Handbook of Industrial Air Technology Applications

Second, revised edition

Kim Hagström Jorma Railio Esko Tähti

February 2003

This document is the revised version of the first pilot Application booklet for the Handbook of Industrial Air Technology. This text is based on INVENT project "Design Criteria for Ventilation in Electrical Equipment Rooms", done in Finland in 1991-94, reported in Finnish as INVENT Reports 36 to 39. It has been re-structured to follow the basic structure of the Design Methodology for industrial ventilation, also in order to test the methodology in practice. After being published as a draft manuscript in 1996 (INVENT Report 52), the text has been reviewed by Mr Martti Lagus (Nokia Telecommunications, Finland) and by Mr Peter Kiff (British Telecom). In addition, the described design methodology has been validated by several Finnish companies who actively apply the results of the INVENT project, either as end users of equipment rooms, or as suppliers of air-conditioning systems and equipment. The text has been revised after review by Mr Jan Gustavsson (Camfil, Sweden), Dr Paolo Tronville (Politecnico di Torino, Italy) and Dr David Shao (Ericsson Radio Access, Sweden). The English language of the revision has been checked and corrected by Mr Eric Curd (U.K.)

Helsinki, December 2002



PREFACE.......................................................................................................................... 2 CONTENTS....................................................................................................................... 3 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 4 1. INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 5 1.1. Classification of environmental parameters for electrical equipment.............. 5 1.2 Typical environments of electrical equipment located in ventilated indoor facilities .......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3 Application scope .................................................................................................... 6 2 DESIGN CRITERIA ..................................................................................................... 8 2.1 Given data................................................................................................................ 8 2.2 Process description.................................................................................................. 9 2.3 Building layout and structures ............................................................................ 11 2.4 Target level assessment......................................................................................... 20 2.5 Source description................................................................................................. 36 2.6 Load calculations .................................................................................................. 39 3 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE....................................................................................... 41 3.1 Selection of system ................................................................................................ 41 3.2 Selection of equipment.......................................................................................... 53 3.3 Implementation design ......................................................................................... 62 4 COMMISSIONING..................................................................................................... 66 4.1 The construction schedule.................................................................................... 66 4.2 Checks .................................................................................................................... 67 4.3 Spare parts............................................................................................................. 67 4.4 Documentation ...................................................................................................... 68 APPENDIX 1 - BASIS FOR DESIGN FOR VENTILATION IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS, CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ................................................ 76 APPENDIX 2 - THE MEASURING PRECONDITIONS OF GASES...................... 77 APPENDIX 3 - REFERENCES..................................................................................... 79


The knowledge gained in these actions has been the basis of this application. The participants in the project represented different supplier and user groups such as: HVAC equipment manufacturers and suppliers. Minor improvements can be also done with low costs. while the equipment supplier could allow it to be exceeded (within another range) for a short period.000 € or USD/hour. An INVENT project was done in 1991-94 to tackle this problem area.and control rooms. The benefits from proper design. construction and use can be summarized as follows: • better operating conditions • prolonged lifetime for electrical equipment • improved reliability of the systems • efficient use of the systems • improved knowledge of the condition of the systems • improved skills of he maintenance personnel 4 .7 years and investment less than 1000 € or USD/room respectively. • in some rooms the environment is too severe. electrical equipment manufacturers. resulting in operational errors and equipment failures. process automation. and end-users from different trades of process-industry: pulp and paper. electrotechnical. metal industry. Just to mention one example: a paper machine breakdown can cost up to 30. due to oversized (or unnecessarily double) air-conditioning equipment. a given temperature limit can have been regarded by the end user as an absolute maximum. and the results can be utilized in commercial basis now. For example.and -control system manufacturers. which really can be worth more than the whole equipment • some rooms are conditioned unnecessarily well in relation to the actual environmental requirements. and several project references already exist. Modern electrical equipment containing electronics is very sensitive to their environmental conditions: temperature and humidity.SUMMARY There has been a lack of "common language" for the design. In highly automated process industry a failure in process control equipment may cause losses in production that are many times worth of the equipment itself. A service product was also developed. This work was done in 1995. in order to analyze the state of existing equipment rooms. A typical pay-back time for sealing the room properly is 0. chemically and mechanically active substances etc. As a result of this. chemical industry.5-0. HVAC consulting engineers. resulting in high investment costs. Very often the tightness of the room can be improved so that the ventilation rate for maintaining over-pressure can be adjusted to a much lower level. construction and operation of air-conditioning of industrial electric-. or in high operation costs. Requirements for the equipment and its environmental conditions are presented in different standards and guidelines in such a way that many interpretations are possible.

• • • • • • Climatic conditions (K) Climatic special conditions (Z) Biological conditions (B) Chemically active substances (C) Mechanically active substances (S) Mechanical conditions (M) The environmental conditions in EN 60721-3-3 for electrical equipment room are covered in various classes. This defines the permissible concentrations of corrosive gases in the space. In this case it is 5 m. With special condition classes.1. describes biological conditions. the target temperature value is 20 . it considers how a device reacts to water. Classification of environmental parameters for electrical equipment The basis of the environmental classification for electrical equipment is covered in EN 60721-3-0 standard. dust. shows the permitted air velocity if different from the K-class value. Electrical equipment manufacturers define the special requirements of each device according to EN 60721-3-3 in the following manner: A definition such as the following 3K1/3Z1/3Z4/3B1/3C1/3S1/3M1: The code -3K1 Defines climatic conditions. A nomenclature of electrical equipment rooms has not yet been 5 . Environmental factors covered in EN 60721-3-3 have been divided in the following groups. International recommendations for environmental conditions in electrical equipment rooms are covered by the European standard EN 60721-3-3.1. INTRODUCTION 1.1.s-1.1 provides a general idea of the "environmental tolerance" of equipment in different spaces.kg –1 Z-class describes the special climatic conditions. To standardise design practice the above should be used in ventilation systems design. including the surroundings thermal radiation. Mechanically active substances. sand etc in the space. Defines the permissible concentration of particle contaminants e. In class 3K1. The relative humidity target value is 30-60 % in the range 20-75 % and the absolute humidity ranges from 3. Organisms or animals are not accepted in the 3B1 class. -3Z1 -3Z4 -3B1 -3C1 -3S1 1.g.5 .15 g. A demand that covers chemically active substances.25o C in the range 18 27o C.2 Typical environments of electrical equipment located in ventilated indoor facilities Table 1.

6 . 1. the environmental requirements for each room have to be checked individually during the various project stages.3 (Building Layout and Structures) emphasize ventilation of electrical equipment rooms (computer-. Rooms of similar names in different industrial plants can contain very diverse equipment. consider all indoor spaces where electrical equipment is located. Chapters 3 (System Performance) and 2. Therefore.determined.3 Application scope The environmental classification for electrical equipment and the design basis for ventilation represented here. tele-. automation and current supply rooms).

See 1. waste treatment plants:(equipment with protective cover. light metal industry.and automation rooms a1) workspaces separated from the process a2) automation rooms a3) cross-connection rooms (measuring equipment.1 Operating Environments of Electrical and Electronic Equipment. ore mills.1 for explanation of classification 3K2 / 3Z2 / 3Z4 / 3B1 / 3C1 / 3S1 / A Control. foundries. dirty industrial space -dusty spaces in direct contact with outdoor air. assembling of fine mechanisms and fibre optics D Production spaces in the metal industry -engineering workshops. suitable for outdoor use) -outdoor transformers G Movable containers -control cabinets and electrical rooms that are movable during use (for example military purposes) (As above. bulk assembling: (motors. sub-main distribution centers) b4) transformer rooms (internal) C Assembling halls in the electronics industry -circuit card production. monitors and connections) Computer rooms B Electrical equipment rooms -rooms that are separated from outdoor spaces and the process b1) tele cross-connection and device rooms: b2) electrical equipment rooms of the production: (motor use. Ventilated Indoor Spaces TYPICAL ENVIRONMENT THE ENVIRONMENT CLASS OF THE EQUIPMENT ROOM according to the standard EN 60721-3-3. assembling of micro electronic components testing and adjustments. except 3K1) 3K3 / 3Z2 / 3Z4 / 3B1 / 3C1 / 3S1 / 3K2 / 3B1 / 3C1 / 3S1 / 3M1 / 3K4 / 3Z2 / 3Z4 / 3Z7 / 3B2 / 3C2 / 3S2 / 3K5 / 3Z2 / 3Z4 / 3Z7 / 3B2 / 3C2+C3 when necessary/3S2 / 3K6 / 3Z2 / 3Z4 / 3Z7 3B2 / 3C2 / 3S2 / 3K2 / 3Z2 / 3B1 / 3C1 3S1 / 7 . control device) F An open. robots. motors. MCC) b3) electrical exchange rooms:(main distribution centres.1. control devices) -cable spaces E Production spaces in the process industry -spaces where contaminants and corrosive gases are typical:(instrumentation with protective cover.Table 1.

if a customer wishes to use higher design temperature for operational reliability the design parameters have to be agreed with the customer.1 Meteorological data Consideration of external temperature. (the temperature for 99% of the time below the design value). 2. This can be done by the copper-strip method. In certain areas of the process industry (such as the pulp. It is difficult to obtain information on the exact environmental air purity since: Outdoor air purity is a complex matter: the concentrations measured in the same place can vary within 1:100. electrical equipment is easily damaged shortening the operating life. chemical and petrochemical industries) and in cities.1. Accurate concentration measurements. Attention has to be paid to the fact that a new building will create changes in airflows.2 Air contaminants.1 Chemically active substances (corrosive gases). as: The measurements have to be carried out over a long time period (minimum 6 months) if exact initial values are required. wind forces and solar radiation are necessary in order to determine the cooling. 8 .1. 2.2. The following approaches can be used to define the contaminant concentration of the intake air 1. For these reasons. heating and moisture loads. 2. This variation depends on wind direction air pressure and on process malfunctions In recent years air purity is constantly improving due to various environmental protection acts. humidity. However. which can influence standard design requirements.e.1 Given data 2. details that could easily be used in defining the outside air on a design basis cannot be developed. In a corrosive environment. The design criteria shown in 2. To obtain accurate information measurements have to be obtained close to the area of concern.2 DESIGN CRITERIA 2.5 have been compiled to meet the requirements of the standard EN 60721-3-3. the concentrations of corrosive gases may be higher than the permissible concentrations for electrical equipment.1. If the maximum temperature 99% value is used i. Estimating the concentration beforehand. This however is not often practical.

For example in Finland. General measurements of the air conditions.The Environment Department of the company.2 Process description 2.and automation rooms however. provided the copper-strip is in a warm location. Internal loads in electrical equipment rooms are: • the heat developed by the equipment • the emissions from humans • (control cabinets and automation rooms) 9 . In control.2.1. Measuring preconditions are described in Appendix 1.Meteorological Institute data 4. regarding filters life and equipment corrosion. city or town authorities. dust) The outdoor air data. The contaminant ratio can be 1:4 within a few meters of the air inlet.If the measuring period is long enough. employees may occupy the space for long periods of time. 5. While dimensioning filters the possible sudden pressure changes caused by malfunctions in the process have to be considered as these changes can cause the gas concentrations to momentarily rise up to 10-100 times the average concentrations. 2. relating to dust will not normally provide a base for selecting particle filters. .2. and the concentration is measured at the air intake.3 consideration is given on how to select a filter for electrical equipment rooms.Measurements carried out by the county. there are usually no other emission sources in electrical equipment rooms. these results can be obtained from the following sources: .2 Mechanically active substances (sand. In 3. This is probably the most important way knowledge is gained. This is accomplished by comparing practical experiences with similar plants in the organization or in other factories.2. . By rough estimations. For example tables provided by the equipment manufacturers can be used. 3. The surrounding dust concentration can be defined by similar principles as gases. Experience. 2.1 Introduction Regardless of the electrical equipment installed. it depends on experience.

2. The recommended minimum dimensions of aisles for an equipment room 10 .2 show two alternative typical cross-sections of electrical equipment rooms.2. Due to fire safety reasons the cable space is confined by a raised floor forming its own fire cell (compartment). In the process industry the cable space is usually separated in its own compartment. Figure 2. The role of the ventilation in electrical equipment rooms is to: • remove the heat developed by electrical equipment • keep the room clean of contaminants from the surroundings.1 and 2. Many different-sized cables are fed to and from these cabinets either from below or above.2 Typical electrical equipment room A typical electrical equipment room has equipment cabinets positioned in several rows.1. and care has to be taken regarding explosion hazards.2. Figures 2.• In battery rooms hydrogen is liberated into the air. 2.2.

e.3 Building layout and structures 2. Figure 2. not more than 20 Pa. 11 .2 Effect of wind forces If an electrical equipment room has external wall it can be greatly influenced by wind forces.1.1.1 Location of electrical equipment rooms 2.3. 2. over-pressure on the wind-exposed wall resulting in polluted outdoor air entering the room.3. These may.1 shows graphically the wind pressure on the outer wall of a building with the wind velocity in the 0. This effect has to be considered in the design process.Figure 2. A cable space 2.g.3. so that wind forces do not influence it. In spaces which rely on high air flows for cooling.3. temperature differences and surrounding process spaces. The electrical equipment room if possible should be positioned. which may be operating under negative pressure.2.2. and the degree of overpressurization has to be sufficient to neutralize the influence of wind forces.1 Introduction The room shall be over-pressurised to reduce air infiltration from surrounding areas. the structural tightness and exhaust air openings sizes should be dimensioned so that the internal overpressure is kept to a reasonable level.s-1 range against the wall. The air tightness of electrical equipment rooms has to be sound. 5 and 10 m.

m-3 v= the wind velocity [m.3. The wind pressure on the outer wall of a building with wind velocities of 0. The actual position of the neutral plane changes due to the influence of wind forces and openings (crackage) in the structure.1. especially when the room is located on the outer wall of a high quality process space.kg.6 v2 Figure 2. for a room temperature of 20o C. Above the neutral plane the inner parts of the building are over-pressurized with respect to the outdoor air and below this point it has a negative pressure when outdoor air is colder than the indoor air.5 *ρ*v2 (1) where K= a pressure coefficient depending on building shape and the wind direction ρ= air density = 1. An internal neutral plane is formed at some height above the building floor.2 shows graphically the pressure difference on the outer wall created by temperature difference.3. 12 .The example results have been calculated by using the formula: ∆p=K*0.s-1] For air of standard density the above equation becomes ∆p = K 0. 5 and 10 m/s on the wall.1. as a function of the distance from the neutral plane with different temperatures.3. This causes problems to the resulting pressure ratios.2. Figure 2.3 Vertical position in building A temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air causes a pressure difference on the outer wall. 2.

Cable spaces should be designed to have evenpressures. under or over an electrical equipment room.3.3. The positioning of electrical equipment rooms close to hot process should be avoided. The interaction of wind and temperature on the outer wall of a building when θ = -20 C. If the room outlet is at a high position.2. Problems of resulting pressure ratios will be created when the electrical equipment rooms are connected to both indoor and outdoor areas. 2. If located beside. and adjacent process areas.Figure 2. Pressure difference created by the temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor air. Process spaces may be held at positive and negative pressure. The pressure ratios in surrounding rooms will influence the design pressure conditions. A typical example is that a strongly negative-pressurized cable space will reduce the overpressure in an electrical equipment room. The external heat loads are due to open cable spaces. 13 .4 Surrounding rooms The external heat loads on electrical equipment rooms vary considerably. the airflow will be outward from the space and if the outlet is at low level the flow will be reversed.3.3. on the outer wall of the building with different outdoor air temperatures. Figure 2. The interaction of the wind and temperature differences on the pressure difference of the outer wall is shown in figure

is following: QVL= C * (dp)0. The structural leakage paths can be reduced by the use of special paints. Pa0.3.2. typical values being A tight wall An average wall A leaky wall 0.65 [m3s-1m-2. The worst leakage areas are service holes and crackage in the structure. Therefore the correct design criteria must be based on room wall area. 14 . If the electrical equipment room is built of sheet metal-mineral wool-sheet metal elements. The tighter the structure. The required over-pressure necessary to avoid infiltration will not be achieved if air leakage through the room structure is greater than that calculated.0005 0. is 2.1 l. and air flows through them.1 Introduction The air tightness of the structure is a critical factor when considering the influence the contaminant loads have on electrical equipment. Untreated tile and concrete surfaces and porous.2.2 Tightness of the structure 2.0003 0. concrete or sheet metalmineral wool-sheet metal elements.3. 2. to maintain a 20 Pa overpressure in the room.2. the less outdoor air flow is needed to provide the desired room over-pressure.0007 (2) With the above formula (2) the air tightness of electrical equipment rooms can be determined. In normal cases the floor and ceiling can be considered as being airtight due to the coatings on them.2 Estimation of the room tightness The general formula (Olander 1982) that describes the leakage air flow through walls.65] Factor C varies according to the tightness of the wall. the joints between the elements and connections to other structures have to be sealed to reduce external and internal air transfer. and it is essential that these be kept to a minimum. It also influences the design of the ventilation system.3. In properly sealed rooms the required make-up airflow. as well as investment and operating costs. The required air volume flow for the room pressurization depends not only on the room volume but also on the room shape and size.3.4. Partition walls also require sealing. the operating costs will also be reduced. The design of the ventilation supply is related to the structural air tightness. per m2 of wall. The structure of an electrical equipment room is usually brick.s –1. Measurement of the make-up airflow according to new design criteria can be made using the diagram shown in Figure 2.

It is recommended to use only one door in the room and carefully seal other exits. Doors not in everyday use. Doors in everyday use should have air locks to reduce uncontrollable airflow. If the required over-pressure is not reached. Fan problems also cause a pressure drop and fan airflow should be checked for design conditions. In addition solar radiation through the windows increases the external heat gain to the room. The measurements recorded should logged and used for all future service checks. or if it reduces during use.3. Dimensioning diagram for pressurization airflow in electrical equipment rooms After the electrical equipment room has been completed. For checking the actual over-pressure.3 Effect of openings on the room tightness DOORS: The number of doors must be kept to a minimum.3. Gypsum can be used for sealing. It is difficult to seal window frames. 15 .4.2. leakages may be the cause. and extra sealing is required. If the over-pressure is greater than the required design energy costs will increase. STRUCTURAL PENETRATIONS FOR CABLES AND PIPES: The holes for cables and pipes in the walls of the room should be sealed carefully with an incombustible airtight material.1 l/(s m2) of wall.Figure 2. 2. Doors should be self-closing. a pressure difference meter should be installed outside the door. but it can break down with movement. like hauling and trap doors. should be securely sealed. it should be tested to ensure that the required over-pressure in the room is achieved with the designed outdoor airflow. In normal cases it is aimed to reach the over-pressure of 20 Pa with an outdoor airflow of 2. essential fire doors must be fitted with tight seals. WINDOWS: These should be avoided in electrical equipment rooms.

initial temperature and weight of structure) to the warming of the room. thermally lightweight structure rooms are formed when the mean surface areas are covered with timber panels or other similar materials.3. Temperature of the environment was held at 25˚C.3.2. it is essential that an asbestos study be carried out before work commences. When old building stock is being rebuilt.6 . ELEMENT JOINTS: All the element joints have to be carefully sealed airtight before painting the walls. The expansion joints shall not be placed on the roof of an electrical equipment room.5 give examples of expansion joint construction. Spaces classed as heavy structures have at least a half of their surfaces of uncovered concrete. This concerns the normal use. In the approach used. Asbestos was in the past frequently used in structural firebreaks.3. it has to be carefully tightened Figures 2. Obviously for a longer time period a heavy structure will balance out the room temperature changes. Figures 2. Figures indicate the effect of different parameters (heat load. If an expansion joint has to be located in the room.Leaks through penetrations must not unduly impair the air tightness of the wall. as not all of the so-called expanding sealants are suitable for stopping penetrations. 2.3 Effect of the structural mass on the heat dynamics of the room Over a short time period. the structural mass will not have a major influence on the decrement and the resulting thermal transmission. Structures made of light concrete are graded as medium structures.8 show calculated warming curves with the help of two time-constants model for a 1000 m3 type room during the period of time of eight hours. less than 10 minutes. 16 .3. say.

examples. 17 .3.Figure 2. Tightening the expansion joint.5.

With heat loads less than 100 W.7. The temperature of an electrical equipment room cannot be controlled by structural means alone.m -2 the temperature will rise above 40 ºC regardless of the initial temperature. As in the case of air conditioning plant failure with high heat gains.6. with initial temperature 25 ºC. 18 .m –2 the temperature of the room will rapidly rise over +40 ºC when the initial temperature is 35 ºC.Figure 2. Figure 2.m –2 the room temperature will not rise above 40 ºC regardless of the nature of the structure when the outdoor temperature is +25º C. In rooms of heavy structure. it is impossible to maintain the design temperature. With heat loads of 200 W. Warming curves of a middle-heavy construction room with 4 different heat loads. when the initial temperature is 25 ºC.3.3. Warming curves of a light construction room with 4 different heat loads. with heat loads over 300 W. With an initial temperature of 30 oC warming up to 40 ºC will take 3-8 hours regardless of the nature of the structure. In order to control the temperature the space must be provided with back up air-conditioning.

5.5 Insulation 2. 2.3. Closed suspended ceilings. Precoated sheet metal-mineral wool-sheet metal elements are also used Ceilings should not have mineral wool panels or other dust producing materials included in them. 2. since they emit chlorine and hydrochloric acid during a fire. should not be used in electrical equipment rooms. 19 . Alternatives for mineral wool are bag wool with a fabric top. for wall temperatures of +20°C. with initial temperature at 30ºC. Material emissions Materials that liberate gases due to aging. Warming curves of a medium heavy weight construction room with four different heat loads.Figure 2.3. Surfaces to be sealed by specially selected paints such as Epoxy and acrylate latex paints. For this reason the walls of electrical equipment rooms have to be covered with a dustbinding coat of paint. After applying a surface coating.4.3.4 Materials 2. should be avoided in electrical equipment rooms. A typical drying-time for epoxy paints is 7 days and for acrylate latex 2-4 days. causing electrical equipment problems.3.8. which are harmful to equipment. adequate time should be allowed for drying before the electrical equipment is installed.2.1 Construction materials Untreated tile and concrete surfaces liberate dust.3. Holes and cracks in the structure have to be filled with an airtight material. Alloprene and vinyl paints are not recommended.1 Moisture insulation and gas tightness The diffusion of moisture and gases through the walls should be avoided. however.3.4. 2.

The electrical equipment room surfaces should be painted to bind any dust. varies with different equipment. The service life of equipment can be divided into three stages. the load and the age of the equipment.6 Fire protection Requirements concerning fire protection are covered in National Building Regulations and in the requirements of insurance companies. The equipment temperature depends on its electrical loading and its ability to liberate this heat to the surroundings. The failure frequency of plant depends on the surrounding conditions. During a structural or cable insulation fire toxic gases are emitted to a room (a typical example is PVC -> HCl).1 High temperature Effects of temperature on electrical equipment must consider: • The air temperature • The equipment temperature. A typical failure frequency curve for electronic equipment is shown in figure 2. The memory in a hard disk is damaged with a temperature in the 70 ºC range.1. usually the process side. The cavity in the outer walls should be painted from inside. thermal insulating is not normally economical unless other advantages are achieved such as improved reliability of temperature control in the case of ventilation plant failure.4. When the equipment has a cover. The water used for fire fighting these toxic gases forms an aggressive liquid that destroys equipment and primary structures.5.4 Target level assessment 2. 20 . Typical conditions during a fire are covered in IEC 60721-2-8. 2. For example semiconductor silicon components can tolerate a range of 125 to 175°C while germanium components can only tolerate 70 to 100°C.1 The effect of environmental parameters on electrical equipment 2.3. In the case of a wall separating a hot process area.4. Care has to be taken in the design of exits from these areas.1. the thermal conductivity of the equipment and the path to the cover is an essential factor to consider. The convection to the surrounding air has a major influence on the rate of heat transfer.Vapour barriers should be on the high moisture content side. 2.2 Thermal insulation The heat load from the surrounding spaces into electrical equipment rooms might be high in excess of 100 W per-m2 floors.3. 2.4. Normally the main portion of the surrounding loads comes through the roof and/or the floor from the cable spaces. The actual temperatures at which a fault occurs.

Except for MTBF. Figure 2. The mean time between failures (MTBF) is the inverse value of the failure frequency. It is assumed that the failure frequency of electronic components follows Arrhenius’ law: z=z0*e-E/(k*T) where z= failure frequency z0=failure frequency in the normal conditions k=Bolzmann's constant E=the activation energy of the fault mechanism T=the component temperature K (3) The formula shows that temperature increase influences exponentially the failure frequency of components.• • • The early operating period lasting for 0. A typical graph for the fail frequency of an electronic equipment (Z (t)=fail frequency) The temperature rise has a great influence on the failure frequency of electronic equipment. The ageing period when the frequency of failure increases rapidly. Figure 2. The figure indicates the mean time between component failures as a function of the temperature.1.. affects the failure frequency of components. The actual operating period that in the normal conditions lasts for 10.4.20 years after which the equipment is usually replaced with more efficient equipment.4. 21 ..2 indicates how temperature. It is said that when the temperature rises by 10°C the frequency of failure doubles.5 to 2 years. If the electrical stress rate is high. the temperature will also influence also component efficiency. the temperature effect increases the failure rate. when the failure frequency is 2-10-fold compared to the actual operating period.

the lifetime of rubber insulating materials at different operating temperatures is given in table 2.4. many of which have been adopted as European Standards.5 46 3.Figure 2.1 The rubber insulation service life at different operating temperatures Temperature Insulation service life years °C 25 30 32 15 39 7.4. The predicted mean time between failures of equipment with different component choices (A and B) as a function of the temperature (m (h)= the mean time between failures) Excessive high temperatures ages electrical equipment reducing considerably their working period. It has been claimed that a temperature rise of 14°C reduces the lifetime of electronic components by 50% Cable insulating materials age with temperature increase.4.2: 22 .7 International research work has been carried out covering the environmental factors and their effects on electrical equipment.4.2. In standard EN 60068-1 the principal effects of environmental factors and typical faults caused by them are covered. The effects of high temperatures are shown in table 2.1: Table 2. This work is published in the IEC (International Electronic Commission) standards.

See figure 2 where.4. Evaporating of solvents and insulating materials resulting in an acceleration of gaseous contaminants. When the temperature is below 0°C.2 Low temperature Low temperatures alone do not increase the failure frequency. moisture condensing on surfaces will freeze in narrow spaces causing joint failure.4.3 The main effects of low temperatures and typical faults in electrical equipment Main effects Typical faults Increase in viscosity Ice formation Embrittlement Shrinking Impairment of mech. The main effects of a high temperature and typical faults in electrical equipment Main effects Typical faults Thermal aging Oxidation Cracking Chemical reactions Growth of mechanical stress Softening Melting Sublimation Reduction of viscosity Evaporating Thermal expansion Insulation faults Structural faults Impairment of greasing properties Increase in the wearing of moving parts High temperatures also damages equipment indirectly by accelerating chemical reactions. the meantime between failures stay almost as constant between 0° and 20°C. provided the temperature stays above 0°C. When the temperature falls below 0°C. such temperature reduction. the rate of failures increases rapidly. The main effect of low temperatures and faults caused by them according to EN 60068-1 are shown in table 2. For example when the temperature rises from 20°C to 30°C the reaction rate doubles. and air movement. with serious results. Instability of equipment can cause a change in the parameter values.Table 2. If the intake air temperature is near to the room air dew point.4.4. 2. humidity.2.3: Table 2. which further increase contact surfaces fouling. When the temperature drops to -40°C the failures of different components are about 10-fold compared to normal conditions. moisture will condense on the surface of electrical equipment.1. resulting in corrosion by the air contaminants. strength Insulation faults Impairment of greasing properties Sealing faults Cracking Failure Structural faults Increase in wearing of moving parts 23 .

In the EN 60068-1 standard the main effects of the temperature changes are thermal shocks and local temperature differences are covered.a copper plate coated with gold. e. below a 1 µm (micrometer). NOx 3. Temperature changes influence the relative humidity of the surrounding air causing cause moisture to condense locally on components. 2. 2.1. Electrochemically as an electrolyte on two different metals causing corrosion.1.2. sulphuric acid. A single temperature increase above the permitted value will affect the storage capacity. 1. Some insulating materials adsorb moisture at high relative humidity. can adsorb moisture and gaseous contaminants. Typical faults caused by these are mechanical and insulation faults resulting in cracking and electrical leakage. If the temperature changes constantly. by chemical reaction on metals and plastics. The gold used to fasten chips to their beds also suffers from humidity and the chips may loosen and fail. if moisture condenses on it electrolysis may result causing hairline cracks. This results in the electrical conductivity of insulating material increasing with electrical leakage causing equipment damage.g. These changes result in static electricity. For example memory protection batteries will be damaged if the temperature increases too often above the permitted value.the silver used in the circuit cards may develop a "migration phenomenon” causing short circuits.4.4 High relative humidity Changes in humidity influence the resistance of electrical insulating materials.3 Rate of change in temperature Due to different thermal expansion coefficients. It will also cause corrosion by: 1.4. 24 . component can develop serious stresses if the component temperature varies from its design value. H2SO4 with sulphur dioxide SO2 and nitric acid HNO2 with nitrogen oxides. particle formation and corrosion between different materials. Directly. This may accelerate equipment corrosion.4. The main problems and typical faults of high relative humidity is given in EN 60068-1 are listed in table 2. Dust particles in the air. Corrosive compounds forming with other gases in the air. the component will experience fatigue" and in time will fail. For example: . Corrosion due to gaseous contaminants grows exponentially with an increase in relative humidity If the air relative humidity increases above 80%.4.

2.4. Normally an electrical charge leaks slowly along the surface of a material or through it. cause electrical shocks to employees and create fire hazards. A typical electrostatic phenomenon is to have high potential differences. If the potential of a charged area becomes high. The problems of static 25 .5. The main effects of low relative humidity and typical faults in electrical equipment. The aim of protection is to keep the leakage rate greater than its rate of generation. without causing any problems.5 Low relative humidity The main effects due to low relative humidity and the typical faults caused by them according to EN 60068-1 are given in table 2. High humidity is not an actual a problem in an automation/electrical equipment room with well-designed ventilation systems.4. A failure in room over-pressurization and a poor moisture barrier will cause an increase in the local relative humidity.1. as air movement at the correct temperature removes the moisture from the space.5: Table 2. a powerful discharge occurs which may cause damages to equipment wiping out memory. As the temperature inside electrical motors is greater than that of the surrounding air.4. The main effects of a high relative humidity and typical faults in electrical equipment Main effects Typical faults Absorption of humidity and condensation on the surface of an article Swelling Impairment of mechanical Strength Chemical reactions such as: . Main effects Typical faults Drying Embrittlement Shrinking Impairment of mechanical strength Increase in wearing of contact surfaces Developing of static charge Mechanical faults of non-metallic parts Cracking Electrical faults The worst threat to electrical equipment from the above-causes is that low relative humidity increases the incidence of static charges. a water film forms on the equipment surfaces.Table 2. A static charge is when similar charges build up in a substance and do not immediately become neutralized with opposite charges. By maintaining the relative humidity in the 60-70 % range will eliminate static electricity problems.4. but the appearance of small quantities of electricity. However if the intake air temperature is low. the relative humidity in the surrounding should be 65% or more.corrosion and electrolysis Increasing of the conductivity of the insulation Mechanical faults Breaking Insulation faults When the relative humidity increases to 80 %.4. local moisture will condense.

4. The effects of relative humidity on the functioning of tele-exchanges. 26 . Relative humidity influences occupant’s safety. Wrist and foot straps will prevent electrostatic discharge from the people to equipment. this is often a much cheaper solution than humidifying the room. For example cotton clothing is safe due to its good electric conductance. but below 40% relative humidity.electricity are minimised when the relative humidity of the surrounding air is greater than 55%. cotton is a good insulating material. If the relative humidity drops below 40% static charges will attract dust particles and cause undesirable dust forming. The corrosion rate caused by gases increases considerably when the rate of change of the relative humidity is greater than 6% in an hour. breaks and corrosion depending on the dust properties.7 Chemically active substances The effect of chemically active corrosive gases on electrical equipment according to EN 60068-1 is given in table 2.3. The formed dust causes wear of contact surfaces. This is true when the relative humidity is high.6.1.4. The value of clothing electric conductance is important to neutralize the electrical charges between man and electrical equipment.6 Rate of change of the relative humidity Rapid changes in relative humidity may cause local condensation resulting in corrosion. The increase in contact faults with a decrease in relative humidity is covered in figure 2.3 Figure 2. 2.

1.4.2 Basis for design of electrical equipment rooms 2. The main effects of mechanically active gases and typical faults in electrical equipment.7.1 can be used to initially define the room environmental information during the preliminary design.4. Other heat loads are calculated individually for each case. Condition information/ checklist: Temperature • Environment class + the requirements of air conditioning • Target value • Accuracy (range of variation) • Steadiness (rate of change) • Maximum and minimum values in the case of disturbance Humidity • As temperature Chemical contaminants • Environment class • Permitted concentration for each gas 27 . Main effects Typical faults Chemical reactions Corrosion Electrolysis Surface decay Increase in conductance Increase in contact resistance Increased wearing Mechanical faults Electrical faults 2. such as particulate matter. and the equipment heat loads.1.Table 2.4.4. Table 1.7.8 Mechanically active substances The effect of mechanically active substances. Table 2. Initial information is given by the electrical designer.4. on electrical equipment is given in table 2.1 Introduction The equipment supplier defines the environmental demands for each room. wearing Clogging Getting stuck Frictional electricity Increase in thermal insulation Mechanical faults Increased wearing Electrical faults Over heating 2.6 The main effects of chemically active gases and typical faults in electrical equipment. Main effects Typical faults Friction.2.4.

Particle contaminants • Environment class Over-pressure/outdoor airflow • Electrical equipment rooms are designed in over-pressure against environment.2. and possible room future extension.4 for details. 2.4: 28 . the over-pressure and the air flow rates required. have to be calculated separately.available space (foot print and height) reliability in use.s –1 per m2 wall see figure 2.3. When the conditions are extreme such as exposed sites high buildings and spaces having high negative pressures.4. It is reached in a tight room with makeup airflow of approx.4.3.1 l. The room design criteria will define the choice of the air conditioning system required. see 2. they require pressurising.4.2.e. normal conditions • Range of variation above and below the base value • Minimum and maximum values required when the equipment is in operation • Minimum and maximum values required when the equipment is not operating • The real limit values necessary to avoid equipment damage.3 Introduction to the environmental parameter concept When the operating conditions of electronic equipment are defined.2 Pressurization As the requirements for electrical equipment room conditions are usually stricter than those in the surrounding areas. 2. Normally 20 Pa excess is adequate for rooms that border on outdoor air. In normal case 20 Pa over-pressure is enough. 2.3 and figure 2. In addition to system selection the following have to be considered: . The parameters can be divided into: Base value i.4. all the condition factors have to be determined for several operating parameters. The relationship between the parameters is shown in figure 2.

there is a risk of equipment failure the maximum and the equipment manufacturer provides minimum conditions for equipment. The design value and its variation range define the design conditions to be selected. before extreme environmental conditions are reached and the manufacturing process fails. Equipment in normal operating situations provides the initial values for the air conditioning designer.4. When perfect functioning of equipment is required the conditions defined by the base values must be worked to. particulate matter etc.Figure 2. it should be considered that the air conditioning system must operate after a malfunction. when the equipment is operating. The design value relates to the constant operating conditions (temperature. The reliability over this range is obviously influenced by the rate of change of conditions. define the extreme environmental values surrounding the equipment in a special case. Environmental tests for electrical equipment have been standardised. The environmental standards and the tests related to 29 . When conditions reach the extreme values. When designing electrical equipment room ventilation systems.4.) required in the area where the equipment is in use. Operating parameters and reliability of electronic components. The variation range design values define the choice of surroundings in which the equipment reliability remains constant. The key methods of the testing are given in EN 60068-1. These cover the event of failure of the air conditioning plant. humidity. It is necessary these parameters be met to ensure operation reliably over its lifetime. these are based on test performance under given conditions. Maximum and minimum conditions.

Maximum and minimum values for non-operating periods are used for defining the equipment storing conditions. such as workplaces. humidity of air etc. see 2. The conditions that correspond to individual rooms requirements should be maintained during shutdowns. Hence care has to be taken with selection of the air terminal devices and their actual positioning. The rate of change has to remain in the given range during a period of 5 30 . When conditions reach the equipment critical limit immediate failure may result. The extreme values of classes have been chosen so that average equipment can tolerate that the conditions do not exceed the extreme value for no more than 1% of the operating time. This is achieved by reducing the room temperature level with backup equipment or by natural ventilation. Even remaining within the tested environmental class does not guarantee a perfect function of the product in these conditions Long-term stresses can slowly influence the product quality and result finally in failure.2. The classification considers that different environmental parameters (temperature.4. Air-conditioning design has to ensure that the room conditions achieve average values in the middle of the permitted area. 2. However. During installation and shutdown periods the air conditioning must operate to ensure the operating conditions are achieved as soon as possible.them are used for defining the greatest short-term environmental stresses encountered for a product. In practice the humidity can be varied over a wider range of this curve because air humidity in a space changes with the seasons. Hence certain precautions can be permitted so that the temperature approaches the outdoor extreme design conditions. The extreme conditions of electrical equipment correspond to the 99% values on the conditions curve. these classes do not provide information regarding long-term stresses that influence the equipment for its lifetime. as moisture condensing on electrical equipment may cause damage on plant start up. the initial assumption is perfect mixing. When the temperature rate of change is calculated during the design. a conditions curve of 75% is used. Rooms with high heat loads must be prepared for a sudden temperature change due to malfunction or failure of the air conditioning. Extra requirements for each room.) are symmetrically divided.4 Climatic conditions (temperature and humidity) As the basis for designing air conditioning systems. have also to be considered.3. Some classes are more flexible regarding the requirements of air conditioning. hence the risk of extreme humidity does not continue over the whole of the time.4. Design requirements are compiled by considering the electrical equipment in the room.

Since the concentrations in the strictest classifications are extremely small. that these other classes are irrelevant for electrical equipment rooms.5 Special climatic conditions Most equipment permits air velocities greater than those mentioned above. In table 2. GX) of standard ISA-71. The calculations have considered the structural damping effect on temperature change.s-1 5 m.4. the room conditions have to stay within given limits of the electrical equipment. since concentrations of the other classes are so high.s –1 2. Table 2. Special climatic conditions. The design basis given is intended for forced ventilation design. standard as are chemically active substances. The measuring should not be carried out near an air conditioning unit (the minimum distance is 1 m) or in its airflow. Chemically active substances (corrosive gases) The permitted concentrations of chemically active gases in electrical equipment environments are defined in the classes C of the EN 60721-3-3. 31 .04-85 are used. The copper-strip method in the above standard can be used to estimate the rooms surrounding classification. comparison at the size range level with classes (G1-G3. Natural ventilation can be applied by applying the design values of electrical equipment (extreme values).9.4. and at least to the 50 cm from the equipment surface.minutes. Hence positioning of control sensing devices must be taken into account. Table 2.s -1 30 m.2.8 and climatographs (see Appendix 1) the air conditioning design conditions for different climatic conditions have to be considered. the permitted air velocity in the different condition classes Condition class 3Z4 3Z5 3Z6 Permitted air velocity m. the maximum values of different gases for air conditioning design are given. This means the volume around the equipment measured from the floor level up to two meters. The following are the two most critical classes. This is achieved by the use of two time-constants models.s -1 10 m. This is dealt with separately in special climatic conditions categories.4. The permitted air velocities in the different classes are given in table 2. During operation.

and accelerates the corrosion caused by other gases.1 mg. This corresponds to class ISA G1-G2. rubber and textiles. however it oxidizes plastics. (nitrogen oxides alone can cause corrosion of metal surfaces.g. In practice the permitted ozone concentration should be classified to class 3C3 with the present outdoor concentrations. Near industrial plant emissions and in some city areas. 32 . Corresponds to class ISA G3-GX.3C1: The average air concentration in areas with no emissions of harmful gases. Therefore the customer has to specify in his equipment inquiry a wider class of filter that will deal with NOx if the concentrations of nitrogen acids rise over 0. even though the concentrations are a little higher than in the ISA. in Finland on background levels. is critical as the concentration of class 3C2 is exceeded e. Ozone is not considered to be a corrosive substance. 3C2: In laboratory tests for chemical filters it is shown that the filters in the tests could not remove nitrogen oxides from the air. but together with other gases corrosion is accelerated) The ozone concentration range in the standard. chemical filtering is necessary to achieve this class. Causes corrosion of unprotected electrical equipment.

g.and outcoming air During exceptionally warm season During exceptionally warm season air is 10°C in mechanical ventilation is 15°C in mechanical ventilation.1°C +19-26°C 0. may temperature rise to +35°C. Design temperature-area is chosen Design temperature-area is chosen It is recommended that temperature It is recommended that temperature inside above mentoined area.7g/kg max:min roomTemp. if the and 15°C in natural ventilation. if the may temperature rise to +35°C.0m/s 1. In natural ventilation extreme operation conditions can be used for bases for design. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: -HEATING (Things in parentheses must be-COOLING considered case by case) -DEHUMIDIFIER -HUMIDIFIER * CONDITIONS DURING VENTILATION BREAKDOWN ** DURING NORMAL OPERATION -HEATING -COOLING -DEHUMIDIFIER (-HUMIDIFIER) -HEATING -COOLING(outdoor air if possible) ( -DEHUMIDIFIER) -HEATING -COOLING(outdoor air if possible) (-HEATING during shutdown) -COOLING(primarily outdoor air ) -COOLING(primarily outdoor air ) 33 .0m/s 5. 19°C->9g/kg) min 16°C max 75% 1.5m/s min 5°C max 95% 1. that room temperature is regulated in accuracy of ±2°C around chosen temperature.7g/kg max 29g/kg 10-100% min 0. 19°C->9.0m/s min -5°C max 95% 1. inside above mentoined area.0m/s Change of conditions outside limits Design temperature-area is chosen for normal operation causes an alarm.8.Table 2.5g/kg max:min roomTemp.0m/s 5. inside above mentoined area.5°C +10-30°C 0.7g/kg max 28g/kg 5-95% min 0.4.5°C 1. It is recommended.0°C 40-50%±10% (in +22°C) - 10-65% min 1. heat-load in room is under 100W/m².1g/kg max 35g/kg 10-100% min 0.0m/s 5-95% min 0.0m/s 5-70% min 0.4g/kg max 29g/kg 10-100% min 0.and outcoming difference between in./70% (e.5°C -5-+35(45)°C 0. difference between in.5°C +15-30°C 0. heat-load in room is under 100W/m².g.0°C 1.5g/kg) min 10°C max 85% 1./65% (e.5°C -25-+45°C(55°C)-40-+45°C(70°C)-55-+45°C(70°C) 0. Design conditions for air conditioning in different climatic condition classes DESIGN CRITERIA FOR VENTILATION IN DIFFERENT CLASSES OF IEC 60721-3-3(CLIMATIC CONDITIONS) ENVIRONMENT CLASS EXTREME OPERATION CONDITIONS -MIN: OF ELECTRIC -MAX: EQUIPMENT * DESIGN TEMPERATURE ** -RATE OF CHANGE (5 MINUTES AVERAGE) RELATIVE HUMIDITY ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY 3K1 18°C 27°C 3K2 15°C 30°C 3K3 5°C 40°C 3K4 5°C 40°C 3K5 -5°C 45°C 3K6 -25°C 55°C 3K7 -40°C 70°C 3K8 -55°C 70°C +22-23°C±2°C 0.1g/kg max 35g/kg INLET AIR -TEMPERATURE -RELATIVE HUMIDITY AIR MOVEMENT (SEE ALSO SPECIAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS) NOTE min 16°C max 75% 0.

3 0.11 0. The values of the table are rounded.1 0.2 1) Sea salt mist can occur in weather protected spaces on the shore and in the spaces that are in costal areas.8 14 9.1 0.4.034 0.0036 0.7 Mechanically active substances (sand.11.26 3C3 salt mist 5.2.3 0. Environmental factor salts Unit mg/m3 cm3/m3 sulphur dioxide mg/m3 cm3/m3 hydrogen sulphide mg/m3 cm3/m3 chlorine mg/m3 cm3/m3 hydrogen chloride mg/m3 cm3/m3 hydrogen fluoride mg/m3 cm3/m3 ammonia mg/m3 cm3/m3 ozone mg/m3 cm3/m3 nitrogen-oxides3) mg/m3 cm3/m3 0.4.0 1.0 1.066 0. 2) Values are both calculated in cm3/m3 And mg/m3 values at 20°C temperature.052 3C1 no 1) 3C2 salt mist 0.3 0.1 0.56 3C4 salt mist 13 4. according to EN 60721-3-3. dust) The permitted concentrations of particulate matter in the operation environment of electrical equipment are presented in table 2.003 0.12 35 49 0.0 2.1 0.9 0.6 0.037 0.1 10 5.0 0. 34 .85 3.2 1.01 0.025 0.2 0.66 0.012 1.0 0.01 0.066 0. The classification does not consider the position for measuring the dust or it’s the origin.1 0.0071 0.10.4 0.1 0.034 0.1 1. The permitted maximum concentrations of chemically active substances in different conditions classes.071 0.1 0.66 0.0 1.05 3.005 0. 3) Is given as equivalent of nitrogen dioxide 2.1 0.5 0.1 0.42 0.05 0.12 10 14 0.1 0.Table 2.4.1 0.01 0.

fungi. Work places should be located separately from the actual electrical equipment rooms. 35 . This is not normally considered in standard air conditioning design 2.m-3 0.4. Maximum concentrations of mechanically active substances for different classes.01 0.m-3 per day 10 35 350 3S1 3S2 3S3 2.9 Mechanical conditions This classification describes the influence of mechanical stress.1. including vibration and impact directed to the electrical equipment.2.4.8 Biological conditions The classification concerns the protection of electrical equipment against mildew.4 Ventilation. If they are permanent (for more than occasional work) they must be taken into account while designing the air conditioning.10 Special requirements of different equipment The storage capacity of batteries decreases with a temperature decrease 2.3 Human occupancy.4.2 0. This factor is normally not considered in basic air conditioning design.11.2.4.m-3 no 30 300 DUST (suspended particulate) mg. See 3. 2.4 DUST SEDIMENTATION mg.2.4.Table 2. CONDITION CLASS SAND mg. Usually electrical equipment rooms are class 3B1 and these rooms have been protected against these factors. organisms and small animals.

means that the air humidity has to be controlled 3) National regulations or standards may define a lower limit value. The transformer power loss is obtained from the manufacturers technical specifications.1 Rough estimation of heat loads in electrical equipment rooms The power losses of low-voltage equipment and its associated cables in the cable space equal to the loading losses of the supplying transformer.s-1 at 20 °C) -Sedentary work -Light. moving work NOISE dB(A) TARGET VALUES 21-25 1) 19-23 1) 30-50 2) 20-28 18-25 15-70 0.1 Introduction Waste heat generated in electrical equipment is transferred almost entirely by air convection to the room through the equipment cabinets. For electrical equipment air purity of class 3C1 is usually adequate for plant and occupants 2. Requirements for work places LIMIT VALUES TEMPERATURE °C -Sedentary work -Light.12.5.4. Care has to be taken if rule of thumb methods are used for this purpose 2.Table 2. When changes are made to existing rooms. which may cause damage to the equipment 2) To reach the target value. moving work RELATIVE HUMIDITY % AIR VELOCITY (m. The surface temperature of the cabinets is normally not much higher than the surrounding temperature.5. The air purity has to achieve values necessary for office spaces.25 55 3) 1) There should not be any extreme thermal radiation.2 Estimation of heat loads The maximum heat loads in electrical equipment rooms have to be calculated with accuracy.15 0. hot or cold.6MVA transformer dissipates 14. The final design should be based on the heat loads given by the electrical equipment supplier.15 0.5 Source description 2. so radiant heat transfer can be ignored. 2. 36 .5. A 1.6 kW at full load.25 55 3) 0. it is essential to determine the heat loads both by measurement and calculation.2.

The heat load generated by other equipment in the room. 37 . 1993) The power losses of automation cabinets is <500 W/cabinet (Length x Depth = 600x400).5. 1993) The power losses of control room equipment are: -: Power losses [W/equip. m –2 of floor area of a distribution centre. 2.0 % 1.3 presents power losses of single and three phase UPS-equipment within the range of 5-150 kVA. Finland. These can be used if no other information available. lights.2.The power losses at low-voltage (< 500 V) in equipment rooms are about 0.5 % of the electrical power supplied. Automation equipment (source: Valmet Automation. 1993) Motor control equipment having the following dissipation powers: The supply voltage of the device 380 V 500 V Power losses (% of the nominal power) 2. Motor control equipment (source: ABB Strömberg. the power losses do not vary much. The values are approximate further checks are required with the chosen equipment supplier.2 Heat loads of different equipment The following clause.5 % When direct current is used. Finland.5.3. gives power losses provided by electrical equipment manufacturers. Finland. fans etc has to be determined separately and added to the total load.] Monitor Keyboard Printer 70 70 75 UPS-equipment Table 2. A useful estimation is 800 W. With alternating current the power losses depends on the rate of utilization. such as AC-inverters. Control room equipment source: Valmet Automation. the power is almost constant regardless of the utilization rate.to 0. The dissipation power losses in low-voltage centres can be estimated on floor area of the distribution centre.

4 5. range 5-150 kVA.7 11.8 4.5 5 7 10 12 18 ADP-equipment The power losses of ADP-equipment depend on the equipment supplier.2 The differences between different rooms are considerable The loads in similar electrical equipment rooms for the same 38 .1 3.3 Total heat loads of electrical equipment room in Pulp and Paper mills Table 2. heat dissipation will increase dramatically.3. as the equipment sizes become smaller in the same ratio.6 4.3 2.1 9. The percentage of power losses has reduced by half. Hence the precise information must be obtained from the suppliers. with the new generation of equipment on the market. Power losses of single and three phase UPS-equipment.7 8.2 2. Size [kVA] Number of phases Maximum heat losses[kW] 5 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 10 15 20 30 50 75 100 150 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1. TELE-equipment The information regarding power losses of tele-exchange equipment has to be determined from the equipment supplier.2 2.5 3.4 shows total heat load values (internal and external loads) measured in the electrical equipment rooms of pulp and paper plants. The room loads however have not reduced.5. For coming third generation telecommunication system.7 3. 2.Table 2.

2.uncooled intake air. 2.4. surrounding spaces. solar 39 .4 gives methods by which an approximate estimate of the maximum heat load can be obtained. Clause 2. Total heat loads measured in electrical equipment rooms for pulp and paper plants.5. occupants working in the space. To ensure that fire and explosion does not occur. outdoor conditions.m-2 ]] 160 260 250-300 50* * The designed heat load of cable spaces is usually 20-25% of the electrical equipment load.m-2 ] Control rooms Automation rooms Electrical equipment rooms Cable spaces 60-200 100-350 100-2000 10-130 Average load [W. Heat load [W. other heat generating devices such as fans.5. 2. particle and gaseous loads enter by leakage from the surrounding spaces and from employees. Table 2. adequate ventilation by flameproof fans is required the ventilation requirements must be based on electrical safety regulations.6 Load calculations 2. They can differ considerably from the maximum values due to the equipment use. attention has to be paid to other heat loads: such as: .3 Battery rooms. When AC.6.5.1 Heat loads The electrical equipment supplier provides the heat loads generated by his equipment. If smoking is forbidden in the room and the instructions given in this text are followed in the ventilation design. In addition to the filtered intake. Batteries produce hydrogen during charging. lighting. In addition to the maximum loads the average heat loads in the room have to be determined.kind of plant can differ from each other depending on the location of the electrical equipment and the external load. In addition to the heat load from electrical equipment. During the design the initial heat loads are provided by the electrical designer.4 Sources of the contaminant loads.is used the power losses depends on the motor utilization rate. the human loads can be ignored. The power losses for DC-use and for automatic equipment are normally constant regardless of the utilization rate.

radiation etc.3. 2.2 gives an example regarding calculating the surrounding heat loads.3.2. Clause 2.2 consideration is given to wind effects. External loads can be high both on heating and cooling and they must be allowed for.6.3. 2.1 and 2.2 for cooling control.1 gives the means of estimating the surrounding contaminant loads.5.2 Contaminant loads Clause 2. 40 . these have to be taken into account when designing the air-cooling control. If the mean heat loads differ considerably from the maximum loads. and temperature on the pressure ratios in the electrical equipment room. these loads vary according to the seasons.6.3. See 3. In clauses 2.3 Pressure conditions.

cross-connection and tele spaces and control rooms. cable.1. If necessary. Separate cooling placed to the room. Natural ventilation 2. see figure 3. Forced extract ventilation 3. electrical equipment. room heat load reliability of equipment use. Over-pressure ventilation 4. the possible requirement of future extension has to be considered.1. The systems and their most important properties are covered in table 3.1. automation. layout and structure of the room. environmental conditions. 41 . space requirements. These are considered from the industry point of view. Cooling with circulated air 5. The air conditioning solutions shown cover all electrical equipment rooms.1.1 Air conditioning systems for electrical equipment rooms This clause describes air conditioning systems suitable for serving transformer.3 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 3. fire areas and initial costs.1.1: 1. There are five basic solutions. A summary on the conditioning classification for different systems is shown in table 3.1 Selection of system 3.2. Factors influencing system selection are: the position.

1) CONDITION CLASS 1 3K1 3K2 3K3 3K4 3K5 3S1 3S2-4 3C1****) 3C2*****) * ** *** **** ***** AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM 2 +**) +**) +**) +***) + +**) +**) +**) +***) + 3 +**) +**) +**) + + + + 4 + + + + + + + + + 5 +*) + + + + + + + + Attention shall be paid to cooling control Depending on the maximum temperature and heat loads Depending on the location Requires a chemical filtering in areas with highly polluted outdoor air Not close to process emissions without a chemical filtering 42 .Table 3.1. Condition classes that are reached with different air conditioning systems (number of system refers to clause 3.1.2.

or downside of electrical equipment room also make-up fan should be installed. -Rise in room air humidity during shutdown can be prevented and avoid disturbances during process start. Make-Up unit and. Therefore in rooms . Ducts in recirculation system becomes big in rooms with big heat loads. where chemical filtering is needed make-up air flow is recommended not to be bigger than 2. When using cooling panels. Usable in rooms. In areas. Temperature difference between exhaust and recirculation air. Usable in rooms. NATURAL VENTILATION 1. Air flow of the make-up unit can be led to suction side of the recirculation unit. the rate of change of air should be at least 2.3 Room temperature is hold at setpoint by regulating make-up air temperature. Make-Up fan should be equipped with mechanical filter. 5.1. if there is need to control air humidity(3K1). which may cause space problems. DISADVANTAGES Cooling effect is sufficient only with small heat loads. Problem is that the whole system must be in also during shutdown in order to keep equipment room in overpressure. In order to pressurize the room. high and low temperatures and the heat load is small.5 1/h in order to pressurize room to at least 20 Pascal overpressure. if heat loads in room are big. and in control rooms also cooling panel systems is used. Maintenance of ventilation equipment is more difficult than if they were located in separate room. such cable rooms. 43 . Due to small temperature difference between supply and room air needed cooling air flow rate becomes high with big heat loads. room air conditioner units. Warm exhaust air from electric equipments can be blown out of the room. 2. where temperature and air quality is controlled. Simple in use.where are located equipments that are vital to whole process and can't be driven down. Indoor climate is controlled. Inlet. Used in rooms where natural ventilation is not sufficient. where is located equipments that tolerate environmental conditions. Make up air flow is 2. due to filtering cost. In time dust is collected. 3. System is suitable for equipment rooms. where climatic classes 3K1 or 3K2 is demanded. when recirculation and outdoor air is mixed.FORCED EXHAUST VENTILATION 1. Make-up unit and separate cooling system inside the equipment room. Room is hold in overpressure against environment with make-up unit. which may exceed allowed rate of change. ADVANTAGES Cheap and sure operation. 4. -Rise in room air humidity during shutdown can be prevented and avoid disturbances during process start. but temperature level is allowed to rise in some extent during summer.5 1/h. Make-up and Recirculation units. Indoor climate is controlled. if air-flow rate is high. If cable room is up. VENTILATION SYSTEMS USED IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS SYSTEM SCEMA NUMBER FUNCTION PRINCIPLE 1. overpressure damper to prevent too high pressure level in ventilated room. Make up air flow is 2. high and low temperatures and the heat load is small. SYSTEM COMPONENTS APPLICABILITY Inlet.4 Room temperature is constantly controlled by cooling. where clean air is demanded. Make-up unit should supply with cooling coil for two reasons: -Major part of humidity load is from outdoor air. Accuracy of regulation depends on chosen cooling system.OVER-PRESSURE VENTILATION 1.TABLE 3. In summer room temperature is risen already in normal operating conditions. DIMENSIONING Temperature difference between supply and exhaust air is 15°C in design temperature. To prevent water getting into equipment coil must not be located above them. where is located equipments that tolerate environmental conditions. During ventilation breakdown gets temperature quickly too high. if there is need to control air humidity(3K1). Not suitable for rooms. Room is hold in overpressure against environment with make-up unit. Maintenance cause also extra movement in electric al equipment room. which is not desirable. Location of ventilation equipment room and space demands of equipment and ducts should be taken in account already in the beginning of design.1 Heat load of the room cause cooling air-flow through the room.2 Room temperature is hold at setpoint by starting the exhaust fan according the demand. Temperature difference between supply and exhaust air is usually 5-10°C in design temperature. which may make cooling of equipment difficult. Primary solution for rooms. Recirculation unit have to be supplied with humidifier and drying cooling coil. This measure improve efficiency of chemical filtering. which degreases in room influencing heat load. Used in rooms with main transformers.5 Room temperature is constantly controlled by cooling.5 1/h. As cooling system fancoils. if there is chemical filter both in make-up and recirculation unit. Make-up unit should supply with cooling coil for two reasons: -Major part of humidity load is from outdoor air. Temperature difference between supply and exhaust air is usually 10-15°C in design temperature. Overpressure damper don´t open until overpressure in the room is more than 20 Pascal. it is true that rough temperature control cause temperature swing. Room is in overpressure against surroundings and warmed air goes away from room through constructions. When choosing the system one has to make sure with calculations that demanded level can be reached. Recirculation unit have to be supplied with humidifier and drying cooling coil. Supply air is filtered and spreading of impurities from environment is prevented. LIMITATIONS Cooling effect is sufficient only with low heat loads. Level of climatic conditions reached is depending on chosen cooling system. must be taken care of that air humidity don't condense on the surface of the coil. By installing return air part into make-up unit can heat energy be saved.and outletlouver end exhaust fan. depending on heat load and equipments. mechanical cooling should be considered. Temperature difference between exhaust and recirculation air.SEPARATE COOLING PLACED TO ROOM 1. Rooms where unprotected electronic compounds is used should be kept in overpressure by ventilation.5 1/h in order to pressurize room to at least 20 Pascal overpressure.and outletlouver or -duct.1 Air conditioning systems used in electrical equipment rooms.COOLING WITH RECIRCULATED AIR 1. DIFFERENT VARIATIONS With high air-flow rate it is recommended that also make-up fan is installed to ensure cooling and to avoid too high underpressure.

1. Separate cooling unit within the room. Forced extract ventilation 1. 44 .2. Cooling with circulated air 1.Figure 3.4.3. Over-pressure ventilation 1.1. Natural ventilation 1. 1.5. Basic ventilation and air-conditioning systems for electrical equipment rooms.1.

m-2. Equipment in this kind of room cannot be stopped without disturbing the main process. The required reliability of use of air conditioning system depends on the importance of the air-conditioned room when related to the whole process. Equipment rooms can be considered to have three different stages of the reliability 1) The lowest requirements for the reliability of use are for rooms in which the device can be stopped for a while without influencing the main process. Typical rooms are computer. The function of the air conditioning system in this type of room does not require a backup system. Hence a rapid repair service is essential. require attention in order to determine the reliability of use.and automation rooms. If damaged equipment cannot be replaced quickly enough by the equipment supplier. This requirement can be met if the cooling capacity is divided into several units independent of each other.3. 2) Rooms in which a temporary temperature increase cannot be allowed.1. The system consists of reliable components. An analysis of this type will pin point the equipment weak spots. 45 . In these malfunctions increase even with a small temperature rise. the room temperature will not rise above +40°C when the outdoor temperature is +25°C. Their amount can be reduced by careful planning and at the same time improve the reliability of use. The requirement for spare parts also depends on the extent of the heat loads. the study can include the whole factory. For example if the heat load is under 100 W. Rooms in which equipment failure causes a shutdown should always be equipped with a double cooling system. Any electrical work on the air-conditioning equipment can then be carried out without isolating all the equipment. 3. the user has to ensure that adequate spare parts are available for his own maintenance staff to get the plant on line again without delay. Spare parts are essentially to ensure operational reliability. If the reliability of use is taken into account during the design stage. However the equipment may tolerate a small temperature rise with associated malfunctions without causing major problems the air conditioning design must ensure the room temperature will not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the electrical equipment even during a malfunction. The reliability of use and the effect of damaging of different component can be observed by analysis of the reliability of operation. and rapid servicing is necessary to ensure the minimum of shut down time. In case of the failure of one or more units at the same time will not cause the room temperature to rise above the maximum operating temperature.2 Reliability The basis for the design of different rooms and the reliability level should be discussed thoroughly with the customer as early as possible. In addition rapid service is necessary.

This space acts a plenum. The room conditions should be determined in the manner shown in 2. laminar ceiling. Air velocity is not a critical factor in electrical equipment room for temporary occupancy the permitted air velocities in different classes are given in 2.4.5 (see table 2.2 Air distribution systems used in electrical equipment rooms The most common methods of air distribution are mixing air distribution and floor discharge.4.1. 2) The space is cooled by the use of modular units. 1) Cooling equipment designed to deal with the "full" space.4. This principle of air distribution is shown in figure 3.3 the air distribution has to be able to deal with the room pressure ratios to stop uncontrollable air leaks. Then reliable and economical use of the cooling system must be secured on partial loads. A critical factor concerning the air distribution is when the space is permanently occupied 3. The raised floor works also serves as a cable space and an air conditioning duct.2.4. provision being made for extra space that will allow more units to be added when necessary 3. active displacement and radial whirl diffusers for air distribution are used. grilles or direct discharge In rooms where people are working. The mixing air distribution is achieved by using ceiling-diffusers. Intake air flows to the air-conditioned room through floor grilles or through the equipment cabinets. Usually the electrical equipment manufacturers permit higher air velocities in the equipment specifications (climatic special conditions: classes 3Z4-6). Objectives of air distribution Supply air entering electrical equipment rooms should be mixed effectively with the room air-cooling the whole space evenly.1. Floor discharge In floor discharge systems the intake air is discharged into the space through a raised floor.3 Extension reserve Electrical equipment rooms tend to fill up in time with extra electrical equipment.4 Air distribution 3. When floor or ceiling flow (laminar ceiling) is used it is critical to pay attention to pressure ratios.2 46 . so it is important in air conditioning design to be prepared for system extension this is achieved in principle in two different ways.

air is discharged from the ceiling through a perforated plate into the room. Other air distribution solutions are not recommended for computer rooms except the floor discharge.3. excellent air mixing with good dilution occurs. Therefore a cable space is often separated from other spaces.1. Air can be introduced into the room without draught up to a cooling capacity of 170-200 W. The cooling capacity and the air flow. It is recommended that the cable space and the electrical space are different fire areas. Comfort criteria can be met with this method up to a cooling load of 150 W. Floor discharge Floor discharge is the most common method of distributing air in medium-sized and large computer centres. Laminar ceiling. regulations may stipulate that the minimum height is two meters and has it own air conditioning system. The air flowing downwards warms up to the design temperature before it reaches the critical areas in the space. In such cases the raised floor has to be fire proof and the intake air grilles have to be equipped with fire dampers. The perforated area of the whole ceiling area should not be more than 50%.and automation rooms. A laminar ceiling system can be used in electrical equipment rooms with the air being introduced above the aisles and the exhaust extracted above the equipment cabinets see figure 3. A laminar ceiling is an ideal air distribution system for control.m-2 There are some problems with floor discharge systems.2.m-2 A perforated ceiling requires accurate design to avoid uncontrollable flow. 47 . In a laminar ceiling. Mixing air distribution.Figure 3. Additionally the space under a raised floor is difficult to keep clean. When air distribution is by ceiling diffusers. required in electrical equipment rooms are normally high resulting in problems in achieving comfort conditions. these being fire safety due to the floor void.1. together with the exhaust air removal from the ceiling. Cool air flows with low velocity through the holes and is mixed with room air.

m-2 and airflow of 40 l. With nozzles evenly distributed around a duct. Manufacturers state that a cooling capacity of 240 W. and provides good environmental conditions Full use of the equipment manufacturer data should be used to achieve the desired result. The use of a nozzle duct in an electrical equipment room is shown in figure 3.4.s-1 can be achieve without draught The nozzle ducts system operates by means of small air jets that induce a large volume of secondary air ensuring good mixing Air distribution patterns can be adjusted by changing the number of nozzles and the blowing sector.1. Figure 3.1.5. The nozzle duct it is a factory-made product.4.3. The principle of the closed air circulation is shown in figure 3. 48 .Figure 3. A laminar ceiling in an electrical equipment floor Active displacement Active displacement operates by means of nozzle ducts.m-2).1.1. a closed air circulation is the only way to provide comfortable working conditions for cooling capacity (> 400 W. Active displacement Closed air circulation If people are working in an electrical equipment room. the conditions are almost equal to a perforated ceiling.

The closed air circulation system is more sensitive to cooling equipment malfunctions.6. Figure 3.1. The equipment cabinets receive controlled clean air. The principle of this arrangement is shown in figure 3. A half-open system. blow into the equipment cabinets. It requires the electrical equipment supplier to designing airflows for each cabinet. The warm exhaust air is induced 49 .m-2) the temperature difference between intake and exhaust air can be increased.1.6. A portion of the air is discharged directly into the equipment cabinets and the remainder in to the room space. In rooms with high heat loads (500 W.laying difficult.5. Another problem in this case is how to introduce the correct air quantity into each cabinet. as the air circulation capacity is less than the case of when the whole equipment room is ventilated. During a malfunction all of the room air capacity can be used. Closed air circulation Designing and operating a closed air circulation is more complicated than other systems. This provides the best characteristics of both systems.Figure 3.1. The exhaust is placed above the equipment cabinets as in open systems. In addition the cabinets have assemblies for the air conditioning. A dual ductwork system requires more space making the equipment cable. Half-open systems One solution is the combination of a closed air circulation and ceiling discharge. and the equipment space provides a buffer against the surrounding. and the air flow reduced.

1 Building costs Purchasing air conditioning equipment is carried out by tender.1.1.3 Workplaces. The conditions in these rooms correspond to office spaces. See 2. A half-open system.7. The reliability of use of equipment has to be considered carefully. Components used for industrial applications are usually more expensive than standard comfort-units.4. system 5). especially for automation spaces. Workplaces are normally in separate control rooms near to electrical equipment rooms. Care has to be taken to ensure that condensation in or on the ceiling does not take place.1. In practice electrical equipment rooms. the largest single cost is that of chemical filtering.1. Figure 3. The principle of the system is shown in figure 3.7. 3.1.1. Workplaces should be separated from the other parts of the room by a movable wall. suction from the equipment cabinets 3. In this case information regarding thermal power and airflows for each cabinet has to be obtained from the electrical equipment supplier.directly from the equipment cabinets.5.4.m-2) requires special attention. 50 .5 Air conditioning costs 3. In addition to the above methods of air distribution in control cabinets a chilled ceiling may be used. this reduces the airflow rate. This is achieved by ensuring the supply air is of the correct moisture content (See 3. due to its effect on the initial costs.3 for conditions of workplaces. Using partly or totally closed air circulation in the cabinets can reduce the heat load and airflow required in the room. the actual price depending on market forces. Material quality and component also influences the price. where people may stay for long time. The draught and noise prevention in rooms with heat loads (>200 W. or by air conditioning solutions. The cost is related to the required environmental conditions.1. have work places.

5. which shows the costs per square meter in the type room (200m2) that can be used in calculations. Thus the economical performance and the choice of operating conditions is critical. Table 3.1. Due to the high cooling load. the use of electricity by air conditioning and cooling devices is large.2 Operating costs. consider absorption refrigeration 51 . for different system solutions with two different values of cooling capacity.1. The most important item in air conditioning operating costs is that of replacing the chemical filter medium. 3.The air conditioning costs can be estimated approximately see.3.

3.1. design costs excluded. REQUIREMENTS OF THE ROOM HEAT LOAD W/m2 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 450 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 20 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 100 50 100 50 80 30 100 X X X X X X X X X X 430 220 230 120 230 120 170 100 150 80 450-570 350-480 370 280 380-570 300-480 300-370 220-280 380-500 300-480 300-370 220-280 300-370 220-280 220-300 130-220 220 130 220 130 130 100 X X X X 300-570 250-530 220-280 170-230 300-570 250-530 220-280 170-230 220-280 170-230 800-220 80-170 150 100 150 100 130 100 1 2 3 4 5 3K1/3S1/3C1 3K1/3S1/ NO CHEMICAL FILTERING 3K2/3S1/ 3C1 3K2/3S1/ NO CHEMICAL FILTERING 3K3-4/3S1 /3C1 3K3-4/3S1 /NO CHEMICAL FILTERING 3K5/3S1/ NO CHEMICAL FILTERING 3K5/3S2/ NO CHEMICAL FILTERING 3K5/NO FILTERING 3K6/NO FILTERING 150%EXTRA COOLING COST X=required conditions are not reached with the system 52 . Prices include the installation costs of the device.Table 3. Purchase costs of air conditioning plant in a type room €/m2 (price level of 1991-1992).

1 Basic data for filter selection. the names of filter manufacturers should be given.2 Selection of chemical filter. Often the average concentrations of filtered gases are not based on measuring information and have to be estimated. In addition to the basic data. The customer should use this as the requirements and guarantee values in tendering. unless these disturbances have been covered in the design and documentation. which cause disturbances that is not allowed in the standard. covered in the above standards. and disturbances along a flex. 3.2 Selection of equipment 3. The concentrations of filtered gases may not exceed the planned values when the concentrations upstream the filter is below the maximum. 3. Equipment has to tolerate disturbances according to standard EN 50082-2 or EN 50082-1 depending on the place of use. The efficiency of the outdoor 53 .1 Introduction EMC-compatibility: The European EMC-directive gives requirements for equipment in industrial environments. Higher disturbance emissions are permitted in heavy industry according to standard EN 50081-2.3. The following covers the basic data required in the selection of a chemical filter. It always possible that old equipment can achieve the essential requirements of the EMCdirective.2. Due to process disturbances the maximum concentrations can be high. The actual replacement intervals can be considerably different from the target.2.s-1] • The lifetime target of the filter medium [a] • The average concentration of the filtered gases in the air [ppb] • The maximum concentration of the filtered gases in design [ppm] • The concentration of gases [ppb] after the filtering or the required filtering efficiency The lifetime of filter medium is normally assumed to be at least one year. The minimum following basic data should be provided: • The filtered air flow [m3.2.2. The EMC-directive allows determination of the permitted disturbance radiation of electrical equipment to its environment. The filter life for circulated air may be less than its estimated life due to pollution leakage in to the filtered space and/or ductwork. This is the case with equipment having tyristor control or similar. Standard EN 50081-1 gives general disturbance emissions experienced in light industry. The capacity of a chemical filter has to be designed with the given maximum concentration.

2. A problem is that there is not a suitable practical multi gas instrument on the markets to measure the small concentrations required.2.2 seconds.2. with a possible follow-up of the decrease of filter capacity. Pressure loss does not usually change during use.1. An example of laboratory test is reported in (Enbom 1994) Testing the guarantee values in the field.0 seconds depending on the outdoor air purity. this has to be considered in the fan selection. The time for air to pass through the filter varies usually between 0. who analyses the samples and determines the time frequency at which the filter has to be changed. Different methods are given in 2.2.filter has to be over 99% of the maximum critical gas concentration.5 seconds should not be allowed for filtering outdoor air Usually the delay in circulated air filters is about 0.3 Guarantee values.2 Design of a chemical filter. 3.2. there are difficulties in measuring them The wearing out of chemical filters is usually controlled by sending filter samples to the laboratory of the filter supplier. The space required for filter changing must be considered. its space requirement and pressure loss should be designing other parts of the system. The filter frame and body have to be leak tight and by-pass leakages should not exceed 1% of the nominal airflow in the outdoor air filters.5-2.5 m. A delay under 0. Acid-proof material is normally used in the casing of the outdoor air filters. In filtering circulated air the collection efficiency is not normally a critical factor. Attention should be paid to corrosion problems of the material. The pressure loss of a chemical filter varies between 250-2500 Pa depending on the filter type and airflow. as is the case with particle filters. 3. When the filter is selected. For chemical filters the defined guarantee values obtained for laboratory and field teats should be given The lifetime of a filter cannot be guaranteed or defined with accuracy.1-0. At present no guarantee values are normally given for chemical filters. But the filter supplier should provide an estimation of the filter lifetime when the system is constructed. Increasing the velocity decreases the filtering efficiency and increases the pressure loss in the filter.s-1.1. The air velocity through the filter medium is designed to be less than 0. There are two methods of filter testing: -Testing the filter under laboratory-controlled conditions before accepting the filter for use and before the supplier accepts it. If guarantee values are given. 54 . selected lifetime of the filter and filter type.

Figure 3. and figure 3. the method that is based on the corrosion of a copper-strip can be used as a guarantee. and the filter capacity to bind contaminants can be used as a guarantee value for a chemical filter.The gas concentration after the filter. The average outdoor air values used in the example are from pulp and paper industry plants in the referred research projects.1 shows the documentation to define the design basis of a chemical filter.2 gives the guarantee values.2. 55 .2. If the customer is unable to measure the gas concentrations.

If delay/step is not a constant. shall delays of different steps also be given. E-G E-G. E-G.Filter media 1.Method to control workability of the filter media and the amount of unused media (%). H2S) 40 20 CIRCULAR AIR FILTER AVERAGE (ANNUAL) GAS CONCENTRATIONS IN CIRCULATING AIR GAS CONCENTRATION 3 µm/m ppb SO2. YEARS b) Sulphur di(tri)oxide c) Hydrogen sulphide d) Chlorine e) Hydrochloric acid f) Hydrogen fluoride g) Ammonia h) Ozone i) Nitrogen oxides TRS ( incl. . Figure 3.EXAMPLE BASIC VALUES FOR DIMENSIONING TARGET LIFETIME OF MEDIA MAKE-UP AIR FILTER AVERAGE (ANNUAL) GAS CONCENTRATIONS IN MILL AREA GAS CONCENTRATION 3 µm/m ppb SO2.NH4+ O3 NOX 10 10-20 10-200 30 1 10-20 80 40 LITERATURE REFERENCE NRP. step 3. step 4. step 2.NH4+ O3 NOX 74 14 80 200 20 200 2 20-40 160 80 LITERATURE REFERENCE NRP. T&T Other gases in the factory area.2.Delay in filter media . T&T NRP.1.3 H 2S Cl2 ClHF NH3. E-G. The basic design data and dimensioning of chemical filters 56 . NRP: 20-30 µg/m3 ? TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT BY THE SEE APPLICABLE ONLY IN SOME BRANCHES NRP HAPRO NRP. step Seconds . T&T NRP.3 H 2S Cl2 ClHF NH3. E-G NRP TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT BY THE SEE APPLICABLE ONLY IN SOME BRANCHES NRP HAPRO NRP. T&T b) Sulphur di(tri)oxide c) Hydrogen sulphide d) Chlorine e) Hydrochloric acid f) Hydrogen fluoride g) Ammonia h) Ozone i) Nitrogen oxides 80 40 SPECIFICATION OF THE FILTER FOLLOWING TECHNICAL FIGURES SHALL BE GIVEN OF THE OFFERED FILTER .

3 H2S Cl2 ClHF NH3. . Concentrations after filter shall be fulfilled for each of defined gases alone and together with other gases.Before filter .Before filter . NH4+ O3 NOX 1000 1000 1000 µg/m3 2700 1500 3000 3 300 150 150 CONCENTRATION AFTER FILTER ppb µg/m3 37 7. 10000 300 A A or less or less REMARK 420 Analogues guarantee values. Finnish Environmental Ministry. when the incoming concentration is same or lower than maximum concentration.After filter 2000 300 A A or less or less METHODS TO CONTROL FULFILLMENT OF TARGET VALUES Shall be controlled by measurements. when tested with indirect method are following: Thickness of a corrosion film on a copper strip. Acidification in Finland. NH4+ O3 NOX 74 14. MAKE-UP AIR FILTER GAS MAX.5 150 100 100 Demand 3C3. CONCENTR. ISA GX: 10 ppb. Guaranteed values of chemical filters 57 . Usually it is not noticed.2 68 µg/m3 200 20 200 3 300 150 150 CONCENTRATION AFTER FILTER ppb µg/m3 19 3.DIRECT METHOD .Gas concentrations before filter can be found out with gas-analyzer also in this case.INDIRECT METHOD .2.After filter CIRCULATION AIR FILTER GAS MAX. Figure 3. Final-raport (in Finnish).6 420 50 52 100 10 100 100 3 300 100 100 Do electrical equipment supplier guarantee operation. measurements. Medias normally used don't filter NOX. CONCENTR.5 17 33 1.Corrosion coupon test . Tekniikka & Talous-magazine.GUARANTEE VALUES OF THE FILTER The concentration of the chemical gases after the chemical filter shall remain in every situation below the limit values stated here. Enso-Gutzeit Ltd. Analogues guarantee values. ppb b) Sulphur di(tri)oxide c) Hydrogen sulphide d) Chlorine e) Hydrochloric acid f) Hydrogen fluoride g) Ammonia h) Ozone i) Nitrogen oxides SO2. REFERENCES NRP E-G HAPRO T&T Nordic Research Project: Corrosion of electronics.1 34 66 3. Medias normally used don't filter NOX. REMARK 420 Demand 3C3.2.6 210 50 52 50 5 50 50 1. ppb b) Sulphur di(tri)oxide c) Hydrogen sulphide d) Chlorine e) Hydrochloric acid f) Hydrogen fluoride g) Ammonia h) Ozone i) Nitrogen oxides SO2. . There are two methods possible: .Using gas-analyzer .3 H2S Cl2 ClHF NH3. when tested with indirect method are following: Thickness of a corrosion film on a copper strip.

to avoid dust penetration into the supply air.2. Filter classes according to EN 779: CONDITION CLASS FILTERING CLASS 3S1 F 7(F 8) 3S2 G 3(G 4) 3S3 -* *Near an emission source G3 is recommended.2. leads to more difficult solutions and periodic control causes changes in the conditions. Upstream of a chemical filter it is recommended that a F7 (or F8) filter is installed.1 Selection of cooling medium.2. Recommendation for the filtering classes used in electrical equipment rooms. There are three reasons why water should be used in the first place as a cooling medium: 1) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: The amount of refrigerants used should be minimized for environmental reasons. as small particles in the air reduce the capacity of a chemical filter. A filter for circulated air should be at least to class F6. 3. Table 3. The allowed by-pass leakage depends on the filtering class according to table 3.2.4 Cooling.2. Cooling water can be produced from a centralised plant with a water chiller. Downstream of a chemical filter another mechanical filter should be installed.3.2. G 1-4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 6% 6% 4% 2% 1% 0. Table 3.4.2. 58 .3 Selection of mechanical filter The recommendation for filtering classes used to provide the required conditions in an electrical equipment room is given in table 3. 2) CONTROLLING THE COOLING: The step less control approach is simple similar to a water radiator. to filter any dust leaving the chemical filter. The permitted by-pass leakage of a particle filter in different filtering classes (EN 1886:1998).2.1.5% 3. and in some cases without the use of refrigerants.2. with a similar capacity. When cooling media is used a continuous control. Special attention has to be paid to the filter air tightness and its frames.1.

its sensor is positioned after the fan and before the chemical filter. and cooling the outdoor air in the summer. Placing the coil directly after the chemical filter makes coil control more difficult.3) FREE COOLING: With the free cooling water.4. outdoor air is readily cooled during the winter. In a supply air unit. To avoid concurrent heating and cooling with the associated energy loss. if cold water is not available. Figure 3. the cooling coil is placed before the fan and the chemical filter. as water may presents electrical problems in the case of leakage. Dew point method: Supply air is cooled in the coil to the desired dew point temperature (for example +8°C). influencing the control In addition the temperature varies after the filter. The cooling coil sensor is located directly after the cooling coil.3. during the winter by heating. Refrigerant systems have to be used when cooling equipment is placed in electrical equipment rooms. Dew point control method Inlet air temperature method: The inlet air is kept at a constant temperature of 16 ºC. since the filter causes delay. The sensor is placed after the fan and before the chemical filter. The principle of this control method is shown in figure 3.2. In the design of the cooling coil it is essential to consider the fan gains For example if a 2 ºC gain takes place in the fan. the heating is isolated when the outdoor air temperature is 14°C. The control of a cooling coil can be achieved in two ways: Keeping either the dew point or the temperature of the intake air constant.2.2. the leaving design temperature for the coil must be 14°C for a discharge temperature into the room of 16°C. The air supply temperature is kept constant 16°C. A separate reheat coil controls the air supply temperature. say at 16 ºC. Also the temperature measuring of the supply air should be carried out before the chemical filter.3. The cooling coil keeps the supply air temperature constant. As the relative 59 . Cooling a single space with a compressor set is usually more economical. 3. OUTDOOR APPLIANCE: The purpose of a cooling coil in an outdoor appliance is to cool the supply air and to remove outdoor air moisture.2 Control of a cooling coil.

otherwise unsatisfactory moisture levels may enter the electrical equipment. The last-method is unable to keep the humidity of the inlet air constant and cannot be maintained as low as with the dew point method.2. Problems are given in detail in clause 3. it has to be ensured that the supply air mixes effectively with the room air. If periodic control for is used. Figure 3. A continuous control method is essential as periodic control causes undesired temperature variations in the room. The dew point method is more expensive and consumes more energy than the constant inlet air temperature method. Figure 3. as the temperature has a requirement for the rate of change and has to be met.2. 60 .humidity of the supply air may be high. In addition there is a minimum value for the supply air. Constant room/exhaust air temperature control method.2.2.3. care must be taken that the capacity step is small enough.5.4. Control of intake air temperature CIRCULATED AIR COOLING: The aim is to remove the heat generated by equipment. The room temperature exhaust air is kept at its set point by controlling the supply air temperature (see figure 3.5).

As a set point.5 Selection of other equipment.1. The ductwork should meet class C.) have to be considered. 3.2. materials. When these are selected. The reason for this is.The air is dried in the supply air unit where condensation will not occur or the circulated air coils during normal conditions of use. or when it is follow up the conditions in the room (for example work places). according to EN 13053. the radiator thermostat is +15°C to control concurrent heating and cooling.4. Cooling and heating coils and heat recovery units are heat exchangers. or provided with a vacuum cleaner with high-quality filters. removing condensate etc. and be of good quality to ensure they operate in fire conditions It is wise to consider connecting fire dampers with the automation system allowing the a damper to be tested automatically at set intervals. It is recommended that steam humidifiers be used. When equipment is selected. In the selection and placing of the control device the special requirements placed by the environment have to be taken into account (the environment tolerance of the equipment). cooling costs and the depletion of the chemical filtering medium. The hygiene aspects of humidifiers must be considered. Installing sewers and water pipes that pass through electrical equipment rooms should be avoided. control. However. de-icing. A humidifier requires to be fitted with a drop separator to ensure droplets do not come into contact with electrical equipment. If this is not possible the pipes have to have a waterproof cover. and the air-handling units class B (in low-pressured and small systems ductwork they may meet class B and the units class A). the normal requirements (tightness. The walls floors and ceilings where these pipes pass through have to be carefully sealed It is recommended that electrical equipment rooms be provided with a central vacuum cleaning system. The detectors in the room must be placed according to the instructions given in 2. The controlling detector is located in the exhaust air duct. They also make air control more difficult. that leakages increase the handling costs of the air. and depending on pressure ratios may allow contaminants to enter the room. attention should be paid to the ductwork and equipment tightness. or if no ductwork exists for circulated air. Electrical equipment rooms are provided with electrical radiators to ensure they are warmed up during down time. Fire dampers should be as tight fitting as possible. and ensure that the average room conditions are met.2. to reduce the possibility of growth of microorganisms. The system must meet the tightness class B of prEN 1507. the cooling coils should be equipped with drip pans with adequate drain lines and drop separators if necessary. The use of 61 .

3 Implementation design 3. the equipment must be provided with safe access for the maintenance personnel.an ordinary vacuum cleaner increases the particle concentration in the space being cleaned 3. The two solutions for this problem are: • The supply air to the plant room is to be filtered • Leakages will be considered in filter designing for the circulated air.6 Selection of materials. acid-proof or stainless steel for the first part of the ductwork.1 Air conditioning units The air conditioning units serving electrical equipment rooms will be positioned in a separate space close to the room for maintenance reasons.2. It must be ensured that maintenance will not cause damage to the electrical equipment. While selecting materials. Special attention has to be paid to removing the condensate from the coils from the room. attention has to be paid that on the dirty side the corrosion conditions on some fields of industry (pulp & paper. Al-HSt-structure for the gate valves and stainless steel for the coils.1. to reduce the risk the fan inducing dirty air from the room in to the electrical equipment room. Issues to consider are: -acid-proof or aluminium outdoor grilles. petrochemical industry) may present many problems. This will minimise the unnecessary occupancy in the electrical room for maintenance. chemical.) 62 . If the circulated air unit is in the ventilation equipment room a chemically filtered air supply is required for the room. The chemical filter mounted upstream the fan: The intake air of the ventilation equipment plant room should be chemically filtered. Chemical filter downstream of the fan: A recommended position as all the air entering the electrical equipment room will flow through the chemical filter. Leakages from the ventilation plant room will reduce the filter capacity considerably. No chemical filter in the circulated air unit. due to leakages (clause 1. the filter has to be positioned with the following issues in mind 1. 3.1 Location of ventilation equipment 3.3. If the air of the room is filtered chemically. If the air conditioning equipment is located inside the electrical equipment room. which increases the particulate contact time in the filter.3. 3. The filter for circulated air is designed on the concentration level in the electrical equipment room. 2.

1.3. Humidity control is based on the requirement that the maximum relative humidity is a fixed point If the room humidity constantly adjusted (class 3K1).2 Control Control of temperature and relative humidity are important factors in electrical equipment rooms. An air inlet should not be located close to process emissions. Alarms warning of plant malfunction should be connected to areas of regular occupancy.2 Control and monitoring.3. it will be controlled by the measurement of room or exhaust air.3.1 Introduction. 63 .1. The principles of different air conditioning systems are given in clause 3. the humidity in the factory environment is high resulting in condensation problems on air inlets. 3. pulp & paper.2. these will freeze in the winter. The introduction of moisture through air inlets should be eliminated In some branches of industry. fire dampers etc. The maximum humidity of the intake air must be limited.If the cooling system is inside the electrical equipment room. At the commencement of a project it is essential to determine if the air conditioning is controlled locally. the air in the ventilation plant room does require filtering 3. This clause deals with control at a basic level.2 Outdoor air inlets Air inlets should be located so that the entering outside air is as clean as possible and for summer operation as cool as possible. The control of each method covered in clause 3.1. Care being taken so that the ductwork does not pass through dirty process spaces.2.3. Defrosting coils are required in this instance for deicing. When the ductwork is manufactured consideration must be made that the electrical equipment room will form its own fire compartment. Insulation. Ductwork The supply air ductwork to electrical equipment rooms must be as short as possible. 3. so that the design room conditions are maintained.3.4. or if the control is connected with the factory automation system.g. and the chemical filter is placed after the fan. should be cleared in advance with regards to suitability with the local fire authorities and insurers. 3. e. or with a separate building automation system.

It will be appreciated that this system provides no direct control of the cooling. This change is caused by a power input of 18 kW (90 W. If necessary.m-2 the cooling should be divided into steps of 20% (400/90). The following deals with the methods of temperature control of the air conditioning with different system. The room temperature may increase above the set point in the summer depending on the room heat loads Air conditioning is more effective with a summertime fan. FORCED EXTRACT VENTILATION: The space temperature is kept at the set point by starting and stopping the fan (On-Off control). by adjusting the supply air temperature. In the winter the requirements of warming the air in the classes 3K3-5 must be considered OVER PRESSURE VENTILATION: The supply air unit works continuously keeping the room at a positive pressure to the surroundings the room temperature is maintained at the set point (for example 20°C).m-2) If the total cooling capacity is 400 W.5.5°C/min). the design should ensure that the cooling capacity is divided to several capacity steps to achieve the rate of change requirements. if there is no need for chemical filtering. This fan will start when the temperature of the room rises to the upper 64 . The size of the capacity steps can be evaluated during the designing process with the help of a twotime constants model. The method of air distribution selected will have a considerable influence on the actual conditions.The requirements for thermal conditions and control are given in clause 2.2 it is shown in which cases the room design conditions have to be maintained.5°C in five minutes (average 0. NATURAL VENTILATION: Gravity ventilation is designed with a temperature difference of 15°C. Control for example is achieved in the following manner (3K5): A thermostat starts the fan when the room temperature reaches 35°C and stops the fan when it reaches 30°C. Example: A space has a volume of 1000m3 with a temperature change of 2. When periodic control is used. Supply air can be warmed either by a heating coil or with re circulated air. The temperature control should be continuous as periodic control causes adverse temperature variations.1. In clause 2. The room temperature is maintained within the required range and rate of change by the controls. a separate heating system can be used to ensure that the temperature is maintained above the lower limit in the winter.5.

set point (e.g. 30°C) and stops when the temperature drops below the lower set point (e.g.25 °C). COOLING WITH CIRCULATED AIR: The supply air unit operates continuously ensuring over pressurisation of the room. The temperature and humidity of the supply air is kept constant. The exhaust air or room temperature is maintained at the set point by controlling the cooling of the circulated air. The temperature and humidity of the intake air is maintained at a maximum and minimum value. If periodic control is used the next capacity step will depend on if the temperature rises or falls above the upper and lower set points. SEPARATE COOLING PLACED IN THE ROOM: The control is achieved in the same manner as in the circulated air-cooling. Monitoring. The alarms fitted to air conditioning equipment are divided into different categories on the grounds of importance. Urgent alarms are those that immediately influence the working capacity and require service persons' immediate attention. Urgent alarms should always be directed to the manned control room. These alarms are: • • • • • Increase of room/exhaust air temperature to a limit that results in an alarm sounding. If a fan or duct air flow stops. If the temperature of the intake air falls below the permitted minimum. Failure of thermostat resulting in the freezing of a heating coil. (If the air humidity exceeds the control range).

Less urgent alarms are e.g.: • Pressure difference alarms on mechanical filters Issues that have to be monitored regularly: • When chemical filters wear out • Maintaining the room over pressure In the use and service plan, the frequency of regular servicing and checks belonging to normal maintenance of the equipment should be listed. The aim is to ensure the reliability of use and should be directed to eliminating plant failure the most important components are fans and cooling equipment. Controlling detectors should not be placed after a chemical filter.


4.1 The construction schedule In figure 4.1.1 a construction schedule for an electrical equipment room is shown which indicates the dependences between different measures. If an old electrical equipment room is to be renovated, the schedule will be different and will depend on the quality and extent of the work.
Figure 4.1.1 Construction Schedule for an Electrical Equipment Room



4.2 Checks For the acceptance of the electrical equipment room air conditioning, a group of checks over and above those normally carried out on an ordinary HVAC-project are necessary. The following are recommended extra checks during different stages in the project: Structural, device and installation checks: • Tightness test for the air conditioning units (in the factory) • By-pass leakage of the filter package (a factory-made package) • Filling of the chemical filter. • Air Tightness test of the ductwork. • Guarantee values of the chemical filter medium (tests in advance?) Performance tests: • Timing the test of over pressure equipment. Test run: • Test run for the whole air conditioning system. • Measuring the over pressure in the electrical equipment room during the test run. • Comprehensive check measurements of the air and water flow rates. Guarantee period: • Operating the air conditioning control during different situations in the summer and winter (Thermal conditions/ balanced operation of equipment). • The contaminant concentration of the room; at the start and end of the guarantee period. • Operating of the chemical filtering, if necessary. • Checking the over pressure in the end of the guarantee period. Operation: • Thermal conditions. • The contaminant concentration in the room. • Operating of the chemical filtering, if necessary. • The over pressure measurement in the room. 4.3 Spare parts To secure reliability of use, spare parts must be stored for the most important components. They should be purchased at the same time as the main equipment. To minimize the amount of spare parts and for reliability in use, spare parts should be evaluated as soon as possible in the project. The best results for the whole factory will be achieved if the reliability of use and spare parts planning are part of the main design


and all participants in the project should be informed consider the documentation examples in figures 4. 68 .4 Documentation During different stages of design. Updated documentation is an essential part of plant reliability. in connection with the acceptance tests and during the guarantee period should be updated in the design and maintenance documents. Changes made during the construction.2- the basic data and the system solutions with their reasons should be well documented.1.

1 69 .1.Location of building .1.Required space 2.1 REFERENCE EGO XXX SCHEDULE 2.11.Cooling water/refrigerant/? . 3.Equipment loads in different types of premises REPORT 2.Premise level (types) .2.Cooling solutions water/refrigerant/? .) .Level of reliability (generally) SYSTEMS.2 2.1. ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS .Air conditioning system options .Summer/Winter .Factory level .3 EXPLANATIONS: REPORT: Refers to applicable clause in text REFERENCE: E.Dimensioning criteria for electrical equipment's .Need of chemical filtration .1 Fig 4.1 3.2 3.3. 1.2.1.Outdoor air dimensioning criteria (preliminary) .Figure 4.2 Check List for the Project (Ventilation of Electrical Equipment Rooms) PHASE/TASK PROGRAM PHASE (Preliminary plan) GIVEN DATA .4.Connections of HVAC-systems to other networks .Production of cooling water centralized/dissipated .NO 11972-001 e-b/nnn 1.Going through all solutions .1 3.5.4.g.2 PLACEMENT OF HVAC SYSTEMS AND REQUIRED SPACE (prelim.1993 READY ####### APPR.Placement . Standard or guideline that is to be followed in task 3.1 3. APPENDIX CL.4.

Placement of HVAC-equipment in the building .Air conditioning process .Figure 4.2 Check List for the Project (Ventilation of Electrical Equipment Rooms) PHASE/TASK DESIGN PHASE 1 (scetch plan) GIVEN DATA .Documentation and approval .Conditions of surrounding premises .Duct routes and placement of main ducts .Documentation and approval . . requirements for components . then it has to be reserved enough time in last phase that plans can be updated to the real level of loads.If loads for premises will be approximated in the first phase of scetch.Loads of premises (preliminary) .Connection to the automation system COMMENT OF OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL 70 .Outdoor-air conditions for dimensioning .Selection criteria PREDESIGN PLAN (based on the selected system) . APPENDIX SELECTION OF SYSTEM (FACTORY/PREMISES) .1.Control and automation .Requirement for reliability.System schemes and equipment lists .Drawings . premise by premise REPORT REFERENCE SCHEDULE READY APPR.Selection of equipments.Structures .Dimensioning conditions of single premises .

5.Precise placement of HVAC-systems in the building .Explanation (pictures of holes) . if not available on the scetch phase. documentation and approval .3. APPENDIX DESIGN .2 71 .Precision of dimensioning calculations and documentation (approval?) .1 2.Holes in structures .2 2. look scetch plan) .Electrical equipment supplier: Heat loads of single cabins (air-flows).2 REFERENCE SCHEDULE READY APPR.Spare parts/Reliability COMMENTS of OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL 3.1.Control and automation .3.Tightening .Figure 4.Connection of HVAC-equipments to other systems .detailed .3.2 3. REPORT 2.2 Check List for the Project (Ventilation of Electrical Equipment Rooms) PHASE/TASK DESIGN PHASE 2 (Detailed design) GIVEN DATA (in detail.Evaluation.1.1 3.

Documentation if changes made during construction .Supervisors tasks .2 4.4 MAINTENANCE .1.Agreement of supervision CHECKINGS .Check measurement .Performance tests .Operation and maintenance plan .Construction.Functional tests .Design .Documentation of accomplished system 4.ACCEPTANCE TESTS POSTACCEPTANCE TESTS 4. APPENDIX SUPERVISION .2 Check List for the Project (Ventilation of Electrical Equipment Rooms) PHASE/TASK TASKS DURING CONSTRUCTION PHASE ADDITIONAL AND MODIFICATION TASKS .4 72 . equipment and installation checks .Same principles and procedures as during design phase is followed REPORT 4.2 AS BUILT DRAWINGS .Figure 4.Training of operation and maintenance personnel .1 REFERENCE SCHEDULE READY APPR.Spare part plan 4.

2 MAINTENANCE . APPENDIX 4.According to operation and maintenance plan MODIFICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS .4 REFERENCE SCHEDULE READY APPR.1.Documentation of changes made during guarantee period OPERATION CHECKINGS .Documentation of changes 73 .2 GUARANTEE TESTS POSTACCEPTANCE TESTS DOCUMENT UPDATE .According to operation and maintenance plan 4.2 Check List for the Project (Ventilation of Electrical Equipment Rooms) PHASE/TASK INTRODUCTION (Guarantee period) MAINTENANCE .Figure 4.Obtaining of spare parts (if not included in the initial delivery) CHECKINGS DURING GUARANTEE PERIOD REPORT 4.

System is not suitable for rooms that have heavy heatloads and need for chemical filtering. 3. OVER-PRESSURE VENTILATION COOLING WITH CIRCULATED AIR SEPARATE COOLING PLACED TO THE ROOM PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS (Clause 3. The temperature conditions can be hold uniform. 3. which improve the reliability of operation. 2. where extending of the cold air pipeline is to expensive. Centralized cold supply and cold water pipeline in the building.1. example SYSTEM SELECTION ROOMTYPE ELECTRICAL ROOM CONDITION CLASS: 3K3/3Z2/3Z4/EB1/3C1/3S1 (EN 60721-3-3) ALTERNATIVE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 1.1. 3. It is prohibited to bring waterpipes into el. COOLING WITH CIRCULATED AIR 1. System selection. Cheaper solution to single rooms far away of the main building. 74 .3. OVER-PRESSURE VENTILATION REASON FOR REJECTION 1. SEPARATE COOLING PLACED TO THE ROOM 1. room. 2. The ventilation equipment room size can be minimized in a separate building.Figure 4.1) ENCLOSURES: 1-3 GROUNDS FOR SELECTION SELECTED SYSTEMS 2. REJECTED SYSTEMS 1. 2.

Reliability demand 2.Relative Humidity** .Temperature winter/summer . Example ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS.Corrosive gases* DESIGN CRITERIA 1.Heat loads from el. ELECTRICAL ROOMS . Class B Max 25°C**** Max 50%**** Loads in different rooms.5g/kg Filtering needed 32°C/-10°C**** 17g/kg / 1g/kg Filter for circulation system only in boiler house REMARKS No changes Table 1.1. Rev.4. equipment .Figure 4. AUTOMATION ROOMS .Reliability demand 30°C/-15°C*** 15g/kg / 1. B**** Table 1. see Appendix N 250 W/m 200 % 2 Appendix N.1. START VALUES AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR VENTILATION DESIGN SUBJECT: Pulp & Paper Mill.Dimensioning temperature** .12 Max 28°C**** Loads in different rooms.Condition classification . Class A Workers.1. Rev.Relative Humidity** . Woodland PROGRAM PHASE PRE DESIGN PHASE DESIGN PHASE OUTDOOR AIR .Relative Humidity** .Heat loads from el. Rev.Dimensioning temperature** .4 Table of Start Values for Design.Reliability demand 3. Class A Max 25°C**** Max 50%**** Loads in different rooms. CONTROL ROOMS . equipment . see Appendix N 300 W/m 150 % 2 Appendix N. B**** Table 1. *** Source: Ashrae-weather data (HVAC-Designer).Heat loads from el.Condition classification . B**** 150 W/m 100 % 2 * Dimensioning of gas filter.1. ** Shall be announced only if is wanted more strict conditions than is stated for condition class. see Table 2. equipment . Moodyriver. see Appendix N Appendix N.Air Humidity summer/winter .1.Condition classification .1. **** Binding Criteria (by Client) 75 . see separate Appendix.Dimensioning temperature** .1.

AREA 2: AREA 3: * Relative humidity and minimum temperature define together the allowed absolute humidity 76 . Conditions shall not exceed the border in any conditions. Conditions may slide to this area during extremely heavy outdoor conditions during summer.BASIS FOR DESIGN FOR VENTILATION IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS. when electrical equipment is in operation. During normal operation of ventilation system shall conditions stay inside the borders. Conditions shall be on an average in the center of the area. Area. including the breakdown in ventilation equipment. Border of the environment class of the electrical equipment. that is expanded from area 1 with dash line. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS CLIMATOGRAMMES FOR CLASSES 3K1-3K4 (EN 60721-3-3) GUIDE FOR THE READER AREA 1: Design conditions for ventilation. classes 3K3 and 3K4. if the heat load of the room is under 100 W/wallm2.APPENDIX 1 .

comparing with the reference-strips).000 € or USD. high quality instruments requirements for high-class results. • The filtering ability in a steady-state (storage capacity) is easily tested in a laboratory.range. • Copper-strips. • a SO2-converter is required to measure hydrogen sulphide H2S. To obtain reliable results a long-term follow-up (6 months) is necessary. and acceptable measurements can be only be determined with accurate instruments. humidity and the rate of change. Determining filter efficiency and the time when filter medium replacement is necessary in the field • The following methods are in common use: 1. Direct measurements. different options (30 days follow-up and analysis. Cu-Ag-corrosion measurement. 2.04-1985) • Metal spirals (ISO 9223) Electrical equipment rooms The required concentrations are very low.THE MEASURING PRECONDITIONS OF GASES Environmental measurements • Instruments suitable for emission and environment measurements can be purchased at reasonable prices. • Measuring methods available: 1. Taking a sample of the filter medium. With most gases an accuracy of tenths of ppm can be achieved. Indirect measurement based on the aggressiveness of the contaminants in the environment • Copper-strips (ISA-S71. • Efficiency measurements of the filter medium in a laboratory • direct measurement. 77 . temperature. "Purafil"-instrument (on-line. • Gas analysers 2. this can be connected with the building control system. Direct measurement. With the indirect measurement the aggressive nature of contaminants in the air can be observed. Indirect measurement. • an expensive and unsuitable option for continuous follow-up. • Measuring methods available: 1.APPENDIX 2 . • chlorine measurement by means of a sampling collector method. The price is in the 6. With copper-strips the seriousness of the corrosion can be determined however different gas concentrations cannot be determined.

it is possible to measure the filtering capacity of the gases with indicating instruments (a Research Institute services would be required). When acceptance tests are made. The copper-strip in the duct after the filter . the cost of this service is high. Concentration measurement from inside the filter medium. 4. gas.000 € or USD/room. about 2. A change in colour of indicator paper. • Other possible methods: 3.filter medium is changed too late.2. The test would have to be repeated in order to obtain a meaningful answer. 78 .

K.Air handling units .Part2: Environmental conditions appearing in nature. Immunity for industrial environments EN 61000-6-3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) .. Part 1: General and guidance EN 60721-3-0 Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities. components and sections EN 61000-6-1 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . Hagström. 79 .ratings and performance of units. Undersökningsrapport 1982:14.L. International standards ISO 9223 Corrosion of metals and alloys -. marking Ventilation for buildings . Immunity for residential. Arbete och Hälsa 1994:18. commercial and light-industrial environments EN 61000-6-4 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . Laboratory tests of chemical filters. Part 2.requirements.. Vol. p. requirements for testing strength and leakage Other standards ISA 571. J.Rectangular sheet metal air ducts.Part 6-2: Generic standards. Introduction EN 60721-3-3 Classification of environmental conditions. Part 3: Classification of groups of environmental parameters and their severities.04-85 Environmental conditions for process measurements and control systems: Airborne contaminants. European standards EN 779 EN 1886 EN 13053 Particulate air filters for general ventilation .Part 6-3: Generic standards.mechanical performance Ventilation for buildings .REFERENCES Enbom. testing. Sweden..Part 6-1: Generic standards. Section 8: Fire exposure. Emission standard for industrial environments EN 60068-1 Basic environmental testing procedures.Part 6-4: Generic standards. S. Section 3: Stationary use at weatherprotected locations prEN 1507 Ventilation of buildings . Arbetsmiljöinstitutet.Corrosivity of atmospheres – Classification IEC 60721-2-8 Classification of environmental conditions . commercial and light-industrial environments EN 61000-6-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) . Beräkningsamband för luft och luftföroreningar. 441-446.APPENDIX 3 . and Railio. Sweden Olander. Arbetarskyddstyrelsen. En litteratursammanställning.Air handling units .2. Emission standard for residential. In: Anders Jansson and Lars Olander (Eds): Proceedings of Ventilation 94.Ductwork .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times