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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Sheep. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 .
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
1455 for my lord of Mayne.BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .
“cookbook”. For a modern reader. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. swan . etc. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. at this time it referred to any food. peas. peacock. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. — and yes. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. stork. Le Viandier. quite simply. some would say barbaric: heron. Charles V and Charles VI). The work’s title. eggs. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. Several very different versions of the book exist. i .TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. complete with measurements. — to the exotic. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. among other luminaries. Though in modern French viande means “meat”.
others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. illogical or confused. Some.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. for other words. Several special classes of words exist here. If some passages seem redundant. In some cases. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. too.
may have been too hardened to eat. Here and in other cases.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. to a pâté. The pastry itself. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. Strictly speaking. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. Pastie (Pasté) iii . effectively. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. Also. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. however. To complicate matters.
we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. it seems to mean to brown the food. However. the translation is nearly direct. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). succulent state before cooking it. when liquid is present. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. or. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. In this case. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. In context.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. iv . Were these assumed to include that fish.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. to “under-fry”. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. to dissolve. In practice. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. though. Here. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. However. As an old cooking term.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
and boil it all together. spices and verjuice. and egg yolks. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. diluted with verjuice. paradise seed. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. Once it has been strained. and nutmeg if you have it. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. and take bread soaked in beef broth. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. then brown. diluted with vinegar. and crush. marjoram. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . and put the shells aside. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. and strain with the broth. and strain. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. wild spinach. and poultry livers. ginger. that is cinnamon. you will shell them. and put herbs. cut up in pieces. clove. put it all in a pot. and take a great quantity of parsley. ginger. raw. and set the broth separately. For Lark Grané Take larks. diluted with verjuice. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. and cook them. When the bread is strained. and add in the broth. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. and for spices. as above. paradise seed and clove. and put it all together. and scale and slice up pike. Boil in water and pea puree. restore them. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. not too much. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. Take bread and livers. and put veal in the pot with them. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. for a better broth. and strain it all together. ginger and assorted spices. with the following spices: cinnamon. and fry them. And then boil the spices. cooked egg yolks. and infuse with verjuice. the costmary. Soak livers with the bread and strain.Taillevent egg yolks. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. To thicken. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth.
and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. if you have them. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. clove. and put the broth apart. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and then use pure mustard. ginger. and boil everything together. 5 . take pike and put in place of the shrimp. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. Take ginger. pike browned on the grill. and saffron for color. and boil them all together.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. Take bread and livers. and sprinkle with salt. cinnamon and assorted spices. and soak in the beef broth. cinnamon. and infuse it with verjuice. and put in the pot. and boil all together. and sweeten moderately. with the same spices. And put cinnamon. if you have them. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. Infuse with verjuice. and sweeten moderately. Cut up in pieces. add a reasonable amount of sugar. take some puree. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. when they are browned. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. assorted spices. and strain the almonds all together. to the chaudumé. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. and salt to taste.. and then fry finely chopped onion. Put with the other spices. ginger and assorted spices. and. and salt to taste. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. ginger. Salt to taste. and paradise seed. and roast it. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and verjuice. When it is roasted. Add ginger. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. Then strain the bread and the livers. and infuse with verjuice. and soak in beef broth. paradise seed. Make similar broth as for seyme. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. Salt to taste. fry eggs in oil or butter. And if you do not have enough meat. and strain pike livers with it. infused with verjuice. and fry in a pot. set it to boil. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth.
Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. Put some bread in to soak.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. or its own broth. and verjuice and salt to taste. and saffron for color. boil it thus. When 6 . and take some small giblets of poultry. and strain. Put in a pot. such as livers. cinnamon and assorted spices. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. etc. For spices. gizzards. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. with no other spices – this is enough. and put in seed ginger. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. the best that you can find. slice it up in large cubes. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. Boil it all together. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. Add to the pot. Take browned bread. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. When the potage is ready. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. and set them to cook. It is best to strain it. Fry onion and parsley. each one with its lardoons. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. and some spices. and soak it in pea purée. clove and seeds. and add some red Burgundy wine. that is ginger. Then take ginger. and salt to taste. and other broth. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. paradise seed. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. if you have it. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. put cinnamon. poultry. For spices. clove. cinnamon and assorted spices. put it in your pot. infused with vinegar. cut up in pieces. Clean and cut up. When it is not too well cooked along the side.
but reasonable. the best lard you can find. When serving. and just a little white wine. When the poussins are cooked. crushed up and ground fine. without leaving it too long on the fire. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. internally]. Then take white wine and verjuice. boil it all together. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. slice up partridge. amount of sugar. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. and put in a pot. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. Add some ginger and a little saffron. slice them lengthwise. two or three with each dish. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. When the meat is served in dishes. put them in a pot to boil. so that. and color it. Salt 7 . and soak them in the poultry broth. and season with salt. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). Once they are strained. Take peeled almonds. or some white sugared almonds. And to give a red color. fry them in lard. if you have them. and cook them. and prepared. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. with the appropriate sauce. some white wine and verjuice. it thickens. Put in a large amount of sugar. and crush them and strain them. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb.Le Viandier they are cooked. Slice up the giblets. and heat in lard. and throw it in when you boil it. also known as alkanets. Then put the broth in a pot. and add a generous. and serve them in dishes or bowls. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. once they are cooked. and let the color soak in. take peeled almonds. and strain with the almonds and the broth. and boil and. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. with some verjuice. such as green sauce . To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. After straining it through cheesecloth. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. and fry them in its broth. and filter into the pot to give it color.
and cut up in small pieces. while it is straining. put the meat in dishes. if the spices are not well beaten. parboiled and cut up in pieces. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. and young rabbits. When they are browned. and a lot of saffron. ginger and assorted spices (that is. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. and cook. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. If the jelly is too fatty. And when the meat is cooked. take the broth. and crush. Once it is browned. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. Put in lard and beef broth. clove and seed) to the bread. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. take pork cut into pieces. then put in a pot to brown. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Put in a pot. take eggs whites and put with the broth. and. and infuse the spices with vinegar. if you can find them. and soak in 8 . seed and clove. whichever you can find. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. put with the meat. and then when the meat is in dishes. well cleaned. and take some finely chopped onion. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. Bousac For bousac. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. with a moderate amount of sugar. a little mastic. a hare is to be restored. Add cinnamon. fry them in a pot. Once it is cooked. the young rabbit and poultry. that is. and halved poussins. Boil it all together. the pork. and a moderate amount of vinegar. and put in a pot on the coal fire. Take a little bread and poultry livers. Take cinnamon. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. and a bit of saffron for color. brown the geese on the spit. Brown bread. and washed. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. put in a cellar. soak it with poultry livers.Taillevent to taste. Then strain it. when it starts to boil. when it boils. Then take ginger and seed. and salt just enough.
Scald the eels. Strain again one time. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. while boiling. and a large amount of clove. cook in a pot or frying pan. and also any other spices. removing the bones as best you can. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. and. and add the liquid. and the tripe as well. take some rice. paradise seed. assorted spices. and infuse with vinegar. put a little saffron for color. so long as it does not smell of brass. and add sugar. Salt to taste. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. When they are boiled. slice into large chunks. in wine. brown without burning. ginger. Boil the cow’s milk. Once they are chopped up fine. Add salt as appropriate. that is the livers. Then boil. and tie them all around. Strain the bread and the spices together. the best you can find. take pike and prepare them. When the fish is scaled. When it is strained. and put the fried fish in the pot. take spices.Le Viandier broth beef. cook tripe of pike and carp. and prepare it. slice it into round slices. and boil as long as you can without burning. put the spices in all together with the broth. Take a carp or two and pike. add the cut up pike. that is cinnamon. and salt to taste. and fry them. When it is cooked. and salt it well. and slice them up. the crops of pike and their broth. then strain. When it is cooked. add a little vinegar. clove and beaten galanga. When it is boiled. When it is strained. and the tripe of fish. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. ginger. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. Take cinnamon. Take bread. and boil it all together. 9 . then leave to cool. and a moderate amount of mustard. put the broth in a pot. then slice them up. remove their bones. While cooking. Rice For rice. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. Strain and put with the pot. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. put the pike and eel in by sections. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish.
Brown a little onion. Boil. 10 . fry it in lard or pork fat. Add salt. and beat with your eggs. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. and chop it as fine as you can. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. Press it as well as you can. When it is ready. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. Take some fatty lard. put the meat in dishes and. the following day. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. and cut up into small pieces. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. and put it all in. and take their broth. Mix just a little cheese. When everything is cooked. and strain. and beaten white ginger. Soak the poultry in beef broth. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. slice it up finely. good and fine. with a little bread to thicken. and salt to taste. When it is on the point of being cooked. take prepared capons or large poultry. and add some parsley leaves. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. Put in some white ginger. Put in a pot and boil. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. When it has been pressed a whole night. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. or partridge. when serving. and tie it up.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. Take some eggs and beat very well. with a little saffron for color. When it is sliced up. Brown in a frying pan with lard. season with a little cooked lard. take poussins or poultry. Thicken the broth with it. Take spices. moistened with just a little verjuice. or capon meat. take it off the fire. and boil in a pot. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. When the meat is cooked. beaten white ginger. Put in the pot. some broth. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. boil milk on the fire. and add some verjuice while thickening. Add saffron. slice it into thin slices.
take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. and salt to taste. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. 11 . Take it off the spit. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. and chop them up fine. roast the shoulder on the spit. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. then take it from the fire. Press it between two dishes. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Some like to add ginger. well and whole. that is. When they are browned. Remove all the skin. cinnamon and assorted spices. and split it and clean it. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. clove and seed. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. when taken in heat. Take peeled onions.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. For Haricoq To make haricoq. cut up them into pieces. and put in a pot. and boil in wine and vinegar. the thinnest that you can find. hyssop. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Put in the pot with the meat. sugar and salt. Do not cook it too much. Put it all together. take its head. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. Take white ginger. assorted spices in large quantity. with stones on it to press well. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. ginger. and a great deal of parsley. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. and brown the meat. and boil it all together. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. Salt to taste. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. Put on a table. When it is as if rotted from cooking. After. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Add a large quantity of sugar. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. Put the skin aside. Remove all meat from the bones. Leave as long as it is cold.
sweeten the poussins. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. ginger and assorted spices. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. wings or neck. Take everything inside. lard. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. bone and meat. Once this is done. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Once they are well cooked. Then take a veal or kid membrane. Then take the chicken meat. for a long while. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. a pig or poultry liver. hyssop and raw marjoram. put in a dish and serve last. split them at the shoulders. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Strain until there is no liquid left. Once it is crisp. 12 . parsley. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. Put with the meat. all the way to the knee. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. leaving only skin. without cutting off their feet. When it is done. hyssop. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. filter until no more liquid is left. if you have it. and put the stuffing in it. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. a needle across the opening. take poultry liver or lard. Put it in a straining cloth. just a little bit. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. Once they have been scalded. pennyroyal and basil. all cooked together. chop it up as finely as you can. When they are cooked. a great deal of parsley. if there is a shoulder. Take saffron for color. it is advisable to scald them….Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. so that it solidifies. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. being careful not to burn it. and boil in pure white wine. except the head and the legs. When serving. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. Cook it all together with meat broth. After. and cook it all together.
This done. Add strong vinegar. long pepper. no more or less than you want for the brewet. and for two servings. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. take a veal’s head and feet. and strain through a cloth. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. whole. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. and salt it. Stir all the spices together. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. Scald and pluck and clean very well. Put. Boil your broth. a pound of sugar. On fish days. with the jelly on it. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . Strain the almonds. lard and put on the spit. and crush them all together. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. strain. lard with clove. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. This sauce is good on all roasts. When the roast is taken off the spit. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. When they are half cooked. and put in your meat. and also a pound of egg yolks. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. put in dishes. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. and strain it all together through a cloth. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. and also the livers and almonds. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. and a handful of onion. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. seed. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. for six servings. Take a pound of almonds. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. clove. Boil pig and poultry livers. Take capon or poultry broth. After cook in wine. Then slice it into fine slices.
and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. When serving at the table. scald it and then fry it. add a quarter pound of sugar. and take the broth in which they are cooked. an ounce of assorted spices. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. and the pike’s liver. If you see that there is too much fat. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. and boil it all together. take a pint of vinegar. with the maws and livers. Cover so that no steam gets out. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. cook them. Add a little saffron for color. take a new pot. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. Gild the heads on the grill.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. When it is boiled. Fry in lard. Add in sugar and ginger. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. remove it. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. and put them in once they are stuffed. put duke’s powder on it. When the almonds are thick. When they are well cooked. Put in dishes as for a 14 . Fry with butter or oil. then brown. Once they are cooked. and a little soaked bread. while frying. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. Then put the pike on coals to stew. and boil it all in a frying pan. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. and strain through a cloth. and chop into small cubes. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. Chop up onion. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. and after put it in a dish. Take the pike eggs. Take the fish maws and livers. Put. put in dishes. Then strain through a cloth.
a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. make a small hole in the end of each egg. crush it up in the mortar. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. bunches of grapes or wine?]. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. Fry in butter. saffron and sugar. Soak in 15 . Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. pennyroyal. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. and set on the grill over a low fire. Then take sage. After put in dishes and serve. and put it in barely touching the almonds. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. and yellow the half with saffron. without any liquid. Coulis To make coulis. Take small. Add in ginger. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. When serving. Take milk. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. when it is well crushed. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. and chop them up finely. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. take stale white bread. and.Le Viandier bar of butter. as much as suits you. and the eggs. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. strain through a cloth. take veal or pork. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. very fine skewers. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. mint and all other good herbs. Then place them in nice rows along the length. put some duke’s powder on it. and crush up the crumbs finely. and take out what is inside. marjoram. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. together with the butter.
When they are fried. To bind it. and boned. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. After make like that of meat. Once it is cooked. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. put some in. when crushing. but. saffron and some verjuice. and then soak in almond milk. and cut into pieces. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. or anything else. and salt to taste without anything else in it. but not too much. salt moderately. and.Taillevent the capon broth. and put the whole barley in it. put in assorted spices. soaked in purée of peas. with fat as for a potted pastie. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. crush it in the mortar. ginger. Once it is cooked. and chop it up finely. skinned. cinnamon. after grind it. Do not add verjuice. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. and start in the same way as the capon above. when it is cooked. After it is well cleaned. rinse and boil it very well. take a poussin or two. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. put in wine and 16 . beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. After fry with lard or goose lard. in grinding it. without crushing it. Then boil in a nice large pot and. vinegar. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. and. It can be salted or not. Afterwards. like wheat to make fromenty. roast poultry or capons. boil in a small pot. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. take a perch and cook it in water. put some thick almond milk. if the sick person wants sugar in it. and finely chopped onion. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. Make like that of perch.
Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. clove. For spices. in equal parts. cover with lard. For spices. take raw poultry. The appropriate spices are ginger. The appropriate spices are: ginger. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. This done. to thicken. put in fine cheese.] Put the capons in pastie. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. saffron and sweeten. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. For spices. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. when the pastie is cooked.Le Viandier verjuice. remove all the meat of the capons. and for spices. cameline. and boil with the sauce in the oven. nutmeg. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. except the clove should dominate the other spices. add the sauce. Cook the said 17 . While frying. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. put some ginger powder and. put in a little ginger. Fricassees For fricassees. and chop it quite small all together. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. add some ginger. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. and chop all together and the said pastie. To make the sauce. true cinnamon. paradise seed. assorted spices and saffron. beef marrow. and beef fat. put the fat in the pastie. or possibly cocks. After. true cinnamon. and. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. and a moderate amount of salt. toast black bread well. in winter style. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. and boil it all together. long pepper.
Add lard chopped fine. and for spices. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. for spices. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. with fine powder. assorted spices and saffron. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. When the pastie is cooked. 18 . put in ginger. some ginger. with a moderate amount of sugar. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. and beat all together. For spices. cinnamon and saffron.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. put it all together. and the fat of chopped veal. clove and ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. assorted spices and saffron. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and fine cheese. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. and lard finely chopped. For spices. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and ginger. and beef marrow. with assorted spices added.
Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. well made pasties. clove. It is best that these be small. assorted spices and saffron. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. and parboil it. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. slice it into fine slices. After. pressed between three fingers. when they are made.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. ginger. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. and chopped lard. Add ginger and a little pepper. seed and pepper. Add assorted spices. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. 19 . For spices. like those which are made double. the following is very much a “best guess”. For fish. For spices. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. and take. or the smaller one whole. And put them in the pastie. For spices. ginger and clove powder. raised up high and. new beans and parboil them. fry it all in butter. in season. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. and add assorted spices. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. and roll this in butter. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard.] Take white capon meat finely chopped.
fine powder and saffron. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. without anything else. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. raised up high and well made. and fry in lard. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Parboil the marrow. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. ginger and saffron. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. 20 . Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. with spices and sugar mixed together. Put in assorted spices. Eel Pastie Take saffron. and some gooseberries. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger.
fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. Make the sauce separately. star with fried cream. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. and rounded. pies]. Fry onion in butter. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. 21 . so that the contents do not leak out.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt.. and sugar.e. crush up cheese. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. gild it well. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Once the pastie is high and raised. If you cannot find cream. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Make the crust strong and thick. After boil it. and quite black. Dolphins Lily flowers. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. if you have some. then put it in the oven. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. and pat it. After put in the oven briefly. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce.
Soak the crust in eggs and butter. and put on the tart. with egg yolks mixed into it. Seat well in the tart. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. and cook like the other side. with oranges on it. and good cream. take it out and let it cool. so that nothing of it shows. but not too 22 . before adding the cheese and the cream. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. and cover the crust with wafers. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. with a great quantity of sugar. Fry them in butter. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. When ready to dine. Cut eel into sections and boil it. The slices should be less than two fingers high. Knead the crust well with eggs. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. of the thickness of a finger. crushed. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. turn it in a dish. then cook in the oven as said. Once it is a little cooked. well soaked in egg yolks. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. When it is cooked. take it out. soaked in cream. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. set it to cool. and cook them. use fine cheese. When it is cooked. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. soak the crust in eggs and butter. put in the oven.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. like the other side. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. and enough egg yolks. Covered Tart For covered tart. and stuffed in two fingers deep. and take off the crust where cooked. and cover the whole top with orange. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them.
Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. For each tart. put with the surplus and add the saffron. crushed up. a bit of assorted spices. soak with cream. true cinnamon and white ginger. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. if you have any. and enough egg yolks. so all this presumably is the filling. candied ginger might be used instead]. [Darioles were small pastries. that is candied pine nut. brown bread in front of a good red fire. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. Sweeten well. and fill the hollow with the sugar. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. and put in figs. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. and cook. Fry the cream well in butter. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . without burning it.Le Viandier much. and put orange all over it.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. Once it is soaked. Cover well. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. or a dish. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. then gild it with saffron. Make two big pastry undercrusts. and put in with the apples and the figs. Add onion fried with butter or oil. Knead the crust well with eggs. and mix well together. Clean grapes well. put eight or ten slices on end. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. well mixed by hand. This is how it should be made. Mix in with the other apples. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. Put all the fillings together. and gild with eggs or saffron. and wine. put in the oven. but do not strain them. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. and put in the oven. Cover it with a top.
and soak in verjuice and wine. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Bring to a boil. Soak it in milk. and a little browned bread and very little broth. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Toast a bit of bread on the fire. put them over it with the sauce. Then strain with verjuice and white wine.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. Put a frying pan under it. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. roast them well on the spit. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. while boiling. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. and crush up spices in a mortar . or with the mortar. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Then when it is cooked. and put in a nice pot. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. roast a goose. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce.cinnamon. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. and roast on the grill. and strain them through a cloth. and salt it well. take poultry livers. Strain very well through a cloth. a half ounce of ginger. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. Boil in a frying pan. Take their livers. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. and put in the poultry. and boil in a frying pan. assorted spices . Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. ginger. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. Boil a dozen eggs. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. because it will blacken. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. brown one toast of bread on the fire. and crush them up in a bowl. because it will smell of brass. brown one toast of bread. throw in a drop or two. Add in half an ounce of ginger. When the goose is cooked. Jance To make jance. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. Be sure not to put it in a pot. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. Take an ounce of true cinnamon.
When the 25 . put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. capons. and then put in a nice pot. and peel. Soak it only in verjuice. For four servings. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Once the bread is soaked. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. put the dodine on them. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. Filter the water. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. put a quart of milk. When the birds are cooked. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. Leave it only a little. and pour the grain in the sauce. and boil together. add butter. When you boil it. Then take marjoram. Boil in a frying pan. Take an ounce of ginger. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. or other roast fowl. or more if you wish. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. Chop the herbs up. and boil it all with milk. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. and boil everything together. put in an ounce of ginger. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. and a half ounce of ginger. and boil under the capons. Sugar to taste. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. and let livers roast a little on the grill. Put on the roast. hyssop and other good herbs. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. Add half a pound of sugar. Soak it in milk. For one pint. a little parsley. and add a little saffron. take half a dozen garlic cloves. and also in other dodines. roast fatty capons on the spit.
Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. a bit of assorted spices. and some puree. put the verjuice on the shad. brown bread as for cameline. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. and some fresh or salted butter. Then when the bread is soaked. and boil. half an ounce of ginger. and scald it. take two ounces of true cinnamon. and soak in purée of peas. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. take some vinegar and wine. and strain it all together through a cloth. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. and put on the shad. and put it to soak in broth. Take red wine and vinegar. Once the shad is half cooked. Put in a 26 . soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. one with the other. and put in the sauce. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it has been strained. Take for one shad. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. For four servings. take out the capons and put in a dish. take pike. and strain it all together with your bread. for four servings. and then put over the roast. Strain the bread and all the spices together. and fry it. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. with a little saffron. Put the fish with the broth. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. Brown bread. take verjuice and white wine. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad.
For four servings. take two ounces of true cinnamon. split lard into thin slices and fry. then put on a plank. When they are done cooking. and strain it all through the cloth. 27 . then crush them in a mortar. put in a frying pan to cool. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. and then crush up in a mortar. except the sugar. On fast days.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. On fish days. After. and put in lard to give them taste. and strain it all through cloth. use purée of pea and butter. bind with beef broth. purée them and bind with broth. with enough grapes. If you lack grapes. purée them and put cold water on them. and add some verjuice and parsley. use mulberries. on fried eggs. Once this is done. and almond milk if you like. Chop them up. and after put them on a plank. if you do not have the broth. Brown in butter for a long while. use butter and purée of peas. then strain them through a cloth. two ounces of sugar. then bind with lard and warm water. a half ounce of ginger. This sauce is good on larks. and boil in river or fountain water. boil in water. Milled Beans To make milled beans. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. Mix with purée of peas or water. Onion Soup To make onion soup. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. White Beets To make white beets. put the beans to soak in the evening. Add a little water to keep it from burning. Squeeze out between your hands. fish and all other fried things. When they are parboiled. Remove the black ones. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. Leeks To make leeks. Wash and parboil them. and chop up fine. or. When they are half cooked. capons or other roast.
Put in some cowʹs milk. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. sage. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. peel them and cut into round slices. hyssop. use purée of peas with butter and oil. and add some cold water on them. if there are any. take your pot off the fire. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. wine. and turn it to one side and another. Filter out the liquid. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. and. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. verjuice. Pig Cook in water and salt. Cook with only mastic and saffron. and cut into four quarters.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. On fast days. Boil all together. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. Lard the length of the meat. sage. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. then 28 . put in beef broth. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. and a little saffron. and squeeze them between your hands. with mustard. Squeeze and chop up finely. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. mastic and hyssop. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. Once it is well cooked. salted. take off the top leaves. If it is fresh. and put some cold water over them. Parboil in a frying pan. Sheep. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. Gourds For gourds. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Remove the seeds. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. add parsley. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. For fast days. then purée. while doing this. and put on your pot.
sage and hyssop. larded. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. and a good deal of spice. with cameline. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. Fry in lard with some onions. with parsley. and saffron for color. 29 .Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. seed. with fine powder. cinnamon. Grate ginger. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Add some verjuice and vinegar. clove. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. Boil your meat. Eat parboiled in pastry. cook in water and salt. and add lard for flavor.
and boil it all together. Mix in your milk. Brown them in lard. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. without adding anything but a little white bread. and strain. and cook a little in water. Boil. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Cut up into parts. vinegar. and boil briefly. Always let thicken on its own. Pull back from the fire. and boil on your meat. long pepper. Fry in lard. broken up in beef broth. then purée. Strain it. add a large quantity of eggs. pull back from the fire. Take white bread. Boil. Take almonds infused with broth. Grate ginger and cumin. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Boil with 30 . Fry in lard. Soak a little bread in beef broth. and fry in lard. Take verjuice. Soak white bread in milk. Fry in lard. Cut up into parts. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Fry in lard.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Add egg yolks. cook the peas until they are soft. Put in your soup just before serving it. Powder ginger and cumin. then cut up into pieces. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. and boil with your meat. cook in wine and water. saffron. then grate ginger and saffron. and watch that it does not turn. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Take ginger. infuse with wine and verjuice. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Then take cowʹs milk. cook poultry well in water.
Fry in lard. paradise seed. cinnamon and clove. Boil with your meat. Boil together. But do not wash the meat at all. and spice it well. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. This should be quite thick. then cut up into pieces. Powder ginger. 31 . Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Take a little burned bread. Strain. infuse with verjuice. Take browned bread. Boil on your meat. Grate ginger. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. and saffron for color. cinnamon. crush almonds. Cut up into parts. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. Then take bread browned on the grill. and made like that for hare. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. clove. paradise seed.Le Viandier your meat. cinnamon. cinnamon. It should be very black and not too thick. Then powder ginger. Beat ginger. cook in water and wine. paradise seed. clove. and saffron to give color. and do not let it thicken too much. without letting it cook too long. infuse with beef broth and wine. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. and add well beaten egg yolks. brown on the spit or on the grill. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. and fry in lard. galanga and long pepper. Civet For civet. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. Fry in lard. mix with verjuice. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. cook in wine and water. then cut up into pieces. Boil it all together.
then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. Goose Plume a dry goose.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. with cinnamon. clove. cut your veal up finely. Roast without lard. cinnamon. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. or verjuice. Dribble eggs over it while frying. Restore it in water. soaked in wine. boil it all together. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. Put on the spit. Once it is cooked. or verjuice. with powder and cold sage. or vinegar. and cut up your meat into pieces. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Eat with garlic or jance. Eat with cameline. Crush ginger and saffron. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. and scramble eggs. In pastry. with fine powder and saffron. verjuice. in pastry. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. 32 . Some put onions on it. and toasted bread. also known as breast meat. Fry in lard. Cook it. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Roast Mutton With a little salt. paradise seed.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
See that the broth is clear and clean. if it is fish. if it is fish. Remove the tongue. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. paradise seed. and paradise seeds. Strain. Put it on a spit. take twenty five poussins. thirty legs of veal. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. skimming it the whole time. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. cinnamon. because it will not flow. nutmeg. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. you must stay alert. clove. twenty earthen pots. make the cold sauce without eggs. three quarter pounds of ginger. mixed with vinegar. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. 36 . Pour on your poultry in sections. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. galanga.Taillevent pepper. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. Some add cooked yolks. cinnamon. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. four pigs. six ells of cloth. skimming it the whole time. and. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. whole. paradise seed. saffron to give color. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. For pork. Tie it in a white cloth. Have it well bled. Boil with your fish or meat. six dishes: and drink for the workers. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. six young rabbits. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. when it is cooked. The sauce should not be too black. bleed it by the mouth. Powder ginger. take poultry and cook in water. as soon as it is time to serve it. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. five wooden spoons. Blend it all together. and. Put them in a cold place. To make jelly. After. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. folded over two or three times. three quarter pounds of string ginger. six ounces of saffron. mastic. Then grate ginger.
use almond milk. and wheat. wash in warm water. cull. Add the fat from beef broth. During Lent. then wipe your rice by the fire. and boil together on a low fire.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. on a meat day. Take cowʹs milk. add your rice. 37 . and sugar the bowls.
paradise seed and saffron. and strains it through a cloth. or verjuice. seed. Boil. add sugar. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. Boil together with the oysters. If it is too sour. some of your broth. at the evening. and no other spices. especially. Soak egg yolks in white wine. mix in some white wine.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. eggs and milk. dissolve in white wine. when it is boiled. 38 . wine. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. cinnamon. If you do not have that. cinnamon. Then cool. Crush. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. and put on your fish. Grind almonds. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. take tenches. in oil. and saffron.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. almond oil and a little verjuice.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. lux* and carps and. [*This might be a variant of lus. which once meant a variety of pike. Serve it on your fish. take ginger. scald and wash very well. Add ginger and pepper. with wine and verjuice. some of your milk and mix together. Some put in a little verjuice. For the sick. Grate ginger. Boil together. Cook on the fire. except that one puts in a bit of sage. boil a little water. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. but here appears to mean a green. Parboil and fry in oil with onions.
39 . It should be clear. Boil until thick. Crush almonds. Put pomegranates over it. mix with broth in a little wine. Crush almonds and the perch together. and strain with broth. cook in water.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Boil it all together. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person.
dace. eels. Eat with cameline. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. in pastry and with fine powder. pepper and a little saffron. Split along the back. Do not make it too yellow. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. fresh shad. Eat with green sauce. barbell. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. Boil. Add as much spring onion as you like. paradise seed. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. Eat with cameline. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Porpoise For porpoise. “cream”. Salt the shad. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Cresme [*Literally. Add a little salt or mustard. Powder ginger. 40 . cook in water. eat with garlic. carp. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. cinnamon. or roast on the grill. pike. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. Salt it with wine. Eat with green sauce.
Eat with jance. Cod Cook in water. with wine and verjuice. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. Add fine powder. Salt it. sole.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. turbot. flounder: cook in water. ray. 41 . with mustard or butter.
green sauce and garlic camelines.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. Crush ginger. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. parsley and salad burnet. pepper. cinnamon. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. Pour on your fish. nutmeg. paradise seed. white garlic. Crush bread. infuse with vinegar. 42 . a little saffron. galanga.
saffron. pepper. Some add seed and galanga to it. Boil. Some like it with cowʹs milk. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. then grind up ginger. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. string ginger and white bread. Boil. Strain and boil. Infuse with verjuice and wine. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. and browned bread. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. with the fat from the roast. Infuse with other verjuice. Jance Crush almonds. crush seed and livers.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Some add seed and galanga to it. 43 . Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Boil when you are ready to serve it.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
47 . Jelly. sea pullets. game hen. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. marked with the said arms. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. FRUIT COURSE White cream. hare pastie. then ginger on it. quails with sugar. jelly. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. in a dish. jonchées [a soft cheese]. Fried cream. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. white of fennel. wine. preserved in sugar. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. white and dark red. sugared strawberries. Larded milk. scattered about. Duke’s powder on it. pears. and pine nuts. silvered. half-sour. venison with soup. and almonds. vinegar. marked with the arms said above. Wild boar made with fried cream. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. half-sweet. sweetened white cream. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. made of sugar. and Duke’s powder over it. and strawberries. cold sauce. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. fried oranges. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Darioles and upside-down stars.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. A suitable support for the said peacocks. young peacocks in full display.
watercress. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. partridges with sugar. Pear pastie. 48 . jonchées. chickens with herbs. fried cream. nuts and raw pears. pears. almonds. small hares with bramble vinegar. herons. pigeon pastie. Venison pasties. peacocks with celery. pickle. kids. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. young rabbits with spiced sauce. SECOND COURSE The best roast. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. Steamed pigeons. pears with hypocras. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. Sugared almonds. brewet of cinnamon. venison with clove. Jelly and slices. capons with Jean’s most. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. hazelnuts. capon pastie. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. swans. jelly. navews with venison. nuts. cretonnée of lard.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. FIFTH COURSE White cream. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette.
The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. brewet rappé. capons with tulle. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Venison. capes [type of apple]. Banquet of marrow. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. New almonds. White jelly and other fried cream. barded sugared chickens. Baked cream pancake. Herons. cherries with sugar or feathers. SECOND COURSE Roast. Peacocks. Thin gilded slices. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. 49 . Quail pasties. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. Capon pastie. Tarts with sugar. Pigeons.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. lemons. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. Thin slices. Must. Pears with sugar. Jelly. Pigeon pastie. Young rabbits. Fresh venison with soups. Boiled chickens. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. Trimolettes with sugar. Venison with peas.
46. 21. 26. 11. 26. 13. 48 cheese. 35. 8. 14. 24. 17. 31. 1. 23. 44 cloth. 47. 24. 15. 15. 12. 4. 11. 16 quail. 46 clairet. 33 bittern. 24. 1. 18 duck wild. 25. 49 pheasant. 48. 49 white German. 7. 46. v. 24. 16. 5. 43. 23. 10. 13. 32. 5. 7. 28. 34 goose. 25. 46. 2. 48. 18 eagle. 9. 27. 33. 38. 24. 34. 1. 7. 49 grill. 13. 34 jonchée. 16 brown. 6. 3. i. 1. 47. 48. 43. 38 hand towel. 29. 4. 9. 21. 13. 4. 38 cheese fine. 32 cele. 1 of capons. 33 blackbird. 46. 48. 15. 12. 2 green. 26. 10. 6. i. 36. 4 butter fried. 49 sparrow. i. 7 gizzards. 8. 10. 31. 49 chicken. 10. 38. 28. 14. 3. 33. 25. 11. 6. 19 peacock. 18 stork. 34. 27 . 1. 1. i. 4. 39.head. 10. 10. 46 heron. 28. 49 blancmange. 6. 46. 33 partridge. 48. 8. 49 poultry. 14. 40 mortar. 27. 17. 31 brewet. 13. 29. 49 irson. 27. 14. 22. 33 swan. 31. 15 C caul. 16. 24. 23. 14. 30. 8. 24. 30. 16. 4 Georget. 18. 13. 7. 25. 3 rappé. 29. 10. iii. 24. 37. 39 bousac. 5. 23. iv. 48 giblets. 15. 35 de-salt. 34 blanch. 39. 38. 10.INDEX A almonds. 14 B birds assorted. iv. 10 table. 10. 28 gild. 26. 13. 19. 29. 16. 5. 8. 22. 13 pigeon. 33 ringdove. 6. 18 capon. 2. 33. 48. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 3. 8. 4. 31. 5. 35. 47. i. 36 cooking methods baste. 23. 21. 17. 47 dove. 30. 13 chaudeau. 18. 14. 30. 18. 2. 12. 2 covered. 36 poussin. 12. 31. 7. 47. 9. 48. 2. 11 civet. 33. v. 1. 18. 12. 3. 14. 23 guin. 16. 10. 31 brewet fish. 30. 5. 3. 31. 46. 2 meat. 15. 13. 35. 16. 33 gosling. 11. 47. 19. 32. 7. 10. 2. 2.
34. 25. 20 gurnard. 40 ray. 4. 1. 20. 35. 27. 20 oysters. 40 goatfish. 38. 42 51 . 7. 47 shad. 35. 2. 42 sea pullets. 20. 25. 24. i. 9 gallimaufrey. 49 cappes. 9. 35. 3. 36. 13. 12. iv. 27. 23. 47. 36. 23. 16. 26. 41 salmon. 3. 3 cuttlefish. 20 turbot. 25. 31. 20 sorvige. 41 eel. 6. 8. 13. 24. 32. 4. 3. 1. 10. 16 perch. 4 brill. 8. 28. 41 flan. 47 G galantine. 36 strain. 4. 23. 21. 37. 23. 22. 48. 19. 18. 5.Le Viandier parboil. 31. v. 11. 13. 38. 43 coulis. 27. 11. iv. 13 fish blancmange. 40 mackerel. 35. 26. 2. 16 grains barley. 15. 34. 40 simmer. 38 greens parsley. 44 hypocras. 15. 21. 13. 49 D drinks clairet. 7 spit. 9. 14 fricassee. 28. 27. 28 restore. 8. 12. v. 21. 41 cod. 48 plums. 5. 1. 35. 44 E eggs. 41 carp. 49 fried. 21. 41 cretonnée. 6 flounder. 36. 35 wheat. 33. 4. 40. 24. 14. 38 perch. 10. 46. 26. 38 fraze. 40 jelly. 16. 40 conger. 35 fruit apples. 40 cockles. 34. 47. 16 spelt (wheat). 38 removing burnt taste. 9. 47 salad burnet. 39 cream. 34. 17 fromanty. 4. 40 salt water. 34. 20. 13. 22. 28. 15. 14. 5. 12. 36. 23 grapes. 29. 1. 29. 32. 20. 21. 17. 36. 12. 40 brewet. 12. 35 scald. 48. 15. 49 figs. 42. 28. 30. 2. 6. 32. 19. 38 trout. 26. 25. 32. 22. 9. 40 mullet. 26 pears. 40 porpoise. 1 bream. 26. 31. 1. 3. 10. 5. 34. 20. 8. 16. 4. 23. 38. 36. 47 F fayenne. 28. 30. 40. 41. 12. 26. 23. 14. 47 tench. 18. 34. 11. 39 pike. 9. 41 fresh water. 24. 3. 35 lamprey. 11.
16. 36. v. 49 suckling pig. 8. 28. 28. 43 grenon. 48 houdet. 43. 8. 12. 11. 7. 8. 6. 48 M meat beef. 18 bream. 21. 20 52 . 13. 49 milk larded. 29. 20 goatfish. 35 spleen. 46. 48. 16. 47. 20 shad. 16. 28. 29. 6. 9.Taillevent sorrel. 19. 6. 19 hare. 28. 11. v. 11. 33. 28 shoulder. 23 P pasties. 46 veal. 47 kid. 18. 14. 37. 10. 4. 17. 11. 22. 21 lorais. 48. 37. 18 lamprey. 3. 11 hazelnuts. 7. 18. 17. 14. 12. 10. 2. 38. 34. 18. 19. 6. 20 gosling. 21. 21 leg of lamb. 8. 47 boiled. 17. 28 buttock. 46. 32 bellies. 38. 28. 5. 12. 15. 29. iii. 25. 35. 31. 18 conger eel. 48. 20 ringdove. 34. 20 mullet. 1. 15. 29. 47. 1. 2. 49 blackbird. 17 chicken. 5. 34 rabbit. 49 pork. 18 halebrans. 36 boar. 4. 35. 6. 8. 48 J jelly. 16. 4. 32. 11. 19. 4. 20. 14. 35. 47. 28. 18 salmon. 11. 36. 23. 9. 3. 32. 15. 48. 47. 19 marrow. 6. 27. 8. 18. 32 sheep bristle. 11 liver. 36. 25. 17. 34 H haricoq. 8 stag. 11. 30. 28 cow. 34. 18. 34. 20. 7. 46. 44. 16 hare. 18 partridge. 35 leg of. 18. 31. 6. 19. 46. 10. 32. 6. 20. 43 teat. 10 O orange. 4. 15. 19 pear. 11. 14 tongue. 12. 9. 15. sheep. 14. 30. 8. 49 rabbit. 20 mutton. 6. 46 scum. 30. 2. 26. 3. 23 pigeon. 20 capon. 21. 10. 2. 29. 12. 13. 8. 13. 21. 17. 19. 24. 46 foot of. 13. 43 marrow. 28. 13. 26. 30. 32. 24. 10. 46 ham. 36. 47 kid. 27. 19. 47 lamb. 31 hyocras. 19. 1. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 47 morterel. 34. 21 mutton. 19 red mullet. 31. 8 venison. 3. 33. 49 L lard. 32. 35. 8.
24. 32. 36. 3 new bean. 14. 9. 48 almond. 6 soups chaudin. 6 removing burnt taste from. 24. 3. 47 dolphins. 18. 19. 26. 13. 32. 4. 45. 23 53 . 44. 47 dodine. 28. 40. 47. 24. iv. 29. 13. 47 saupiquet. 1. 36. 18. 25. 17. 29. 24 Poitevin. 38 pork. 35. 18. 17. 31. 6. 27. 9. 24. 8. 7 powdered. 1 cameline. 7. 20 veal. 5. 19. 28.fat. 24. 26. 33 S sabourot. 40. 21. 23. 32. 34. 24. 10. 45. 21. 19 wild duck. true. 16. 30 poultry. 7 roasts. 9. 28. 7. 4. 36. 44 white. 33. 30 onion. 5. 27. 23. 9. 11. 40. 43. 31. 26 small wine. 6. 5. 31. 36. 2. 2. 40. 45 garlic. 27. 20 turbot. 11. 2. 3. 25 violet. 43. 10. 3. 46. 5 skin. 38. 26 shad. 15. 13. 6. purée of. 34. 41 sauces. 42. 47 sorvige. 11. 23. 36. 23. 42. 40. 7. 29. v. 1. 25 green. 10 salamine.Le Viandier sparrow. 15. 38 cold. 15. 4 shrimp. 24. 36 with most. 29. 36. 14 preserves. 27. 24. 32. 10 potful. 17 pastries dariole. 4. 43 red. 13. 36. 27 pottage. 11. 30. 2 lark. 28. 42. 11. 3. 28 spices anis. 31. 41. 40. 8. 30 peas. 32. 12. 2. 2. 23. 9. 38. 42. 37 flour. 17. 2 salt. 7. 13 R rice. 16. 48 costmary. 35. 26. 23. 26 seyme. 6. 44. 20. 19. 9. 43. 34. 32. 26. 9. 4 small birds. 14. 26. 30 fish. 5. 7 warm. 12 cinnamon. 30 Spanish. 20. 7. 26. v. 8. 17. 30. 44 clove. 3. 21 peas. 34 garlic. 35. 30 fish. 4 galanga. 21. v. 35. 49 oblongs. 25 my lady’s. 18 with warm sauce. 24. 42 chaudumé. 15. 48 cinnamon. 5. 26. 17. 18 stag. 25. 3 de-salting. 30 new peas. 21. 21. 33. 32. 2. 8. 35. 45 string. 30 cretonnée. 42 ginger. 16. 17 wild boar. 13. 19 trout. 28 grané. 46 jance. 45 basil. 1. 13. 43 Jean’s must. 29.
25. 8. 47 wine. 43. 11. 40. 47. 44. 4. 49 V vegetables beans. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 5. 29. v. 31. 40. 9. 32. 47. 32. v. 32. 27 onions. 8. 9. 35. 35. 14. 16. 43. 12. 17. 2. 20. 32. 15. 12. 41. 31. 17. 31. 13. 45 pennyroyal. 20. 5. 37. 36. 49 T tarts apple. 15. 5. 28. 29. 14. 27. 24. 34 moteaulx. 15. 48. 45. 47 54 . 32. 36. 25. 32. 11. 19. 11. 17. 11. 11. 18. 34. 5. 40. 15 W water holy. 30. 34. 5. 12. 10. 12. 3. 29. 38. 35. 28. 17. 22 talemouse. 36. 20. 13. 16. 35. 6. 31. 23 Bourbonnaise. 11. 28. 19. 22 trimolette. v. 8. 25. 21. 25. 5. 27. 34. 2. 19. 17. 47 pepper. 15. 38. 8. 44. 34. 18. 2. 25. 13. 16. 21 covered. 36. 34. 8. 30. 26. 32. 30. 22. 12. 2. 5. 19. 42. 29. 6. 19. 45 powder. 40. 7. 30. v. 1. 41. 18. 13.Taillevent hyssop. 13. 35. 6. 21. 35. 15. 41 verjuice. 4. 23 saffron. 36. 5. 41. 16. 19. 4. 26. 7. 14. 21. 38. 45 paradise seed. 24. 26. 6. 38. 14. 21. 35. 14. 7. 31. 34. 20. 23. 27. 32. 7. 48. 31. 11. 48. 47 sugar. 1. 8. 41 nutmeg. 36. 11. 40. 45 mustard. 7. 22. 43. 23. 28. 23 common. 28 gourds. 29. 42. 9. 40. 28. 31. iv. 6. 38 stuffing. 42. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 2. 14. 13. 21. 15. 12. 38. 6. 33. 34. 25. 8. 49 vintage. 3. 11. 4. 22. 44. 17. 26. 13. 38. 43. 28. 11. 28. 2. 21. 22. 42. 13. 27. 28. 14. 23. 48 vinegar. 27 beets white. 42. 29 marjoram. 23. 3. 9. 18. 29. 21. 16. 23. 9. 44. 22 two-faced. 43 vinaigrette. 28 leeks. 25 mastic. 2. 29. iv. 27 cabbage. 45. 17. 13. 30. 11. 8. 42. 12. 1. 30. 14 rose. 46 sage. 38. 4. 29. 40. 3. 38. 25. 1. 15. 8. 39. 43. 18. 13. 36. 17. 14. 10. 7. v. 22 Jacobine. 10. 26. 36. 9. 14. 45. 4. 15. 31. 16.
1694. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. 1881.html 55 . Penguin Books. impr. Toulouse : J.kfunigraz. D. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Larousse Gastronomique. Randle. C. Paris. George Olms Verlag. 1846. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393.VI. Antoine.thousandeggs. Paris: F.ac. Pierres. Vicaire. Plon. Paris : P. Montagné. New York: Crown Publishers. Histoire de la vie privée des français. Davidson. Furetière. Frédéric. Godefroy. Paris : E. – 1889. Bourgeois parisien. Alfred. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. Hildesheim-New York. de Crapelet. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. de Guerlins. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. modes.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Vieweg.. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. Nourrit. The Penguin Companion to Food. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. moeurs. Franklin. Le cuisinier Taillevent. Le ménagier de Paris.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. 2002. 1889. Alan.t Ed. M. Paris : imp. Pichon and G. 1970. 1611.at/~katzer/engl/index. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. London.com/glossary. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. Les repas. J. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. 1684. Inc. Legrand d'Aussy. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle .-D. dédié au Roy. 1961. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. impr. Reprint. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Prosper. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. 1694. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. Cotgrave. 1782. un. usages des Parisiens. 1892.
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