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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Sheep.Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 .
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
1455 for my lord of Mayne. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June.
Several very different versions of the book exist. Le Viandier. For a modern reader. some would say barbaric: heron. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. — to the exotic. Charles V and Charles VI). The work’s title. stork. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. peas. at this time it referred to any food. complete with measurements. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. swan . The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. among other luminaries. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. quite simply. etc. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. — and yes. eggs. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. “cookbook”. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. peacock. i .
I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . for other words. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. Some. illogical or confused.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. In some cases. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. If some passages seem redundant. Several special classes of words exist here. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. too.
These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. To complicate matters. Here and in other cases. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. to a pâté.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. The pastry itself. Strictly speaking. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. effectively. Pastie (Pasté) iii . Also. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. may have been too hardened to eat. however. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful.
“Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). iv . However. though. As an old cooking term. Here. it seems to mean to brown the food. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). to dissolve. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. or. to “under-fry”. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. succulent state before cooking it. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. However. In this case. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. when liquid is present. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. Were these assumed to include that fish. In practice. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. the translation is nearly direct.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. In context.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
that is cinnamon. raw. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. and put it all together. Once it has been strained. Boil in water and pea puree. paradise seed. and add in the broth. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. and strain it all together. and poultry livers. and cook them. ginger. Take bread and livers. spices and verjuice. and infuse with verjuice. and strain with the broth. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. ginger. with the following spices: cinnamon. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . restore them. For Lark Grané Take larks. ginger and assorted spices. and boil it all together. cooked egg yolks. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. and take a great quantity of parsley. and put the shells aside. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. you will shell them. and nutmeg if you have it. paradise seed and clove. and put veal in the pot with them. and for spices. Soak livers with the bread and strain. When the bread is strained. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and put herbs. the costmary. then brown. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. diluted with verjuice. cut up in pieces. To thicken. for a better broth. wild spinach.Taillevent egg yolks. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. as above. and fry them. And then boil the spices. diluted with vinegar. not too much. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. and egg yolks. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. diluted with verjuice. put it all in a pot. clove. and strain. and take bread soaked in beef broth. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. and crush. and scale and slice up pike. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. marjoram. and set the broth separately. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill.
ginger. Put with the other spices. and. and strain pike livers with it. Infuse with verjuice. and sprinkle with salt. and paradise seed. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. and salt to taste. pike browned on the grill. Salt to taste. fry eggs in oil or butter. and put in the pot. And if you do not have enough meat. and strain the almonds all together. and boil them all together. Then strain the bread and the livers. if you have them. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. 5 . and soak in beef broth. if you have them. and saffron for color. and boil all together. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and fry in a pot. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. and infuse it with verjuice. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. and salt to taste. Cut up in pieces. to the chaudumé. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. cinnamon. and verjuice. clove. and boil everything together.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. set it to boil. Take bread and livers. paradise seed. and put the broth apart. cinnamon and assorted spices. and roast it. and then fry finely chopped onion. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and infuse with verjuice. Salt to taste. and sweeten moderately. when they are browned. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. When it is roasted. ginger and assorted spices. infused with verjuice. and soak in the beef broth. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. and then use pure mustard. Make similar broth as for seyme. with the same spices. Take ginger. assorted spices. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. ginger. take some puree.. Add ginger. add a reasonable amount of sugar. And put cinnamon. and sweeten moderately.
cinnamon and assorted spices. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and add some red Burgundy wine. and other broth. such as livers. When 6 . poultry. and take some small giblets of poultry. each one with its lardoons. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. Take browned bread. clove and seeds. For spices. if you have it.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. boil it thus. Add to the pot. gizzards. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. For spices. When it is not too well cooked along the side. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. Put in a pot. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. slice it up in large cubes. cinnamon and assorted spices. that is ginger. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. It is best to strain it. put cinnamon. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. Put some bread in to soak. and put in seed ginger. with no other spices – this is enough. and strain. Clean and cut up. or its own broth. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. cut up in pieces. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. Boil it all together. paradise seed. etc. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. and saffron for color. Then take ginger. and set them to cook. When the potage is ready. and soak it in pea purée. the best that you can find. and salt to taste. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. clove. infused with vinegar. and some spices. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. and verjuice and salt to taste. Fry onion and parsley. put it in your pot.
Add some ginger and a little saffron. and season with salt. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. crushed up and ground fine. And to give a red color. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. and soak them in the poultry broth. and cook them. with the appropriate sauce. the best lard you can find. so that. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. When serving. and fry them in its broth. put them in a pot to boil. fry them in lard. Then put the broth in a pot. Take peeled almonds. also known as alkanets. When the poussins are cooked. two or three with each dish.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. take peeled almonds. and color it. and crush them and strain them. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. Once they are strained. When the meat is served in dishes.Le Viandier they are cooked. if you have them. After straining it through cheesecloth. and serve them in dishes or bowls. and add a generous. slice up partridge. without leaving it too long on the fire. Put in a large amount of sugar. some white wine and verjuice. but reasonable. and throw it in when you boil it. amount of sugar. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. internally]. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. and prepared. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. and just a little white wine. boil it all together. with some verjuice. and filter into the pot to give it color. and let the color soak in. and strain with the almonds and the broth. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. once they are cooked. Slice up the giblets. Then take white wine and verjuice. slice them lengthwise. and put in a pot. or some white sugared almonds. such as green sauce . it thickens. Salt 7 . and boil and. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. and heat in lard.
Then take ginger and seed. the young rabbit and poultry. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. Put in a pot. if the spices are not well beaten. and a lot of saffron. ginger and assorted spices (that is. if you can find them. Once it is browned. parboiled and cut up in pieces. a hare is to be restored. and. a little mastic. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Bousac For bousac. and halved poussins.Taillevent to taste. soak it with poultry livers. when it boils. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. with a moderate amount of sugar. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. and infuse the spices with vinegar. take pork cut into pieces. Put in lard and beef broth. and crush. and a moderate amount of vinegar. put the meat in dishes. Take a little bread and poultry livers. Once it is cooked. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. If the jelly is too fatty. when it starts to boil. seed and clove. and a bit of saffron for color. and take some finely chopped onion. When they are browned. then put in a pot to brown. put with the meat. and cook. Then strain it. and then when the meat is in dishes. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. Boil it all together. put in a cellar. while it is straining. and salt just enough. fry them in a pot. take eggs whites and put with the broth. and put in a pot on the coal fire. well cleaned. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. the pork. take the broth. that is. Add cinnamon. Take cinnamon. and washed. clove and seed) to the bread. and soak in 8 . brown the geese on the spit. And when the meat is cooked. whichever you can find. and cut up in small pieces. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. and young rabbits. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. Brown bread. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds.
When the eel is on the point of being cooked. Strain again one time. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. brown without burning. and add the liquid. then strain. cook in a pot or frying pan. that is the livers. When it is strained. ginger. Strain and put with the pot. then slice them up. that is cinnamon. Once they are chopped up fine. clove and beaten galanga. Boil the cow’s milk. and put the fried fish in the pot. Salt to taste. Take bread. the crops of pike and their broth. and also any other spices. and infuse with vinegar. removing the bones as best you can. add the cut up pike. take pike and prepare them. Scald the eels. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. Strain the bread and the spices together.Le Viandier broth beef. cook tripe of pike and carp. and boil as long as you can without burning. Add salt as appropriate. Take a carp or two and pike. and boil it all together. and add sugar. put the broth in a pot. and salt to taste. and prepare it. and the tripe as well. When it is cooked. When they are boiled. When it is boiled. assorted spices. in wine. and salt it well. and fry them. and slice them up. and a large amount of clove. paradise seed. while boiling. then leave to cool. ginger. Then boil. and tie them all around. When it is cooked. slice it into round slices. remove their bones. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. and. the best you can find. and a moderate amount of mustard. Rice For rice. While cooking. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. When the fish is scaled. add a little vinegar. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. take spices. take some rice. and the tripe of fish. put a little saffron for color. 9 . slice into large chunks. put the spices in all together with the broth. Take cinnamon. When it is strained. so long as it does not smell of brass. put the pike and eel in by sections.
beaten white ginger. When it is on the point of being cooked. Add saffron. take poussins or poultry. Take some fatty lard. and take their broth. When the meat is cooked. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. slice it into thin slices. Mix just a little cheese. with a little bread to thicken. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. and chop it as fine as you can. and salt to taste. boil milk on the fire. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. and beaten white ginger. When it is sliced up. When everything is cooked. season with a little cooked lard. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. or capon meat. Boil. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. and beat with your eggs. and add some parsley leaves. take it off the fire. Brown in a frying pan with lard. When it has been pressed a whole night. Brown a little onion. and boil in a pot. some broth. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. with a little saffron for color. good and fine. Soak the poultry in beef broth. and add some verjuice while thickening. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. fry it in lard or pork fat. Add salt. and put it all in. Thicken the broth with it. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. Press it as well as you can. put the meat in dishes and. 10 . and cut up into small pieces.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. and tie it up. and strain. Take spices. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. when serving. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. or partridge. slice it up finely. take prepared capons or large poultry. Take some eggs and beat very well. the following day. moistened with just a little verjuice. Put in the pot. When it is ready. Put in a pot and boil. Put in some white ginger.
Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. the thinnest that you can find. Leave as long as it is cold. When it is as if rotted from cooking. and salt to taste. Put on a table. sugar and salt. Take it off the spit. assorted spices in large quantity. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. and chop them up fine. Do not cook it too much. and split it and clean it. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. cut up them into pieces. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. Remove all meat from the bones. when taken in heat. After. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. and brown the meat. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. When they are browned. Put in the pot with the meat. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. with stones on it to press well. ginger. Put the skin aside. that is. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. and a great deal of parsley. then take it from the fire. Press it between two dishes. roast the shoulder on the spit. Some like to add ginger. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. Remove all the skin. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. Add a large quantity of sugar. and boil it all together. well and whole. clove and seed. and put in a pot. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Put it all together. Salt to taste. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. For Haricoq To make haricoq. cinnamon and assorted spices.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. take its head. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. hyssop. Take peeled onions. Take white ginger. and boil in wine and vinegar. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. 11 .
Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Then take a veal or kid membrane. all cooked together. it is advisable to scald them…. a needle across the opening. Then take the chicken meat. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. bone and meat. just a little bit. Strain until there is no liquid left. leaving only skin. When serving. parsley. all the way to the knee. sweeten the poussins. Put with the meat. Once they have been scalded. and put the stuffing in it. Take everything inside. 12 . Once this is done. Cook it all together with meat broth. hyssop. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. filter until no more liquid is left. if there is a shoulder. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. Once they are well cooked. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. chop it up as finely as you can. for a long while. without cutting off their feet. if you have it. so that it solidifies. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. a great deal of parsley. When they are cooked. lard. pennyroyal and basil. hyssop and raw marjoram. except the head and the legs. and cook it all together. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. Take saffron for color. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. put in a dish and serve last. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. and boil in pure white wine. split them at the shoulders. being careful not to burn it. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. When it is done.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. a pig or poultry liver. wings or neck. After. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. Once it is crisp. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Put it in a straining cloth. ginger and assorted spices. take poultry liver or lard. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing.
To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. whole. When they are half cooked. On fish days.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. seed. When the roast is taken off the spit. a pound of sugar. This sauce is good on all roasts. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. Take capon or poultry broth. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. and crush them all together. with the jelly on it. Boil your broth. and also a pound of egg yolks. clove. lard and put on the spit. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. and put in your meat. take a veal’s head and feet. and salt it. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. Boil pig and poultry livers. Take a pound of almonds. long pepper. and strain through a cloth. and also the livers and almonds. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. Then slice it into fine slices. Stir all the spices together. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. Put. Strain the almonds. lard with clove. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. and a handful of onion. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. and for two servings. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. strain. put in dishes. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. no more or less than you want for the brewet. Add strong vinegar. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. This done. After cook in wine. for six servings. Scald and pluck and clean very well. and strain it all together through a cloth.
Holy Water To make holy water on pike. Cover so that no steam gets out. while frying. Fry with butter or oil. Put. When it is boiled. and strain through a cloth. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. Put in dishes as for a 14 . Then strain through a cloth. and after put it in a dish. and chop into small cubes. Gild the heads on the grill. When they are well cooked. Then put the pike on coals to stew. Add in sugar and ginger. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. If you see that there is too much fat. Add a little saffron for color. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. and boil it all in a frying pan. and a little soaked bread. Fry in lard. Take the fish maws and livers. scald it and then fry it. take a pint of vinegar. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. and take the broth in which they are cooked. Take the pike eggs. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. and the pike’s liver. When the almonds are thick. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. put in dishes. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. and put them in once they are stuffed. Chop up onion. with the maws and livers. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. add a quarter pound of sugar. then brown. When serving at the table. remove it. an ounce of assorted spices. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. and boil it all together. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. cook them. take a new pot. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. Once they are cooked. put duke’s powder on it.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger.
and set on the grill over a low fire. Soak in 15 . and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Add in ginger. take stale white bread. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. and yellow the half with saffron. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. as much as suits you. Then take sage.Le Viandier bar of butter. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. saffron and sugar. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. take a capon and boil until well cooked. bunches of grapes or wine?]. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. and take out what is inside. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. very fine skewers. and chop them up finely. Fry in butter. and. crush it up in the mortar. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. take veal or pork. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. strain through a cloth. pennyroyal. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. without any liquid. together with the butter. Take small. put some duke’s powder on it. make a small hole in the end of each egg. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. Coulis To make coulis. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. and crush up the crumbs finely. and put it in barely touching the almonds. Take milk. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. and the eggs. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. marjoram. mint and all other good herbs. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. When serving. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. when it is well crushed. Then place them in nice rows along the length. After put in dishes and serve.
Afterwards. put some in. when crushing. Once it is cooked. It can be salted or not. put in assorted spices. Make like that of perch. salt moderately. like wheat to make fromenty. in grinding it.Taillevent the capon broth. or anything else. After make like that of meat. put in wine and 16 . Once it is cooked. and start in the same way as the capon above. After fry with lard or goose lard. with fat as for a potted pastie. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. put some thick almond milk. After it is well cleaned. and. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. and salt to taste without anything else in it. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. and put the whole barley in it. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. crush it in the mortar. when it is cooked. take a poussin or two. but. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. roast poultry or capons. take a perch and cook it in water. ginger. To bind it. and. after grind it. cinnamon. Do not add verjuice. and cut into pieces. rinse and boil it very well. without crushing it. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. but not too much. Then boil in a nice large pot and. and boned. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. and finely chopped onion. and then soak in almond milk. saffron and some verjuice. skinned. vinegar. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. if the sick person wants sugar in it. When they are fried. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. and chop it up finely. soaked in purée of peas. boil in a small pot.
true cinnamon. and boil it all together. For spices. and a moderate amount of salt. to thicken. put in fine cheese. The appropriate spices are ginger. when the pastie is cooked. toast black bread well. put the fat in the pastie. add some ginger. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. This done. assorted spices and saffron. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. and chop it quite small all together. except the clove should dominate the other spices. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons.] Put the capons in pastie. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. put some ginger powder and. remove all the meat of the capons. Fricassees For fricassees. cameline. in equal parts. While frying. and. put in a little ginger. The appropriate spices are: ginger. clove. and boil with the sauce in the oven. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. For spices. and chop all together and the said pastie. and for spices. paradise seed. in winter style. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. nutmeg. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. To make the sauce. After. Cook the said 17 . and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. add the sauce. beef marrow. For spices.Le Viandier verjuice. long pepper. cover with lard. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. or possibly cocks. and beef fat. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. saffron and sweeten. take raw poultry. true cinnamon. ginger powder soaked in verjuice.
for spices. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. When the pastie is cooked. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and fine cheese. and ginger. and beat all together. and for spices. For spices. and beef marrow. put it all together. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. put in ginger. with fine powder. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. and lard finely chopped. some ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. assorted spices and saffron. assorted spices and saffron. cinnamon and saffron. 18 . with assorted spices added. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. Add lard chopped fine. For spices. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. clove and ginger. and the fat of chopped veal. with a moderate amount of sugar. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds.
For spices. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. fry it all in butter. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. in season. After. and parboil it. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. and chopped lard. Add ginger and a little pepper. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. ginger. like those which are made double. new beans and parboil them. and roll this in butter. For fish.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. raised up high and. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. or the smaller one whole. and add assorted spices. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. clove. and take. slice it into fine slices. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. well made pasties. And put them in the pastie. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. when they are made. It is best that these be small.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. pressed between three fingers. For spices. the following is very much a “best guess”. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. assorted spices and saffron. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. 19 . seed and pepper. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. For spices. ginger and clove powder. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. Add assorted spices.
20 . Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. without anything else. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. with spices and sugar mixed together. ginger and saffron. raised up high and well made. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Put in assorted spices. and some gooseberries.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. and fry in lard. fine powder and saffron. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Eel Pastie Take saffron. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Parboil the marrow. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices.
Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. and rounded. star with fried cream. Dolphins Lily flowers. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. then put it in the oven. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. If you cannot find cream. Make the sauce separately. Fry onion in butter. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. gild it well. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. so that the contents do not leak out. crush up cheese. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. if you have some. After put in the oven briefly. Strain through cloth and add the powder. pies]. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. and pat it. Once the pastie is high and raised.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. After boil it. 21 . Make the crust strong and thick.. and sugar. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. and quite black. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder.e.
so that nothing of it shows. and cook like the other side. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. like the other side. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. with egg yolks mixed into it. soak the crust in eggs and butter. and put on the tart. Once it is a little cooked. The slices should be less than two fingers high. use fine cheese. Cut eel into sections and boil it. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. and enough egg yolks. turn it in a dish. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. Fry them in butter. soaked in cream. put in the oven. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. and cook them. before adding the cheese and the cream. When it is cooked. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. and cover the whole top with orange. and good cream. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. When it is cooked. but not too 22 . take it out and let it cool. and cover the crust with wafers. Seat well in the tart. and take off the crust where cooked. with a great quantity of sugar. and stuffed in two fingers deep. then cook in the oven as said.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. set it to cool. Covered Tart For covered tart. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. with oranges on it. Knead the crust well with eggs. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. well soaked in egg yolks. crushed. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. of the thickness of a finger. When ready to dine. take it out. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar.
Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. without burning it. and enough egg yolks. Clean grapes well. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. well mixed by hand. Make two big pastry undercrusts. and mix well together.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. and put orange all over it. Sweeten well. put in the oven. and cook. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Add onion fried with butter or oil. [Darioles were small pastries. and fill the hollow with the sugar. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. soak with cream. then gild it with saffron. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. or a dish. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. if you have any. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. that is candied pine nut. but do not strain them. so all this presumably is the filling. and put in with the apples and the figs. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. crushed up. This is how it should be made. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. true cinnamon and white ginger. For each tart. and gild with eggs or saffron. Once it is soaked. candied ginger might be used instead]. brown bread in front of a good red fire. and wine. a bit of assorted spices. put eight or ten slices on end. Cover well. and put in the oven. Knead the crust well with eggs. Put all the fillings together. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Fry the cream well in butter. and put in figs. Cover it with a top. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds.Le Viandier much. Mix in with the other apples. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 .
Bring to a boil. and roast on the grill.cinnamon.and soak in verjuice and wine. and put in the poultry. take poultry livers. When the goose is cooked. a half ounce of ginger. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. Jance To make jance. Be sure not to put it in a pot. throw in a drop or two. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. and put in a nice pot. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Toast a bit of bread on the fire. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. Strain very well through a cloth. Boil a dozen eggs. while boiling. Then when it is cooked. and salt it well. and strain them through a cloth. Take their livers. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. assorted spices .Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. put them over it with the sauce. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. roast a goose. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. and crush them up in a bowl. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. and crush up spices in a mortar . Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. Add in half an ounce of ginger. and a little browned bread and very little broth. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. and strain and strain again through a cloth. roast them well on the spit. because it will smell of brass. Boil in a frying pan. Put a frying pan under it. brown one toast of bread. brown one toast of bread on the fire. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. or with the mortar. Soak it in milk. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. because it will blacken. and boil in a frying pan. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. ginger.
Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. and boil everything together. capons. Once the bread is soaked. take half a dozen garlic cloves. Then take marjoram. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. or more if you wish. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. For one pint. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. Soak it in milk. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. roast fatty capons on the spit. and boil together. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. and also in other dodines. or other roast fowl. add butter. and a half ounce of ginger. and boil it all with milk. and pour the grain in the sauce. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. When the birds are cooked. put the dodine on them. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Boil in a frying pan. put a quart of milk. Chop the herbs up. When you boil it. a little parsley. and let livers roast a little on the grill. and peel. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. and then put in a nice pot. hyssop and other good herbs. Put on the roast. Add half a pound of sugar. and add a little saffron. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. Sugar to taste. When the 25 . Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. Take an ounce of ginger. and boil under the capons. Soak it only in verjuice. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. For four servings. Filter the water. Leave it only a little. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. put in an ounce of ginger. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds.
half an ounce of ginger. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. brown bread as for cameline. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. and put it to soak in broth. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. put the verjuice on the shad. For four servings. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Then when the bread is soaked. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. Once it has been strained.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. one with the other. and then put over the roast. and boil. and fry it. Strain the bread and all the spices together. Put in a 26 . half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and some fresh or salted butter. with a little saffron. Put the fish with the broth. take two ounces of true cinnamon. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and soak in purée of peas. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. and put on the shad. Once the shad is half cooked. a bit of assorted spices. and scald it. for four servings. take verjuice and white wine. and put in the sauce. take out the capons and put in a dish. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. Brown bread. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. Take red wine and vinegar. take some vinegar and wine. and some puree. and strain it all together with your bread. and strain it all together through a cloth. Take for one shad. take pike. either in the oven or roasted on the spit.
take two ounces of true cinnamon. or. put in a frying pan to cool. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. Add a little water to keep it from burning. On fish days. Wash and parboil them. two ounces of sugar. a half ounce of ginger. When they are parboiled. bind with beef broth. and add some verjuice and parsley. Leeks To make leeks. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. and chop up fine. boil in water. on fried eggs. with enough grapes. Chop them up. purée them and bind with broth. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. use butter and purée of peas. fish and all other fried things. After. Onion Soup To make onion soup. then strain them through a cloth. put the beans to soak in the evening. Milled Beans To make milled beans. Squeeze out between your hands. Remove the black ones. This sauce is good on larks. split lard into thin slices and fry. 27 . and after put them on a plank. capons or other roast.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. and boil in river or fountain water. Brown in butter for a long while. except the sugar. and strain it all through cloth. If you lack grapes. use mulberries. and then crush up in a mortar. and put in lard to give them taste. Mix with purée of peas or water. then put on a plank. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. purée them and put cold water on them. On fast days. use purée of pea and butter. When they are done cooking. Once this is done. White Beets To make white beets. if you do not have the broth. and almond milk if you like. then crush them in a mortar. When they are half cooked. and strain it all through the cloth. For four servings. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. then bind with lard and warm water.
and. Cook with only mastic and saffron. sage. On fast days. hyssop. wine. salted. Pig Cook in water and salt. Remove the seeds. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. with mustard. Boil all together. and cut into four quarters. peel them and cut into round slices. Sheep. verjuice. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. mastic and hyssop. Put in some cowʹs milk. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. For fast days. and squeeze them between your hands. use purée of peas with butter and oil. Gourds For gourds. Squeeze and chop up finely. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. put in beef broth. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Filter out the liquid. and turn it to one side and another. Lard the length of the meat. and put on your pot. Once it is well cooked. add parsley. take off the top leaves. then purée. If it is fresh. Parboil in a frying pan. and put some cold water over them. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. and add some cold water on them. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. if there are any. while doing this. take your pot off the fire. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. then 28 . Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. sage. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. and a little saffron. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it.
Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. clove. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. larded.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Fry in lard with some onions. and add lard for flavor. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. Add some verjuice and vinegar. Grate ginger. and a good deal of spice. with cameline. 29 . Eat parboiled in pastry. and saffron for color. with parsley. cook in water and salt. with fine powder. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. sage and hyssop. seed. Boil your meat. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. cinnamon.
Strain it. then purée. infuse with wine and verjuice. Brown them in lard. saffron. and cook a little in water. Take ginger. Cut up into parts. then cut up into pieces. Boil with 30 . and strain. and fry in lard. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Soak white bread in milk. pull back from the fire. and watch that it does not turn. Take verjuice. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Fry in lard. Boil. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Take almonds infused with broth. cook poultry well in water. and boil briefly. Add egg yolks. Always let thicken on its own. Pull back from the fire. Then take cowʹs milk. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Powder ginger and cumin. and boil on your meat. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. broken up in beef broth. Take white bread. Grate ginger and cumin. add a large quantity of eggs. and boil with your meat. and boil it all together. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Mix in your milk. long pepper. without adding anything but a little white bread. then grate ginger and saffron. Cut up into parts. vinegar. Soak a little bread in beef broth. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. cook in wine and water. Fry in lard. Fry in lard. Fry in lard. Put in your soup just before serving it.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Boil. cook the peas until they are soft.
Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. and spice it well. Take browned bread. Strain. mix with verjuice. infuse with beef broth and wine. without letting it cook too long. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. brown on the spit or on the grill. then cut up into pieces. and made like that for hare. Civet For civet. Boil on your meat. cook in water and wine. and saffron for color. 31 . brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. Powder ginger. paradise seed. paradise seed. and fry in lard. Cut up into parts. crush almonds. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. Boil together. Beat ginger. clove. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. and add well beaten egg yolks. cinnamon. and do not let it thicken too much. Take a little burned bread. cinnamon and clove. paradise seed. Then powder ginger. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. It should be very black and not too thick. Then take bread browned on the grill. and saffron to give color. Boil with your meat. cinnamon. Fry in lard. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. cook in wine and water. This should be quite thick. clove. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. infuse with verjuice. cinnamon. Fry in lard. But do not wash the meat at all. then cut up into pieces. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small.Le Viandier your meat. Boil it all together. Grate ginger. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. galanga and long pepper. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas.
or verjuice. and toasted bread. Put on the spit. Roast Mutton With a little salt. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. clove. and cut up your meat into pieces. Crush ginger and saffron. boil it all together. or vinegar. Restore it in water.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. or verjuice. Roast without lard. verjuice. with powder and cold sage. with cinnamon. in pastry. cut your veal up finely. soaked in wine. Dribble eggs over it while frying. Eat with cameline. also known as breast meat. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. paradise seed. In pastry. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. Cook it. cinnamon. and scramble eggs. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Fry in lard. Eat with garlic or jance. Some put onions on it. 32 . Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. with fine powder and saffron. Goose Plume a dry goose. Once it is cooked. Boil so well that it is clear and black.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
and. six ounces of saffron. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. Some add cooked yolks. Put them in a cold place. Then grate ginger. After. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. Strain. make the cold sauce without eggs. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. six ells of cloth. and. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. bleed it by the mouth. To make jelly. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. twenty earthen pots. and paradise seeds. thirty legs of veal. paradise seed. six young rabbits. you must stay alert. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. Blend it all together. skimming it the whole time. mastic. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. cinnamon. if it is fish. Boil with your fish or meat.Taillevent pepper. paradise seed. clove. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. 36 . Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. six dishes: and drink for the workers. if it is fish. take twenty five poussins. See that the broth is clear and clean. Have it well bled. saffron to give color. mixed with vinegar. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. Pour on your poultry in sections. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. three quarter pounds of string ginger. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. three quarter pounds of ginger. Powder ginger. four pigs. Put it on a spit. Remove the tongue. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. galanga. cinnamon. For pork. folded over two or three times. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. take poultry and cook in water. whole. The sauce should not be too black. five wooden spoons. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. because it will not flow. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. skimming it the whole time. nutmeg. Tie it in a white cloth. when it is cooked. as soon as it is time to serve it.
Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. 37 . cull. and sugar the bowls. and boil together on a low fire. wash in warm water. on a meat day. Take cowʹs milk. add your rice. and wheat. Add the fat from beef broth. During Lent. then wipe your rice by the fire. use almond milk.
except that one puts in a bit of sage. cinnamon. at the evening. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. Some put in a little verjuice. take tenches. add sugar. Add ginger and pepper. If it is too sour. lux* and carps and. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. in oil. For the sick. If you do not have that. when it is boiled. Grind almonds. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. and strains it through a cloth. with wine and verjuice. Grate ginger. which once meant a variety of pike. but here appears to mean a green. almond oil and a little verjuice. scald and wash very well. [*This might be a variant of lus. take ginger. 38 . Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. Boil together. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. eggs and milk. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. some of your broth. Crush. Boil. and no other spices. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. boil a little water. dissolve in white wine. especially. Soak browned bread in purée of peas.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. cinnamon. Soak egg yolks in white wine. paradise seed and saffron. mix in some white wine. seed. and saffron. some of your milk and mix together. wine. or verjuice. Boil together with the oysters. Cook on the fire.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Then cool. Serve it on your fish. and put on your fish.
Boil until thick. and strain with broth. Crush almonds and the perch together. Boil it all together. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. cook in water. It should be clear. 39 . Put pomegranates over it. Crush almonds. mix with broth in a little wine.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth.
Take wine and the liquid of the fish. Add as much spring onion as you like. carp. 40 . – cook all of these in water and add salt. Eat with green sauce. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Salt it with wine. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. pepper and a little saffron. Split along the back. pike. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Cresme [*Literally. cook in water. dace. Porpoise For porpoise. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Eat with green sauce. Add a little salt or mustard. in pastry and with fine powder. Powder ginger. cinnamon. fresh shad. Boil. Salt the shad. or roast on the grill. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. “cream”. Eat with cameline. paradise seed. eels.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. barbell. eat with garlic. Do not make it too yellow. Eat with cameline.
Cod Cook in water. Eat with jance. with mustard or butter. Salt it. ray. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. sole. 41 . turbot. Add fine powder. with wine and verjuice. flounder: cook in water.
a little saffron. white garlic. green sauce and garlic camelines. infuse with vinegar. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. 42 . pepper. galanga.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. Crush bread. Pour on your fish. cinnamon. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. paradise seed. nutmeg. Crush ginger. parsley and salad burnet.
Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Some like it with cowʹs milk. and browned bread. then grind up ginger. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. 43 . Infuse with wine and verjuice. crush seed and livers. string ginger and white bread. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Boil. pepper. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. Some add seed and galanga to it. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Infuse with other verjuice. Strain and boil. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Infuse with verjuice and wine. with the fat from the roast. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. saffron. Some add seed and galanga to it. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Boil. Jance Crush almonds.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
sweetened white cream. made of sugar. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. Larded milk. and almonds. fried oranges. silvered. Darioles and upside-down stars. then ginger on it. wine. marked with the arms said above. marked with the said arms. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. white of fennel. vinegar. scattered about. sugared strawberries. A suitable support for the said peacocks. half-sweet. in a dish. white and dark red. FRUIT COURSE White cream. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. Fried cream. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. preserved in sugar. Wild boar made with fried cream. game hen. quails with sugar. cold sauce. half-sour. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. young peacocks in full display. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. Jelly. pears. and strawberries. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Duke’s powder on it. venison with soup. hare pastie. jelly. jonchées [a soft cheese]. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. 47 . Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. and pine nuts. sea pullets. and Duke’s powder over it.
jelly. pears. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. venison with clove. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. Sugared almonds.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. small hares with bramble vinegar. Venison pasties. brewet of cinnamon. peacocks with celery. nuts and raw pears. jonchées. young rabbits with spiced sauce. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. herons. kids. capons with Jean’s most. hazelnuts. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. pears with hypocras. almonds. chickens with herbs. SECOND COURSE The best roast. partridges with sugar. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. watercress. nuts. swans. navews with venison. Jelly and slices. cretonnée of lard. FIFTH COURSE White cream. fried cream. pigeon pastie. capon pastie. Pear pastie. Steamed pigeons. pickle. 48 . SECOND COURSE Peacocks.
Tarts with sugar. Peacocks. Quail pasties. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Pigeons. Must. Trimolettes with sugar. Jelly. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. New almonds. Banquet of marrow.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Venison. Thin slices. Boiled chickens. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Thin gilded slices. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. capons with tulle. barded sugared chickens. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. lemons. cherries with sugar or feathers. Baked cream pancake. Herons. 49 . SECOND COURSE Roast. Pears with sugar. Fresh venison with soups. Venison with peas. capes [type of apple]. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Pigeon pastie. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Young rabbits. brewet rappé. Capon pastie. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. White jelly and other fried cream.
24. 15. 33 ringdove. 5. 28. 31. 2. 3 rappé. 16. 49 white German. 21. 49 grill. 13. 8. 2. 10. 38. 31. 8. 10. 48. 8. 7. 11. 29. 46. 37. 12. 10 table. 14. 33 blackbird. 32 cele. 30. 10. 48 cheese. 5. 36 poussin. 31 brewet fish. 4. 9. 6. 29. 15. 18. 48. 33. 5. 33. 23. 9. 36 cooking methods baste. 31. 17. 25. 32. 49 pheasant. 6. 27 . 47. 18. 13. 35. 23. 6. 24. 26. 16. 14. v. 13. 23 guin. 48. 35. 1. 18 stork. 12. 19. 8. 12. 18 duck wild. 24. 34 blanch. 43. 14. 27. 14. 46. 15. 34 goose. 33 swan. 5. 11 civet. 4 Georget. 12. 16. 49 irson. 9. 33 partridge. 46 heron. 1. iii. 14. 49 poultry. 16 brown. 21. 48 giblets. 30. 17. 11. 15 C caul. 6.head. 33 gosling. 39. 40 mortar. 32. 5. 23. 19. 2 meat. 3. 26. 24. 13 chaudeau. 36. 3. 13. i. v. 47. 10. 2. 49 chicken. 47. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 3. i. 1. 4. 4. 48. 2 green. 33. 25. 1. 6. 2 covered. 43. 10. 18. 26. 11. 4 butter fried. 14. 5. 24. 25. 7. 2. 18. 13 pigeon. 27. 29. 10. 10. 31. 30. 18 eagle. 13. 1. 22. 46. 38. 39 bousac. 33. 49 blancmange. i. 27. 19 peacock. 47 dove. 30. 48. 28 gild. 16. 24. 38. 34. 35. 8. 10. 30. 26. 13. i. 16. 11. 15. 34 jonchée. 13. 33 bittern. 2. 4. 1. 17. 10. iv. 22. 21. 23. 31. 28. 28. 1. 31.INDEX A almonds. 49 sparrow. 13. 35 de-salt. 47. 7. 14 B birds assorted. 46 clairet. 18 capon. 31 brewet. 7. 46. 46. 15. 38 cheese fine. iv. 46. 38 hand towel. 44 cloth. 12. 24. i. 4. 39. 2. 7 gizzards. 3. 7. 25. 3. 7. 10. 10. 34. 47. 29. 14. 48. 16 quail. 8. 16. 23. 1 of capons. 48. 24.
10. 24. 38 removing burnt taste. 26. 34. 40 jelly. 17. 47 salad burnet. 12. 36 strain. 35. 47 F fayenne. 34. 47 tench. 11. 4. 40 mullet. 34. 47. 37. 28 restore. 9. 49 D drinks clairet. 14 fricassee. 40 salt water. 4. 38 perch. 39 pike. 42 sea pullets. 20. 13 fish blancmange. 3. 40 cockles. 14. 23. 35 lamprey. 20 gurnard. 20. 28. 41. 35 wheat. 7. 28. 34. 22. 3. 34. 40 mackerel. 15. 5. 3 cuttlefish. 12. 36. 40. 24. 4. 27. 49 figs. 9. 48 plums. 19. 38. 22. 26. 30. 18. 36. 18. 41 flan. 8. 4. 35. 16. 44 E eggs. 13. 42. 40 porpoise. 26. 15. 9. 2. 36. 3. 41 salmon. 49 cappes. v. 28. 40 conger. v. 32. 36.Le Viandier parboil. 48. 27. 20. 1. 8. 38. 15. 23. 4. 6. 8. 11. 23. 2. 21. 25. iv. 33. 20. 20 turbot. 24. 40 brewet. 4. 38 fraze. 1. 35. 26 pears. 2. 48. 26. 47 G galantine. 12. 21. 10. 16. 13. 35 scald. 12. i. 40 goatfish. 1 bream. 39 cream. 26. 29. 25. 5. 12. 9 gallimaufrey. 15. 11. 25. 16. 21. 40 simmer. 26. 38 greens parsley. 23. 29. 1. 41 carp. 23. 21. 9. 23 grapes. 21. 35. 14. 16 grains barley. 38 trout. 30. 20 oysters. 40. 16 perch. 11. 16 spelt (wheat). 4 brill. 34. 35 fruit apples. 6 flounder. 35. 22. 24. 31. 31. 6. iv. 13. 3. 9. 12. 8. 32. 19. 25. 47 shad. 41 cretonnée. 28. 13. 20 sorvige. 5. 40 ray. 46. 17 fromanty. 28. 41 fresh water. 31. 36. 49 fried. 27. 41 cod. 1. 32. 34. 38. 20. 7 spit. 3. 13. 43 coulis. 42 51 . 23. 32. 10. 36. 27. 47. 44 hypocras. 41 eel. 1. 14. 5.
36. 18 conger eel. 28 cow. 29. 4. 10. 30. 16. 28. 48. 19. 28. 47. 16. 25. 6. 34. 15. 38.Taillevent sorrel. 46 scum. 8 venison. 16. 32. 47. 32. 35 leg of. 10. 20. 8. 36. 11. 6. 27. 36. 8. 28. 12. 29. 12. 20 mutton. 20 shad. 18 lamprey. 16 hare. 46 veal. 13. 11. 9. 9. 47. 47 morterel. 6. 10. 2. 13. 26. 37. sheep. 21 leg of lamb. 7. 28 shoulder. 37. 35. 15. 16. 18. 17. 20. 23. 23 pigeon. 14. 28. 19. 32 bellies. 34 rabbit. 29. 11 hazelnuts. 14 tongue. 18 halebrans. 18. 8 stag. 46. 14. 29. 17. 21. 14. 49 suckling pig. 21 mutton. 30. 8. 46. 27. 29. 20 52 . 20 capon. 28 buttock. 11. 49 rabbit. 43. 20 gosling. 17. 8. 15. 8. 8. 7. 49 milk larded. 25. 48 M meat beef. 33. iii. 1. 35 spleen. 26. 19. 48. 19. 3. 47 kid. 1. 28. 43 marrow. 47 lamb. 32. 48. 11 liver. 44. 11. 4. 32 sheep bristle. 10. 4. 49 blackbird. 19 pear. 36. 48 houdet. 35. 20 mullet. 12. 6. 46 foot of. 21. 6. 17. 6. 13. 24. 2. 43 teat. 10 O orange. 19. 20 goatfish. 18. 35. 32. 3. 47 boiled. 12. 13. 43 grenon. 3. 4. 18. 35. 17 chicken. 8. 15. 34. 46. 17. v. 21. v. 24. 6. 10. 11. 9. 31. 1. 8. 20 ringdove. 46 ham. 31. 30. 3. 18 bream. 11. 47. 20. 8. 23 P pasties. 48. 19 marrow. 47 kid. 49 L lard. 6. 7. 22. 5. 18. 18 partridge. 13. 49 pork. 14. 6. 2. 19. 11. 18 salmon. 30. 38. 21 lorais. 15. 4. 31 hyocras. 34. 21. 12. 28. 31. 46. 18. 34. 19 red mullet. 19 hare. 28. 34. 36 boar. 19. 2. 48 J jelly. 11. 5. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 32. 33. 34 H haricoq.
26 seyme. 7 roasts. 45 string. 9. 42. 10. true. 7. 36. 32. 13. 30. 28. 47. 25. 4 galanga. 3 de-salting. 36. 11. 16. 20 veal. 40. 41 sauces. 9. 23. 1. 2. 20 turbot. 13. 3. 40. 13 R rice. 35. 30 cretonnée. 10. 19 trout. 47 dolphins. v. 29. 17. 27. 19 wild duck. 45 garlic. 31. 32. 11. 24. 43. 24. 30 onion. 26. 3. 44 white. v. 28 spices anis. 7. 40. 4 shrimp. 28 grané. 30 Spanish. 35. 9. 27. 4. 47 saupiquet. 29. 3. 40. 37 flour. 21. 14. 15. 15. 8. 6. 12. 30 fish. 1 cameline. 44. 23. 14 preserves. 19. 26 shad. 26. 25 violet. 48 costmary. 3 new bean. 25. 2. 43 red. 34. 44 clove. 26 small wine. 2. 40. 17. 1. 15. 18. 21. v. 16. 2 lark. 21. 3. 13. 23. 29. 17. 1. 11. 47 sorvige. 30 peas. 24. 26. 9. 35. 48 almond. 13. 24. 21 peas. 11. 18. 34. 23. 17 pastries dariole. 23 53 . 26. 8. 43. 42 ginger. 19. 38 cold. 4 small birds. 6. 2 salt. 42. 5. 38. 46 jance. 10 potful. 24. 20. 14. 30 fish. 36. iv. 24. 11. 32. 10 salamine. 5. 23. 12 cinnamon. 45. 9. 33 S sabourot. 35. 45 basil. 29. 30. 30 poultry. 36. 29. 28. 6 soups chaudin. 19. 26. 26. 28. 34 garlic. 44. 27. 15. 18 with warm sauce. 32. 8. 31. 45. 35. 6. 48 cinnamon.fat. 9. 36. 24 Poitevin. 31. 33. 36. 9. 24. 25 green. 6 removing burnt taste from. 7 warm. 23. 13. 24. 26. 18. 33. 17 wild boar. 18 stag. 36 with most. 36. 27. 20. 32. 16. 5 skin. 30 new peas. 21. 21. 32. 27 pottage. 38. 40. 3. 8. 2.Le Viandier sparrow. 47 dodine. 43. 25 my lady’s. 5. 7. purée of. 7 powdered. 7. 46. 4. 41. 5. 42 chaudumé. 49 oblongs. 7. 5. 38 pork. 2. 6. 13. 24. 4. 28. 17. 32. 31. 2. 17. 42. 42. 34. 43 Jean’s must.
34. 29. 2. 32. 17. 43 vinaigrette. 6. 34. 41. 27. 41 verjuice. 1. 5. v. 35. 47. 14 rose. 31. 27 onions. 47. 22 Jacobine. 45 paradise seed. 22. 19. 31. 38. 14. 44. 4. 35. 42. 42. 48. 43. 17. 42. 11. 16. 44. 23. 4. 27. iv. 20. 11. 7. 38. 23. 7. 43. 20. 10. 48. 21. 22 two-faced. 23. 5. 28. 18. 29. 5.Taillevent hyssop. 40. 8. 24. 10. 8. 12. 3. 13. 18. 32. 11. 2. 5. 13. v. 11. 31. 16. v. 43. 36. 28. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 19. 14. 43. 1. 11. 36. 13. 12. iv. 45. v. 36. 6. 4. 1. 13. 40. 13. 32. 24. 23 Bourbonnaise. 6. 35. 8. 41. 28. 21. 38. 7. 8. 9. 27 cabbage. 7. 27. 28 leeks. 30. 41. 23. 22. 7. 37. 5. 25. 25. 13. 40. 15. 29. 2. 15. 26. 8. 44. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 17. 45. 32. 32. 32. 1. 42. 38 stuffing. 29 marjoram. 14. 22 talemouse. 8. 26. 4. 26. 30. 4. 46 sage. 12. 15. 11. 40. 23 common. 20. 15. 21. 15 W water holy. 20. 9. 34. 3. 9. 12. 47 sugar. 14. 29. 36. 19. 38. 35. 23. 28. 35. 14. 17. 2. 42. 36. 26. 29. 2. 25. 29. 4. 8. 9. 28 gourds. 29. 30. 35. 31. 49 V vegetables beans. 19. 40. 13. 17. 9. 18. 11. 22. 17. 5. 5. 18. 2. 31. 14. 6. 21 covered. 3. 38. 29. 41 nutmeg. 34. 16. 8. 21. 11. 32. 34. 18. 25. 40. 2. 14. 6. 27. 25 mastic. 40. 6. 42. 12. 3. 15. 5. 38. 21. 22 trimolette. 47 54 . 10. 9. 17. 12. 43. 31. 16. 36. 25. 14. 8. 34. 28. 15. 26. 36. 28. v. 13. 11. 14. 11. 47 pepper. 12. 30. 34 moteaulx. 45. 49 vintage. 22. 38. 13. 25. 16. 45 powder. 34. 25. 7. 21. 19. 30. 45 mustard. 39. 17. 19. 44. 28. 13. 48. 28. 31. 16. 27 beets white. 33. 15. 47 wine. 35. 45 pennyroyal. 31. 11. 48 vinegar. 32. 23 saffron. 15. 30. 49 T tarts apple. 38. 21. 36.
depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages.t Ed. 1961. 1892. Penguin Books. un. Prosper. 1694. Reprint. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle .at/~katzer/engl/index. dédié au Roy. Inc. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. Antoine. Larousse Gastronomique. moeurs. 2002. Cotgrave. Vieweg.. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. 1889. 1611. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Paris. Histoire de la vie privée des français. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. 1782. Toulouse : J.html 55 . Frédéric. 1694. Paris : E. de Guerlins. Alfred. 1881. 1970. usages des Parisiens. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Bourgeois parisien. Paris : P. The Penguin Companion to Food. J.com/glossary. George Olms Verlag. D. Les repas. Paris: F. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. Godefroy. Montagné. Le cuisinier Taillevent. C. – 1889. 1846. Plon. Le ménagier de Paris. Alan. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. Davidson. impr. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. de Crapelet.kfunigraz. Paris : imp. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. New York: Crown Publishers. Hildesheim-New York. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. Vicaire. modes. impr.-D. Legrand d'Aussy.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. London. M. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Pierres. Pichon and G. Randle. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise.ac. 1684. Nourrit. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Furetière.thousandeggs. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. Franklin. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393.VI.