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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
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Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. 1455 for my lord of Mayne. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .
swan .TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. Le Viandier. quite simply. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. among other luminaries. etc. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). Several very different versions of the book exist. The work’s title. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. — to the exotic. — and yes. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. complete with measurements. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. “cookbook”. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. stork. Charles V and Charles VI). The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. peas. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. For a modern reader. some would say barbaric: heron. peacock. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. eggs. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. at this time it referred to any food. i .
which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. Some.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. If some passages seem redundant. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. Several special classes of words exist here. for other words. too. illogical or confused. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. In some cases. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French.
Also. to a pâté.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. Strictly speaking. Pastie (Pasté) iii . may have been too hardened to eat. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. however. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. Here and in other cases. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. effectively. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. To complicate matters. The pastry itself. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form.
when liquid is present. In context. Here. to “under-fry”. In practice. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. As an old cooking term. However. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. succulent state before cooking it.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. iv . or. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. to dissolve. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. it seems to mean to brown the food. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. though. However. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. In this case. Were these assumed to include that fish. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. the translation is nearly direct.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
To thicken. spices and verjuice. clove. that is cinnamon. and take a great quantity of parsley. cut up in pieces. and infuse with verjuice. When the bread is strained. and poultry livers. ginger and assorted spices. and strain with the broth. and crush. and strain it all together. marjoram. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and for spices. and put herbs. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. you will shell them. put it all in a pot. restore them. ginger. raw. and boil it all together. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. ginger. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. Boil in water and pea puree. Soak livers with the bread and strain. then brown. wild spinach. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. Once it has been strained. diluted with verjuice. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. and put the shells aside. and put it all together. and nutmeg if you have it. and put veal in the pot with them. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. and scale and slice up pike.Taillevent egg yolks. Take bread and livers. the costmary. and strain. and set the broth separately. diluted with verjuice. as above. And then boil the spices. and fry them. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. and take bread soaked in beef broth. with the following spices: cinnamon. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. paradise seed and clove. paradise seed. and egg yolks. for a better broth. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. cooked egg yolks. not too much. and cook them. diluted with vinegar. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. and add in the broth. For Lark Grané Take larks.
Make similar broth as for seyme. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and put in the pot. and salt to taste. ginger. Then strain the bread and the livers. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. with the same spices. and infuse it with verjuice. and put the broth apart. and infuse with verjuice. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. 5 . take pike and put in place of the shrimp. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. when they are browned. and paradise seed. cinnamon. and boil everything together. and sweeten moderately. and roast it. set it to boil. and then fry finely chopped onion. ginger and assorted spices. Put with the other spices. infused with verjuice. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. and verjuice. Salt to taste. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. add a reasonable amount of sugar. if you have them. And if you do not have enough meat. and saffron for color. Cut up in pieces. and soak in beef broth. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. fry eggs in oil or butter. if you have them. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. take some puree. and strain the almonds all together. cinnamon and assorted spices. pike browned on the grill.. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. and soak in the beef broth. and boil them all together. and fry in a pot. and boil all together. ginger. and sweeten moderately. and sprinkle with salt. and. to the chaudumé. Salt to taste. and salt to taste. and then use pure mustard. When it is roasted. paradise seed. Take ginger. assorted spices. Infuse with verjuice. Add ginger. Take bread and livers. and strain pike livers with it.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. clove. And put cinnamon. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth.
and salt to taste. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Take browned bread. and set them to cook.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. that is ginger. Clean and cut up. with no other spices – this is enough. and soak it in pea purée. It is best to strain it. Fry onion and parsley. Put in a pot. clove and seeds. paradise seed. and put in seed ginger. Put some bread in to soak. For spices. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. and some spices. put cinnamon. infused with vinegar. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. cinnamon and assorted spices. and saffron for color. When 6 . cut up in pieces. poultry. etc. such as livers. and add some red Burgundy wine. slice it up in large cubes. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. Add to the pot. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. cinnamon and assorted spices. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. Boil it all together. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. Then take ginger. and strain. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. For spices. the best that you can find. if you have it. and other broth. When the potage is ready. put it in your pot. gizzards. and verjuice and salt to taste. When it is not too well cooked along the side. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. each one with its lardoons. or its own broth. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. clove. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. boil it thus. and take some small giblets of poultry. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar.
with some verjuice. and just a little white wine. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. take peeled almonds. and put in a pot. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. Then put the broth in a pot. fry them in lard. and throw it in when you boil it. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. slice up partridge. and crush them and strain them. Slice up the giblets. and serve them in dishes or bowls. also known as alkanets. without leaving it too long on the fire. and heat in lard. and season with salt. but reasonable. and boil and.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and cook them. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. Take peeled almonds. amount of sugar. slice them lengthwise. and prepared. Salt 7 . and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. Then take white wine and verjuice. so that. and fry them in its broth. and add a generous. it thickens. boil it all together.Le Viandier they are cooked. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. two or three with each dish. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. some white wine and verjuice. if you have them. After straining it through cheesecloth. When the meat is served in dishes. and let the color soak in. the best lard you can find. When the poussins are cooked. and strain with the almonds and the broth. put them in a pot to boil. When serving. Add some ginger and a little saffron. and filter into the pot to give it color. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). Once they are strained. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. Put in a large amount of sugar. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. and soak them in the poultry broth. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. And to give a red color. with the appropriate sauce. internally]. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. or some white sugared almonds. once they are cooked. such as green sauce . and color it. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. crushed up and ground fine.
and a moderate amount of vinegar. and take some finely chopped onion. take eggs whites and put with the broth. the pork. and then when the meat is in dishes. and cut up in small pieces. fry them in a pot. and a lot of saffron. seed and clove. take pork cut into pieces. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. then put in a pot to brown. a hare is to be restored. When they are browned. Then strain it. when it boils. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. brown the geese on the spit. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. Take a little bread and poultry livers. Brown bread. Then take ginger and seed. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. soak it with poultry livers.Taillevent to taste. Put in lard and beef broth. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. put with the meat. when it starts to boil. Once it is cooked. Once it is browned. Add cinnamon. and. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. whichever you can find. and a bit of saffron for color. and salt just enough. Put in a pot. take the broth. and infuse the spices with vinegar. and young rabbits. with a moderate amount of sugar. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. parboiled and cut up in pieces. while it is straining. and halved poussins. the young rabbit and poultry. Take cinnamon. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. and washed. put in a cellar. put the meat in dishes. If the jelly is too fatty. and put in a pot on the coal fire. clove and seed) to the bread. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. ginger and assorted spices (that is. and soak in 8 . Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. and crush. And when the meat is cooked. if you can find them. a little mastic. and cook. Bousac For bousac. if the spices are not well beaten. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. that is. Boil it all together. well cleaned.
Salt to taste. When the fish is scaled. ginger. the crops of pike and their broth. and slice them up. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. and a large amount of clove. When it is boiled. that is cinnamon. Add salt as appropriate. and salt to taste. and infuse with vinegar. remove their bones. cook tripe of pike and carp. and boil as long as you can without burning. and fry them. Take cinnamon. in wine. put the broth in a pot. put a little saffron for color. Scald the eels. Strain the bread and the spices together. Take a carp or two and pike. put the pike and eel in by sections. Boil the cow’s milk. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. and put the fried fish in the pot. assorted spices. When it is strained. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. Strain again one time. that is the livers. Rice For rice. and add the liquid. and tie them all around. cook in a pot or frying pan. so long as it does not smell of brass. take spices. then slice them up. 9 . and boil it all together. ginger. removing the bones as best you can. paradise seed. and salt it well. Strain and put with the pot. and add sugar. brown without burning. slice it into round slices. while boiling. and a moderate amount of mustard. take pike and prepare them. and. Once they are chopped up fine. and also any other spices. When it is cooked. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. add a little vinegar. When it is strained.Le Viandier broth beef. and the tripe of fish. slice into large chunks. put the spices in all together with the broth. take some rice. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. When they are boiled. Then boil. then leave to cool. then strain. and prepare it. clove and beaten galanga. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. and the tripe as well. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. the best you can find. When it is cooked. Take bread. While cooking. add the cut up pike.
and strain. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Put in some white ginger. Mix just a little cheese. take prepared capons or large poultry. When the meat is cooked. When it is on the point of being cooked. Take spices. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. and beat with your eggs. Add salt. and put it all in. the following day. and beaten white ginger. fry it in lard or pork fat. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. when serving. Brown a little onion. and salt to taste. season with a little cooked lard. some broth. with a little bread to thicken. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. take poussins or poultry. slice it into thin slices. When it is sliced up. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Boil. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. Press it as well as you can. and tie it up. When it is ready. take it off the fire. Add saffron. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. Take some fatty lard. and chop it as fine as you can. beaten white ginger. and take their broth. Put in a pot and boil. Take some eggs and beat very well. When everything is cooked. with a little saffron for color. boil milk on the fire. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. moistened with just a little verjuice. and boil in a pot. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. Thicken the broth with it. Put in the pot. When it has been pressed a whole night. slice it up finely. 10 . put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. Soak the poultry in beef broth. put the meat in dishes and. good and fine.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. Brown in a frying pan with lard. and cut up into small pieces. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. and add some parsley leaves. or capon meat. or partridge. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. and add some verjuice while thickening.
After. hyssop. For Haricoq To make haricoq. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. and boil in wine and vinegar. cinnamon and assorted spices. and put in a pot. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. Remove all meat from the bones. Remove all the skin. and chop them up fine. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. clove and seed. with stones on it to press well. then take it from the fire. roast the shoulder on the spit. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Put on a table. Add a large quantity of sugar. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. when taken in heat. that is. well and whole. Put the skin aside. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. When they are browned.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. Salt to taste. ginger. Some like to add ginger. Press it between two dishes. sugar and salt. 11 . take its head. the thinnest that you can find. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. Put in the pot with the meat. When it is as if rotted from cooking. and split it and clean it. and a great deal of parsley. and brown the meat. assorted spices in large quantity. and salt to taste. cut up them into pieces. Take white ginger. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Take it off the spit. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Do not cook it too much. Put it all together. and boil it all together. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. Take peeled onions. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Leave as long as it is cold.
gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. and put the stuffing in it. Take everything inside. if there is a shoulder. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. Put with the meat. Once it is crisp. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Put it in a straining cloth. and do not fill it too much lest it burst.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. lard. After. wings or neck. parsley. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. Strain until there is no liquid left. ginger and assorted spices. hyssop. so that it solidifies. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. hyssop and raw marjoram. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. pennyroyal and basil. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Then take a veal or kid membrane. Take saffron for color. sweeten the poussins. except the head and the legs. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. all cooked together. without cutting off their feet. Once this is done. When serving. and boil in pure white wine. a pig or poultry liver. Once they have been scalded. 12 . Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. and cook it all together. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. When they are cooked. Then take the chicken meat. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. split them at the shoulders. chop it up as finely as you can. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. it is advisable to scald them…. take poultry liver or lard. Once they are well cooked. put in a dish and serve last. all the way to the knee. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. a needle across the opening. being careful not to burn it. for a long while. filter until no more liquid is left. if you have it. Cook it all together with meat broth. just a little bit. leaving only skin. bone and meat. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. a great deal of parsley. When it is done. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit.
Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. clove. Then slice it into fine slices. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. lard and put on the spit. and also the livers and almonds. Take capon or poultry broth. strain. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. and for two servings. Put. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. Strain the almonds. long pepper. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. When the roast is taken off the spit. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. with the jelly on it. Boil pig and poultry livers. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. for six servings. and strain through a cloth. Stir all the spices together. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. and also a pound of egg yolks. put in dishes. and a handful of onion. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. take a veal’s head and feet. a pound of sugar. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. When they are half cooked. This done. and put in your meat. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. After cook in wine. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . seed. and strain it all together through a cloth. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. Boil your broth. This sauce is good on all roasts. Scald and pluck and clean very well. Add strong vinegar. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. no more or less than you want for the brewet. Take a pound of almonds. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. and crush them all together. On fish days. whole. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. and salt it. lard with clove. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon.
When it is boiled. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. Put. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. Gild the heads on the grill. Add a little saffron for color. Add in sugar and ginger. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. If you see that there is too much fat. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. Take the pike eggs. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. add a quarter pound of sugar. and chop into small cubes. an ounce of assorted spices. and boil it all in a frying pan. Fry in lard. with the maws and livers. scald it and then fry it. put duke’s powder on it. cook them. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. put in dishes. then brown. When serving at the table. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. and the pike’s liver. Then put the pike on coals to stew.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. Fry with butter or oil. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. Put in dishes as for a 14 . Take the fish maws and livers. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. and strain through a cloth. and take the broth in which they are cooked. Once they are cooked. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. take a pint of vinegar. When the almonds are thick. Chop up onion. remove it. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. and a little soaked bread. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. and boil it all together. Cover so that no steam gets out. Then strain through a cloth. take a new pot. When they are well cooked. while frying. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. and put them in once they are stuffed. and after put it in a dish.
very fine skewers. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. and take out what is inside. together with the butter. take stale white bread. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. and yellow the half with saffron. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. marjoram. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. Coulis To make coulis. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. when it is well crushed. After put in dishes and serve. Then take sage. Add in ginger. Then place them in nice rows along the length. and put it in barely touching the almonds. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Take small.Le Viandier bar of butter. and the eggs. Take milk. without any liquid. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. strain through a cloth. as much as suits you. pennyroyal. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. put some duke’s powder on it. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. Soak in 15 . Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. make a small hole in the end of each egg. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. take veal or pork. When serving. Fry in butter. and chop them up finely. take a capon and boil until well cooked. mint and all other good herbs. and set on the grill over a low fire. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. and. saffron and sugar. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. and crush up the crumbs finely. bunches of grapes or wine?]. crush it up in the mortar.
if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. but not too much. put some in. cinnamon. with fat as for a potted pastie. put in assorted spices. salt moderately. put some thick almond milk. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. To bind it. Once it is cooked.Taillevent the capon broth. and. When they are fried. skinned. and salt to taste without anything else in it. After it is well cleaned. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. Once it is cooked. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. After make like that of meat. roast poultry or capons. after grind it. soaked in purée of peas. if the sick person wants sugar in it. put in wine and 16 . saffron and some verjuice. but. and cut into pieces. ginger. Then boil in a nice large pot and. take a poussin or two. and boned. or anything else. when it is cooked. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. It can be salted or not. Make like that of perch. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. vinegar. boil in a small pot. and chop it up finely. like wheat to make fromenty. and put the whole barley in it. when crushing. in grinding it. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. without crushing it. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. and. After fry with lard or goose lard. and then soak in almond milk. rinse and boil it very well. Do not add verjuice. and finely chopped onion. and start in the same way as the capon above. take a perch and cook it in water. Afterwards. crush it in the mortar. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley.
Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. The appropriate spices are: ginger. or possibly cocks. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. beef marrow. and boil with the sauce in the oven. saffron and sweeten. nutmeg. when the pastie is cooked. in equal parts. to thicken. put some ginger powder and. add the sauce. and a moderate amount of salt. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. put the fat in the pastie. put in a little ginger. remove all the meat of the capons. true cinnamon. put in fine cheese. While frying. except the clove should dominate the other spices. and chop all together and the said pastie. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. and. add some ginger. clove. and beef fat. in winter style. This done. Fricassees For fricassees. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. and chop it quite small all together. take raw poultry. For spices. and boil it all together. long pepper. To make the sauce. For spices. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. After. paradise seed. For spices. Add cheese and ginger and saffron.] Put the capons in pastie.Le Viandier verjuice. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. cover with lard. cameline. The appropriate spices are ginger. Cook the said 17 . assorted spices and saffron. true cinnamon. and for spices. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. toast black bread well.
Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. and ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. and beat all together. with fine powder. with assorted spices added. For spices. cinnamon and saffron. For spices. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. It is best that the poultry be cut up. assorted spices and saffron. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and beef marrow. with a moderate amount of sugar. for spices. and for spices. Add lard chopped fine. 18 . Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. put it all together. assorted spices and saffron. and the fat of chopped veal. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. When the pastie is cooked. put in ginger. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. and fine cheese. some ginger. and lard finely chopped.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. clove and ginger. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat.
Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. fry it all in butter. After. ginger. assorted spices and saffron. new beans and parboil them. Add ginger and a little pepper. For spices.] Take white capon meat finely chopped.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. and chopped lard. and parboil it. For spices. Add assorted spices. or the smaller one whole. For fish. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. 19 . and take. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. the following is very much a “best guess”. when they are made. raised up high and. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. like those which are made double. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. pressed between three fingers. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. And put them in the pastie. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. It is best that these be small. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. clove. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. ginger and clove powder. seed and pepper. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. slice it into fine slices. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. well made pasties. For spices. and add assorted spices. in season. and roll this in butter.
Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. fine powder and saffron. and fry in lard. 20 . without anything else. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. and some gooseberries. Put in assorted spices. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Parboil the marrow. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. with spices and sugar mixed together. fine powder and verjuice in making it. ginger and saffron. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Eel Pastie Take saffron. raised up high and well made.
and quite black. 21 . star with fried cream. After boil it. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar.. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. pies]. and pat it. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. After put in the oven briefly. crush up cheese. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. and rounded. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Fry onion in butter. If you cannot find cream. Make the sauce separately. if you have some. Once the pastie is high and raised.e. Make the crust strong and thick. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. so that the contents do not leak out. and sugar. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Dolphins Lily flowers. gild it well. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. then put it in the oven. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs.
set it to cool. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. take it out. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. Knead the crust well with eggs. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. When it is cooked. and good cream. The slices should be less than two fingers high. and cook like the other side. Seat well in the tart. like the other side. Covered Tart For covered tart. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. Fry them in butter. well soaked in egg yolks. but not too 22 . soak the crust in eggs and butter. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. and stuffed in two fingers deep. and put on the tart. with oranges on it. take it out and let it cool. turn it in a dish. before adding the cheese and the cream. so that nothing of it shows. When ready to dine. and enough egg yolks. soaked in cream. put in the oven. and cook them. then cook in the oven as said. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. with a great quantity of sugar. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. crushed. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. with egg yolks mixed into it. Once it is a little cooked. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. use fine cheese. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. and cover the crust with wafers. and cover the whole top with orange. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. Cut eel into sections and boil it. When it is cooked. and take off the crust where cooked. of the thickness of a finger.
Sweeten well. Mix in with the other apples. crushed up. that is candied pine nut. and put in the oven. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. candied ginger might be used instead]. and cook. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. a bit of assorted spices. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . soak with cream. [Darioles were small pastries. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. and put in figs. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Fry the cream well in butter. and mix well together. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. This is how it should be made. without burning it. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Make two big pastry undercrusts. but do not strain them. Once it is soaked. and put orange all over it. Knead the crust well with eggs.Le Viandier much. put in the oven. For each tart. and put in with the apples and the figs. and gild with eggs or saffron. and wine. so all this presumably is the filling. then gild it with saffron. and enough egg yolks. or a dish. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. and fill the hollow with the sugar. if you have any. true cinnamon and white ginger. Add onion fried with butter or oil. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Cover it with a top. brown bread in front of a good red fire. Cover well. Clean grapes well. Put all the fillings together. well mixed by hand. put eight or ten slices on end. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine.
Strain very well through a cloth. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. or with the mortar. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. Soak it in milk. assorted spices . If you would like it to have the taste of milk. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. brown one toast of bread on the fire. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. because it will blacken. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Add in half an ounce of ginger. throw in a drop or two.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. and put in a nice pot. ginger. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. while boiling. brown one toast of bread. put them over it with the sauce. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. and strain them through a cloth. and crush up spices in a mortar . Be sure not to put it in a pot. When the goose is cooked. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. Boil in a frying pan. Then when it is cooked. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. Take their livers.cinnamon. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. Boil a dozen eggs. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. and roast on the grill. Jance To make jance. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. because it will smell of brass. Put a frying pan under it. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. take poultry livers. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. Bring to a boil. and a little browned bread and very little broth. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. and crush them up in a bowl. and put in the poultry. and boil in a frying pan. a half ounce of ginger. roast them well on the spit.and soak in verjuice and wine. roast a goose. and salt it well.
and boil under the capons. Take an ounce of ginger. and then put in a nice pot. Soak it only in verjuice. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. Sugar to taste. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. and boil it all with milk. For four servings. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. When the birds are cooked. and peel. Add half a pound of sugar. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. or more if you wish. Soak it in milk. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. take half a dozen garlic cloves. Then take marjoram. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. and add a little saffron. and let livers roast a little on the grill. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. Put on the roast. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. hyssop and other good herbs. and also in other dodines. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. capons. For one pint. and a half ounce of ginger. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. put a quart of milk. put in an ounce of ginger. add butter. and pour the grain in the sauce. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. Once the bread is soaked. roast fatty capons on the spit. a little parsley. Filter the water. and boil everything together. When you boil it. put the dodine on them. or other roast fowl. Leave it only a little. Boil in a frying pan. When the 25 . and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. and boil together. Chop the herbs up.
take two ounces of true cinnamon. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and put it to soak in broth. half an ounce of ginger. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. take pike. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. For four servings. and soak in purée of peas. and boil. Once it has been strained. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. and some fresh or salted butter. take out the capons and put in a dish. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. brown bread as for cameline. and put in the sauce. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. take verjuice and white wine. Strain the bread and all the spices together. and then put over the roast. for four servings. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. Take red wine and vinegar. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. take some vinegar and wine. Once the shad is half cooked. one with the other.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. Take for one shad. Then when the bread is soaked. and fry it. and scald it. Put the fish with the broth. and strain it all together with your bread. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. and strain it all together through a cloth. with a little saffron. put the verjuice on the shad. and put on the shad. Put in a 26 . Brown bread. and some puree. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. a bit of assorted spices. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must.
use purée of pea and butter. capons or other roast. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. Wash and parboil them. then put on a plank. Chop them up. White Beets To make white beets. On fish days. Leeks To make leeks. Onion Soup To make onion soup. and after put them on a plank. and chop up fine. Once this is done. then strain them through a cloth. use mulberries. Milled Beans To make milled beans. This sauce is good on larks. fish and all other fried things. When they are parboiled. and then crush up in a mortar. For four servings. put in a frying pan to cool. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Brown in butter for a long while. split lard into thin slices and fry. and strain it all through the cloth.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. When they are done cooking. and boil in river or fountain water. or. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. on fried eggs. boil in water. and strain it all through cloth. two ounces of sugar. then bind with lard and warm water. and almond milk if you like. and add some verjuice and parsley. bind with beef broth. Remove the black ones. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. Squeeze out between your hands. purée them and bind with broth. with enough grapes. and put in lard to give them taste. 27 . Add a little water to keep it from burning. Mix with purée of peas or water. When they are half cooked. if you do not have the broth. a half ounce of ginger. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. except the sugar. then crush them in a mortar. After. use butter and purée of peas. On fast days. If you lack grapes. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. purée them and put cold water on them. put the beans to soak in the evening.
mastic and hyssop. and. and add some cold water on them. If it is fresh. verjuice. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Filter out the liquid. and cut into four quarters. then purée. Sheep. Gourds For gourds. Cook with only mastic and saffron. Squeeze and chop up finely. Lard the length of the meat. add parsley. with mustard. and put some cold water over them. take off the top leaves. Pig Cook in water and salt. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. peel them and cut into round slices. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. For fast days. Once it is well cooked. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. sage. Put in some cowʹs milk. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. take your pot off the fire. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. and a little saffron. then 28 . Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. put in beef broth. sage. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. wine. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. and turn it to one side and another. On fast days. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. salted. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. Parboil in a frying pan. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. use purée of peas with butter and oil. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. if there are any. and put on your pot. while doing this. Boil all together. hyssop. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. Remove the seeds. and squeeze them between your hands.
larded. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. 29 . Fry in lard with some onions. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. with parsley. Eat parboiled in pastry. and add lard for flavor. seed. with fine powder. and saffron for color. Boil your meat. and a good deal of spice. Grate ginger. Add some verjuice and vinegar. sage and hyssop. clove. cook in water and salt. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. with cameline. cinnamon.
Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. saffron. and boil with your meat. Strain it. Then take cowʹs milk. Fry in lard. and fry in lard. Take white bread. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. broken up in beef broth. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Grate ginger and cumin. Always let thicken on its own. Powder ginger and cumin. Add egg yolks. Soak a little bread in beef broth. without adding anything but a little white bread. Fry in lard. cook in wine and water. infuse with wine and verjuice. Brown them in lard. add a large quantity of eggs. and watch that it does not turn. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. cook the peas until they are soft. Soak white bread in milk. then purée. Cut up into parts. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Boil. long pepper. and strain. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Take ginger. Take almonds infused with broth. Put in your soup just before serving it. cook poultry well in water. and boil it all together. Mix in your milk. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Take verjuice. Cut up into parts. Pull back from the fire. and cook a little in water. Boil. and boil briefly. Fry in lard. vinegar. Fry in lard. Boil with 30 . Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. pull back from the fire. then grate ginger and saffron. then cut up into pieces. and boil on your meat. Infuse with wine and verjuice.
Take browned bread. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. then cut up into pieces. crush almonds. Fry in lard. and add well beaten egg yolks. and made like that for hare. clove. Powder ginger. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Boil with your meat. and spice it well. Boil it all together. Boil together. cinnamon. Then take bread browned on the grill. But do not wash the meat at all. galanga and long pepper. then cut up into pieces. paradise seed. Strain. 31 . It should be very black and not too thick. Boil on your meat. and saffron for color. paradise seed. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked.Le Viandier your meat. and fry in lard. brown on the spit or on the grill. infuse with verjuice. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. and saffron to give color. clove. mix with verjuice. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. infuse with beef broth and wine. Civet For civet. Cut up into parts. Beat ginger. and do not let it thicken too much. Fry in lard. cook in wine and water. Take a little burned bread. cinnamon. cinnamon. paradise seed. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. cook in water and wine. Then powder ginger. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. cinnamon and clove. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Grate ginger. without letting it cook too long. This should be quite thick.
and toasted bread. verjuice. in pastry. Some put onions on it. also known as breast meat. with fine powder and saffron. or vinegar.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. with powder and cold sage. Once it is cooked. cut your veal up finely. 32 . Cook it. paradise seed. Roast Mutton With a little salt. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Restore it in water. Eat with cameline. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. Dribble eggs over it while frying. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. or verjuice. Put on the spit. cinnamon. boil it all together. Roast without lard. and eaten with cameline in pastry. and cut up your meat into pieces. or verjuice. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. with cinnamon. soaked in wine. clove. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. In pastry. Crush ginger and saffron. Eat with garlic or jance. Fry in lard. Goose Plume a dry goose. and scramble eggs.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. six ounces of saffron. take poultry and cook in water. paradise seed. Remove the tongue. skimming it the whole time. six dishes: and drink for the workers. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. Some add cooked yolks. 36 . because it will not flow. six ells of cloth. and. five wooden spoons. if it is fish. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. and. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. folded over two or three times. mastic. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. skimming it the whole time. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. four pigs. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. galanga. take twenty five poussins. three quarter pounds of ginger. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. whole.Taillevent pepper. Pour on your poultry in sections. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. Then grate ginger. Strain. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. cinnamon. if it is fish. three quarter pounds of string ginger. To make jelly. nutmeg. Tie it in a white cloth. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. make the cold sauce without eggs. cinnamon. paradise seed. six young rabbits. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Powder ginger. For pork. twenty earthen pots. Put them in a cold place. you must stay alert. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. saffron to give color. as soon as it is time to serve it. and paradise seeds. Have it well bled. bleed it by the mouth. thirty legs of veal. The sauce should not be too black. After. when it is cooked. Put it on a spit. See that the broth is clear and clean. mixed with vinegar. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. clove. Blend it all together. Boil with your fish or meat. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time.
Take cowʹs milk.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. and wheat. cull. on a meat day. During Lent. then wipe your rice by the fire. and sugar the bowls. and boil together on a low fire. add your rice. 37 . use almond milk. Add the fat from beef broth. wash in warm water.
seed. Grind almonds. cinnamon. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. and strains it through a cloth. almond oil and a little verjuice. Then cool.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. Soak egg yolks in white wine. at the evening. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. which once meant a variety of pike. Crush. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. If you do not have that. Cook on the fire. take tenches. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. Grate ginger. cinnamon. 38 .Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. some of your milk and mix together. in oil. and saffron. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Add ginger and pepper. when it is boiled. eggs and milk. wine. some of your broth.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. paradise seed and saffron. For the sick. except that one puts in a bit of sage. scald and wash very well. but here appears to mean a green. and no other spices. or verjuice. mix in some white wine. take ginger. and put on your fish. [*This might be a variant of lus. especially. Boil. lux* and carps and. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. Some put in a little verjuice. Serve it on your fish. dissolve in white wine. If it is too sour. add sugar. boil a little water. Boil together. with wine and verjuice. Boil together with the oysters. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat.
cook in water. and strain with broth. Boil it all together. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. Crush almonds. Boil until thick. Crush almonds and the perch together. mix with broth in a little wine. Put pomegranates over it.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. 39 . It should be clear.
pike. Add a little salt or mustard. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. Add as much spring onion as you like. Porpoise For porpoise.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Salt the shad. Boil. dace. or roast on the grill. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. 40 . either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. eat with garlic. Salt it with wine. pepper and a little saffron. “cream”. eels. cook in water. Eat with cameline. Do not make it too yellow. fresh shad. Eat with green sauce. Powder ginger. Cresme [*Literally. in pastry and with fine powder. Eat with green sauce. Split along the back. cinnamon. paradise seed. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Eat with cameline. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. barbell. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. carp. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey.
Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. Add fine powder. sole. Eat with jance. 41 .Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. with mustard or butter. Salt it. with wine and verjuice. turbot. Cod Cook in water. flounder: cook in water. ray.
cinnamon. Crush bread. green sauce and garlic camelines. infuse with vinegar. white garlic. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. 42 .Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. parsley and salad burnet. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. Pour on your fish. a little saffron. Crush ginger. pepper. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. paradise seed. nutmeg. galanga.
Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Boil. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Infuse with verjuice and wine. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. saffron. with the fat from the roast. Some add seed and galanga to it. Jance Crush almonds. Some like it with cowʹs milk. Boil. then grind up ginger. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. crush seed and livers. 43 . and browned bread. pepper. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Strain and boil. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Some add seed and galanga to it. string ginger and white bread. Infuse with other verjuice. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
pears. made of sugar. marked with the said arms. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. vinegar. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. 47 . white of fennel. game hen. jelly. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. and almonds. wine. marked with the arms said above. sea pullets. and pine nuts. venison with soup. young peacocks in full display. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. jonchées [a soft cheese]. and strawberries. sweetened white cream. sugared strawberries. white and dark red. scattered about. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. preserved in sugar. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. FRUIT COURSE White cream. fried oranges. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. in a dish. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. hare pastie. Darioles and upside-down stars. Duke’s powder on it. A suitable support for the said peacocks. then ginger on it.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. half-sweet. and Duke’s powder over it. quails with sugar. Jelly. half-sour. Wild boar made with fried cream. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. Fried cream. Larded milk. silvered. cold sauce. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish.
brewet of cinnamon. Steamed pigeons. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. Pear pastie. cretonnée of lard. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. peacocks with celery. FIFTH COURSE White cream. nuts and raw pears.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. partridges with sugar. fried cream. young rabbits with spiced sauce. jelly. hazelnuts. pickle. kids. almonds. Sugared almonds. Jelly and slices. Venison pasties. capon pastie. capons with Jean’s most. jonchées. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. pears. pigeon pastie. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. small hares with bramble vinegar. navews with venison. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. chickens with herbs. nuts. pears with hypocras. SECOND COURSE The best roast. watercress. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. herons. venison with clove. 48 . swans.
Pigeons. capes [type of apple]. SECOND COURSE Roast. Peacocks. Pigeon pastie. brewet rappé. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. White jelly and other fried cream. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Young rabbits. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. Tarts with sugar. Quail pasties. Trimolettes with sugar. Boiled chickens. Banquet of marrow. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Herons. lemons. Thin gilded slices. New almonds. Venison. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. Venison with peas. 49 . Jelly. Pears with sugar. barded sugared chickens. Fresh venison with soups. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Baked cream pancake. capons with tulle. Must. Capon pastie. Thin slices. cherries with sugar or feathers.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie.
28 gild. 16. 21. 25. 2. 46. 31. 38. 4. 7. 46 heron. 10 table. 46. 2. 34 goose. 23. 1. 11. 15. 49 irson. 14 B birds assorted. 31. 29. 47 dove. 25. 16 quail. 24. 24. 3. 12. 17. 2. 49 white German. 48. 44 cloth. 14. 18. 3. 48. 33. 13 pigeon. 13. 48.head. 17. 30. 8. 4. 33 bittern. 10. 31 brewet fish. iii. 23 guin. 7 gizzards. 30. 11 civet. 23. 40 mortar. 24. 46. 46 clairet. 3. 9. 19 peacock. 10. 43. 8. 39. 27. 24. 29. 12. 4 butter fried. 21. v. 16 brown. 33 partridge. 38. 2 meat. 2. 30. 16. 33. 31. 13. 47. 18. i. 5. 7. 26. 23. 8. 49 sparrow. 28. 6. 27. i. 33 ringdove. 22. 23. 49 chicken. 28. 14. 10. 47. 49 grill. 46. 5. 31. 39 bousac. 10. iv. 8. 5. 10. 6. 7. 47. 8. 13. 13. 35. 10. 16. 27 . 18. 13. 1. 9. 47. 37. 10. 47. 18 stork. 32. 48. 34. 2. 38 hand towel. 13 chaudeau. 14. 5. 15. 14. 38. 11. 30. 16. 1. 49 pheasant. 32 cele. 19. 4 Georget. 24. 2 green. 1. 24. 35 de-salt. 15 C caul. 21. iv. 48. 49 blancmange. 25. 11. 5. 31. 10. 33 gosling. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 34 blanch. 15. 14. 1 of capons. 24. 33 blackbird. 6. 1. 34. 16. 33. 36 poussin. 35. 18. 35. 12. 14. 3. 4. 23. 10. i. 33. 38 cheese fine. 22. 11. 8. 16. i. 26. 18 eagle. 24. 29. 46. 12. 17. 15. 3 rappé. 31. 28. 18 duck wild. 26. 25. v. 7. 13. 36. 33 swan. 6. 9. 34 jonchée. 43. 48 cheese. 39. 26. 15. 27. 4. 2. 1. 1. 13. 48. 5. i. 32. 49 poultry. 46. 31 brewet. 7. 14. 10. 19. 12. 18 capon. 48 giblets. 36 cooking methods baste. 13. 6. 10. 4. 30. 29. 3.INDEX A almonds. 2 covered. 7. 48.
40 mullet. 20. 39 cream. 31. 23. 41 salmon. 47 shad. 34. 9. v. 27. 20 oysters. 3. 40. 47 tench. 40 porpoise. 30. 26. 25. 11. 12. 23. 18. 47. 35. 19. 35 fruit apples. 9 gallimaufrey. 8. iv. 23 grapes. 37. 4. 32. 2. 40 mackerel. 11. 33. 1. 35. 12. 3. 16 spelt (wheat). 20 gurnard. 20. 21. 24. 23. 44 E eggs. 3. 15. 34. 7. 49 cappes. 47. 4 brill. 4. 4. 8. 21. 32. 38. 20. 38. 36. 22. 34. 15. 32. 20 sorvige. 5. 40 brewet. 36. 29. 42. 28 restore.Le Viandier parboil. 34. 46. 14. 2. 48 plums. 36. 18. 3. 13. 36. 41 flan. 26. 9. 17 fromanty. 22. 42 sea pullets. 38 perch. 47 F fayenne. 13. 9. 19. 16. 1. 48. 26 pears. 49 fried. 4. iv. 49 D drinks clairet. 38 greens parsley. 12. 21. 13 fish blancmange. 8. 40 goatfish. 41. 20. 30. 24. 36. 13. 49 figs. 44 hypocras. 41 fresh water. 25. 14. 47 salad burnet. 35 lamprey. 38. 12. 28. 6 flounder. 20 turbot. 26. 12. 23. 35. 15. 40 jelly. 35. 4. 28. 40 cockles. 28. 1 bream. 29. 35 wheat. 13. 34. 26. 22. 28. 39 pike. 40 conger. 38 trout. 23. 9. 5. 8. 35. 28. 40 simmer. i. 38 removing burnt taste. 42 51 . 10. 11. 1. 14 fricassee. 1. 16. 5. 3. 5. 6. 41 carp. 27. 25. 36 strain. 21. 31. 41 cod. 26. 6. 15. 1. 25. 4. 27. 41 eel. 43 coulis. 2. 12. 10. 20. 34. 36. 13. 9. 10. 26. 40 salt water. 48. 34. 24. 41 cretonnée. 16. 3 cuttlefish. 27. 35 scald. v. 14. 31. 40 ray. 21. 7 spit. 47 G galantine. 38 fraze. 40. 16 perch. 16 grains barley. 32. 11. 24. 23. 17.
36. 46. 16. 37. 28. 29. 34 H haricoq. 19. 34. 31. 47 kid. 10. 49 suckling pig. 13. 25. 10 O orange. 46 veal. 23 P pasties. 18 halebrans. 28. 30. 15. 32. 24. 11. 8. 2. 46. 2. 28 buttock. 28. 46 foot of. 48. 9. 23 pigeon. 18. 8. 6. 38. 32. 20 goatfish. 48 J jelly. 1. 36 boar. 8 venison. 2. 8. 1. 11. 31. 35 spleen. 8. 49 pork. 28. 8. 17. 36. 47. 3. 12. 27. 18. 13. 19. 14. 28. 4. 8 stag. 21 leg of lamb.Taillevent sorrel. 20. 35 leg of. 20 52 . 4. 44. 12. 6. 7. 47. 5. 12. 36. 35. 15. 35. 28. 47 morterel. 17. 11. 19. 16. 8. 34. 10. 31. 6. 17. 49 L lard. 20 gosling. 20 mutton. 17 chicken. 34. 3. 18 bream. 28 cow. 2. 33. 46. 29. 30. 4. 16 hare. 12. 11. 34 rabbit. 18. 19 hare. 36. 46 scum. 43 marrow. 18. 20 ringdove. 46. 31 hyocras. 15. 47. 3. 20 shad. v. 21 mutton. 21. 48 M meat beef. 22. 20 mullet. 11 hazelnuts. 43. 21 lorais. 16. 32. 4. 30. 30. 19 pear. 10. 21. 13. 1. 12. 48. 19. 4. 37. 47 lamb. 17. 14. 35. sheep. 47 kid. 7. 21. 18 conger eel. 32. 48. iii. 18 salmon. 20. 49 milk larded. 47. 6. 3. 20. 9. 48 houdet. 32 sheep bristle. 14. 11 liver. 7. 19. 49 rabbit. 17. 11. 19. 29. 13. 13. 33. 26. 27. 6. 48. 35. 8. 47 boiled. 15. 18. 9. 8. 11. 29. 28. 43 grenon. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 10. 6. 25. 21. 49 blackbird. 38. 28 shoulder. 6. 32. 24. 14. 11. 34. 46 ham. 19 marrow. 16. 29. 18. 43 teat. 6. 34. v. 19 red mullet. 32 bellies. 18 lamprey. 11. 14 tongue. 19. 8. 23. 5. 20 capon. 26. 6. 18 partridge. 15. 10.
15. 17. 28 spices anis. 26. 47 sorvige. 26. 24. 47 saupiquet. 30 Spanish. 18. 45 basil. 36. 4. 11. 23. 24. 7. 16. 5. 38. 45. 4. 16. 31. 10 potful. 27. 21. 17. 29. 46. 28. 30 onion. 6. 12. 47. 41 sauces. 45. 33. 30 new peas. 44. 25. 7. 49 oblongs. 3. 21. 24. 31. 26. 3. 13. 40. 10. 29. 2. 44 white. 29. 11. 14. v. 36. 26. 28 grané. 48 costmary. 25 green. 32. 46 jance. 47 dodine. 42. 9. 5. 2. 13 R rice. 21. 30. 2. 37 flour. 27 pottage. 33 S sabourot. 8. 24. 9.Le Viandier sparrow. 40. 26. 26. 3 de-salting. 48 almond. 19. 7 powdered. 18 with warm sauce. 20. 15. 4 galanga. 43 Jean’s must. 32. 8. 20 veal. 35. 19 trout. 7 warm. 11. 11. 28. 10 salamine. 24. 42 ginger. v. 26 small wine. 1. 36. 2 salt. 30. 28. 13. 43. 7. 44 clove. 45 garlic. 47 dolphins. 30 fish. 38. 29. 48 cinnamon. 18.fat. 23. 30 poultry. 33. 31. 6 removing burnt taste from. 15. 26 shad. true. 7. 32. 35. 17. 20 turbot. 35. 6. 26. 25 my lady’s. 38 pork. 5. 4 shrimp. 36. 16. 2. 17 wild boar. 32. 34 garlic. 32. 27. 18 stag. 3 new bean. 2. 9. 15. 45 string. 9. v. 40. 11. 42 chaudumé. 7. 43 red. 23. 5. 6 soups chaudin. 38 cold. 44. 17. 40. 43. 6. 36. 36. 2. 27. 40. 10. 30 fish. 12 cinnamon. 24. 17. 35. 1 cameline. 27. 32. 24. 18. 42. 43. purée of. 13. 4. 3. 21. 35. 29. 8. 26 seyme. 19. 1. 30 cretonnée. 23. 25. 14 preserves. 4 small birds. 2 lark. 23 53 . 34. iv. 21. 31. 21 peas. 13. 13. 42. 9. 17 pastries dariole. 7 roasts. 6. 24. 34. 40. 19. 41. 5. 42. 23. 23. 3. 24. 9. 36 with most. 13. 28. 9. 5 skin. 34. 8. 14. 20. 3. 36. 32. 19 wild duck. 25 violet. 1. 24 Poitevin. 30 peas.
28. 14. 7. 28. 36. 1. 28. 42. 20. 43. 32. 34. 41. 15 W water holy. 5. 1. 9. 47 pepper. 2. 8. 25. 35. 43. 21. 5. 3. 25. 32. 35. 22 two-faced. 42. 13. 36. 5. 41. 18. 25. 36. 8. 34. 40. 35. 21. 11. 6. 38. 9. 4. 6. 31. 36. 11. 7. 45. 7. 49 V vegetables beans. 15. 48. 35. 16. 17. 43. 38. 23. 34. 14. 45 pennyroyal. 6. 47. 22. 31. 43. 13. 8. 16. 40. 49 vintage. 1. 2. 10. 25. 20. 21. 32. 11. 13. 20. 42. 3. 12. 11. 5. 14. 42. 28 leeks. 14. 7. 43. 9. 25. 35. 17. 16. 45 mustard. 8. 16. 41. 13. 17. 31. 19. 26. 11. 29. 1. 5. 24. 11. 45. 46 sage. v. 36. 48. 11. 33. 8. 9. 45 powder. 15. 41 nutmeg. 2. 38 stuffing. 43 vinaigrette. 4. 31. 8. 14. 32. 18. iv. 17. 30. 40. 14. 26. 19. 38. 42. 25. 13. 22 talemouse. 14 rose. 12. 8. 34 moteaulx. 11. 13. 12. 4. 9. 27. 38. 3. 28. 22 Jacobine. 45 paradise seed. 19. 13. 5. 4. 13. 15. 26. 23. 40. 16. 31. 6.Taillevent hyssop. 27 onions. 23. 12. 15. 18. 23 Bourbonnaise. 11. 10. 4. 34. 41 verjuice. 23. 2. 24. 34. 15. 29. 32. 12. 22. 23. v. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 37. 7. 45. 21. 47 wine. 4. 29. 14. 31. 11. 23 saffron. 14. 29. 44. 15. 40. 10. 12. 32. 2. 3. 17. 26. 6. 22. 28. 35. 20. 12. 6. 25. 14. 17. 48 vinegar. 29. 23 common. 47. 35. 26. 32. 28. 28 gourds. 36. 42. 9. 17. 34. 29. 21. 44. 2. 39. 13. 27 beets white. 30. 36. 38. 22 trimolette. iv. 27. 15. 11. 47 54 . 19. v. 16. 36. 38. 8. 29. 13. 27. v. 38. 44. 30. 25 mastic. 18. 29. 31. 5. 30. 27. 40. 17. 47 sugar. 28. 38. 7. 19. 21. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 19. 8. 32. 5. 30. 27 cabbage. 2. 48. 21 covered. 28. 30. 21. 49 T tarts apple. v. 29 marjoram. 31. 44. 40. 15. 18. 22. 34.
Davidson.thousandeggs. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. 1694. C. Paris : imp. Prosper. 1961. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . Vicaire. Alfred. George Olms Verlag. 1611. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. – 1889. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise.t Ed. Paris. 1881. Reprint. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Pichon and G. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. 2002. dédié au Roy.com/glossary. Paris: F. Nourrit.-D. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François.. moeurs. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. Histoire de la vie privée des français. de Crapelet. 1846. Randle. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard.ac. impr. 1782.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. usages des Parisiens. Vieweg.kfunigraz. Pierres. 1970. Godefroy. Legrand d'Aussy.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. Le ménagier de Paris. Penguin Books. Toulouse : J. Bourgeois parisien. Inc. 1684. New York: Crown Publishers. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. Furetière. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. Les repas. 1889. Hildesheim-New York. 1694. un. Antoine. Larousse Gastronomique. modes. Plon. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours.VI. Cotgrave.at/~katzer/engl/index. Frédéric. Franklin.html 55 . impr. M. J. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. Montagné. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. Paris : E. 1892. Le cuisinier Taillevent. The Penguin Companion to Food. Alan. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. de Guerlins. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. Paris : P. D. London.