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Divine Manifestation

Divine Manifestation

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The Universe as Divine Manifestation

Course Description

that CEU students will send in a typed response to this question or task as part of their assignment to be mailed in at the end of this course.

1. Write a letter to a church official or ecclesial leader responding to the document, "Renewing the Earth," affirming its significance and timeliness.

2. Design a celebration of the earth for implementation by/within a religious group.

You might plan a worship service or liturgy, an artistic dramatization or performance, a play or musical piece, an adaptation or expansion of traditional celebrations such as Thanksgiving, the Solstice, etc.

*3. Try your hand at nature writing, using the methodology introduced in the audio tape.

4. Propose a title and chapter headings for a book on the earth, informed by the readings and audio tape for the session. If you were charged with writing a book, introducing and describing the planet earth, what would it look like? What would you entitle it? What would be its chapter headings? From what resources would it draw?

5/00

32

Session 6

1 •

Dear usee Directors:

I am writing to thank you and the

usee for issuing "Re new inq the Earth" and to make some

suggestions for future ecological statements.

Significantly,

It Renewing the Earth II l.inks the issues of ecology and poverty,

as well as affirms the inseparability of the protection of the life and dignity of the human person and the care and defense

of all creation. Unfortunately, however, while the statement highlights these connections, it fails to enunciate specific moral implications of these connections, such as choosing a vegetarian diet, recycling, rejecting consumerism, boycotting enviornmentally irresponsible companies, etc. As Thomas Berry has written in Dream of the Earth, "In economics, energy, food production, law, medicine, education, religion, ethics--in every aspect of life--the ecological pattern of functioning is now established" (32). I encourage you to continue your efforts

to renew the earth by issuing another statement which clearly spells out specific actions Christians are being called upon

to undertake in consideration of the ecological crisis and the new ecological patterns of functioning. I thank you for your very important ministry in this area.

2. Earth Poetry Ritual:

For Earth Day I would plan an ecumenical worship service to be held in an outdoor location and to include poetry celebrating the earth from various religious traditions. I have attached possible poems and songs. I have also attached a rite called "Linking with sun and earth" which I would adapt

to be used in a group setting.

I would also include in this

service a reading from Kierkegaard' s essay "'rhe 1 L 1 y in t he field and the bi.rd of the air1l.

3. See attached poem, ttsparrow's songl!
4. Title: The Earth, A Work in Process
Chapter 1 : A planetray overview
Chapter 2 : The dance of the Earth
Chapter 3 : The birth and development of the Earth
Chapter 4 : The Earth's geosphere
Chapter 5: The Earth's atmosphere
Chapter 6 : The Earth's hydrosphere
Chapter 7 : The Earth's biosphere
Chapter 8: The Earth's noosphere
Chapter 9: The Earth's magnetism
Chapter 10: The Earth's neighbors
Chapter 11 : The Earth's future I would draw from Brian Swimme's and from Tielhard de

Chardin's works and from the books titled Our Planet: and Our Universe, and from Encyclopedias.

Earth

Sparrow's Song

as the moon is an organ of mineral consciousness as the earth is an organ of melodious sentience as the stars are organs of fusion-flashing tones so too there is a universal heart

a fleshless organ

which ceaselessly beats out unions of space and time spirit and matter

mind and void

i endlessly seek this fleshless organ

i weep with the leaves and grasses in the early morning i seek the fleshless organ

at midday in solar warmth

my thoughts grope toward light's source the enlightened chamber

of the fleshless organ

upon the death of the son

i turn inward each eve

that through grace

i might perceive

the deathless fleshless organ like the hunted fox

i've but one knotted focus to find safe haven

in the fleshless organ

thus in a spiraling arm of suns

i spiral home through infinite mysteries returning to the fleshless organ

and with the murdered sparrow

i dive helpless

and stoned

into the fleshless womb of god

thinking. Just as humans need to fall from grace before being redeemed, humans need to pass through the domestication and industrial phase of their evolution before being capable of liberating the earth and participating in the Great Liturgy.

5. Nature writing can be a spiritual discipline because our

God is an immanent, incarnational God who is present with us

in creation. By appreciating creation, reflecting upon creation, entering into relationship with creation, we appreciate, reflect upon, and enter into relationship with God. Berry writes that "poets and natural history essayists" evoke lithe mystique of the land" (33). It is this mystique or mystery that is important here. Every mystery stems from the ultimate mystery known as God. To ponder the mysteries of the natural world, to be moved by these mysteries, can therefore be

considered a spiritual discipline.

The new science and theology

sees all matter as spirit-matter, and rejects the dualism between matter and spirit that held sway for so long in the west. Nature writing can be a form of spiritual direction whenever one receives some revelation from the natural world and acts upon

it. One can learn many beneficial things from nature. What

is spiritual direction other than being guided to God, and what does not lead not God? Does not every created life form and life process lead one closer to God if one is listening attentively? I think that everything leads to God and that

all of creation has something to teach us. The universe is

a living, kenotic textbook which both disciplines and directs

our human spirit.

"Art of the Wild" presented works and remarks

from many artists who are well aware that there is much our spirits can learn from the universe. What impressed me most about this video was seeing how artists of different backgrounds and writing styles each bring a unique reading of the text that is the universe, diverse readings that compliment and enrich

one another, just as every creature compliments and enriches

the entire universe.

The Universe as Divine Manifestation

Course Description

* 1. Thomas Berry suggests that we might have come to our continent to learn what it had to teach us about the divine, how we might live, how we might relate to the other life forms that live here. What lessons do you believe we might have learned? How might life have been different? What alternative dream might have been realized?

2. Use our methodology for interpreting the Muir text and the physical features of that sacred text we call our continent.

3. Select a distinctive feature of your continent as a subject for doing your own nature writing of 1 - 2 pages.

4. Relate Thomas Berry's 8th principle to his thoughts expressed in the text and audiotape and to your own thinking in a reflection paper.

5. How might nature writing be interpreted as a spiritual discipline? As the practice of spiritual direction? Make specific reference to "Art of the Wild" as a form and analysis of nature writing.

Registration Reminder

When you register for your second focus course during Session Seven, make sure you order the outside reading for your second Focus Course at the same time. This will insure that your materials arrive in time for the beginning date of the second Focus Course.

5/00

34

Session 7

1. Some lessons we could have learned from our continent are

the lessons the American Indians learned about the web of life.

Life would be quite different today if the Europeans coming

to America would have learned from the spiritual-ecological

outlook of the natives, instead of dominating the environment

and its native inhabitants and paying little heed to their

wisdom. Of course, the Native Indians warred against one

another, but they never lost reverence for the natural world,

which is so lacking today.

If the European immigrants had looked

upon the new world as something not to exploit and dominate,

but as something to learn from and care for there would be a

completely different American dream.

The American dream would

not be one of individual success, but cooperative, mutual

fulfillment.

Many extinct species would still exist and far

fewer species would be endangered.

The environment would be

less polluted.

christianity could have been enriched by the

native religions of America which see all life as sacred and

interconnected.

If we had listened to the wilderness instead

of destroyed it, if we had entered into its mysteries instead

of using it for our own ends, we would not be suffering so much

from the many alienations of modern life in America in which

humans are alienated from each other, their Creator, and their

environment.

2. 1) The subject of the Muir text is forest wind-storms.

2) The Muir text reveals that forests are vibrant, festive,

beautiful, impressive spectacles where life, joy, and peace

abound.

It reveals the music of the forest.

The primary

subjectivities being expressed are the elemental and vegetative

consciousnesses of the wild .

. 1')" Muir I s text on wind-storms in the forest reveal tha t the divine is in process, in motion. The creator of the wind

and the trees is a dancing God who desires to share divine peace

with creation.

II [T] hese noble woods appear so fresh I so joyous,

so Lrnmo r t a L" because their creator is fresh I joyous and immortal

(287).

4) The articulation I discern here is that nature renews

itself, shares itself, reveals its wisdom to us, if we only

listen with open ears and an open heart.

There is freedom in

the wind, there is strength in the treesi there is hope in the

forests; there is life everywhere.

3. perhaps ther is no mountain range in the world so aptly named

as the the Great Smokey Mountains of Tennessee and North

Carolina.

Nearly always there hovers over and around these

high tops a tenuous mist, a dreamy blue haze, the product of

incalcuable quantities of vapor exhaled into the air by the

luxuriant mantle of forest that covers these well-watered slopes.

Rank upon rank of smooth round ridges receed toward the horizon

like shadowy silhouettes. On a few high ridges, forests are

interrupted by openings known as balds.

In some, tangled

shrubbery takes the place of trees, while others are grassy.

Both offer superb vistas, but only the grass balds are welcoming,

their thick luxurient carpet creating the perfect place for

rest and contemplation. Along the edges of the openings the

forest hesitantly begins with a flowery fringe.

Bees hover

around azaleas and rhododendron shrubs, buzzing humming music

as they harvest the blooms for nectar.

The fragrance of fir

and of flowers drift across the balds, mixing with the smell

of warm, dry grass. Beyond, the mountains hazy countours fade in the distance. More than 1400 species of flowering plants call these mountains home. In some places rhododendrons grow to twenty feet high, forming all but impenetrable thickets.

The first few steps into such a thicket, even one that is only chest-high, requires the strength of a bull. In taller tangles, forward movement is all but impossible. But the rhododendrons have their redeeming qualities. In early summer the ridgetops are brightened by these great colorful flower clusters to which people have for generations have made pilgrimages, knowing that to see these rhododendrons in full bloom is to see the wild

glory of the high Appalachians at its best.

In winter months,

nothing looks so forlorn as a rhododendron thicket in cold snow. After midnight and toward the small hours of the morning these mountains float on a sea of mist. In the darkness, fireflies drift through the undergrowth and acros the fields, glowing

like particles of primordial energy.

The rolling, rounded ridges

of the Great Smokey mountains, softly luminous in the starlight, are a mysterious sanctuary where holy remnants and relics of lost, wild America still live on.

4. Berryts Eighth Principle is ItDomestication: Transition

from an integral presence to the natural world to the beginnings of permanent villages and control over the forces of nature'l

( i i ) .

In his text, Berry notes that this phase in human

evolution eventually led to lIthe entire effort of the industrial

society to transform the natrual world into total subservience"

(31). As Berry states in the audiotape lecture, if we lose

our vision of the forests and stars, "we lose our souls".

According to Berry, there is a mystique in nature that we need

to recover, a mystique that began to be lost with the advent

of domestication.

[AJ mystique of the nland is needed to counter the industrail mystique. This mystique must be associated with three basic commitments of our times: commitment to the earth as irreversible process, to the ecological age as the only viable form of the millenial ideal,

and to a sewnse of progress that includes the natural as well as the human world (33).

These three commitments (process, ecology, and inclusive

progress) must, I feel, extend throughout all of our existence

and affect our thinking, our actions, our theology, our science,

everything. We must realize that these commitments are rooted

ultimately in ever-revealing, ever-concealing mystery, a mystery

we cannot help but participate in. Our task as the self-relexive

consciousness of the universe is to be ever conscious of and

reverent of this great mystery which engulfs us.

I find it

interesting that while domestication leads to the industrial

mind-set of dominating the natural world, this is but another

passing, evolutionary phase which we move towards what Barry

calls lIThe Great Li turgy", the final evolutionary phase in which

we fully celebrate and participate in the inclusive progress

and ecological process and mystery of life.

I sense something of the happy fault at work here in Berry's

The Universe as Divine Manifestation

Course Description

* 1. Identify specific physical features and dynamics of your bioregion and what they disclose about the Creator.

2. Identify as many as possible of the life forms that inhabit your bioregion. How do these life forms offer you spiritual direction?

3. Do a nature writing on one of these life forms.

4. Use our methodology to reflect on Rachel Carson's text.

5. Imagine what your bioregion was like in the 1700s. Describe it in as much detail as you can. Then reflect on and respond to the question: What disclosure of the di vine, present then, has been lost in the present?

6. Consider the Milky Way as our universc-biorcgion. Write a poem or draw a picture of this sacred neighborhood.

5/00

36

Session 8

1. The Ridge and Valley Province of Pennsylvania is a series

of long, parallel, sharp-crested ridges separated by long, narrow valleys that form a backbone across the senter of the state

from the southwest to northeast. '1'he mountain slopes are only slightly dissected, and the crest lines are almost uninterrupted and uniform. The topography is the result of differences in

the underlying rock. Limestone and limey shales, which weather rapidly by solution, underlie the lowerst valleys. The more resistant quartzite and sandstone underlie the higher ridges. These differing weathering characteristics and upright folds

have produced the typical topography of long valley and ridges. This province is also the site of the great anthracite coal deposits. The Susquehanna River flows south through the center of the Ridge and Valley Province, producing magnificent water

gaps.

Farther east, the Lehigh River flows south in a

steep-sided gorge that cuts across the mountains. In many places, the gorge is over 1000 feet deep. Mountains range in elevation from 1400 to 2800 feet above sea level. Generally, the relief between a ridge and the neighboring valley varies from 800 to 1000 feet.

A major portion of the Ridge and Valley Province is the Great Valley, an area of fertile soil within an area of generally poor soil. The coldest weather is from middle January to early

February.

In March the weather is stormy, variable and cold.

In april and sometimes far into May it is moist and accompanied by a degree of cold called rawness. In June the~eather is

generally temperate, the sky serene, and the verdure universal

and pleasant. The autumn brings cool evenings and early mornings

and a moderate air temperature during the day. Middle october

closes autumn with rain, the harbingers of winter.

Late October

brings frost and ice. Hail frequently falls with snow in the

winter. At intervals of years, heavy showers of rain and hail

fall in the spring and summer.

These phYSical features and dynamics of my bioregion reveal

many things about the Creator.

They show that the Creator is

creative, abhoring static uniformity, loving change and

diversity. The Creator makes use of life cycles in which even

death is a process leading to renewed life.

2. TREES: Butternut, Black walnut, Eastern hemlock, Eastern

red cedar, Colorado blue spruce, Norway spruce, Red pine, Scotch

pine, Table mountain pine, Virginia pine, Pitch pine, Eastern

white pine, American larch, Flowering dogwood, Catalpa, Norway

maple, Red maple, Silver maple, Striped maple, Sugar maple,

Box elder, White ash, Black ash, Budkeyes, Cucumbertree magnolia,

Black gum, Redbud, Common sassafras, Bigtooth aspen, Quaking

aspen, American beech, Paper birch, Sweet birch, yellow birch,

Black chery, Chokecherry, Fire cherry, Serviceberry, American

elm, Slippery elm, Common hackberry, American linden, Red

mulberry, Black oak, Northern red oak, Pin oak, Scarlet oak,

Chestnut oak, White oak, American chestnut, Sycamore, Tulip

tree, Black willow, Witch hazel, Black locust, Common

honeylocust, Bitternut hickory, Mockernut hickory, Pignut

hickory, Shagbark hickory, Shellbark hickory, Tree of heaven.

MAMMALS: Black bear, Elk, White-tailed deer, Snowshoe hare, cottontail rabbit, Woodchuck (Groundhog), Gray squirrel, Fox squirrel, Red squirrel, Southern flying squirrel, Northern flying squirrel, Eastern chipmunk, Beaver, Porcupine, Southern bog lemming, Muskrat, Marsh rice rat, Norway rat, Eastern wood rat, White-footed mice, House mice, Meadow jumping mice, Woodland jumping mice, Southern red-backed voles, Meadow voles, Rock voles, Woodland voles, Virginia possum, Hairy-tailed Mole, Eastern mole, Star-nosed mole, Masked shrew, Maryland shrew, Water shrew, Smoky shrew, Long-tailed shrew, Pygmy shrew, Northern short-tailed shrew, Least shrew, Little brown myotis, Keen's myotis, Indiana myotis, Small-footed myotis, Eastern pipistrelle myotis, Silver-haired bat, Big brown bat, Red bat, Seminole bat, Hoary bat, Evening bat, Eastern cottontail rabbit, New England cottontail rabbit, Snowshoe hare, Coyote, Red fox, Gray fox, Black bear, Raccoon, Ermine, Least weasel, Long-tailed weasel, Mink, Eastern spotted skunk, Striped skunk, River otter, Bobcat

BIRDS: Ruffed grouse, Wild turkey, Ring-necked pheasant, Mourning dove, Bald eagle, Peregrine falcon, Osprey AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES: see attached list

FISH: See attached list

SPIRITUAL DIRECTION: These diverse life forms direct me to find unity in diversity, to accept life with patient endurance, to let peace flow within me, to adapt to my environment, to praise and trust God with all my being.

3. See attached poem "death by virus"

4. 1) The subject of the writing is the edge of the sea, its

life forms and processes.

2) Carson's nature writing reveals that the edge of the

sea is a difficult, marginal world where life thrives amidst

harsh changing conditions. The subjectivities being expressing

include mineral, vegetable and animal consciousness, all

displaying life's "enormous toughness and vitalityll (520).

3) Like God, "{ a l Lway s the edge of the sea remains an elusive

and indefineable boundary" (520).

The edge of the sea also

reveals the God is a weaver of an "intricate fabric of life

by which one creature is linked with another, and each with

its surroundings" (520). As God has a dual nature, being both

immanent and transcendent, "[t]he shore has a dual nature,

changing with the swing of the tides, belonging now to the land,

now to the sea" (520).

4) The articulation I discern is that best summarized by

Carson's description of a lone crab at the eade of the shore.

She writes, "The Li. ttle crab alone with the sea became a symbol

for life itself--for the delicate, destructible, yet incredibly

vital force that somehow holds its place amid the harsh realities

of the inorganic world" (523).

Considering the "spectacle of

life", Carson concludes by stating that lI[u]nderlying the beauty

of the spectacle there is meaning and significance" (524).

5. Pennsylvania in the 1700s was largely wilderness. Many

species of animals now extinct still roamed the land in those

days. There was clean air and water and cities and roads had

not yet sprawled throughout the region.

The sounds were of

birds and insects and running brooks, not cars and industries. Snow and rain feel on grass and soil, not concrete and blacktop. The revelations of the divine that have been lost in the present are the revelations of the natural world, its diversity, its simplicity, its peace, its wonder, its joy, its rejuvenating energies. Humans are today more disconnected from the natural world than in the 1700s. We can now ignore the seasons in our temperature controlled houses and apartments. We can ignore

the many aspects of food production by shopping in a grocery store instead of farming or hunting. We can drown out the sounds of nature with our stereos and TVs. We have become divorced

from the wonder of the natural cycle, seeking to escape and dominate nature instead of entering into its mysteries with reverence and awe as the natives had done.

6. The galactic year:

Our sun is speeding through space 220 kilometers per second.

Our sun is circling the galaxy once every 230 million years.

200 billion other suns are speeding and circling in this stardust spiral.

We Earthlings speed and spin for but a fraction of a fraction of a galactic second

on a speeding, spinning sphere, and then die of dizziness.

All these spinning, speeding souls, spontaneously rise and fall,

seeking steady calm in swirling vortices, discovering only an uneasy velocity which ceaselessly hurls everything towards blind~bright oblivion.

It is the same everywhere in the universe. Life speeds and spins

and in the end no one wins,

only this selfless ceaseless spinning. Is this a universe or an atom?

death by virus

since the advent of the virus my skin has changed

I see through my skin to the poisoned blood beneath my body, an unhealthy temple of the Lord, is dying becoming the unclean altar of an alien force

a defenseless chapel

a groan

Lord may my mind escape unscathed may my spirit return to Thee

I no longer fear an after-life horror for Gehenna already dwelleth within me

already am I the living feast of hellish nanoangels who circulate through my failing form

looting

pillaging

destroying Thy temple

Lord deliver me into Thy wounded hands Grant me entrance through Thy gaping side To the sanctuary of Thy most Sacred Heart Hide me from harm in Thy most pure body Nourish me with Thy majesty

And grant unto me

Thy symbiotic peace

The Universe as Divine Manifestation

Course Description

that CEU students will send in a typed response to this question or task as part of their assignment to be mailed in at the end of this course.

1. Write a letter to the creator of the natural world expressing your understanding and appreciation of the great sacred communi t y.

2. How would you revise your moral theology in light of Leopold's vision?

3. Use the methodology to explore and interpret Emerson.

* 4. What expanded meaning might be ascribed to the term "pro-life" in light of your learnings in this course?

5. Revise, extend, infuse a Christian prayer or hymn with the perspective, instruction, and "wisdom" of the natural world.

c; Inn

_,'I ,,-/I,j

Session 9

1. Dear God,

I am writing to express my understanding and appreciation of life, which you have created. As for my understanding of life, it is greatly inadequate. All that I know about life

is that ultimately it one great sacred community and that love

is the proper response to the mystery of life.

I am in no

position to judge life, for from my position I see and comprehend only a sliver of its vast and varied manifesations. But I am

in a position to appreciate life, even though I would never

have freely chosen it. I appreciate all the good pleasurable things in life, and have even come to appreciate the lessons which the unpleasureable aspects of life have taught me. Most

of all I appreciate that life has an ending. Thank you for

death God, for without it's promise I would surely despair.

Death is the only certainty which I perceive. Having being

born, it is good to die. This is my understanding. This is

my appreciation. Sincerely yours,

ernest wachter

2. My moral theology was long ago revised by Leopold's thinking.

This is my solace.

Leopold's genius is that he sees morality as an evolutionary

ethical sequence.

"The first ethics dealt with the relation

between individuals. . Later accretions dealt with the relation

between the indiviual and society" (407). The third ethical advance yet to be fully articulated and established concerns humanity's "relation to the land and to the animals and plants

which grow upon itll (407).

For this evolution of ethics to

occur there must be "love, respect, and admiration for land . . The evolution of a land ethic is an intellectual as well as emotional process" (420-421). When we love the land and

its children we will no longer harm them needlessly.

We will

not eat meat. We will not destroy and pollute the environment. We will no longer be anthropocentric but biocentric.

3. 1) The subject of Emerson's writing is his visit to the Cabinet of Natural History and his thoughts concerning this visit.

2) Emerson's nature writing reveals that nature i.s beautifully diverse and colorful, filled with a "bewildering series of animated forms'1 (149). The subjectivities being expressed range from mineral to vegetable and animal consciousness.

3) Nature's beauty, diversity and mystery reveals God's beauty, diversity and mystery. Nature reveals God as creative Trinity. 4) Emerson's articulation of wisdom is best summarized by his

statement:

III feel the centipede in me--cayman, carp, eagle,

and fox.

I am moved by strange sympathies" (149). As st. Paul

would say, we are all one body.

4. Being "pro-lifell means more than being against human abortion. It means taking a stand for life in all of its diverse

forms and processes.

It means adopting a universal,

comprehensive and consistent Reverence for Life Ethic.

It means

not eating meat because humans do not need to eat meat to survive. It means not supporting persons, governments and/or companies which kill or harm any life form needlessly. It means

supporting a living wage and universal access to health care,

shelter, food, employment and education.

I t mp() n s be' i nq

environmentally concious, recycling, and rejectinq consumerism.

It means opposing war and the culture of death.

It means, in

short, living simply so that others may simply live. One obvious implication of being pro-life which the Church's theologians

are still blind to is that life without freedom is not life,

but mere existence, Therefore, suicide must, in my opinion,

be defended as the right of every rational being.

God gave

every rational being the freedom to choose life or death, and so the Church should defend this freedom, not seek to eliminate it, always of course doing everything possible to make living conditions bearable so rational beings will willingly choose

to live.

5. The Lord's Prayer: A Possible Translation from the Aramaic o Birther! Breathing Life of all! In the roar and the whisper, in the breeze and the whirlwind, we hear your Name.

In peace the Name resides: an open holy of holies giving light

to all.

Your rule springs into existence as our arms reach

out to embrace all creation.

Help us love beyond our ideals

and sprout acts of compassion for all creatures. Let the measure of our need be earthiness: give all things simple, verdent

and paSSionate.

Compost our inner, stolen fruit as we forgive

others the spoils of their tresspassing.

To the fraud of inner

vacillation alert us. Break the hold of unripeness, the inner stagnation that prevents good fruit. Again and again, from each universal gathering--of creatures, nations, planets, time,

and space--to the next. Amen.

Plants and Wildlife 185

AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

Frogs and Toads eastern spadefoot toad; eastern American toad; Fowler's toad; northern cricket frog; northern spring peeper frog; eastern gray treefrog; mountain chorus frog; upland chorus frog; New Jersey chorus frog; western chorus frog; bullfrog; northern green frog; pickerel frog; northern leopard frog; wood frog; coastal plain leopard frog

Salamanders eastern hellbender salamander; rnudpuppy salamander; Jefferson salamander; spotted salamander; marbled salamander; eastern tiger salamander; red-spotted newt; green salamander; northern dusky salamander; appalachian seal salamander; mountain dusky salamander; northern two-lined salamander; longtail salamander; northern spring salamander; four-toed salamander; redback salamander; slimy salamander; valley and ridge salamander; ravine salamander; Wehrle's salamander; eastern mud salamander; northern

red salamander

Turtles common snapping turtle; eastern mud turtle; stinkpot turtle; midland painted turtle; spotted turtle; wood turtle; bog turtle; Blanding's turtle; map turtle; redbellied turtle; eastern box turtle; midland smooth softshell turtle; eastern spiny softshell turtle

lizards northern fence lizard; northern coal skink; five-lined skink; broadhead skink

Snakes Colubrid Snakes: eastern worm snake; Kirtland's snake; northern black racer snake; northern ringneck snake; black rat snake; eastern hognose snake; eastern king snake; eastern milk snake; northern water snake; rough green snake; eastern smooth green snake; queen snake; northern brown snake; northern redbelly snake; shorthead garter snake; ribbon snake; eastern garter snake; earth snake

Pit Vipers: northern copperhead snake; timber rattlesnake; eastern massasauga rattlesnake

Plants and Wildlife

137

FISH

Sturgeons shortnose, lake, Atlantic Gars longnose, spotted Bowfin bowfin

Freshwater eels American

Herrings American shad, hickory shad, gizzard shad, alewife, blueback herring, skipjack herring

Trout and salmon lake, brown, rainbow-steelhead, palomino, and brook trout; chinook, coho, pink, kokanee, and land-locked salmon

Smelts rainbow

Pikes northern, amur pike; muskellunge, tiger muskellunge; chain, red fin-grass pickerel

Minnows carp, river chub, golden shiner, common shiner, -creek chub, fallfish

Suckers quill back carpsucker; white, hog, and redhorse suckers

Catfishes white, channel, and flathead catfish; black, brown, and yellow bullheads

Temperate basses white perch, white bass, striped bass

Sunfishes largemouth, smallmouth, spotted, and rock basses; redbreast sunfish, green sunfish, pumpkinseed, bluegill, redear sunfish; white and black crappie

Perches yellow perch, walleye sauger Drums freshwater drum

Sculpins mottled sculpin, slimy sculpin

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