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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 .Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Sheep.
Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern. Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .
1455 for my lord of Mayne. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June.
Though in modern French viande means “meat”. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). complete with measurements. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. For a modern reader. — to the exotic. Charles V and Charles VI). — and yes. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. i . peacock. among other luminaries. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. peas. at this time it referred to any food. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. stork. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. eggs. etc.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. Le Viandier. some would say barbaric: heron. Several very different versions of the book exist. “cookbook”. swan . What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. quite simply. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. The work’s title.
NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. illogical or confused. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. If some passages seem redundant. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. Several special classes of words exist here. In some cases. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. for other words. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. too. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . Some. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French.
many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. to a pâté. Strictly speaking. The pastry itself. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. Also. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. may have been too hardened to eat. effectively. Here and in other cases. Pastie (Pasté) iii .Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. To complicate matters. however. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful.
succulent state before cooking it. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). the translation is nearly direct. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. Were these assumed to include that fish. As an old cooking term. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. In practice. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. to dissolve. In context. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. or. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. However. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. However. when liquid is present. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. In this case. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. it seems to mean to brown the food. Here. iv . to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. to “under-fry”. though.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
cut up in pieces. Once it has been strained. and put veal in the pot with them. and take a great quantity of parsley. diluted with verjuice. and infuse with verjuice.Taillevent egg yolks. Take bread and livers. restore them. And then boil the spices. and put herbs. paradise seed. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. and crush. that is cinnamon. When the bread is strained. To thicken. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. ginger. for a better broth. diluted with verjuice. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. then brown. put it all in a pot. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. and set the broth separately. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . spices and verjuice. as above. ginger. and strain with the broth. and for spices. diluted with vinegar. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. and strain it all together. wild spinach. and strain. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. you will shell them. not too much. ginger and assorted spices. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. the costmary. paradise seed and clove. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. and cook them. and fry them. and put the shells aside. and put it all together. Soak livers with the bread and strain. with the following spices: cinnamon. and add in the broth. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. For Lark Grané Take larks. and nutmeg if you have it. clove. and boil it all together. and take bread soaked in beef broth. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. and egg yolks. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. Boil in water and pea puree. and scale and slice up pike. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. and poultry livers. marjoram. cooked egg yolks. raw.
To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. with the same spices. and sprinkle with salt. When it is roasted. clove. fry eggs in oil or butter. if you have them. take some puree. Make similar broth as for seyme. Add ginger. add a reasonable amount of sugar. and salt to taste. cinnamon. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. and sweeten moderately. and put the broth apart. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. And if you do not have enough meat. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. infused with verjuice. to the chaudumé. Then strain the bread and the livers. Salt to taste. and paradise seed. Put with the other spices. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. Infuse with verjuice. and strain the almonds all together. if you have them. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. 5 . cinnamon and assorted spices. and roast it.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. and boil all together. Cut up in pieces. And put cinnamon. ginger and assorted spices. and put in the pot. set it to boil. and then fry finely chopped onion. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. and boil them all together. when they are browned. and salt to taste. and soak in the beef broth. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. and then use pure mustard. Salt to taste. and infuse with verjuice. Take ginger. ginger. and boil everything together. and. paradise seed.. assorted spices. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. ginger. and fry in a pot. and verjuice. and infuse it with verjuice. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. and saffron for color. and strain pike livers with it. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. Take bread and livers. and soak in beef broth. pike browned on the grill. and sweeten moderately.
For Brewet Rappé Take veal. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. clove. slice it up in large cubes. the best that you can find. and take some small giblets of poultry. and strain. Take browned bread. cinnamon and assorted spices. paradise seed. cinnamon and assorted spices. Then take ginger. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. such as livers. Put some bread in to soak. each one with its lardoons. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. Clean and cut up. put cinnamon. Fry onion and parsley. Put in a pot. For spices. Boil it all together. When the potage is ready. and add some red Burgundy wine.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. When 6 . Boil in a pot with some beef broth. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. and some spices. and saffron for color. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. that is ginger. with no other spices – this is enough. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. and other broth. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. When it is not too well cooked along the side. cut up in pieces. clove and seeds. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. infused with vinegar. and put in seed ginger. For spices. and verjuice and salt to taste. and salt to taste. It is best to strain it. gizzards. put it in your pot. boil it thus. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. or its own broth. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and soak it in pea purée. Add to the pot. poultry. etc. and set them to cook. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. if you have it.
When serving. Once they are strained. amount of sugar. and heat in lard. and filter into the pot to give it color. the best lard you can find. Salt 7 . To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. and crush them and strain them. without leaving it too long on the fire. it thickens.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and cook them. and serve them in dishes or bowls. with the appropriate sauce. or some white sugared almonds. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. slice up partridge. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. also known as alkanets. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. and season with salt. and strain with the almonds and the broth. and boil and. Then take white wine and verjuice. and throw it in when you boil it. and just a little white wine. Slice up the giblets. some white wine and verjuice. Then put the broth in a pot. Take peeled almonds. put them in a pot to boil. When the poussins are cooked. After straining it through cheesecloth. boil it all together. but reasonable. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. When the meat is served in dishes. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. and let the color soak in. fry them in lard. Add some ginger and a little saffron. crushed up and ground fine. such as green sauce .Le Viandier they are cooked. slice them lengthwise. and add a generous. once they are cooked. and put in a pot. and soak them in the poultry broth. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). so that. with some verjuice. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. take peeled almonds. Put in a large amount of sugar. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. two or three with each dish. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. and prepared. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. and fry them in its broth. and color it. internally]. And to give a red color. if you have them. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back.
When they are browned. Then take ginger and seed. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. put in a cellar. If the jelly is too fatty. and halved poussins. Once it is browned. put with the meat. when it boils. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. Bousac For bousac. and take some finely chopped onion. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. and. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. And when the meat is cooked. and put in a pot on the coal fire. brown the geese on the spit. parboiled and cut up in pieces. and crush. soak it with poultry livers. and infuse the spices with vinegar. if the spices are not well beaten. and a moderate amount of vinegar. take the broth. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. and young rabbits. take pork cut into pieces. well cleaned. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices.Taillevent to taste. a hare is to be restored. when it starts to boil. and cook. ginger and assorted spices (that is. and cut up in small pieces. Add cinnamon. the pork. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. if you can find them. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. clove and seed) to the bread. whichever you can find. Put in lard and beef broth. take eggs whites and put with the broth. with a moderate amount of sugar. while it is straining. Once it is cooked. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. Take a little bread and poultry livers. Then strain it. then put in a pot to brown. and a bit of saffron for color. Brown bread. and salt just enough. and then when the meat is in dishes. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. put the meat in dishes. that is. Take cinnamon. Put in a pot. and a lot of saffron. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. and washed. a little mastic. fry them in a pot. Boil it all together. and soak in 8 . the young rabbit and poultry. seed and clove. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish.
then leave to cool. and salt it well. and slice them up. Scald the eels. put the pike and eel in by sections. clove and beaten galanga. add a little vinegar. and tie them all around. and boil it all together. Add salt as appropriate. and fry them. When it is boiled. Strain the bread and the spices together. Strain again one time. brown without burning. that is the livers. Rice For rice. Take a carp or two and pike. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. and add sugar. cook in a pot or frying pan. remove their bones. and put the fried fish in the pot. removing the bones as best you can. take spices. ginger. and a large amount of clove. take some rice. that is cinnamon. When it is cooked. paradise seed. and infuse with vinegar. put the spices in all together with the broth. Then boil.Le Viandier broth beef. Strain and put with the pot. Boil the cow’s milk. When the fish is scaled. ginger. 9 . then strain. slice it into round slices. and prepare it. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. the crops of pike and their broth. When they are boiled. and a moderate amount of mustard. put a little saffron for color. then slice them up. add the cut up pike. and add the liquid. assorted spices. and the tripe of fish. slice into large chunks. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. in wine. so long as it does not smell of brass. and the tripe as well. cook tripe of pike and carp. put the broth in a pot. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. Take bread. Once they are chopped up fine. while boiling. the best you can find. While cooking. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. take pike and prepare them. Salt to taste. When it is strained. and salt to taste. and. Take cinnamon. When it is cooked. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. When it is strained. and boil as long as you can without burning. and also any other spices. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish.
Mix just a little cheese. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. and beaten white ginger. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. slice it up finely. When it is sliced up. and boil in a pot. Add salt. Soak the poultry in beef broth. When it is ready. Take some fatty lard. take poussins or poultry. and cut up into small pieces. Take some eggs and beat very well. and tie it up. and strain. Thicken the broth with it. When the meat is cooked. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. 10 . with a little saffron for color. Take spices. Put in the pot. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. some broth. or partridge. and chop it as fine as you can. Put in some white ginger. When everything is cooked. beaten white ginger. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. When it is on the point of being cooked. the following day. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. and add some parsley leaves. When it has been pressed a whole night. and beat with your eggs. Brown a little onion. and put it all in. Add saffron. good and fine. season with a little cooked lard.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. take it off the fire. put the meat in dishes and. with a little bread to thicken. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. or capon meat. Put in a pot and boil. take prepared capons or large poultry. fry it in lard or pork fat. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. moistened with just a little verjuice. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. slice it into thin slices. and take their broth. boil milk on the fire. Press it as well as you can. when serving. and add some verjuice while thickening. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. and salt to taste. Brown in a frying pan with lard. Boil.
assorted spices in large quantity. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. When it is as if rotted from cooking. and boil in wine and vinegar. the thinnest that you can find. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. that is. Put in the pot with the meat. and boil it all together. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. with stones on it to press well. Some like to add ginger. and salt to taste. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. sugar and salt. and a great deal of parsley. and split it and clean it. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Press it between two dishes. take its head. Do not cook it too much. when taken in heat. Add a large quantity of sugar. Take peeled onions. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. well and whole. Leave as long as it is cold. roast the shoulder on the spit. and put in a pot. Take it off the spit. Put on a table. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. Take white ginger. hyssop.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. 11 . Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. After. and chop them up fine. cut up them into pieces. Remove all the skin. For Haricoq To make haricoq. cinnamon and assorted spices. When they are browned. ginger. then take it from the fire. Salt to taste. clove and seed. Remove all meat from the bones. Put it all together. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. Put the skin aside. and brown the meat.
Take saffron for color. if there is a shoulder. chop it up as finely as you can. a needle across the opening. bone and meat. for a long while. take poultry liver or lard. Then take a veal or kid membrane. Once it is crisp. Once they have been scalded. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. After. lard. filter until no more liquid is left. and cook it all together.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. all cooked together. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. Cook it all together with meat broth. just a little bit. so that it solidifies. put in a dish and serve last. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. split them at the shoulders. Put with the meat. sweeten the poussins. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. a great deal of parsley. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. except the head and the legs. Put it in a straining cloth. Once this is done. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. Then take the chicken meat. and boil in pure white wine. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. pennyroyal and basil. and put the stuffing in it. being careful not to burn it. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. it is advisable to scald them…. if you have it. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Take everything inside. When serving. Once they are well cooked. hyssop. leaving only skin. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. When they are cooked. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. 12 . ginger and assorted spices. When it is done. hyssop and raw marjoram. gild it with egg yolks while turning. all the way to the knee. parsley. without cutting off their feet. Strain until there is no liquid left. wings or neck. a pig or poultry liver.
and strain it all together through a cloth. Take capon or poultry broth. Add strong vinegar. and a handful of onion. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. Strain the almonds. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. lard with clove. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 .Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. and strain through a cloth. take a veal’s head and feet. Boil your broth. for six servings. seed. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. long pepper. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. and also a pound of egg yolks. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Put. Stir all the spices together. This done. a pound of sugar. put in dishes. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. Take a pound of almonds. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. and also the livers and almonds. no more or less than you want for the brewet. When they are half cooked. whole. and salt it. and crush them all together. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. and for two servings. Then slice it into fine slices. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. lard and put on the spit. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. After cook in wine. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. clove. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. strain. and put in your meat. Scald and pluck and clean very well. This sauce is good on all roasts. On fish days. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. When the roast is taken off the spit. Boil pig and poultry livers. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. with the jelly on it. Preserve in sugar and other household spices.
To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. scald it and then fry it. Add in sugar and ginger. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. Then put the pike on coals to stew. Gild the heads on the grill. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. and boil it all together. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. Add a little saffron for color. put in dishes. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. When it is boiled.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. an ounce of assorted spices. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. Take the pike eggs. Take the fish maws and livers. take a new pot. When the almonds are thick. When serving at the table. Chop up onion. and put them in once they are stuffed. and the pike’s liver. and after put it in a dish. and strain through a cloth. and take the broth in which they are cooked. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. while frying. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. Put in dishes as for a 14 . If you see that there is too much fat. Then strain through a cloth. Cover so that no steam gets out. and a little soaked bread. with the maws and livers. Once they are cooked. then brown. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. put duke’s powder on it. Fry with butter or oil. and chop into small cubes. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. When they are well cooked. Fry in lard. remove it. Put. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. and boil it all in a frying pan. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. take a pint of vinegar. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. cook them. add a quarter pound of sugar.
strain through a cloth. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. When serving. crush it up in the mortar. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. and put it in barely touching the almonds.Le Viandier bar of butter. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. Fry in butter. and the eggs. saffron and sugar. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. Soak in 15 . and set on the grill over a low fire. Take milk. After put in dishes and serve. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. and yellow the half with saffron. make a small hole in the end of each egg. without any liquid. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. and crush up the crumbs finely. put some duke’s powder on it. and chop them up finely. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. bunches of grapes or wine?]. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. as much as suits you. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. take stale white bread. Then take sage. take veal or pork. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Add in ginger. Take small. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. Then place them in nice rows along the length. marjoram. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. Coulis To make coulis. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. very fine skewers. and take out what is inside. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. mint and all other good herbs. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. together with the butter. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. pennyroyal. when it is well crushed.
but. When they are fried. After it is well cleaned. After make like that of meat. rinse and boil it very well. with fat as for a potted pastie. salt moderately. skinned. and salt to taste without anything else in it. cinnamon. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. It can be salted or not. without crushing it. Make like that of perch. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. and cut into pieces. After fry with lard or goose lard. boil in a small pot. and. after grind it. vinegar. and. take a poussin or two. or anything else. and boned. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. like wheat to make fromenty. crush it in the mortar. put in assorted spices. soaked in purée of peas. Once it is cooked.Taillevent the capon broth. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. and finely chopped onion. Do not add verjuice. in grinding it. put some in. when it is cooked. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. and chop it up finely. put some thick almond milk. if the sick person wants sugar in it. saffron and some verjuice. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. put in wine and 16 . Once it is cooked. roast poultry or capons. when crushing. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. and start in the same way as the capon above. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. To bind it. ginger. Afterwards. but not too much. take a perch and cook it in water. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. Then boil in a nice large pot and. and then soak in almond milk. and put the whole barley in it.
and. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. true cinnamon. To make the sauce. cover with lard. put in fine cheese. The appropriate spices are ginger. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. and boil with the sauce in the oven. For spices. assorted spices and saffron. nutmeg. For spices. The appropriate spices are: ginger. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. long pepper. put the fat in the pastie. add some ginger. and beef fat. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. except the clove should dominate the other spices. when the pastie is cooked. This done. and a moderate amount of salt. put some ginger powder and. cameline. paradise seed. After. Cook the said 17 . put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. remove all the meat of the capons. true cinnamon. clove. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. While frying. toast black bread well. and chop it quite small all together. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. saffron and sweeten. in equal parts. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. to thicken. take raw poultry. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. in winter style. or possibly cocks. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. For spices. add the sauce. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. put in a little ginger. and for spices. and boil it all together. Fricassees For fricassees. and chop all together and the said pastie. beef marrow.] Put the capons in pastie.Le Viandier verjuice.
Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. For spices. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. put it all together. with fine powder. and lard finely chopped. For spices.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. and for spices. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. and the fat of chopped veal. and beef marrow. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. Add lard chopped fine. When the pastie is cooked. clove and ginger. and beat all together. cinnamon and saffron. and ginger. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. with assorted spices added. It is best that the poultry be cut up. some ginger. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. with a moderate amount of sugar. and fine cheese. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. put in ginger. assorted spices and saffron. assorted spices and saffron. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. for spices. 18 .
slice it into fine slices. Add assorted spices. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. new beans and parboil them. clove. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. and chopped lard. and parboil it. seed and pepper. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. ginger. or the smaller one whole. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. For spices. And put them in the pastie. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. ginger and clove powder. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. fry it all in butter. raised up high and. in season. like those which are made double. and roll this in butter. and add assorted spices. For spices. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. and take. pressed between three fingers. well made pasties. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. assorted spices and saffron. It is best that these be small. Add ginger and a little pepper. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. For fish. when they are made. After. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. the following is very much a “best guess”. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. For spices. 19 .Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties.] Take white capon meat finely chopped.
Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. and fry in lard. fine powder and saffron. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. and some gooseberries. Parboil the marrow. Eel Pastie Take saffron. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. 20 . Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. Put in assorted spices. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. without anything else. ginger and saffron. with spices and sugar mixed together. raised up high and well made.
Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. and pat it. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. After put in the oven briefly. gild it well. Make the sauce separately. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Make the crust strong and thick. pies]. to boil the sauce with the lamprey.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. and rounded. After boil it. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. 21 .e. if you have some. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. Dolphins Lily flowers. then put it in the oven. and quite black. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. crush up cheese. star with fried cream. Once the pastie is high and raised. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. Fry onion in butter. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. If you cannot find cream. and sugar.. so that the contents do not leak out. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice.
then cook in the oven as said. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. with oranges on it. with egg yolks mixed into it. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. Once it is a little cooked. soak the crust in eggs and butter. The slices should be less than two fingers high. and cover the whole top with orange. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. and cover the crust with wafers. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. Fry them in butter. and cook like the other side. Knead the crust well with eggs. well soaked in egg yolks. and good cream.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. but not too 22 . After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. take it out. set it to cool. take it out and let it cool. put in the oven. and stuffed in two fingers deep. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. and take off the crust where cooked. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. of the thickness of a finger. use fine cheese. crushed. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. so that nothing of it shows. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. and cook them. before adding the cheese and the cream. with a great quantity of sugar. When ready to dine. When it is cooked. When it is cooked. and enough egg yolks. and put on the tart. like the other side. turn it in a dish. Covered Tart For covered tart. soaked in cream. Seat well in the tart. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. Cut eel into sections and boil it.
on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. candied ginger might be used instead]. true cinnamon and white ginger. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. or a dish. Cover it with a top. then put in the tart and layer over the top. a bit of assorted spices. and mix well together. but do not strain them. and put in figs. and enough egg yolks. Put all the fillings together. without burning it. and put orange all over it. and put in the oven. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. This is how it should be made. Fry the cream well in butter. that is candied pine nut. soak with cream. put eight or ten slices on end. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. brown bread in front of a good red fire. and fill the hollow with the sugar. and gild with eggs or saffron. Cover well. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . and put in with the apples and the figs. Mix in with the other apples. put in the oven. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. Add onion fried with butter or oil. well mixed by hand. and wine. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. Clean grapes well. Make two big pastry undercrusts. After put the top on it and cover it tightly.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. if you have any. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils.Le Viandier much. [Darioles were small pastries. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. so all this presumably is the filling. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. Once it is soaked. Sweeten well. then gild it with saffron. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. crushed up. and cook. Knead the crust well with eggs. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. For each tart.
Take an ounce of true cinnamon. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. brown one toast of bread on the fire. Bring to a boil. Then when it is cooked. throw in a drop or two.cinnamon. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. Boil in a frying pan. Be sure not to put it in a pot.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. and crush up spices in a mortar . Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. put them over it with the sauce. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. and put in the poultry. a half ounce of ginger. Jance To make jance. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. take poultry livers. Soak it in milk. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. Take their livers. roast a goose. Boil a dozen eggs. and put in a nice pot. while boiling. and salt it well. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. and crush them up in a bowl. because it will smell of brass. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. assorted spices . and a little browned bread and very little broth. and strain them through a cloth. or with the mortar. because it will blacken. Put a frying pan under it. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. and boil in a frying pan. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . roast them well on the spit.and soak in verjuice and wine. Strain very well through a cloth. ginger. Add in half an ounce of ginger. and roast on the grill. When the goose is cooked. brown one toast of bread. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry.
and boil under the capons. Take an ounce of ginger. Soak it in milk. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. Then take marjoram. Filter the water. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. Once the bread is soaked. and pour the grain in the sauce. add butter. Leave it only a little. Boil in a frying pan. or other roast fowl. put the dodine on them. and let livers roast a little on the grill. or more if you wish. Put on the roast. hyssop and other good herbs. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. put a quart of milk. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. roast fatty capons on the spit. and boil together. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. Add half a pound of sugar. Sugar to taste. and boil it all with milk. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. Chop the herbs up. and add a little saffron. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. and peel. For four servings. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. Soak it only in verjuice. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. and a half ounce of ginger. and then put in a nice pot. take half a dozen garlic cloves. When you boil it. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. When the birds are cooked. When the 25 . and also in other dodines. put in an ounce of ginger. For one pint. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. capons. and boil everything together. a little parsley. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds.
and take an ounce of true cinnamon. for four servings. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. and put on the shad. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. and strain it all together with your bread. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. For four servings. Once the shad is half cooked. and put it to soak in broth. with a little saffron. Put the fish with the broth. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. and boil. Brown bread. half an ounce of ginger. brown bread as for cameline. take some vinegar and wine. and scald it. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. take verjuice and white wine. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. and some fresh or salted butter. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. take out the capons and put in a dish. take pike. Take for one shad. and fry it. Put in a 26 .Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. and some puree. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and strain it all together through a cloth. Strain the bread and all the spices together. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. one with the other. Then when the bread is soaked. and then put over the roast. put the verjuice on the shad. Once it has been strained. take two ounces of true cinnamon. and soak in purée of peas. Take red wine and vinegar. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. and put in the sauce. a bit of assorted spices. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad.
and then crush up in a mortar. put in a frying pan to cool. put the beans to soak in the evening. then bind with lard and warm water. and strain it all through the cloth. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Wash and parboil them. use butter and purée of peas. capons or other roast. For four servings. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. then crush them in a mortar. if you do not have the broth. After. This sauce is good on larks. purée them and put cold water on them. On fast days. When they are half cooked. except the sugar. then put on a plank. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. a half ounce of ginger. and chop up fine. and almond milk if you like. boil in water. On fish days. Chop them up. and add some verjuice and parsley. Onion Soup To make onion soup. use purée of pea and butter. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. and after put them on a plank. Remove the black ones. Once this is done. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. and strain it all through cloth. and put in lard to give them taste. Leeks To make leeks. When they are parboiled. with enough grapes. use mulberries. White Beets To make white beets. or. purée them and bind with broth. Add a little water to keep it from burning. Milled Beans To make milled beans. fish and all other fried things.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. bind with beef broth. on fried eggs. then strain them through a cloth. Squeeze out between your hands. Mix with purée of peas or water. Brown in butter for a long while. When they are done cooking. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. split lard into thin slices and fry. and boil in river or fountain water. If you lack grapes. 27 . two ounces of sugar.
and squeeze them between your hands. wine. Boil all together. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. add parsley. If it is fresh. verjuice. Remove the seeds. Squeeze and chop up finely. Pig Cook in water and salt. Gourds For gourds. and put on your pot. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. hyssop. use purée of peas with butter and oil. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Put in some cowʹs milk. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. while doing this. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. put in beef broth. peel them and cut into round slices. Lard the length of the meat. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. and put some cold water over them. sage. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. On fast days. and turn it to one side and another. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. take off the top leaves. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. Parboil in a frying pan. For fast days. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. then purée. Cook with only mastic and saffron. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. and a little saffron. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. Once it is well cooked. sage. with mustard. take your pot off the fire. Sheep. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. mastic and hyssop. salted. if there are any. then 28 . and cut into four quarters. and. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Filter out the liquid. and add some cold water on them.
with cameline. 29 . Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. with parsley. and a good deal of spice. cook in water and salt. Fry in lard with some onions. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. Grate ginger. clove. Boil your meat. and add lard for flavor. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. Add some verjuice and vinegar. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. and saffron for color.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. with fine powder. Eat parboiled in pastry. cinnamon. larded. seed. sage and hyssop.
Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. Take white bread. saffron. Brown them in lard. then cut up into pieces. then grate ginger and saffron. Boil with 30 . Take ginger. Powder ginger and cumin. Fry in lard. without adding anything but a little white bread. Add egg yolks. Soak white bread in milk. and strain. and boil with your meat. Pull back from the fire. Boil. Cut up into parts. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. and boil it all together. and boil on your meat. Mix in your milk. Take almonds infused with broth. add a large quantity of eggs. cook in wine and water. Always let thicken on its own. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Fry in lard. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. pull back from the fire. Fry in lard. vinegar. Grate ginger and cumin. Cut up into parts. Then take cowʹs milk. infuse with wine and verjuice. and fry in lard. Take verjuice. broken up in beef broth. and boil briefly. Put in your soup just before serving it. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. and watch that it does not turn. long pepper. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Fry in lard. Infuse with wine and verjuice. cook poultry well in water. then purée. Strain it. and cook a little in water. cook the peas until they are soft. Soak a little bread in beef broth. Boil.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt.
Cut up into parts. Grate ginger. paradise seed. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. Fry in lard. brown on the spit or on the grill. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. 31 . and do not let it thicken too much. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. Then take bread browned on the grill. then cut up into pieces. clove. and made like that for hare. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Take a little burned bread. Boil on your meat. Boil together. paradise seed. Then powder ginger. clove. and saffron for color. and fry in lard. infuse with verjuice. Take browned bread. Boil it all together. galanga and long pepper.Le Viandier your meat. and saffron to give color. Strain. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. mix with verjuice. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Powder ginger. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. infuse with beef broth and wine. cook in water and wine. It should be very black and not too thick. cinnamon. This should be quite thick. cook in wine and water. paradise seed. cinnamon. Fry in lard. and add well beaten egg yolks. But do not wash the meat at all. Civet For civet. cinnamon and clove. and spice it well. then cut up into pieces. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. Boil with your meat. cinnamon. crush almonds. without letting it cook too long. Beat ginger.
soaked in wine. or vinegar. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Some put onions on it. Goose Plume a dry goose. Eat with cameline. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. with fine powder and saffron. Once it is cooked. Fry in lard. 32 . Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. Eat with garlic or jance. Cook it. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. or verjuice. Put on the spit. or verjuice. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. verjuice. Dribble eggs over it while frying. Roast Mutton With a little salt. also known as breast meat.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. and cut up your meat into pieces. Crush ginger and saffron. paradise seed. with cinnamon. clove. In pastry. with powder and cold sage. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. Roast without lard. cinnamon. and scramble eggs. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Restore it in water. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. cut your veal up finely. in pastry. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. and toasted bread. boil it all together.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
six young rabbits. After. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. Some add cooked yolks. clove. four pigs. galanga. Remove the tongue. if it is fish. as soon as it is time to serve it. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. folded over two or three times. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. 36 . Strain. six ounces of saffron. skimming it the whole time. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. Have it well bled. make the cold sauce without eggs. if it is fish. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. thirty legs of veal. saffron to give color. take twenty five poussins. twenty earthen pots. For pork. Blend it all together. Put them in a cold place. three quarter pounds of ginger. and. mastic. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. Pour on your poultry in sections. bleed it by the mouth. six dishes: and drink for the workers. when it is cooked. six ells of cloth. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. because it will not flow. To make jelly. five wooden spoons. three quarter pounds of string ginger. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. Powder ginger. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. Boil with your fish or meat. Put it on a spit. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. nutmeg. mixed with vinegar. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. paradise seed. and paradise seeds. The sauce should not be too black. paradise seed.Taillevent pepper. whole. you must stay alert. Tie it in a white cloth. cinnamon. cinnamon. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. See that the broth is clear and clean. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. and. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Then grate ginger. take poultry and cook in water. skimming it the whole time. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit.
Add the fat from beef broth. Take cowʹs milk. cull. on a meat day. and sugar the bowls. then wipe your rice by the fire. add your rice.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. During Lent. and boil together on a low fire. wash in warm water. use almond milk. and wheat. 37 .
at the evening. almond oil and a little verjuice. take tenches. dissolve in white wine. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. and saffron. Add ginger and pepper. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. and no other spices. mix in some white wine. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. [*This might be a variant of lus. take ginger. boil a little water. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. If it is too sour. except that one puts in a bit of sage. Boil together with the oysters. Some put in a little verjuice. some of your milk and mix together. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Grate ginger. Boil. and strains it through a cloth. with wine and verjuice. or verjuice. eggs and milk. cinnamon. wine. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. 38 . in oil. lux* and carps and. seed. paradise seed and saffron. If you do not have that. Boil together. Grind almonds. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. some of your broth. especially. Cook on the fire. when it is boiled. and put on your fish. add sugar.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. Crush. Serve it on your fish.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. cinnamon. Then cool. scald and wash very well.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. Soak egg yolks in white wine. which once meant a variety of pike. For the sick. but here appears to mean a green.
and strain with broth. Boil until thick. cook in water. It should be clear. 39 .Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Boil it all together. Crush almonds and the perch together. Put pomegranates over it. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. mix with broth in a little wine. Crush almonds.
Eat with green sauce. Do not make it too yellow. fresh shad. pepper and a little saffron. in pastry and with fine powder. Powder ginger. pike. dace. Salt the shad. paradise seed. Eat with green sauce. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. cook in water. or roast on the grill. eels. cinnamon. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. barbell. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Boil. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Salt it with wine. “cream”. Porpoise For porpoise. carp. 40 . Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Cresme [*Literally. eat with garlic.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Eat with cameline. Add a little salt or mustard. Eat with cameline. Add as much spring onion as you like. Split along the back.
with mustard or butter. sole. Eat with jance. flounder: cook in water. 41 . Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. turbot. ray. Add fine powder. Salt it. with wine and verjuice. Cod Cook in water.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill.
cinnamon. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. green sauce and garlic camelines. paradise seed. parsley and salad burnet. Pour on your fish. a little saffron. Crush ginger. pepper.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. 42 . and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. nutmeg. infuse with vinegar. white garlic. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. galanga. Crush bread.
and browned bread. string ginger and white bread. Infuse with other verjuice. then grind up ginger. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Some add seed and galanga to it. Some add seed and galanga to it. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Strain and boil. Boil. pepper. saffron. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Jance Crush almonds. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Infuse with verjuice and wine. 43 . Boil. with the fat from the roast. crush seed and livers. Some like it with cowʹs milk.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
hares or young rabbits with almond cream. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. scattered about. sweetened white cream. fried oranges. Larded milk. Jelly. 47 . made of sugar. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. half-sour. A suitable support for the said peacocks. Fried cream. jonchées [a soft cheese]. quails with sugar. Darioles and upside-down stars. in a dish. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. young peacocks in full display. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. game hen. sugared strawberries. wine. then ginger on it. venison with soup. white of fennel. Duke’s powder on it. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. and almonds. FRUIT COURSE White cream. and Duke’s powder over it. jelly. and pine nuts. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. cold sauce. and strawberries. sea pullets. half-sweet. vinegar. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. marked with the said arms. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. preserved in sugar. pears. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese].Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. silvered. white and dark red. Wild boar made with fried cream. marked with the arms said above. hare pastie.
navews with venison. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. jonchées. venison with clove. fried cream. brewet of cinnamon.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. Jelly and slices. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. capons with Jean’s most. pears. Sugared almonds. FIFTH COURSE White cream. chickens with herbs. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. Pear pastie. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. capon pastie. Steamed pigeons. hazelnuts. pigeon pastie. partridges with sugar. kids. SECOND COURSE The best roast. almonds. pickle. cretonnée of lard. peacocks with celery. herons. swans. watercress. Venison pasties. nuts. young rabbits with spiced sauce. 48 . FOURTH COURSE Eagles. small hares with bramble vinegar. pears with hypocras. jelly. nuts and raw pears.
49 . FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. Quail pasties. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Must. Capon pastie. Fresh venison with soups. Herons. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. brewet rappé. Venison. Boiled chickens. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Thin slices. cherries with sugar or feathers. Venison with peas. Jelly. Pigeon pastie. Thin gilded slices.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. New almonds. Trimolettes with sugar. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Peacocks. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. Banquet of marrow. capes [type of apple]. Young rabbits. Baked cream pancake. White jelly and other fried cream. barded sugared chickens. lemons. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Pears with sugar. Tarts with sugar. capons with tulle. SECOND COURSE Roast. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Pigeons.
3. 38. 10. 28 gild. 48. 28. 47. 7. 18 eagle. 30. 14. 15. i. 49 sparrow. 31 brewet. 31. 47. 33 bittern. 36. 18. 36 cooking methods baste. 35. 23 guin. 31. iv. 17. 33 partridge. 29. 49 pheasant. 10. 4. 12. 48 cheese. 14. 36 poussin. 49 poultry. 43. 15. 32. 33 blackbird. 33. 10. i. 49 blancmange. 23. 4 Georget. 13. 27. 16. 26. 35. 34 goose. 28. 5. 21. 31 brewet fish. 14 B birds assorted. 24. 13 pigeon. 10. 9. 16. 25. 13. 46 clairet. 2. 13 chaudeau. 6. 39 bousac. 31. v. 2. 15 C caul. 13. 2. 22. 8. 33 swan. 3. 48. 29. 22. 9. 24. 48. 12. 6. 10. 8. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 5. 14. 11. 4 butter fried. 47. 1 of capons. 14. 1. 1. 7. 1. 1. 21. 16 brown. 28. 6. 15. 31. 7 gizzards. 32 cele. 10. 10. 18. 7. 3 rappé. 46. 18. 23.INDEX A almonds. 31. 46. 11. 11. 14. 19. 8. 33 gosling. 12. 7. 8. 2 meat. 46. 46. 16. 23. 31. 49 white German. 8. 15. 39. 13. 5. i. 18. v. 9. 10 table. 8. 34. 30. 48. iii. 40 mortar. 4. 11. 47. 5. 26. 4. 11 civet. 3. 13. 48. 13. 30. 37. 33. 46 heron. 24. 16. 7. 25. 23. 24. 30. 2 green. 39. 49 irson. 4. 38. 13. 35. 29. 3. 1. 46. 38 hand towel. 2. 4. 14. 25. i. 12. 1. 47. 49 chicken. 26. 34 blanch. 14. 48. 21. 29. 48. 43. 13. 35 de-salt. 24. 46. 3. 25. 18 capon. 26. 2. 49 grill. 10. 33. i. 19. 47 dove. 30. 23. 24. 17. 10. 12. iv. 33 ringdove. 5. 15. 38 cheese fine. 27 . 24. 34 jonchée. 34. 2 covered. 24. 6. 18 duck wild. 48 giblets. 17.head. 16. 44 cloth. 1. 7. 38. 10. 16 quail. 27. 6. 16. 27. 33. 32. 19 peacock. 18 stork. 10. 5. 2.
42 51 . i. 3. 41 salmon. 27. 34. 31. 23. 9. 16 perch. 3. 20. 36. 49 fried. 14. 38. 13. 29. 38 removing burnt taste. 20. 11. 19. 23 grapes. 36 strain. 7. 34. v. 24. 22. 49 D drinks clairet. 10. 29. 15. 14 fricassee. 5. 2. 25. 4. 3. 14. 35 fruit apples. 6. 9. 41 cod. 32. 40 goatfish. 11. 18. 35 scald. 9. 4. 20 sorvige. 21. 12. v. 5. 10. 41 fresh water. 49 figs. 16 spelt (wheat). 21. 25. 1. 34. 15. 21. 42 sea pullets. 25. 48. 18. 17. 38 perch. 39 cream. 22. 24. 30. 8. 11. 24. 35. 40 cockles. 30. 40 conger. 40 porpoise. 35. iv. 3 cuttlefish. 20 turbot. 9. 8. 23. 32. 21. 28 restore. 12. 11. 23. 5. 34. 47 tench. 41 cretonnée. 37. 22. 3. 35 lamprey. 27. 36. 17 fromanty. 36. 20. 5. 41 flan. 38. 4. 28. 9. 3. 16.Le Viandier parboil. 40 ray. 20. 24. 13. 28. 31. 28. 16 grains barley. 23. 4. 46. 40 salt water. 47 G galantine. 34. 36. 1. 9 gallimaufrey. 38 trout. 13 fish blancmange. 4. 47 F fayenne. 36. 36. 19. 2. 8. 39 pike. 12. 26. 35. 40. 2. 41 eel. 35. 26. 14. 40 mackerel. 26. 26. 12. 10. 27. 27. 16. 43 coulis. 26 pears. 20 oysters. 40. 13. 40 mullet. 26. 20. 13. 47. 40 brewet. 28. 38 fraze. 38. 47 shad. 41 carp. 44 E eggs. 6. 1 bream. 4. iv. 32. 12. 48 plums. 26. 31. 1. 12. 35. 23. 49 cappes. 13. 48. 47 salad burnet. 23. 8. 25. 34. 35 wheat. 32. 1. 15. 40 simmer. 16. 21. 41. 47. 44 hypocras. 20 gurnard. 7 spit. 4 brill. 1. 40 jelly. 6 flounder. 28. 34. 42. 33. 15. 38 greens parsley.
17. 29. 17 chicken. 20 mullet. 28. 48 J jelly. 15. 12. 32. 26. 19. 15. 47. 10. 21. 21 lorais. 48. 32. 27. 27. 10. 2. 30. 14 tongue. 3. v. 43 teat. 28 cow. 10. 8. 6. 6. 21. 20 mutton. 29. 38. 28. 8 stag. 47 kid. 28. 8. 10 O orange. 19 marrow. 34. 16. 4. 22. 48 M meat beef. 46 ham. 18 partridge. 35 spleen. 11. 30. 20 ringdove. 18 conger eel. 34 H haricoq. 19. 18. 17. 25. v. 32. 28. 37. 18. 43 grenon. 8. 5. 6. 13. 8. 28. 34. 30. 16. 20 shad. 34. 20 gosling. 30. 28 shoulder. 23 P pasties. 48. 15. 14. 4. 29. 1. 6. iii. 35. 17. 4. 7. 35 leg of. 19 red mullet. 11. 31. 49 pork. 33. 36. 38. 20 52 . 43. 35. 18. 48 houdet. 19. 47 morterel. 16. 18. 8. 6. 14. 6. 28. 49 rabbit. 1. 12. 12. 2. 11. 48. 33. 18. 32. 4. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 21. 35. 10. 18. 34. 16. 31 hyocras. 34 rabbit. 23. 26. 11. 20. 32 sheep bristle. 3. 11. 14. 47. 13. 8. 49 L lard. 8. 15. 24. 44. 5. 20. 1. 11. 6. 29. 10. 11. 47. 9. 12. 19. 19. 2. 49 suckling pig. 19 hare. 16 hare.Taillevent sorrel. 28 buttock. 8. 32. 21 mutton. 2. 8 venison. 31. 8. 25. 46 veal. 37. 21 leg of lamb. 28. 47 lamb. 47. 23 pigeon. 20. 17. 24. 15. 18 bream. 18 halebrans. 11. sheep. 32 bellies. 20 goatfish. 46. 35. 9. 20 capon. 48. 46. 47 boiled. 7. 17. 6. 3. 49 milk larded. 21. 36. 12. 13. 47 kid. 18 salmon. 4. 34. 3. 46 scum. 29. 19. 19. 46 foot of. 36. 7. 46. 19 pear. 31. 18 lamprey. 36. 13. 6. 14. 11 hazelnuts. 46. 43 marrow. 13. 36 boar. 9. 49 blackbird. 11 liver.
16. 16. 13. 2. 1. 19. 30 fish. 41. 11.fat. 41 sauces. 18 with warm sauce. 21. 9. 40. 30 poultry. 36. 43. 19 trout. 32. 7 roasts. 42. 2. 38 cold. 2 salt. 47 dodine. 10 potful. 23. 27. 7. 30 fish. 25. 3. 24. 1 cameline. v. 2. 49 oblongs. 13. 29. 29. 45. 32. 10. 36. 40. 23. 35. 21. 25 violet. 7. 7. 2. 26. 33. 10. 34. 17. 43. 36. 23. 11. 38. 27. 31. 5. 43 Jean’s must. 40. 1. 5. 34 garlic. 2 lark. 30 cretonnée. 20 veal. 8. 5. 30 new peas. 6. 8. 20 turbot. 9. 13. 19 wild duck. 42. 7 powdered. 3. 1. 26. 29. 3 new bean. 15. 13. 11. 24. v. 47. purée of. 24. 18 stag. 45 basil. 2. 13. 12. 9. 17. 48 cinnamon. 4 shrimp. 36. 5 skin. 45 string. 25. 17. 32.Le Viandier sparrow. 17 wild boar. 32. 4 small birds. 20. 6. 18. 7 warm. 32. 26. 6. 38. 28. v. 15. 26. 10 salamine. 14. 27. 21. 43 red. 16. 36 with most. 6 removing burnt taste from. 47 sorvige. 31. 31. 29. 24 Poitevin. 8. 42. 44 clove. 21. 35. 26 small wine. 48 costmary. 4. 30 Spanish. 24. 45. 38 pork. 14. 3. 32. 43. 9. 24. 45 garlic. 17 pastries dariole. 28 grané. 14 preserves. 34. 40. 29. 28. 30. 35. 4. 24. 3. 7. 13. true. 2. 26. 28. 46. 36. 6 soups chaudin. 47 saupiquet. 36. 44. 23 53 . 37 flour. 46 jance. 44 white. 24. 47 dolphins. 26. 40. 19. 36. 30. 5. 48 almond. 30 peas. 26 shad. 25 my lady’s. 9. 3 de-salting. 32. 18. 15. 19. 26. 33. 21 peas. 3. 17. 9. 17. 42. 34. 28 spices anis. 4. 13 R rice. 5. 6. 20. 27 pottage. 26 seyme. 23. 21. 24. 9. 31. iv. 27. 7. 23. 33 S sabourot. 8. 28. 35. 42 chaudumé. 12 cinnamon. 18. 11. 25 green. 24. 15. 4 galanga. 44. 23. 40. 11. 30 onion. 42 ginger. 35.
41 nutmeg. 3. 8. 27 cabbage. 3. 40. 41. 21.Taillevent hyssop. 28. 11. 45. 42. 14. 28. 19. 4. 17. 8. 11. 5. 14. 14. 12. 42. 15. 34. 8. 4. 34 moteaulx. 22. 25. 5. 44. 38. 3. 34. 31. 23. 9. 23. 31. 17. 34. 28. v. 9. 28 gourds. 22 talemouse. 16. 28. 8. 5. 29. iv. 38. 15 W water holy. 8. 25. 15. 25. 7. 11. 30. 14. 14. 47 pepper. 4. 20. 36. 49 T tarts apple. 32. 45 paradise seed. 14. 38. 5. 29. 22 trimolette. 19. 4. 25 mastic. 6. 15. 2. 21 covered. 5. 7. 33. 29. 13. 13. 44. 18. 29. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 2. 11. 8. 48 vinegar. 45. 32. 25. 5. 34. 18. 36. 29. 12. 23 saffron. 11. 9. 40. 40. 16. 43. 27. 28. 27. 6. 8. 40. 7. 9. v. 26. 26. 16. 43 vinaigrette. 16. 17. 19. 38. 23 common. 9. 32. 2. 32. 7. 40. 26. 23. 34. 30. v. 4. 25. 47 sugar. 18. 30. iv. 3. 37. 27. 16. 7. 38. 19. 42. 32. 13. v. 18. 28. 8. 38. 36. 35. 47. 6. 44. 22. 13. 17. 13. 4. 23. 44. 35. 18. 27 onions. 35. 15. 14. 35. 14. 20. 29. 17. 31. 1. 36. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 46 sage. 31. 22. 10. 1. 11. 43. 10. 34. 45 powder. 8. 38 stuffing. 2. 21. 45 mustard. 15. 42. 38. 49 V vegetables beans. 13. 1. 21. 16. 32. 2. 36. 2. 13. 22 two-faced. 21. 12. 36. 35. 6. 41 verjuice. 40. 27. 6. v. 30. 36. 23. 43. 43. 42. 42. 29 marjoram. 12. 26. 29. 5. 13. 48. 23 Bourbonnaise. 28. 31. 24. 12. 39. 31. 27 beets white. 11. 47. 30. 29. 14 rose. 19. 9. 25. 11. 49 vintage. 5. 31. 48. 34. 21. 41. 7. 22. 11. 22 Jacobine. 30. 21. 21. 15. 41. 45 pennyroyal. 17. 47 54 . 17. 20. 14. 2. 28. 31. 26. 28 leeks. 12. 17. 12. 25. 13. 11. 35. 38. 10. 35. 40. 20. 47 wine. 43. 15. 6. 15. 36. 32. 48. 13. 1. 11. 45. 19. 32. 24.
Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. 1881. Montagné.. Pierres. Davidson.com/glossary. Godefroy. Histoire de la vie privée des français. de Guerlins. New York: Crown Publishers. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. dédié au Roy. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. Antoine. Toulouse : J. impr. Nourrit.html 55 . D. 1611. impr. J. Le ménagier de Paris. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. Vieweg. 1846. Bourgeois parisien. Le cuisinier Taillevent.t Ed. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. un. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers.VI. Paris : imp. 1694. Hildesheim-New York.at/~katzer/engl/index. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. 1961.ac. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. George Olms Verlag. Alan. 1892. Furetière. Paris : P. Pichon and G. Prosper.thousandeggs. 1970. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. 1889. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. moeurs. modes. Penguin Books. Larousse Gastronomique. – 1889. 1694. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard.kfunigraz. The Penguin Companion to Food. C. Inc. Franklin. 2002. Les repas.-D. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. Frédéric.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. Cotgrave. Paris. Plon. Paris: F. Alfred. usages des Parisiens. Legrand d'Aussy. de Crapelet.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Vicaire. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. Reprint. M. Randle. London. 1782. 1684. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Paris : E.
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