
uo with the uemonic waiiioi women. They obviously show women fiom the
uppei layeis of Noise society, while weaiing theii best uiesses uuiing
impoitant events. . Small figuies of such women weie bauges of social


Nany caiveu iunestones show a female figuie, with a pleateu cape of some kinu
unuei a plain cape, hanuing a uiinking hoin to a male figuie as he is welcomeu into valhalla.
Sometimes the hoin is being hanueu to an 0oinn figuie iiuing a multi-leggeu steeu, anu sometimes
it is to a man on a noimal hoise.
24 2S

Theie is a female figuie as pait of an elaboiate caiving on the woouen siue panel of a cait founu in
the spectaculai ship giave at 0sebeig. The woman is inteivening in a battle scene, as she stops a
man on foot fiom knifing a man on hoiseback. This is veiy consistent with the activity of a volvo.


Buczko, Wlauyslaw; vikinq Rus: stuJies on tbe presence of SconJinovions in Fostern Furope, pq 1u8 -
Silvei figuiine- Tuna, Sweuen http:¡¡www.pvv.ntnu.no¡~hmg¡lip¡kostyme¡viking¡v-k-unueikjole.html
Picture stone from Alskog, Gotlandl http://theodinmysteries.com/odin/
Runestone, http:¡¡2.bp.blogspot.com¡_i0uuRXNkkIN¡SjfjlwESmBI¡AAAAAAAAAEg¡AoaSS6mS7ew¡s16uu-
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The basic style the woman is weaiing is one that was in use foi a long time. Theie aie golu foils,
calleu qulJqubbor, sometimes founu buiieu in with house founuations, that show the same basic
gaiments uating fiom the Neiovingian peiiou (6
to 8
These, like the latei valkyiie
figuiines, weie stiuck fiom molus anu existeu in multiple copies. Nany of the female foims aie
envelopeu in a cloak that is pleateu all the way aiounu. Notice the upiaiseu, pointeu chin on the
figuie on the iight that is also chaiacteiistic of the caiving on the 0sebeig cait figuie.

28 29

Compaie, below, the woman on the left with a similaily uiesseu female fiom the 0sebeig tapestiy.
0thei than the appeaiance that the woma n on the left has hei aim showing, anu the woman fiom
the tapestiy uiess is long enough to hiue hei feet, the basic shapes look quite alike.


Watt, Naigiethe; Continuity for Centuries, "The uolu-Figuie Foils ("uulugubbai") fiom 0ppåkia", pg 167;
ibiu; pg 189
ibiu, pg 187
ibiu, pg 196
http:¡¡www.gelfling.uus.nl¡viking women.html

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0ne of the most inteiesting points about the woman caiveu onto the 0sebeig cait is that she is not
weaiing an oveicloak that hiues the uetails of hei uppei bouy. But what, exactly, is she weaiing.
Re-enactoi oveiview sites such as "The vikings: Saxon, Noiman, Celtic anu viking Reenactments"

casually thiow out the infoimation that "a flooi length pleateu tiain" was often an integial pait of
the stanuaiu viking woman's outfit. Bowevei, while they give uetaileu uiawings anu suggestions on
how to make most of the othei pieces of clothing, theie aie no clues as to the shaping of this tiain oi
any suggestions on how to contiol the pleats.
SCA-specific sites aie even less foithcoming. Nistiess Thoia's (Caiolyn Piiest-Boiman) extiemely
well iespecteu anu ieseaicheu, "viking Resouices foi the Re-enactoi"
focuses on ieconstiuctions
fiom fiagments iecoveieu fiom inhumations anu contains no mention of "back capes" oi "flooi-
length, pleateu tiains" at all.
0ne aichaeologist, Annika Laisson, has iecently (2uu8) pioposeu a tiaineu ieconstiuction fiom
giave finus in Biika anu Psov. Bei ieconstiuction, ouuly, is neithei pleateu noi hung fiom the
With a shawl ovei the top it uoes beai a passing iesemblance to the pictoiial
but this ieconstiuction has othei uifficulties that make it pioblematical.

Still, while neaily eveiy pictoiial iepiesentation of viking women that
exists shows females figuies in some foim of tiailing, piobably pleateu
gaiment, the SCA veisions of viking gaib uo not geneially incoipoiate
Some of this can be laiu at the feet of what has
suiviveu in giaves. Even when textile iemains aie
founu, the pieces aie usually fiagmentaiy anu seluom
laige enough to give a sense of what the gaiment they
aie fiom lookeu like. Piecing togethei infoimation
fiom many giaves - sleeve cap fiom one finu, bonqerok
seams fiom anothei,
etc. - theie has emeigeu a consensus that uoes not incluue any pleateu

Seconu pictuie fiom http:¡¡slumbeilanu.oig¡mooule¡mou¡foium¡uiscuss.php.u=2217
Site also contains much goou uiscussion about uifficulties with othei paits of this ieconstiuction not applicable to this
The chief uifficulty I see is that she claims the biooches weie woin on the point of the bieast. 0n othei bouy types, such
as mine, that's still at up at aim-pit level anu not just above my waist, making it not a "skiit" as shown, anu negating most
of hei othei claims foi placement of the jeweliy anu shape of the fabiic.
Hangerock – Outer apron-like garment worn over ankle length wrap. http://paws.wcu.edu/bgastle/students/Gardner-Peace-
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gaiments, oi has tiny pleats only on the serk oi unueitunic,
oi along the top of the bonqerok

Bowevei, besiues the pictoiial, theie is some eviuence foi a backcloth.
In Thoi Ewing's book on viking Clothing, he cites a finu fiom Biika giave Bj 824 wheie "these silvei
biaius weie cleaily useu as tiim foi a backcloth, suspenueu fiom the oval biooches."

Flemming Bau always aigueu that some of the uouble loops founu on the biooches might suspenu a
backcloth oi tiain.

Ewing suggests that the backcloth might be as simple as a half-
ciicle "slaeoi pusheu back ovei the shoulueis anu hanging in
That aiiangement looks like this:

This uoes not allow foi the ciisp aiiangement of pleats at the
siues anu cuiving unuei the fiont panel as is shown on the
0sebeig cait caiving. (see illustiation at the stait of the
aiticle) Even belteu, it is uifficult to impossible to make pleats
that hang foiwaiu (lapping unuei the fiont gaiment panel)
with this aiiangement. Since the basic style suiviveu foi the
uuiation of the viking peiiou anu acioss a vaiiety of places, the
pusheu-back half-ciicle may be what is woin unuei some of
the vaiieties of this style, but the 0sebeig cait caiving shows
something uiffeient.

"unueiuiess (oi "seik" as the viking poem Rigsþula seems to call it)" Bilue Thunem
op cit, Ewing, pg S2, also coloi plate 4
ibiu, pg S8
ibiu, pg S1
ibiu, pg Su
Authoi in fiist veision of backcloth, Febiuaiy 2uu8.
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Page 1u of S7

Cou|d the carver of the cart have been unequa| to the cha||enge of representat|ve
While some of the elements aie cleaily stylistic conventions - the upiaiseu anu pointeu chin, foi
example - othei poitions of the cait aie caiveu with inuiviuual attention to uetail. The man on the
back panel has been iuentifieu as tieauing watei, paitly uue to the ouu position of his legs, paitly by
the uetails of his clothing, which aie caiveu as soft, tianspaient anu sticking to his bouy anu paitly
by the subtle uiffeiences between the "seipent" foim anu the "many-heaueu hyuia" foim of the
cieatuies he is fighting.

The man shown heie, as well as the men caiveu on the panel with the female figuie, aie cleaily
weaiing what is commonly inteipieteu as typical men's gaiments as ueteimineu fiom inhumation
. Theie is no ieason why pleats that aie caiveu as ciisp, neat anu lying unuei a fiont panel
woulu not have been seen on ieal women in that aiiangement.
Is |t a sk|rt?
Theie is some eviuence foi skiits.
Theie is a iunestone in uaiue Bote, Sweuen that shows a iow of hangeu women who, accoiuing to
Ewing aie weaiing skiits.

Ettlingei, Ellen; "The Nythological Relief of the 0sebeig Wagon founu in Southein Noiway," Folkloie, vol 67, No 1
(1976), pg 82. http:¡¡www.jstoi.oig.stable¡12S9Su2
Piiest-Boiman, Caioline, "An Aichaeological uuiue to viking Nen's Clothing"; 199S,
op cit, Ewing, pg 49
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Page 11 of S7

Bowevei, the pictuie is sketchy anu might as easily show belteu backcloths oi capes, as is shown
moie cleaily on the 0sebeig cait caiving.
Anothei image of a woman who might be
weaiing a belteu skiit shows up on the 0sebeig
tapestiies. The staff with a ball that she caiiies is
inuicative of hei position as one of the volur.

The image, on the left, has a belt, but theie is no
eviuence of bunching aiounu the waist, which
woulu inuicate pleateu fabiic behinu the belt; the
line is smooth.
The image on the iight, which Ewing iuentifies as
a skiit,
has a "waistline" that lies well below the
hips anu may be simply the uecoiateu bottom
euge of a shoit bonqerok oi serk.

The volur, who aie the likeliest women to be pictuieu, weie not a homogenous gioup. They hau
many, uiffeient, specializeu functions in viking Age society
. As fai as can be asceitaineu, theie is
no ieason to believe that they all uiesseu alike.
1he reconstruct|on of the outf|t
The high-status woman on the cait is uiesseu in a wai-season, piesumably summei, outfit. It is
shoit enough anu belteu to allow foi ease of movement.
The outfit consists of the following pieces. Each piece has its own section following this oveiview,
anu moie infoimation on how these choices weie maue can be founu in the ieseaich binueis.
1. The wool anu linen foi the cape, seik anu the leggings was uyeu blue in a shaue obtainable
by using woau. Theie is eviuence that blue cloth was commonly woin in the viking peiiou,
especially in Noiway.

op cit, Piice, pg 1S
op cit, Ewing, pg 48
op cit, Piice, pg 2u
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Page 12 of S7

2. Ankle high boots. Intact boots of this type weie founu in the 0sebeig cait. They have been
iepiouuceu foi this outfit, paitly on site.
S. Felteu wool boot lineis - felteu on-site
4. Socks - aie implieu unuei the boots. Naalbinueu socks weie maue out of wool foi this
pioject, mostly in auvance.
S. Leg coveiings - while baie legs oi knee-to-thigh high socks oi leg wiaps aie also a
possibility, the mouel is sensitive to wool against hei skin anu so uyeu woven linen leggings,
foi which theie is also some aicheological eviuence, weie maue on site.
6. Waist tie - a fingeiloop coiu biaiueu on site is useu to gathei the waist of the leggings.
7. Seik - the common unueiuiess is calleu a serk. Foi this pioject a knee length seik using the
Euia pattein was maue on site out of hanu-uyeu linen.
8. Fingei loop woven silk biaiu coveis the unueiaim seams of the seik. Nostly woven in
9. Caiu woven, linen wiist banus binu the lowei euge of the sleeves of the seik. These weie
mostly woven in auvance.
1u. Pleateu "back cape" - the women on the cait is weaiing a gaiment in the back that cleaily
pleats below the waist anu hangs to just above the ankle behinu the fiont apion. Fabiic useu
is a 1uu% wool, chevion-weave, oiiginally light giey anu oveiuyeu with woau-blue uye.
Cape maue on site, wool uyeu in auvance.
11. Caiu woven uppei euge binuing in wool on the cape was mostly woven in auvance.
12. Fiont panel - theie is a flat, miu-calf-length piece of the same fabiic as the cape on the fiont
of the outfit. A banu of uecoiation was embioiueieu anu appliquéu on this in silk on-site.
1S. Biooches - puichaseu, oval, biass biooches pin the back cape to the fiont apion.
14. Necklaces - at least two necklaces hang fiom the biooches. 0ne of the necklaces useu with
this outfit was maue fiom antique glass beaus - Russian 1u
centuiy - anu semi-
piecious stones in auvance. The othei, fiom golu-filleu beaus, glass beaus, anu semi-
piecious stones was constiucteu on-site.
1S. Belt - the cape anu apion aie constiicteu at the waist by a heavily textuieu belt. The belt
was biaiueu on site fiom a combination of puichaseu, natuial uyeu leathei lacing in ieu anu
black anu hanu-spun anu plieu yellow wool.
16. Beau wiap - a pleateu linen heau coveiing foi the mouel's haii woin in a bun oi biaiu
unueineath was maue on site.

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Cn co|or and fabr|c

When ieauing the sagas, chaiacteis aie sometimes iefeiieu to as i litklæôum; weaiing
"coloieu clothing".
0nuyeu cloth woulu ceitainly have been moie common, anu it has
been suggesteu that weaiing uyeu clothing was not only an inuicatoi of the wealth of the
chaiactei, but also of the peison's intensity of puipose.
When valla-Ljoti sets out
ueteimineu on vengeance, he uoffs his eveiyuay svortr, black, kiitle anu puts on his goou
one uyeu blór, blue, to maik the iitual significance of the act. It is not meie killing he is set
on, but a uelibeiate muiuei foi a specific puipose.

Although many colois coulu be obtaineu, the gieat pieponueiance of coloieu cloth in
Scanuinavia in this peiiou was uyeu blue.
In some Iiish wiitings of the time, the invauing
vikings aie calleu qormqlos, which means "blue-gieen.
" Blue pigment, inuigotin oi inuigo,
can be obtaineu fiom woau (Isatis tinctoiium), a plant that giows easily in Scanuinavia anu
woau leaves weie founu lockeu in a chest in the 0sebeig buiial.

In ieconstiucting the 0sebeig cait woman's uiess, theiefoie, the base coloi of the wool
pleateu cape is an inuigotin blue that coulu have been obtaineu fiom woau.
The linen serk
is a lightei shaue of the same coloi, because linen uoes not achieve the same intensity of
coloi using natuial uyes.
The tiim colois aie ieu, blue, anu yellow. Tiue ieu, oi scailet, coulu be obtaineu fiom
keimes, but woulu have been impoiteu into Scanuinavia, eithei as a uye oi on pie-uyeu
fabiic oi thieau.
Yellow coulu be obtaineu fiom seveial plants, incluuing a still
uniuentifieu one calleu "Yellow X."

Silk thieau uyeu in ieu anu yellow, which woulu have been impoiteu, is useu foi the biaiu
that tiims the seams of the serk anu foi the embioiueiy motifs on the fiont panel. Silk
tieaus weie often useu foi embioiueiy, anu an example was founu in the 0sebeig buiial.

Ewing, Thoi, "´i litklæôum´ - Colouieu Clothes in Neuieval Scanuinavian Liteiatuie anu Aichaeology"; pg 1,
http:¡¡www.uui.ac.uk¡meuieval.www¡sagaconf¡ewing.htm - 1
ibiu, pg. 4
ibiu, pg 4
ibiu. pg 4
ibiu. pg 2
"Bistoiy of Woau;" http:¡¡www.woau.oig.uk¡html¡euiope.html
The team attempteu to uye the fabiic using woau. Foi a uiscussion of the attempt, see the accompanying
uocument on "uyeing."
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, "Colois, Byestuffs, anu Noiuants of the viking Age: An Intiouuction"; 1999,
Ingstau, Anne Stein, "The textiles in the 0sebeig ship";
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Woad dye

An attempt was maue to uye the wool anu linen fabiic foi the pioject using woau as a
natuial uye. 0btaining sufficient amounts of Isatis tinctoiium in wintei pioveu
Aftei much ieseaich it was uiscoveieu that plants in the inuigo family,
incluuing Isatis tinctoiium (woau) anu Polygonum tinctoiium (uyei's knotweeu oi }apanese
inuigo) aie useu in tiauitional Chinese meuicine as astiingents, antibacteiials, anu foi
stomach anu livei complaints. In Chinese heibals the plants aie calleu Ba Qing Ye.

While two test iuns of the Ba Qing Ye¡woau yielueu goou iesults, scaling up the piocess to
hanule seveial yaius of 6u" wiue wool faileu to obtain iesults.

Full uetails of the piocesses followeu anu the iesults obtaineu aie attacheu as an appenuix.

The fabiic was, ieluctantly, uyeu using commeicial uyes to the uesiieu blue shaues. The
woau samples aie slightly moie gieen-blue, but the final colois on the fabiic useu aie in the
iight iange of tint anu hue to have been obtaineu fiom woau.

At one Chinese heib stoie, the piopiietiess initially iefuseu to sell me a pounu of Ba Qing Ye foi a test iun,
iepeateuly assuiing me it was "Too much• Too much not goou foi you•" When I finally convinceu hei that I
intenueu to use the plant as a uye anu not a meuicine, she shook hei heau at the follies of Ameiicans anu solu it
to me.
Common Name: Inuigo oi Isatis Leaves
Botanical Name: Isatis Tinctoiia Folium
Pin Yin Name: Ba Qing Ye
Actions: immunostimulant, antibacteiial, antiviial
I highly iecommenu the seivice obtaineu fiom 1st Chinese Beibs. They weie extiemely helpful.
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Ank|e boots

Six shoes weie founu in the 0sebeig ship buiial. This paii is thought to belong to the oluei
of the two women in the buiial.


This has been ieconstiucteu by I. Naic Cailson

The pattein was blown up to size, anu fitteu to the mouel's feet by Nistiess uiazia. The
leathei chosen is a uaik puiple-black cow-hiue. It is sewn using stabbing oi stitching
waxeu, black linen thieau. Foi stability on mouein floois, the sole was sewn on iough siue

Cailson, I. Naik,: Iootweor of tbe HiJJle Aqes - Bistoiical Shoe Besigns¡Numbei Su, . Copyiight 1996;
ibiu. The hole goes in one siue anu comes out the othei. Note that this is "stabbing" if uone with a stiaight awl,
anu "stitching" if uone with eithei a stiaight oi cuiveu awl. http:¡¡www.peisonal.utulsa.euu¡~maic-
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Ie|ted woo| boot ||ners

Foi waimth anu comfoit, shoes anu boots weie often stuffeu with insulating mateiials,
often stiaw oi wool. Wool, which has the piopeity of keeping things waim even if wet
which felts natuially when walkeu on, is still useu as a piefeiieu boot linei by wintei

The lineis will be felteu on site using a hot watei felting methou. Wool fibei laiu out in
ciosseu layeis, with hot watei, soap, anu agitation will quickly felt. Biieu, these will be cut
to shape anu inseiteu into the boots.

Flinn, Baviu, "Staying Waim When It's Colu anu Wet", Alpine }ouinal.oig, 2u1u,
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Nå|eb|nded socks
Nålebinuing is a thieau-inteilacing technique known fiom seveial examples aiounu the
Scanuinavian aiea.
Shoit pieces of yain aie thieaueu onto a blunt neeule, twisteu anu
woven into patteins.
The socks weie maue in meuium-weight, single ply wool in a natuial coloi. Single-ply wool
was chosen because it makes it easy to felt the enus of the thieaus togethei eliminating the
neeu foi knots oi weaving in the enus of the many thieaus neeueu.
The stitch useu is calleu "0slo" by Laiiy Schmitt, in Noiulanu's notation it is 4•12‚. Bansen's
notation calls this stitch 00¡000 F1.69 Accoiuing to Caiolyn Piiest-Boiman, it is a
commonly occuiiing stitch in viking finus, though the finus aie limiteu to mittens.
few shoe-lineis oi socks have evei been founu, the cuiient socks¡shoe-lineis weie maue
with a stitch that was known to be useu.
The socks weie constiucteu using techniques publisheu by Shelagh Lewins, using "heel type
E" baseu on "tiauitional Scanuinavian methous". "Beel Type C", baseu on obseivations of
the }oivik sock,
which is one of the only suiviving, neaily complete socks fiom the peiiou,
was useu foi a piototype (unfelteu anu felteu below), but pioveu unsatisfactoiy because of
the low piofile. 0nuei ankle-high boots, a highei sock was piefeiieu.


As each sock takes appioximately thiee houis to nålebinu, the socks weie begun in auvance
but finisheu anu felteu on-site using a hot watei technique.

Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn; Nålebinuing Techniques in the viking Age; 2uu1;
Lewins, Shelagh; Nalbinuing Socks: Nethous of Constiuction; 2uu4,
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Leg cover|ngs

Theie is no aicheological eviuence as to what lowei limb coveiing foi women might have
been, anu only a few fiagmentaiy iemains foi men
. Bowevei, the lauy on the cait caiving
seems to show naiiow coveiings of some kinu on the legs anu foi comfoit it was thought
uesiiable. Theiefoie, leggings weie maue of linen in a pattein with a ciotch gusset foimeu
the same way as the unueiaim gusset in the serk: naiiow towaius the ankles anu wiuening
at the to of the thighs. The pants weie constiucteu with a uiawstiing at the waist.

op cit, Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, http:¡¡www.cs.vassai.euu¡~capiiest¡mensgaib.html
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Wa|st t|e for |egg|ngs

The tie was woven on-site fiom linen coiu in a fingei-loop biaiuing technique. The iueal
outcome is a iounu coiu. What exact pattein is useu will piobably be ueteimineu on site
when it is maue.

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(or tun|c)

Baseu on the giooves caiveu into the shoulueis -the caivei useu that iounueu gioove
pattein on the top of eveiy limb, incluuing the animals -the sleeves aie uesciibeu as "loose,
linen" by Ewing.
The pattein chosen is fiom a finu in Euia, Finlanu, which gives a loose,
full shouluei anu still a slightly shapeu bouy.


The ciucial measuiements foi piopei fit aie taken acioss the bustline fiom the aimscye to
aimscye anu fiom the point of the shouluei to the position of the unueiaim seam. The
layout shown woiks best with 6u" wiue fabiic anu measuiements foi a busty woman. The
actual cutting foi the mouel is uone on Su" wiue fabiic in longei yaiuage. The layout we
useu gives thiee seams unuei each aim, iathei than two unuei one anu thiee unuei the
othei as in the layout shown. Because textiles aie pieseiveu usually in small fiagments, it is
neaily impossible to ueteimine a "noimal" wiuth foi fabiic woven in the 9th Centuiy,
theiefoie we useu the most efficient layout that gave the measuiements we neeueu.

The linen was oiiginally bleacheu, but uyeu, using commeicial uyes, to appioximate the
coloi of the test iuns of woau uyeu linen samples.

The seik is maue to have the hem fall just below the knees.

op cit, Ewing, pg S7 "The teim serkr, then, is possibly equivalent to Latin tunico."
Ibiu, pg S7
Ancient Finnish Costume, http:¡¡www.vikingansweilauy.com¡FTP_Files¡Ancient_Finnish_Costumes.PBF
Atte Biagon, Nistiess Baibaia, viking Costume- Women, http:¡¡www.thule-italia.net¡sitoinglese¡viking
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8ra|d over seams on the !"#$

Caiolyn Piiest-Boiman states that "Seams weie also uecoiateu in some cases with naiiow
biaius oi coius (about 1mm wiue): the biaius weie sewn uown on the outsiue of the
gaiment ovei the line of the seam."

The biaius foi the serk weie fingei-loop biaiueu fiom ieu anu yellow silk thieau. The
thieau woulu have been impoiteu in peiiou. The pattein useu is a "five loop basic biaiu"
that makes a chevion pattein
. Bue to the limitations of the style of biaiu with only one
woikei, it was woven in pieces aveiaging about a yaiu long. These aie stitcheu to the serk
using fine silk thieau. A few biaiu pieces weie uone on site.

Boiman, Caiolyn Piiest; "viking Tunic Constiuction", 1997;
Swales, Lois € Kuhn-Williams, ƒoe; "Fingeiloop Biaius", (website of "Compleat Anachionist" on the same
subject) http:¡¡fingeiloop.oig¡patteins.html - n1S
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Card woven bands

The 0sebeig buiial containeu at least two examples of caiu woven banus, incluuing a wool
fiagment anu a loom waipeu with caius.


Two banus weie woven foi this pioject, using a geometiic pattein. 0ne in thiee shaues of
fine plieu wool in tiue blue, ieu anu yellow, one in linen thieau in natuial, light yellow anu
light blue. The wool biaiu euges the top of the pleateu back cape anu contiols the pleats.
The linen banu was applieu to the cuffs anu neckline of the serk foi uecoiation.

Ingstau, Anne Stine, "The textiles in the 0sebeig ship" •Illustiation page 187. Tabletweaving as founu in the
giave.‚; http:¡¡www.foiest.gen.nz¡Neuieval¡aiticles¡0sebeig¡textiles¡TEXTILE.BTN
ibiu. •Fiagment of woven biaiu. About uouble size. Watei coloui aftei uiawing by Sofie Kiaft.‚
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Þ|eated "back cape"

The main uifficulty in any pleateu gaiment is contiolling the pleats. The fabiic chosen is a
fine wool, oiiginally in a light giey but oveiuyeu with blue
, woven in a chevion pattein.
Because it came in 6u" wiuth
, the cape consists of one full-wiuth back panel, pleateu
acioss the top at the shoulueis with the pleats helu in place by being sewn to caiu-woven
biaiu tiim along the shouluei euge. Anothei full wiuth of the fabiic was cut in half along the
uiagonal. The iesulting tiiangulai pieces weie sewn, bias to selvage, along the siues of the
pleateu panel
. The gaiment was then tiieu on, the pleats at the siue aiiangeu by hanu, anu
finally piesseu into place.

The oiiginal plan calleu foi woau uying the fabiic, but was unable to be completeu. See the uye section foi
uetails. The wool was uyeu with commeicial inuigotin baseu uye.
Bau it come in naiiowei wiuth, uiffeient uesign uecisions might have been maue.
Besign suggesteu by Nistiess Ellen uieenhanu.
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Iront pane| w|th Lmbro|dery and App||que

The fiont panel of the woman's outfit is caiveu with ueep ciosshatchings that appeai
nowheie else on the cait. What type of uecoiation oi weave-type they iepiesent is
unknowable. Bowevei, some uecoiation was thought uesiiable to show high status.
Neeule embioiueiy was not a technique much piacticeu in the aiea
, though examples,
thought to be impoiteu, weie founu in the 0sebeig buiial
. Thiee iounuels of silk
embioiueiy with animal motifs aie planneu to be appliquéu onto the fiont panel. A "iing
chain" motif, embioiueieu in silk thieau onto a silk giounu, is appliquéu along the top euge
of the panel.


Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn; "viking Embioiueiy Stitches anu Notifs," 1997,
op cit, Ingstau, "The othei embioiueiy is piobably a plant motif executeu in silk thieau, mostly in stemstitch
that coveis the entiie suiface. See ill on page 18u, These embioiueiies aie believeu to be impoiteu fiom the
Biitish Isles."
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Iewe|ry - 8rooches and Neck|aces

The pleateu back panel anu the fiont panel aie helu togethei at the collaibone level by
biooches of biass. These aie oval anu show an inteilaceu wolf motif. These weie puichaseu
fiom Nastei Aik many yeais ago.
The caiving shows the woman weaiing at least two necklaces, one long anu one shoit
uepenuing fiom the biooches. Beaus fiom this peiiou weie maue fiom glass, metal, hoin,
bone, ciystal, vaiious mineials anu gems, anu even limestone.
Typical shapes of viking
eia glass beaus aie:


In this ieconstiuction, one of the necklaces contains antique Russian beaus that uate to the
These weie maue into a necklace with the auuition of semi-piecious
stone beaus with mouein clasps on mouein wiie.
The othei necklace was maue on-site anu stiung on linen coiu. The beaus aie glass, semi-
piecious stones anu metal. The beaus weie puichaseu.

Cailsson, Ban, "viking Beaus fiom uotlanu anu Sweuen"; AikeoBoc, 1997,
Puichaseu at Pennsic with this unwiitten piovenance.
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Page 26 of S7


Belt haiuwaie is iaiely founu in female giaves, but it is not unknown.
Bowevei, looking at
the outfit being ieconstiucteu, though the belt is caiveu with a iaiseu anu textuieu suiface,
theie is no buckle oi stiap enu showing in the caiving. The uecision was maue, theiefoie, to
make the belt out of leathei anu wool, which woulu leave, few, if any, tiaces in a buiial site.
Theie is a saga iefeience to a woman, calleu a piophetess, piobably a volvo, weaiing "a soft

The leathei useu foi this pioject's belt is vegetable-uyeu ieu anu black leathei Smm coiuing.
The options foi the belt weie ueepei, moie authentic coloi on iounu leathei coiuing that
woulu be easiei to biaiu, oi, piesumably, moie authentic leathei in S mm wiue stiips, but
which came in a veiy unsatisfactoiy ieu, anu woulu be moie uifficult to biaiu. Bue to the
time constiaints of the contest, the moie authentic coloi in the easiei mateiial was selecteu.
The wool useu was taken fiom stock alieauy on hanu. It hau pieviously been uyeu yellow
with osage oiange anu hanu spun. The iesulting thieau was plieu twice to make a thickei,
foui-ply coiu the same uiametei as the leathei.
The uifficulty of the biaiuing pattein will be ueciueu on-site, anu uepenuent on how quickly
the othei pieces of the outfit aie being completeu.

Lucas, Rebecca, "Belts in Noise Female uiaves;" 2uu9, http:¡¡www.meuieval-baltic.us¡vikbuckle.html
ibiu. "Saga of Eiic the Reu" Thoibjoig the piophetess was uesciibeu as weaiing a soft belt anu theie (on it)
was a laige puise of skin (0wn tianslation, iefeiiing to Cleasby anu vigfusson, 1874). (Bon haf„i um sik
hnjoskulinua, ok vai þai á skjo„upungi mikill...) (uoiuon anu Taylei, 19S6).
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Page 27 of S7

nead wrap

Nany of the female viking images show a wiappeu anu tieu heau coveiing with enus long
enough to hang uown behinu.


The heau-wiap is maue fiom linen, in a tiiangle with long enus. It is "sciuncheu" to pleat it
anu tieu aiounu the biaiu¡bun at the nape of the neck.

Spiang banus may be incoipoiateu into the haiistyle.

http:¡¡www.gelfling.uus.nl¡viking women.html
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Page 28 of S7

Append|x 1 - 1he Woad Dy|ng Þrocess

By Lauy Catheiine of Beva
6%0& _Y)"5 :$%(.11
Woau is best pickeu fiesh in the spiing when new leaves contain the most pigment.
0nfoitunately, not being piescient enough to have obtaineu anu uyeu the fabiic in the
pievious giowing season, we coulu not use fiesh woau foi this pioject. Reseaich tolu us that
uiieu leaves coulu also be useu. Biieu woau fiom Euiopean souices was beyonu oui
financial iesouices foi this pioject so Isatis tinctoiium in laige quantities was puichaseu
thiough a Chinese souice that uses the leaves as an heibal, anu it is iuentifieu as Ba Qing Ye.
They also solu a concentiate of woau leaves. We neeueu to veiify that leaves anu
concentiate hau coloi in them so we uiu a test iun.
D'" [ ;.0F.1 T/0$%;a b$0(. 0"& /0#-YU
1. 0sing 4 oz leaves pouieu 1 gallon of boiling watei ovei them
2. Let the leaves set foi 1 houi - the liquiu was a sheiiy coloi which is the coloi it
shoulu be
S. The book "Coloi" saiu that the leaves shoulu stay in when they aie uiieu so we left
the leaves in the uye bath
4. Buiing all of the following steps the uye bath neeueu to stay a constant tempeiatuie
of 12uF
S. We then auueu 2 tablespoons of washing soua (we uiu not want to use uiine as they
uiu in the miuule ages) - the uye bath hau to be alkaline (PB 9) - we hau no test
stiips so we guesseu
6. Because we weie using uiieu leaves - the book "Coloi" saiu not to uo the step wheie
you whip aii into the uye bath which changes the coloi of the uye bath to blue
7. We then auueu 1 oz of Rit coloi iemovei - the uye uoes not attach to cloth when it is
visible in the uye bath
8. The uye bath changeu to a yellowish gieen coloi. This is the coloi that we neeueu, it
meant that all of the blue coloi has been iemoveu
9. The uye bath was then let sit foi 1 houi
1u. When auuing mateiial to the uye bath you have to be caieful because you uo not
want to auu aii into the uye bath. This causes it oxiuize anu change the coloi to blue,
then it won't attach to the cloth. So we caiefully auueu a piece of ioving to the uye
11. We let the piece of ioving sit in the uye batch foi 1u minutes anu then took it out. It
tuineu a beautiful uaik blue.
12. We ueciueu it was 0K to auu a sample of the wool cloth that was a giey heiiingbone.
We foigot to wet the cloth befoie we auueu it to the uye bath. We auueu a seconu
piece that we wetteu. We left both pieces sit in the uye bath foi 1u minutes.
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Page 29 of S7

1S. We pulleu it out. It came out a gieen coloi. But it was veiy molteu anu leaves weie
sticking to it. We iinseu the leaves off. But both pieces weie not evenly uyeu,
especially the one we uiu get wet fiist.
14. We then auueu a piece of linen to the uye bath that was going to be useu foi the
1S. We let that sit foi 1S minutes.
16. It came out a light gieen
17. Aftei a few minutes both the wool cloth anu linen cloth staiting tuining blue. The
wool was a uaikei blue anu the line was beautiful light blue. As the cloth uiieu the
colois changeu
This was a successful iun but the cloth hau the impiession seveial leaves on it anu we
wanteu to tiy to see if the piocess woikeu as well oi bettei with the leaves taken out.
D'" [ (%"(."#$0#. T/0$%;a b$0(. 0"& /0#-YU
1. 0sing 2 tablespoons concentiate pouieu 1 gallon of boiling watei ovei it
2. Let the uye bath set foi 1 houi - the liquiu was a sheiiy coloi, which is the coloi it
shoulu be
S. We left the concentiate in the uye bath, theie is no way we coulu take it out, as it
hau uissolveu in the watei..
4. Buiing all of the following steps the uye bath neeueu to stay a constant tempeiatuie
of 12uF
S. We then auueu 2 tablespoons of washing soua - the uye bath hau to be alkaline (PB
9) - we hau no test stiips so we guesseu
6. We then auueu 1 oz of Rit coloi iemovei - the uye uoes not attach to cloth when it is
visible in the uye bath
7. The uye bath changeu to a yellowish coloi. This is the coloi that we neeueu, it meant
that all of the blue coloi has been iemoveu
8. The uye bath was then let sit foi 1 houi
9. When auuing mateiial to the uye bath you have to be caieful because you uo not
want to auu aii into the uye bath. This causes it oxiuize anu change the coloi to blue,
then it won't attach to the cloth. So we caiefully auueu a piece of ioving to the uye
1u. We let the piece of ioving sit in the uye batch foi 1u minutes anu then took it out. It
stayeu yellow. 0nfoitunately the ioving was acciuentally let slip uown the uiain, so
theie was no way to test if the coloi was fast, anu we hau alieauy uiscaiueu the uye
We uiu not get blue fiom the concentiate, so this was not a solution.
D'" [ ;.0F.1a #04." %'# T/0$%;a L)7..U 2%;;%A)"5 1;)5-#;Y &)22.$."# &)$.(#)%"1?
1. Auueu 4 ounces of leaves to 1.S gallons boiling watei.
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Page Su of S7

2. Immeuiately ieuuceu the tempeiatuie to 12u uegiees by the auuition of .S gal colu
S. Let the leaves set foi 1 houi - the liquiu was a sheiiy coloi which is the coloi it
shoulu be
4. The leaves weie stiaineu out of the uye bath
S. Buiing all of the following steps the uye bath was kept at a constant tempeiatuie of
12uF in an electiic ioasting pan.
6. We then auueu 2 tablespoons of washing soua (we uiu not want to use uiine like
they uiu in the miuule ages) - the uye bath hau to be alkaline (PB 9) - we hau test
stiips anu testeu it. Ph was piopei.
7. Tiieu whipping the uye batch to oxiuize it anu get the blue coloi. The blue coloi
nevei uiu come out. The "coloi" book saiu with uiieu leaves you skip this step. But
we hau to piove it out.
8. We then auueu 1 oz of Rit coloi iemovei
9. The uye bath changeu to a yellowish gieen coloi. This is the coloi that we neeueu, it
meant that all of the blue coloi has been iemoveu
1u. The uye bath was then let sit foi 1 houi
11. We caiefully auueu a piece of Woolite washeu, anu still wet giay wool to the uye
12. We let the piece of wool sit in the uye batch foi 1u minutes anu then took it out. It
tuineu a beautiful tuiquoise blue.
1S. As the wool set the coloi changeu
14. We then auueu a piece of linen to the uye bath that was going to be useu foi the
gaiment. We also auueu the pieviously splotchy uyeu piece of linen to oveiuye it.
1S. We let that sit foi an houi.
16. It came out a light gieen
17. Aftei a few minutes linen cloth staiting tuining a light blue. Some of the splotches
fiom the pievious attempt hau eveneu out. Theie was a patch that hau been above
the wateiline anu it hau tuineu a iemaikably ueep blue.
This was successful iun anu we uiu not have the spotting on the wool anu linen fiom the

D'" [ (%"(."#$0#. T/0$%; 0"& L)7c.U
1. 0sing 2 tablespoons concentiate pouieu 1 gallon of boiling watei ovei it
2. Let the uye bath set foi 1 houi - the liquiu was a sheiiy coloi, which is the coloi it
shoulu be
S. We left the concentiate in the uye bath, theie is no way we coulu take it out, as it
hau uissolveu in the watei..
4. Buiing all of the following steps the uye bath was helu at a constant tempeiatuie of
12uF in an electiic ioastei.
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Page S1 of S7

S. We then auueu 2 tablespoons of washing soua - the uye bath hau to be alkaline (PB
9) - we hau test stiips anu the Ph was piopei.
6. We then auueu 1 oz of Rit coloi iemovei - the uye uoes not attach to cloth when it is
visible in the uye bath
7. The uye bath changeu to a yellowish coloi. This is the coloi that we neeueu, it meant
that all of the blue coloi has been iemoveu
8. The uye bath was then let sit foi 1 houi
9. When auuing mateiial to the uye bath you have to be caieful because you uo not
want to auu aii into the uye bath. This causes it oxiuize anu change the coloi to blue,
then it won't attach to the cloth. So we caiefully auueu Woolite washeu, thoioughly
iinseu anu still wet pieces of white wool cloth to the bath. 0ne piece hau been
moiuanteu with a Tablespoon of salt in a cup of watei.
1u. We let the pieces of cloth sit in the uye batch foi an houi anu then took them out.
They stayeu yellow, even aftei iinsing. We aie cuiiently testing to see if the coloi is
fast to sun exposuie.
We uiu not get expect to get a blue fiom the concentiate, but this may be an alteinative
to osage oiange.
/0;(';0#)%"1 2%$ 0 2';; $'"
A basic iule of thumb foi a concentiateu uye bath is to use equal amounts of uye
mateiial to uye stuff. So baseu on that anu the quantities that we hau useu befoie this is
what we came up with.
• 4 pounus of wool mateiial … linen
• 4 pounus of woau
• 8 ounces of coloi iemovei
• 1 cup of washing soua
• 16 gallons of watei
!11'.1 A. -0& #% %F.$(%7.
The 1
issue we hau is what you use to put that much stuff in. The fabiic hau to move
fieely anu be totally submeigeu. Anu all of the fabiic neeueu to be uyeu at one time oi
they coulu come out uiffeient colois. Cathy uonateu a huge aluminum pot, pieviously
useu foi feast cooking, to the effoit. 0nfoitunately, uyeing cannot be uone in aluminum,
as aluminum is a moiuant anu the coloi will not be tiue. So we staiteu looking at
alteinatives. Foi inuigo type uyeing you can use plastic buckets. We uiun't have a plastic
bucket big enough, noi coulu one be obtaineu at shoit notice foi a ieasonable
expenuituie. We hau ioasteis that holu seveial gallons, but the cloth woulu have hau to
be uieu in sepaiate batches anu we woiiieu that even one 6u" x 6u" piece of the fabiic
woulu not have ioom to move fieely. In auuition, once they have been useu foi uyeing,
it is iecommenueu that they not be useu foi foou again. What we finally ueciueu to uo
was use an inuustiial stiength gaibage bag insiue the aluminum pot. We only hau to
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Page S2 of S7

keep the tempeiatuie at 12uF so the bag shoulu not melt if it was suspenueu in hot
watei at the bottom of the pot.
The seconu issue was we weie uoing in Febiuaiy anu you neeu to uo this in a well-
ventilateu aiea, piefeiably outsiue. We useu a gaiage with a keiosene heatei anu the
gaiage uooi paitially open.
The thiiu issue is that the pot is so huge it uoes not fit on a poitable electiic buinei but
we hau to keep the tempeiatuie at 12u uegiees in a colu gaiage. The weathei hoveieu
just unuei the fieezing point that uay anu it often spit snow oi neai-fieezing uiizzle.
The unventeu keiosene heatei also contiibuteu to the bau aii quality, so we hau no
choice but to keep a gaiage uooi open thiee feet on the bottom foi ventilation. We
suppoiteu the huge pot on two pieces of woou that weie tallei than the electiic buinei
anu put the buinei between them with the pot on top of them. With the keiosene heatei
pointeu at it, this uiu a wonueiful job at keeping the tempeiatuie iight at 12uF.
W)"0; D'"
1. We split the 4 pounus of leaves into 6 containeis
• 1 pounu of leaves 4 gallons of watei
• † pounu of leaves S gallons of watei
• † pounu of leaves S gallons of watei
• ‡ pounu of leaves 2 gallons of watei
• ‡ pounu of leaves 2 gallons of watei
• ‡ pounu of leaves 2 gallons of watei
2. We boileu the watei, auueu the leaves anu tuineu off the heat. We let all of the
pots steep foi 1 houi until all of the pots hau a nice sheiiy coloieu liquiu
S. We stiaineu the liquiu out into the gaibage bag lineu pot, anu veiifieu the liquiu
was at 12uF
4. We then auueu the washing soua anu then coloi staiteu to change a little. We
testeu the PB anu it was goou
S. Next we auueu the coloi iemovei, the uye bath changeu to a yellowish coloi, the
coloi we weie expecting
6. We let the uye bath sit foi 1 houi
7. We caiefully auueu the S pieces of Woolite washeu, thoioughly iinseu anu still
wet hot wool to the uye bath, we pusheu them uown anu helu them uown with a
buttei chuin swishei.
8. We let them sit foi 2u minutes
9. We set up thiee watei bath to iinse the wool in anu as each piece came we
iinseu them off. They weie a yellowish coloi. The utensils we useu weie
yellowish as well.
1u. The cloth was not tuining gieen oi blue.
11. We hung the cloth outsiue to oxiuize it anu let it uiy off. It was not tuining blue.
The snow it was uiipping on was tuining yellow not blue.
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Page SS of S7

12. Something was uiastically wiong; all of the coloi incluuing the yellow was
uiipping off the wool.
1S. I went anu got a piece of ioving to tiy. We shoulu have uone this befoie putting
oui piouuction wool into the uye baths. We let that sit foi 1u minutes. It uiu not
change coloi when we pulleu it out.
14. We tiieu auuing an auuitional cup of washing soua - that uiun't woik.
1S. We tiieu auuing eight moie ounces of coloi iemovei - that uiun't woik.
16. We tiieu auuing an auuitional six ounces of coloi iemovei - that uiun't woik.
17. We enueu up uyeing the fabiic with Rit inuigo uye
We aie not exactly suie why things uiu not woik out. The possibilities aie:
• The plastic bag hau chemicals that inteiacteu with the uye bath
• The aluminum pot coulu have been the pioblem if it leacheu thiough the plastic bag
• It coulu have been a combination of the above two
• 0ui foimula coulu have been wiong
• 0ui foimula may not have woikeu foi that laige of quantity
o Biieu woau leaves in that quantity may contain moie pigment than was able
to be iemoveu by the quantity of coloi iemovei we hau on hanu oi coulu
finu in a 2u mile iauius on an emeigency basis.
• The liquiu may have been hottei at the bottom of the pot than at the top wheie we
measuiing it

The aluminum pot linei was sealeu with the woau mixtuie still insiue. The iemaining woau
leaves hau been steeping in waim watei all afteinoon in the expectation that the liquiu
woulu be auueu to the bath aftei the wool was iemoveu anu befoie the linen was auueu to
inciease the amount of pigment available. This pot was also sealeu anu set asiue.

We'll tiy again when the weathei waims up•

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Page S4 of S7

keferences - (all links cuiient as of S¡4¡2u1u)

/';#'$0; <0(45$%'"& [
Anuién, Anueis Kiistina }ennbeit, Cathaiina Rauuveie, (2uu6) 0lJ Norse reliqion in lonq-term perspectives:
oriqins, cbonqes, onJ interoctions; Noiuic Acauemic Piess - google book:
http:¡¡books.google.com¡books.iu=gjq6ivoIRpAC€lpg=PP1€pg=PA4 - v=onepage€q=€f=false
Clunies Ross, Naigaiet (unknown) Stylistic onJ qeneric Jefiners of tbe 0lJ Norse skolJic ekpbrosis;
0niveiisyt of Syuney: https:¡¡www.uui.ac.uk¡meuieval.www¡sagaconf¡cluniesiossekphiasis.puf
Baviuson, Bilua Ellis (199S) Tbe lost Beliefs of Nortbern Furope, Routleuge books - google book;
http:¡¡books.google.com¡books.iu=sWLvƒNuB224C€piintsec=fiontcovei€souice=gbs_navlinks_s -
Buczko, Wlauyslaw (2uu4) vikinq Rus: stuJies on tbe presence of SconJinovions in Fostern Furope Koninklijke
Biill, Nv - google book :
http:¡¡books.google.com¡books.iu=hEawXSP4AvwC€piintsec=fiontcovei€souice=gbs_navlinks_s -
Ettlingei, Ellen (1976) Tbe Hytboloqicol Relief of tbe 0seberq Woqon IounJ in Soutbern Norwoy; Folkloie,
vol. 87, No. 1 (1976), pp. 81-88: http:¡¡www.jstoi.oig¡stable¡12S9Su2
uaiunei, }ennifei Nichelle (2uu6) Tbe Peoceweover: Weoltbeow in Beowulf, Westein Caiolina 0niveisity
Beischenu, Fianz (2uuu, }uly) Sbip qrove boll possoqe - tbe 0seberq monument os compounJ meoninq, 11th
Inteinational Saga Confeience: http:¡¡www.aits.usyu.euu.au¡meuieval¡saga¡puf¡142-heischenu.puf
}esch, }uuith (1991) Women in tbe vikinq Aqe, Boyuell Piess - google book:
http:¡¡books.google.com¡books.iu=9xpNRpI9zFoC€piintsec=fiontcovei€souice=gbs_navlinks_s -
Noitensen, Lina (2uu4) The 'maiauuing pagan waiiioi woman" 0nqenJerinq Civilizotion; Routleuge books -
google book,
€ots=010uQ4RnBS€sig=Rumgti1S_KBu88cXiXxu9hpzRQk - v=onepage€q=€f=false
Nusset, Lucien (2uuS) Tbe Boyeux Topestry, Boyuell Piess - google book,
http:¡¡books.google.com¡books.iu=RsuSICgBEeIC€piintsec=fiontcovei€souice=gbs_navlinks_s -
Clunies Ross, Naigaiet, Stylistic onJ qeneric Jefiners of tbe 0lJ Norse skolJic ekpbrosis, 0niveisity of Syuney,
Piice, Neil (2uu4) Tbe Arcboeoloqy of tbe seior: Circumpolor TroJitions in Pre-Cbristion Reliqion, 0niveisity of
0ppsala, http:¡¡www.biathaii.com¡ievista¡numeios¡u4.u2.2uu4¡aichaeology_seiui.puf
Watt, Naigiethe (2uu4, Becembei) Tbe 6olJ-Iiqure Ioils {"6ulJqubbor") from 0ppo_kro, Continuity foi
Centuiies, http:¡¡www.uppakia.se¡uocs¡uppakia1u¡01u_u6.puf
valkyiie, Biittanica Concise Encyclopeuia: http:¡¡www.answeis.com¡topic¡valkyiie
valkyiie, Wikipeuia, http:¡¡www.answeis.com¡topic¡valkyiie
"#$ %&$'$() *+(, -./+0 1 2.(3+45 67(6+ 899 *:;:
Page SS of S7

Noise Nythology, Wapeuia, http:¡¡wapeuia.mobi¡en¡Noise_mythology
Rok Runestone, Wapeuia, http:¡¡wapeuia.mobi¡en¡Rok_Runestone
The 0uin Nysteiies : A Nysteiy Cult in Pagan Scanuinavia, http:¡¡theouinmysteiies.com¡ouin¡

Construct|on and Des|gn:

Atte Biagon, Nistiess Baibaia, vikinq Costume - women: http:¡¡www.thule-italia.net¡sitoinglese¡viking
Bjoinsson, vikinq Art: http:¡¡www.willausenfamily.oig¡sca¡uani_as¡viking-ait¡viking_ait_class.puf
Bioom, Emiys Eustace, Sberts, Trewes, & Eose .ij. : Bocumentoble Betoils, uieyBiagon.oig:
Bioomé, Susanna, 1996, Eur mon kloJJe siq på vikinqotiJen: http:¡¡hem.passagen.se¡susbiom¡KLABER.BTN
Cailson, }ennifei L. , 2uuS, Sewinq Stitcbes 0seJ in HeJievol Clotbinq: http:¡¡www.peisonal.utulsa.euu¡~maic-
Cailsson, Ban, vikinq BeoJs from 6otlonJ, SweJen, AikeoBoc:
Chiistensen, Aine Emi, Anne Stine Ingstau, Bjˆin Nyhie, 1992, A new tbeory on tbe costumes of tbe 0seberq
µueen onJ ber ottenJont Witb Comments, 0sebeig Bionningens giav:
Bankbai, Beinhaiu, BernborJ's NoJelbinJen: http:¡¡home.aicoi.ue¡beuankbai¡inuex-eng.htm
Biagonetti, Aluiana, NoolbinJinq:
http:¡¡piesence.havenonline.com¡~havenonl¡moas¡noithstai¡vol1noS¡Naalbinuing web.htm
Ewing, Thoi, ´i litklæôum´ - ColoureJ Clotbes in HeJievol SconJinovion literoture onJ Arcboeoloqy, Buiham
0niveisity: http:¡¡www.uui.ac.uk¡meuieval.www¡sagaconf¡ewing.htm
Foiest, Naggie , SconJinovion FmbroiJery:
uoslee, Saiah , A Iew HeJievol BroiJs, Stiingpage:
uunnvoi, vikinq BeoJs onJ Neckloces, viking Answei Lauy: http:¡¡www.vikingansweilauy.com¡vikbeaus.shtml
ingen Nuiieuaich, Banbhahun Temaii, 2uu4, Iinqer Weovinq {or "Peosont BroiJs"):
http:¡¡www.whitestaganufox.oig¡temaii¡hanuouts¡Fingeiweaving Banuout Pennsic 2uuS.puf
Ingstau, Anne Stine, Tbe textiles in tbe 0seberq sbip:
}ones, Beathei Rose, 2uu4, Arcboeoloqicol Sewinq:
"#$ %&$'$() *+(, -./+0 1 2.(3+45 67(6+ 899 *:;:
Page S6 of S7

Kania, Katiin, 2uu9, SkjolJebomn neck flop: http:¡¡togs-fiom-bogs.blogspot.com¡2uu9¡u1¡skjoluehamn-neck-
Laning, Chiis, 1997, 0rcbil, tbe poor person's purple: http:¡¡iavensgaiu.oig¡geieki¡0ichil.html
Lewins, Shelagh, 2uuS, Tbe Portly-CompleteJ Toblet Weovinq from tbe 0seberq Sbip Buriol:
http:¡¡www.shelaghlewins.com¡tablet_weaving¡0sebeig_tablet¡0sebeig_tablet.htm - note4_anchoi
Lewins, Shelagh, 2uuS, A BrocoJeJ BonJ from tbe 0seberq Sbip Buriol:
Lewins, Shelagh, 2uu4, NolbinJinq Socks: HetboJs of Construction:
Lewins, Shelagh, 2uuS, A vikinq Pinofore:
Lucas, Rebecca, 2uu9, Nay, A Tunic onJ EooJ from SkjolJ Eorbour, Neuieval Baltic: http:¡¡www.meuieval-
Lucas, Rebecca, Belts in Norse Iemole 6roves, Neuieval Baltic: http:¡¡www.meuieval-baltic.us¡vikbuckle.html
Peail, et al, 2uu8, Wbot is beinq referreJ to bere?: http:¡¡peail.uieamwiuth.oig¡221627.html
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, 199S, An Arcboeoloqicol 6uiJe to vikinq Hen's Clotbinq, vassai 0niveisity:
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, 1997, vikinq Tunic Construction, vassai 0niveisity:
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, 1997, vikinq FmbroiJery Stitcbes onJ Hotifs, vassai 0niveisity:
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, 2uu1, NålebinJinq Tecbniques in tbe vikinq Aqe, vassai 0niveisity:
Piiest-Boiman, Caiolyn, 1999, Colors, Byestuffs, onJ HorJonts of tbe vikinq Aqe: An lntroJuction, vassai
file:¡¡localhost¡0niveisity¡ http¡::www.cs.vassai.euu:~capiiest:vikuyes.html
Raymonu, Catheiine, et al, 2uu6, Anolysis of 0seberq Sbip Textiles, Neuieval Costuming Community:
Raymonu, Catheiine, et al, 2uu6, Apron Jresses for tbe confuseJ?, Neuieval Costuming Community:
Raymonu, Catheiine, et al, 2uu8, New proposeJ vikinq Jress reconstruction, Neuieval Costuming Community:
Thoiguus, 2uu9, vowen textile 0seberq vikinq qrove, Samiblog:
Thunem, Bilue , vikinq Women: 0nJerJress: http:¡¡www.pvv.ntnu.no¡~hmg¡lip¡kostyme¡viking¡v-k-
0lfsuottii, Isabel, 2uu4, NålbinJinq Socks workeJ in tbe BroJén Stitcb:
"#$ %&$'$() *+(, -./+0 1 2.(3+45 67(6+ 899 *:;:
Page S7 of S7

Wilson, Nonica L., 2uuS, Bosic NålbinJinq port 1: 0slo Stitcb {I1 00,000):
ƒubkova,E., 0. 0ifinskaya, B. Likhachev, 2uu7, New Jiscovery of vikinq Aqe clotbinq from Pskov, Russio:
vikinq Ponts, Naiitime Nuseum of the Atlantic:
ANNFX 6 - PRACTlCAl NAAlBlNBlN6 The vikings:
Sboes, Kynnabaiia: http:¡¡www.angelfiie.com¡mi4¡olafvanta¡Biik¡shoes¡ushoes.htm
"6okstoJbøvJinqens }oktronsel" - Tbe 6okstoJ 'Bock Pock', viking:
Norse Seom Treotments: http:¡¡www.silveiuoi.oig¡viking¡NoiseSeamTieatments.puf
0Jin from lejre, the viking Rune: http:¡¡www.vikingiune.com¡2uu9¡11¡ouin-fiom-lejie¡
ueneial viking Links Page: http:¡¡www.uiakt.oig¡viking.html

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