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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
To contact the translator, e-mail: email@example.com
Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Sheep.Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 .
Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern. Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .
1455 for my lord of Mayne. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June.
The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. quite simply. Le Viandier. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. “cookbook”. among other luminaries.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. For a modern reader. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. — to the exotic. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. — and yes. some would say barbaric: heron. peacock. at this time it referred to any food. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. complete with measurements. swan . The work’s title. etc. Charles V and Charles VI). the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. eggs. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. i . The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. stork. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. peas. Several very different versions of the book exist.
are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. for other words. Some. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. In some cases. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. illogical or confused. too. Several special classes of words exist here. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . If some passages seem redundant. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt.
something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. Here and in other cases. effectively. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. to a pâté. Pastie (Pasté) iii . may have been too hardened to eat. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. To complicate matters. Strictly speaking. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. however. Also. The pastry itself.
Were these assumed to include that fish. though. In this case. In context. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. iv . As an old cooking term. to dissolve.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. However. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. However. In practice. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). to “under-fry”. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. or. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. succulent state before cooking it.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. the translation is nearly direct. Here. when liquid is present. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. it seems to mean to brown the food.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. Soak livers with the bread and strain. for a better broth. spices and verjuice. Once it has been strained. diluted with verjuice. not too much. diluted with verjuice. and poultry livers. and scale and slice up pike. and take bread soaked in beef broth. and put veal in the pot with them. diluted with vinegar.Taillevent egg yolks. ginger and assorted spices. and cook them. paradise seed. marjoram. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. and infuse with verjuice. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. and egg yolks. raw. and put the shells aside. For Lark Grané Take larks. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. and put herbs. and put it all together. with the following spices: cinnamon. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. you will shell them. that is cinnamon. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. cut up in pieces. Take bread and livers. clove. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . and strain. and strain with the broth. and crush. and for spices. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. restore them. and strain it all together. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. wild spinach. Boil in water and pea puree. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. ginger. put it all in a pot. and take a great quantity of parsley. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. as above. then brown. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. and set the broth separately. To thicken. and add in the broth. When the bread is strained. And then boil the spices. ginger. and boil it all together. paradise seed and clove. and nutmeg if you have it. cooked egg yolks. the costmary. and fry them.
with the same spices. and roast it. ginger. infused with verjuice. and soak in the beef broth. cinnamon and assorted spices. and sprinkle with salt. ginger and assorted spices. and strain pike livers with it. and put the broth apart. Then strain the bread and the livers. When it is roasted. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. and sweeten moderately. ginger. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. pike browned on the grill. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. Salt to taste. take some puree. and boil everything together. Put with the other spices. and soak in beef broth. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. and boil all together. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and strain the almonds all together.. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. and then use pure mustard. and sweeten moderately. And if you do not have enough meat. if you have them. and. Salt to taste. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and infuse it with verjuice. 5 . if you have them. add a reasonable amount of sugar. and then fry finely chopped onion. and put in the pot. and paradise seed. cinnamon. Take bread and livers. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. to the chaudumé. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. assorted spices. and salt to taste. and saffron for color. and boil them all together. And put cinnamon. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. Cut up in pieces. Infuse with verjuice. set it to boil. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and verjuice. paradise seed. when they are browned. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. fry eggs in oil or butter. and infuse with verjuice. clove. Take ginger. and salt to taste.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. Make similar broth as for seyme. and fry in a pot. Add ginger.
and other broth. Fry onion and parsley. and add some red Burgundy wine. When it is not too well cooked along the side. and take some small giblets of poultry. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and set them to cook. cinnamon and assorted spices. slice it up in large cubes. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. cut up in pieces. or its own broth. clove and seeds. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. boil it thus. and put in seed ginger. and salt to taste. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. Boil it all together. Then take ginger. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. and verjuice and salt to taste. each one with its lardoons. When the potage is ready. Put some bread in to soak. clove. For spices. cinnamon and assorted spices. When 6 . Put in a pot. Add to the pot. the best that you can find. poultry. paradise seed. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. put cinnamon. if you have it. infused with vinegar. such as livers. Take browned bread. and some spices. put it in your pot. gizzards. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. with no other spices – this is enough. It is best to strain it. Clean and cut up. and soak it in pea purée. and saffron for color. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. For spices. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. etc. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. that is ginger. and strain.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces.
and cook them. and just a little white wine. with some verjuice. crushed up and ground fine. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. Add some ginger and a little saffron. internally]. without leaving it too long on the fire. and crush them and strain them. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. and put in a pot. and heat in lard. And to give a red color. boil it all together. if you have them. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water.Le Viandier they are cooked. slice up partridge. and let the color soak in. When the poussins are cooked. and filter into the pot to give it color. so that. but reasonable. two or three with each dish. the best lard you can find. and color it. and fry them in its broth. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. fry them in lard. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). and throw it in when you boil it. and serve them in dishes or bowls. Slice up the giblets. put them in a pot to boil. Once they are strained. Salt 7 . Put in a large amount of sugar. some white wine and verjuice. with the appropriate sauce. and boil and. it thickens. and prepared. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. also known as alkanets. slice them lengthwise. or some white sugared almonds. When the meat is served in dishes. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. take peeled almonds.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and strain with the almonds and the broth. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. Take peeled almonds. once they are cooked. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. Then take white wine and verjuice. and add a generous. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. and soak them in the poultry broth. After straining it through cheesecloth. When serving. amount of sugar. such as green sauce . Then put the broth in a pot. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. and season with salt.
Then strain it. ginger and assorted spices (that is. And when the meat is cooked. Bousac For bousac. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. parboiled and cut up in pieces. seed and clove. the young rabbit and poultry. and a lot of saffron. take the broth. Put in a pot. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. if you can find them. and infuse the spices with vinegar. and cook. brown the geese on the spit. clove and seed) to the bread. put in a cellar. Brown bread. and. Once it is cooked. and crush. with a moderate amount of sugar. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. take pork cut into pieces. whichever you can find. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. when it starts to boil. and then when the meat is in dishes. Take cinnamon. Then take ginger and seed. take eggs whites and put with the broth. when it boils. a hare is to be restored. put the meat in dishes. and halved poussins. the pork. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. Once it is browned. Add cinnamon. Boil it all together. that is. then put in a pot to brown. fry them in a pot. Take a little bread and poultry livers. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. and take some finely chopped onion. and a moderate amount of vinegar. soak it with poultry livers. and cut up in small pieces. and washed. while it is straining. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. well cleaned.Taillevent to taste. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. and a bit of saffron for color. Put in lard and beef broth. If the jelly is too fatty. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. if the spices are not well beaten. put with the meat. and salt just enough. and soak in 8 . and young rabbits. and put in a pot on the coal fire. When they are browned. a little mastic.
assorted spices. in wine. put the broth in a pot. then leave to cool. brown without burning. and slice them up. and fry them. Strain again one time. add a little vinegar. and also any other spices. and prepare it. and infuse with vinegar. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. Once they are chopped up fine. and tie them all around. Strain and put with the pot. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. put a little saffron for color. When the fish is scaled. While cooking. and the tripe as well. cook tripe of pike and carp. and add sugar. Take bread. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. and a moderate amount of mustard. When it is cooked. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. and a large amount of clove. and salt to taste. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. Salt to taste. Strain the bread and the spices together. that is cinnamon. ginger. Then boil. clove and beaten galanga. slice it into round slices. Rice For rice. the crops of pike and their broth. and add the liquid. Add salt as appropriate. When they are boiled. and boil it all together. When it is strained. and. take spices. while boiling. add the cut up pike. When it is boiled. Take a carp or two and pike. and the tripe of fish. then strain. then slice them up. put the pike and eel in by sections. remove their bones. that is the livers. so long as it does not smell of brass. 9 .Le Viandier broth beef. slice into large chunks. take pike and prepare them. paradise seed. take some rice. and put the fried fish in the pot. and boil as long as you can without burning. Scald the eels. Take cinnamon. When it is strained. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. the best you can find. When it is cooked. put the spices in all together with the broth. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. removing the bones as best you can. and salt it well. ginger. cook in a pot or frying pan. Boil the cow’s milk.
fry it in lard or pork fat. and take their broth. 10 . Strain through a cloth or beat very well. put the meat in dishes and. Boil. and add some parsley leaves. or partridge. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Press it as well as you can. Put in a pot and boil. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. Thicken the broth with it. and put it all in. and salt to taste. moistened with just a little verjuice. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. Take some eggs and beat very well. with a little bread to thicken. when serving. Mix just a little cheese. with a little saffron for color. and beaten white ginger. When it is on the point of being cooked. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. take prepared capons or large poultry. Put in some white ginger. When everything is cooked. Add saffron. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. and add some verjuice while thickening. Put in the pot. and beat with your eggs. and cut up into small pieces. take it off the fire. When it has been pressed a whole night. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. Take some fatty lard. slice it into thin slices. and boil in a pot. or capon meat. When it is ready. the following day. beaten white ginger. Brown a little onion. some broth. and tie it up. take poussins or poultry.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. season with a little cooked lard. boil milk on the fire. slice it up finely. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. and strain. When the meat is cooked. and chop it as fine as you can. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Brown in a frying pan with lard. When it is sliced up. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. Take spices. good and fine. Add salt. Soak the poultry in beef broth. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel.
Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. and boil in wine and vinegar. For Haricoq To make haricoq. and brown the meat. and put in a pot. when taken in heat. well and whole. Put on a table. Add a large quantity of sugar. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. sugar and salt. Remove all the skin. Put it all together. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. Remove all meat from the bones. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. hyssop. Salt to taste. and split it and clean it. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Some like to add ginger. ginger. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. cinnamon and assorted spices. clove and seed. Press it between two dishes. Do not cook it too much. When it is as if rotted from cooking. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. roast the shoulder on the spit. assorted spices in large quantity. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. Leave as long as it is cold. Put the skin aside. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. and chop them up fine. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. that is. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. After. and boil it all together. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. and a great deal of parsley. Take it off the spit. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. and salt to taste. take its head. 11 . Take white ginger. with stones on it to press well. Take peeled onions. When they are browned. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. cut up them into pieces. then take it from the fire. the thinnest that you can find. Put in the pot with the meat.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane.
To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. just a little bit. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. Put with the meat. and cook it all together. parsley. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. sweeten the poussins. all cooked together. a pig or poultry liver. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. all the way to the knee. Once this is done. Cook it all together with meat broth. Strain until there is no liquid left. When they are cooked. take poultry liver or lard. put in a dish and serve last. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. When it is done. and put the stuffing in it. hyssop. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. When serving. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. if there is a shoulder. a needle across the opening. for a long while. ginger and assorted spices. and boil in pure white wine. filter until no more liquid is left. Take saffron for color. Once they are well cooked. lard. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. leaving only skin.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. split them at the shoulders. Once they have been scalded. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. being careful not to burn it. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. if you have it. Put it in a straining cloth. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. a great deal of parsley. except the head and the legs. Then take a veal or kid membrane. hyssop and raw marjoram. chop it up as finely as you can. 12 . wings or neck. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. Then take the chicken meat. After. Once it is crisp. gild it with egg yolks while turning. it is advisable to scald them…. pennyroyal and basil. Take everything inside. so that it solidifies. bone and meat. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. without cutting off their feet.
seed. put in dishes. Stir all the spices together. Then slice it into fine slices. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. clove. Scald and pluck and clean very well. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. for six servings. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. and for two servings. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Boil pig and poultry livers. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. On fish days. and put in your meat. Take capon or poultry broth. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. lard and put on the spit. Strain the almonds. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. a pound of sugar. no more or less than you want for the brewet. and a handful of onion. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. and also the livers and almonds. and also a pound of egg yolks. and salt it. whole. Boil your broth. lard with clove. strain. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. and strain through a cloth. When they are half cooked. and strain it all together through a cloth. When the roast is taken off the spit. This done.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . with the jelly on it. Take a pound of almonds. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. After cook in wine. long pepper. take a veal’s head and feet. and crush them all together. Put. Add strong vinegar. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. This sauce is good on all roasts. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast.
Once they are cooked. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. scald it and then fry it. When they are well cooked. cook them. while frying. Take the pike eggs. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. Then strain through a cloth. When serving at the table. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. and take the broth in which they are cooked. and boil it all together. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. and put them in once they are stuffed. Gild the heads on the grill. Add a little saffron for color. and boil it all in a frying pan. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. Put. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. Chop up onion. and the pike’s liver. Add in sugar and ginger. When the almonds are thick. If you see that there is too much fat. put duke’s powder on it. and strain through a cloth. take a pint of vinegar. Then put the pike on coals to stew. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. When it is boiled. take a new pot. then brown. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. with the maws and livers. remove it. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. Take the fish maws and livers. and chop into small cubes. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. and after put it in a dish. Fry in lard. add a quarter pound of sugar. Put in dishes as for a 14 . and a little soaked bread. Cover so that no steam gets out. an ounce of assorted spices. Fry with butter or oil. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. put in dishes. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar.
mint and all other good herbs. Soak in 15 . Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. and yellow the half with saffron. and. take veal or pork. Then place them in nice rows along the length. bunches of grapes or wine?]. together with the butter. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. very fine skewers. Add in ginger. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. strain through a cloth. and take out what is inside. Take small. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Then take sage. marjoram. put some duke’s powder on it. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. When serving. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. and the eggs.Le Viandier bar of butter. and set on the grill over a low fire. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. Fry in butter. crush it up in the mortar. Coulis To make coulis. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. without any liquid. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. when it is well crushed. as much as suits you. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. saffron and sugar. and chop them up finely. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. take stale white bread. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. pennyroyal. and put it in barely touching the almonds. and crush up the crumbs finely. take a capon and boil until well cooked. make a small hole in the end of each egg. After put in dishes and serve. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. Take milk. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks.
take a poussin or two. vinegar. or anything else. boil in a small pot. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. put in wine and 16 . put some in. and salt to taste without anything else in it. After fry with lard or goose lard. and chop it up finely. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. like wheat to make fromenty. rinse and boil it very well. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. and start in the same way as the capon above. It can be salted or not. and then soak in almond milk. Afterwards. and boned. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. and put the whole barley in it. and finely chopped onion. When they are fried. Do not add verjuice. put some thick almond milk. After make like that of meat. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. with fat as for a potted pastie. and. and. but. To bind it. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. ginger. saffron and some verjuice. salt moderately. After it is well cleaned. soaked in purée of peas. roast poultry or capons. crush it in the mortar.Taillevent the capon broth. if the sick person wants sugar in it. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. in grinding it. take a perch and cook it in water. but not too much. Once it is cooked. Once it is cooked. after grind it. when it is cooked. skinned. Make like that of perch. without crushing it. Then boil in a nice large pot and. and cut into pieces. cinnamon. when crushing. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. put in assorted spices. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it.
and boil it all together. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. toast black bread well. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. put some ginger powder and. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. in equal parts. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. add the sauce. For spices. paradise seed. add some ginger. remove all the meat of the capons. To make the sauce. take raw poultry. cut up into pieces and fry in lard.Le Viandier verjuice. and for spices. or possibly cocks. in winter style. except the clove should dominate the other spices. and. to thicken. when the pastie is cooked. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and.] Put the capons in pastie. long pepper. While frying. After. true cinnamon. The appropriate spices are ginger. put in fine cheese. Cook the said 17 . put the fat in the pastie. nutmeg. and a moderate amount of salt. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. and beef fat. clove. cover with lard. put in a little ginger. For spices. assorted spices and saffron. Fricassees For fricassees. cameline. This done. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. saffron and sweeten. and chop all together and the said pastie. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. The appropriate spices are: ginger. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. beef marrow. and boil with the sauce in the oven. and chop it quite small all together. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. For spices. true cinnamon.
and beef marrow. put in ginger. and for spices. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and beat all together. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. When the pastie is cooked. with a moderate amount of sugar. Add lard chopped fine. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. assorted spices and saffron. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. and the fat of chopped veal. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. For spices. for spices. cinnamon and saffron. with assorted spices added. 18 . put it all together. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. and lard finely chopped. with fine powder. For spices.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. assorted spices and saffron. clove and ginger. and fine cheese. some ginger. and ginger.
the following is very much a “best guess”. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. pressed between three fingers. and roll this in butter. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. new beans and parboil them. For spices. and parboil it. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. in season. ginger. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. or the smaller one whole. slice it into fine slices. Add assorted spices. And put them in the pastie. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. raised up high and. After. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. assorted spices and saffron.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. and chopped lard. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. For fish. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. well made pasties. It is best that these be small. seed and pepper. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. Add ginger and a little pepper. and take. when they are made. ginger and clove powder. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. like those which are made double. For spices. clove. and add assorted spices. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. 19 . fry it all in butter. For spices.
fine powder and saffron. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Put in assorted spices. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. raised up high and well made. and fry in lard.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. Parboil the marrow. with spices and sugar mixed together. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. without anything else. fine powder and verjuice in making it. ginger and saffron. Eel Pastie Take saffron. 20 . and some gooseberries.
Fry onion in butter. Dolphins Lily flowers. then put it in the oven. so that the contents do not leak out.e. pies]. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. gild it well. and put the sauce in a small clean pot.. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. and quite black. Make the sauce separately. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Make the crust strong and thick. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. If you cannot find cream. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. and sugar. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. crush up cheese. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. and pat it. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. and rounded. After boil it. if you have some. After put in the oven briefly. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. star with fried cream. Once the pastie is high and raised. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. 21 .
and cover the crust with wafers. The slices should be less than two fingers high. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. Cut eel into sections and boil it. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. of the thickness of a finger. Fry them in butter. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. well soaked in egg yolks. like the other side. When it is cooked. before adding the cheese and the cream. put in the oven. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. and put on the tart. take it out. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. When ready to dine. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. with oranges on it. and good cream. Seat well in the tart. but not too 22 . turn it in a dish. and cook them. so that nothing of it shows. soaked in cream. soak the crust in eggs and butter.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. set it to cool. Once it is a little cooked. with a great quantity of sugar. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. use fine cheese. and take off the crust where cooked. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. crushed. Covered Tart For covered tart. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. then cook in the oven as said. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. with egg yolks mixed into it. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. and stuffed in two fingers deep. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. When it is cooked. take it out and let it cool. and cover the whole top with orange. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. and enough egg yolks. and cook like the other side. Knead the crust well with eggs.
] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. and wine. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. Sweeten well. and mix well together. Once it is soaked. put eight or ten slices on end. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. or a dish. and put in the oven. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. and cook. soak with cream. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . if you have any. brown bread in front of a good red fire. Put all the fillings together. put in the oven. Add onion fried with butter or oil. crushed up. [Darioles were small pastries. and put orange all over it. true cinnamon and white ginger. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. and enough egg yolks. then gild it with saffron. put with the surplus and add the saffron. but do not strain them. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. Knead the crust well with eggs. that is candied pine nut. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. Clean grapes well. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. This is how it should be made. and put in figs. without burning it. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. a bit of assorted spices. and put in with the apples and the figs. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. then put in the tart and layer over the top. and fill the hollow with the sugar. and gild with eggs or saffron. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. candied ginger might be used instead]. Mix in with the other apples. Fry the cream well in butter. so all this presumably is the filling. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. well mixed by hand. For each tart.Le Viandier much. Cover well. Make two big pastry undercrusts. Cover it with a top.
a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. assorted spices . and put in a nice pot. brown one toast of bread on the fire. and crush up spices in a mortar . and crush them up in a bowl. Add in half an ounce of ginger. Take their livers. ginger. Boil in a frying pan. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. roast a goose. Soak it in milk. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. a half ounce of ginger. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. and boil in a frying pan. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. while boiling. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. Strain very well through a cloth. take poultry livers. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry.and soak in verjuice and wine. and salt it well. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. Put a frying pan under it. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Then when it is cooked. or with the mortar. and strain them through a cloth. because it will blacken. and put in the poultry.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. put them over it with the sauce. brown one toast of bread. roast them well on the spit. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Bring to a boil. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. and roast on the grill. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Boil a dozen eggs. and a little browned bread and very little broth. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts.cinnamon. throw in a drop or two. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. because it will smell of brass. When the goose is cooked. Be sure not to put it in a pot. Jance To make jance.
capons. Sugar to taste. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. Leave it only a little. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. For four servings. a little parsley. When the birds are cooked. put in an ounce of ginger. Filter the water. When you boil it. and let livers roast a little on the grill. and also in other dodines. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. For one pint. roast fatty capons on the spit. and boil everything together. and boil together. Add half a pound of sugar. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. and boil it all with milk. Boil in a frying pan. Soak it only in verjuice. Chop the herbs up. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. Soak it in milk. Once the bread is soaked. and add a little saffron.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. and then put in a nice pot. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. or other roast fowl. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. take half a dozen garlic cloves. and peel. put a quart of milk. or more if you wish. Take an ounce of ginger. hyssop and other good herbs. add butter. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Then take marjoram. When the 25 . put the dodine on them. and boil under the capons. and a half ounce of ginger. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. and pour the grain in the sauce. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Put on the roast. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must.
Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. Take for one shad. and fry it. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and put on the shad. Put in a 26 . take out the capons and put in a dish. and then put over the roast. take verjuice and white wine. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Then when the bread is soaked. one with the other. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. take some vinegar and wine. and strain it all together through a cloth. Brown bread. and put it to soak in broth. brown bread as for cameline. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. and strain it all together with your bread. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and put in the sauce. and scald it. Strain the bread and all the spices together. Once the shad is half cooked. with a little saffron. Put the fish with the broth. Once it has been strained. and some puree. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. For four servings.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. half an ounce of ginger. and boil. a bit of assorted spices. and some fresh or salted butter. put the verjuice on the shad. and soak in purée of peas. for four servings. take pike. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Take red wine and vinegar. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. Chaudumé To make chaudumé.
Add a little water to keep it from burning. and chop up fine. a half ounce of ginger. Squeeze out between your hands. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. use mulberries. Chop them up. with enough grapes. purée them and bind with broth. boil in water. and then crush up in a mortar. On fast days. if you do not have the broth. When they are half cooked. then bind with lard and warm water.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Onion Soup To make onion soup. bind with beef broth. White Beets To make white beets. then strain them through a cloth. When they are parboiled. two ounces of sugar. and strain it all through cloth. On fish days. put in a frying pan to cool. and almond milk if you like. put the beans to soak in the evening. use purée of pea and butter. Remove the black ones. and add some verjuice and parsley. purée them and put cold water on them. When they are done cooking. Leeks To make leeks. and boil in river or fountain water. Milled Beans To make milled beans. Wash and parboil them. and strain it all through the cloth. use butter and purée of peas. on fried eggs. This sauce is good on larks. Mix with purée of peas or water. Brown in butter for a long while. except the sugar. For four servings. capons or other roast. and after put them on a plank. then crush them in a mortar. 27 . and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. fish and all other fried things. and put in lard to give them taste. split lard into thin slices and fry. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. then put on a plank. Once this is done. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. or. After. If you lack grapes.
Boil all together. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Squeeze and chop up finely. and a little saffron. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. Sheep. and turn it to one side and another. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Once it is well cooked. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. and. Cook with only mastic and saffron. hyssop. Remove the seeds. sage. use purée of peas with butter and oil. put in beef broth. if there are any. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. sage. with mustard. take off the top leaves. If it is fresh. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. and put on your pot.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Put in some cowʹs milk. wine. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. salted. Filter out the liquid. Parboil in a frying pan. while doing this. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. and add some cold water on them. and cut into four quarters. Pig Cook in water and salt. Lard the length of the meat. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. peel them and cut into round slices. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. add parsley. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. then 28 . For fast days. and put some cold water over them. Gourds For gourds. mastic and hyssop. and squeeze them between your hands. On fast days. take your pot off the fire. verjuice. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. then purée.
with fine powder. and saffron for color. clove. Grate ginger. seed. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Fry in lard with some onions. cinnamon. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. and add lard for flavor. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. with parsley. Add some verjuice and vinegar. cook in water and salt. with cameline. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. larded. Boil your meat. Eat parboiled in pastry. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. sage and hyssop. and a good deal of spice.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. 29 .
Grate ginger and cumin. then cut up into pieces. and boil with your meat. Strain it. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. then purée. Infuse with wine and verjuice. saffron. Powder ginger and cumin. Then take cowʹs milk. Fry in lard. cook the peas until they are soft. add a large quantity of eggs. Soak white bread in milk. then grate ginger and saffron. Fry in lard. Put in your soup just before serving it. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Take verjuice. Add egg yolks. Take ginger. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. infuse with wine and verjuice. broken up in beef broth. Cut up into parts. vinegar. Fry in lard. and strain. Brown them in lard. without adding anything but a little white bread. cook in wine and water. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. and fry in lard. Take almonds infused with broth. and boil it all together. Soak a little bread in beef broth. pull back from the fire. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. and boil on your meat. and watch that it does not turn. Fry in lard. long pepper. Cut up into parts. Mix in your milk.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Pull back from the fire. cook poultry well in water. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Always let thicken on its own. Boil with 30 . and cook a little in water. Boil. Take white bread. and boil briefly. Boil.
cinnamon. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. galanga and long pepper. But do not wash the meat at all. This should be quite thick. Then take bread browned on the grill. infuse with beef broth and wine. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. 31 . Beat ginger. Civet For civet. cinnamon and clove. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. mix with verjuice. Fry in lard. Powder ginger. Then powder ginger. paradise seed. and spice it well. Boil with your meat. paradise seed. Boil it all together. brown on the spit or on the grill. clove. and made like that for hare. Take browned bread. cinnamon. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Boil together. clove. and saffron for color. without letting it cook too long. cinnamon. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas.Le Viandier your meat. Take a little burned bread. and do not let it thicken too much. cook in wine and water. Cut up into parts. It should be very black and not too thick. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. and saffron to give color. paradise seed. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. and fry in lard. Fry in lard. infuse with verjuice. then cut up into pieces. crush almonds. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Grate ginger. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. cook in water and wine. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. Boil on your meat. and add well beaten egg yolks. Strain. then cut up into pieces.
Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. Cook it. Goose Plume a dry goose. Roast Mutton With a little salt. boil it all together. Some put onions on it. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. cinnamon. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. or verjuice. with powder and cold sage.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. or vinegar. Once it is cooked. in pastry. Restore it in water. Crush ginger and saffron. 32 . cut your veal up finely. In pastry. soaked in wine. Roast without lard. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. and eaten with cameline in pastry. with fine powder and saffron. also known as breast meat. verjuice. Fry in lard. Eat with cameline. or verjuice. and cut up your meat into pieces. clove. and scramble eggs. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. Put on the spit. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. Eat with garlic or jance. and toasted bread. paradise seed. Dribble eggs over it while frying. with cinnamon. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
because it will not flow. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. To make jelly. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. Blend it all together. three quarter pounds of string ginger. Strain. take poultry and cook in water. Pour on your poultry in sections. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. 36 . Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. Boil with your fish or meat. and. Have it well bled. Put them in a cold place. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. Tie it in a white cloth. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. take twenty five poussins. if it is fish. thirty legs of veal.Taillevent pepper. folded over two or three times. skimming it the whole time. six ells of cloth. six ounces of saffron. paradise seed. six dishes: and drink for the workers. six young rabbits. Then grate ginger. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. galanga. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. four pigs. nutmeg. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. if it is fish. saffron to give color. three quarter pounds of ginger. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. when it is cooked. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. clove. bleed it by the mouth. cinnamon. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. whole. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. After. Some add cooked yolks. The sauce should not be too black. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. For pork. See that the broth is clear and clean. mixed with vinegar. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. and. skimming it the whole time. cinnamon. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. and paradise seeds. Powder ginger. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. paradise seed. Remove the tongue. you must stay alert. twenty earthen pots. five wooden spoons. Put it on a spit. make the cold sauce without eggs. as soon as it is time to serve it. mastic.
then wipe your rice by the fire. Take cowʹs milk. cull. During Lent. on a meat day.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. 37 . use almond milk. Add the fat from beef broth. and sugar the bowls. and boil together on a low fire. and wheat. wash in warm water. add your rice.
Crush. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. scald and wash very well. Serve it on your fish. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. cinnamon. take tenches. Some put in a little verjuice. [*This might be a variant of lus. Cook on the fire. except that one puts in a bit of sage. and strains it through a cloth. mix in some white wine. cinnamon. If you do not have that. when it is boiled. Boil together. seed. Soak egg yolks in white wine. Grate ginger. especially. Boil together with the oysters. Add ginger and pepper. paradise seed and saffron. and put on your fish. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. take ginger. at the evening. boil a little water.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. lux* and carps and. Grind almonds. Boil. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. 38 . with wine and verjuice. dissolve in white wine. add sugar. eggs and milk. Soak browned bread in purée of peas.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. in oil. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. wine. and saffron. some of your broth.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. some of your milk and mix together. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. If it is too sour. and no other spices. but here appears to mean a green. or verjuice. almond oil and a little verjuice. Then cool. which once meant a variety of pike. For the sick.
Crush almonds. 39 . Boil it all together. and strain with broth. Crush almonds and the perch together.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. Put pomegranates over it. mix with broth in a little wine. It should be clear. Boil until thick. cook in water.
40 . Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Eat with cameline. “cream”. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. eels. pepper and a little saffron. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. cinnamon. Eat with cameline. dace. Porpoise For porpoise. Add as much spring onion as you like. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. fresh shad. Do not make it too yellow. Cresme [*Literally. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. pike. carp. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Add a little salt or mustard. eat with garlic. Powder ginger. – cook all of these in water and add salt. cook in water. Boil. or roast on the grill. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. Eat with green sauce. paradise seed. Eat with green sauce. in pastry and with fine powder. Salt the shad. Salt it with wine. Split along the back. barbell.
Add fine powder. Cod Cook in water. sole. with mustard or butter. turbot. ray. with wine and verjuice. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. 41 . flounder: cook in water. Salt it. Eat with jance.
Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. Crush bread. pepper. cinnamon. parsley and salad burnet. Crush ginger. paradise seed. 42 . a little saffron. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. galanga. infuse with vinegar. nutmeg. white garlic. Pour on your fish. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. green sauce and garlic camelines. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain.
Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Some like it with cowʹs milk. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. with the fat from the roast. Some add seed and galanga to it. Boil. saffron. 43 . and browned bread. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Boil. string ginger and white bread. crush seed and livers. Some add seed and galanga to it. Infuse with verjuice and wine. pepper. Infuse with other verjuice. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Jance Crush almonds. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. then grind up ginger. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Strain and boil.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. FRUIT COURSE White cream.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. Wild boar made with fried cream. sweetened white cream. venison with soup. and Duke’s powder over it. half-sour. hare pastie. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. pears. white of fennel. marked with the arms said above. white and dark red. made of sugar. jelly. jonchées [a soft cheese]. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. sea pullets. in a dish. marked with the said arms. half-sweet. Jelly. wine. Larded milk. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. silvered. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. quails with sugar. 47 . game hen. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. Duke’s powder on it. and almonds. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. scattered about. vinegar. young peacocks in full display. and strawberries. Darioles and upside-down stars. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. fried oranges. sugared strawberries. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. cold sauce. then ginger on it. preserved in sugar. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. A suitable support for the said peacocks. Fried cream. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. and pine nuts.
gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. hazelnuts. fried cream. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. nuts and raw pears. small hares with bramble vinegar. young rabbits with spiced sauce. swans. nuts. jelly. almonds. watercress. Venison pasties. pears with hypocras. capons with Jean’s most. pigeon pastie. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. cretonnée of lard. capon pastie. pickle. Steamed pigeons. SECOND COURSE Peacocks.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. chickens with herbs. Sugared almonds. Jelly and slices. SECOND COURSE The best roast. peacocks with celery. pears. kids. jonchées. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. Pear pastie. brewet of cinnamon. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. partridges with sugar. navews with venison. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. 48 . FIFTH COURSE White cream. venison with clove. herons.
THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Quail pasties. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Young rabbits. Pigeon pastie. capons with tulle. New almonds. brewet rappé. Fresh venison with soups. Peacocks. cherries with sugar or feathers. Thin gilded slices. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. White jelly and other fried cream. SECOND COURSE Roast. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Trimolettes with sugar. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. lemons. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Tarts with sugar. Pears with sugar. Thin slices. Must. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Boiled chickens. Banquet of marrow. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. capes [type of apple]. Pigeons.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Baked cream pancake. 49 . barded sugared chickens. Jelly. Venison. Capon pastie. Venison with peas. Herons.
16. 10 table. 29. 43. 24. 27. 33 swan. 8. 38. 26. 18. 14. 26. 32. 16. 48 cheese. 46. 7. 18 eagle. 13. 25. 39. 21. 31. 44 cloth. 33 ringdove. 4. 10. 14. 17. 1. 49 blancmange. 6. 46 clairet. 23. 19 peacock. 21. 33. i. 18 capon. 10. 6. 47. 11. 24. 4. 43.head. 11. 49 white German. 48. 7. 14. 14 B birds assorted. 23. 5. 46. 38. 27 . 16. 40 mortar. 25. 31 brewet fish. 12. 31. 29. 30. 3. 9. 30. 1 of capons. 49 pheasant. i. 3. iii. 47. 34. 39 bousac. 29. 24. 18 duck wild. 18. 47 dove. 46 heron. 10. 11. 23 guin. 10. 32. 5. 7. 2 green. 4. 28. 6. v. 48. 3. 15. 35 de-salt. 30. 6. 33 bittern. 24. 46. 2 covered. 36 poussin. 26. 29. 49 irson. 46. 49 chicken. 36 cooking methods baste. 12. 7. 8. iv. 18 stork. 16. 8. 48. 19. 34 jonchée. 31. 33 gosling. 30. 24. 34 blanch. 48. 13. 49 poultry. 1. 16. 17. 37. i. 24. 14. 16 brown. 35. 10. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 13. 2. 10. 18. v. 35. 3. 9. 46. 31. 49 grill. 13. 47. 2. 13. 19. 31 brewet. 4. i. 13. 30. iv. 28 gild. 8. 48. 15. 10. 22. 15. 3 rappé. 14. 1. 33. 25. 2. 31. 15. 2. i. 2. 5. 38 hand towel. 15. 13. 14. 27. 31. 46. 7 gizzards. 17. 48. 9. 15 C caul. 4 butter fried. 1.INDEX A almonds. 35. 8. 34. 4. 16. 12. 18. 21. 13. 26. 23. 33. 25. 10. 1. 12. 13 chaudeau. 39. 5. 34 goose. 12. 33. 13 pigeon. 7. 7. 8. 47. 24. 1. 10. 48. 27. 38 cheese fine. 14. 4 Georget. 10. 16 quail. 5. 5. 11 civet. 10. 1. 6. 38. 32 cele. 2. 49 sparrow. 28. 2 meat. 24. 23. 11. 28. 47. 23. 33 partridge. 36. 22. 33 blackbird. 48 giblets. 3.
35 wheat. 10. 19. 49 D drinks clairet. 28 restore. 19. 9. 8. 29. 21. 47 F fayenne. 4 brill. 8. 34. 12. 6. 40 ray. 49 fried. 34. 40 salt water. 37. 34. 6. 23. 36. 12. 47. 22. 11. 29. 9. 20 turbot. 48. 9. 17. 42 sea pullets. 12. 41. 32. 40 porpoise. 47 shad. 44 hypocras. 4. 40 brewet. 26 pears. 15. 36. 3. 46. 26. 26. 13. 6 flounder. 13 fish blancmange. 35 lamprey. 12. 41 carp. 30. 24. 1. 35. 5. 14 fricassee. 36. 15. 18. 48 plums. 22. 28. 40 mackerel. 9. 21. 40 simmer. 5. 35. 47. 5. 20. 20 sorvige. 16 spelt (wheat). 38 removing burnt taste. 32. 31. 3. 32. 20. 23. 41 cretonnée. 13. 44 E eggs. 14. 41 cod. 23. 36. 20 gurnard. 47 tench. 38. 3. 49 cappes. 35. 34. 38. 21. 11. v. iv. 8. 38. 39 pike. 20. 16. 3. 16 perch. 2. 16 grains barley. 1. 10. 41 flan. 22. 26. 2. 24. 16. 1 bream. 28. 18. 35. 48. 24. 40 jelly. 31. 35 fruit apples. 36 strain. 38 fraze. 20. 41 fresh water. 28. 9 gallimaufrey. 20 oysters. 35. 25. 12. 28. iv. 24. 23. 41 salmon. 42. 38 perch. 16. 36. 10. 15. 30. 40. 2. 14. 31. 4. 27. 26. 4. 7 spit. 13. 21. 42 51 . 27. 38 greens parsley. 34. 27. 40 goatfish. 11. 20. 32. 47 G galantine. 14. 17 fromanty. 4. 34. 13. 11. 15. 13. 47 salad burnet. 3. 23 grapes. 26. 7. v. 39 cream. 27. 21. 35 scald. 41 eel. 1. 40 mullet. 25. 9. 12. 36. 3 cuttlefish. 23.Le Viandier parboil. i. 34. 8. 23. 38 trout. 40 cockles. 4. 1. 40 conger. 49 figs. 5. 25. 26. 43 coulis. 40. 25. 28. 4. 1. 33.
48. 23. 31 hyocras. 20. 6. 29. 29. 2. 15. 49 milk larded. 11 hazelnuts. 3. 8. 48. 19. 28 shoulder. 7. 49 rabbit. 36. 10. 4. 49 L lard. 34. 8 venison. 18. 14. 28. 35. 46 veal. 1. 44. 8 stag. iii. 32. 18. 47 kid. 17 chicken. 2. 11. 4. 21. 14. 15. 46 scum. 21 lorais. 35 spleen. 20. 6. 36. 18. 43 teat. 33. 8. 32 sheep bristle. 4. 7. 48 M meat beef. 13. 47. 20 shad. 21. 20 mutton. 28. 7. 47. 23 pigeon. 11. 34. 11. 46 foot of. 16 hare. 11. 5. 16. 24. 12. 49 suckling pig. 17. 12. 6. 29. 43 grenon. 17. 19. 17. 17. 48 houdet. 11 liver. 28. 6. 15. 2. 22. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 20 capon. 32. 47 kid. 10. 18 conger eel. 25. 36. 47 lamb. 32 bellies. 8. 23 P pasties. 8. 34 rabbit. 28. 29.Taillevent sorrel. 14 tongue. 17. 12. 18 lamprey. 37. 9. 26. 10. 20 goatfish. 20 ringdove. 37. 11. 15. 8. 18 bream. 18. 15. 21 leg of lamb. 48. 48 J jelly. 18 salmon. 1. 47. 34. 38. 11. 19 red mullet. 19. 30. 49 pork. 12. 46. 28. 29. 18 halebrans. 6. 43 marrow. 28. 20 52 . 31. 8. 9. 16. 38. 46. 10. 19. 1. 8. 47 boiled. 35. 9. 26. 46. 43. 13. 34. 36 boar. 28 buttock. 46. v. 13. 31. 13. 5. 12. 6. 11. 24. 27. 16. 25. 34 H haricoq. 18 partridge. 32. 34. 6. 8. 19. 3. 6. 35. 27. 10. 36. 4. 11. 20 mullet. 18. 35. 13. 6. 14. sheep. 48. 30. 19 pear. v. 33. 32. 2. 28. 49 blackbird. 28 cow. 47 morterel. 19 marrow. 14. 19 hare. 3. 20 gosling. 31. 21. 10 O orange. 8. 21 mutton. 30. 21. 16. 35 leg of. 20. 19. 32. 18. 3. 19. 30. 4. 46 ham. 47.
29. 29. 7 roasts. 2. 15. 3. 13. 11. 29. 3 de-salting. 47 dodine. 19. 44. 13. 45. 26 small wine. 8. 44 clove. 10. 36. 24. 45 garlic. 31. 37 flour. 26 shad. 4. 4 small birds. 4 galanga. 42 chaudumé. 48 almond. 17 pastries dariole. 33 S sabourot. 19. 13 R rice. 8. 36 with most. 46. 30 cretonnée. 31. 32. 17 wild boar. 26. 4. 23. 24. 13. 26 seyme. 6. 24. 9. 30 onion. 24. 5. 10. 28. 45 basil. 41. 32. 36. 30 poultry. 8. 30. 38. 13. 3. 14. 9. 24. 6 removing burnt taste from. 21. 5. 28. 24. 3. 23. 25 green. 42. 27. 6. 34 garlic. 23 53 . 43 red. 30 peas. 6 soups chaudin.fat. 32. 23. 9. 16. 14 preserves. 42. 2. 27 pottage. 11. 27. 43. 18 with warm sauce. true. 27. 44 white. 2. 15. 25 violet. 30 Spanish. 47 saupiquet. 3. 17. 5. 20 turbot. 14. 46 jance. 45 string. 20. 21 peas. 5. 26. 23. 16. iv. 26. 13. 31. 33. 40. v. 9. 5. 21. 19. 26. 42. 32. 35. 28. 24. 49 oblongs. 31. 16. v. 36. 11. 36. 27. 18. 8. 24. 36. 35. 7. 30 fish. 34. 24. 18. 20. 29. 25. 1. 12 cinnamon. 30. 7. 6. 19 trout. 34. 30 new peas. 1 cameline. 9. 28 spices anis. 17. 15. 35. 26. 38 pork. 2 lark. purée of. 1. 25 my lady’s. 15. 32. 21. 26. 47 dolphins. 6. 48 costmary. 28 grané. 7 warm. 40. 24 Poitevin. 21. 2. 23. 3. 33. 42. 3 new bean. v. 18. 47. 17. 43. 32. 47 sorvige.Le Viandier sparrow. 45. 7. 40. 7. 32. 20 veal. 30 fish. 12. 26. 1. 43 Jean’s must. 36. 29. 42 ginger. 2. 18 stag. 44. 34. 25. 35. 38 cold. 48 cinnamon. 36. 7. 11. 19 wild duck. 38. 2 salt. 40. 28. 40. 41 sauces. 40. 2. 10 salamine. 9. 9. 23. 17. 11. 4 shrimp. 5 skin. 43. 35. 10 potful. 21. 13. 7 powdered. 4. 17.
30. 27 beets white. 12. 4. 3. 14. 13. 5. 38. 7. 6. 16. 10. 14. 15. 7. 8. 12. 21. 20. 40. 32. 36. 40. 23. 6. 35. 44. 45 powder. 31. 26. 11. 42. 45. 22 Jacobine. 9. 34. 25. 13. 41 nutmeg. 40. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 22 two-faced. 8. 8. 34. 43. 34. 9. 10. 23. 17. 40. 43. 29. 9. 12. 31. 5. 26. 48. 18. 17. 19. 21. 5. 44. 30. 36. 1. 40. 17. 30. 14. 38. 35. 29. 11. 12. 11. 29. v. 27 cabbage. 25. 22. 16. 19. 43. 28. v. 23 Bourbonnaise. 42. 13. 41 verjuice. 5. 20. 48. 27. 29. 8. 18. 7. 47. 30. 11. 11. 4. 32. 1. 36. 43 vinaigrette. 16. 17. 21. 32. 16. 34. 13. 22. 8. 2. 40. 17. 49 vintage. 3. 8. 9. 14. 34. 3. 38. 11. 8. 35. 2. 17. 14 rose. 21 covered. 23. 15. 36. 25. 43. 44. 13. 48. 44. 29. 6. 31. 13. 21. 17. 11. 38 stuffing. 10. 45. 47 sugar. 49 V vegetables beans. 18. 11. v. 34. 31. 28. 2. 5. 25. 11. 25. 26. 35. 21. 29. 39. 36. 2. 47 wine. 34 moteaulx. 38. 31. 5. iv. 17. 27. 47 pepper. 31. 15. 41. 14. 30. 11. 4. 22. 38. 42. 19. 14. 36. 15. 38. 29 marjoram. 12. 37. 48 vinegar. 25. 45 pennyroyal. 40. 5. 19. 6. 14. 16. 28 leeks. 32. 28. 1. 13. v. 11. 26. 1. 4. 15.Taillevent hyssop. 29. 6. 28. 8. 28 gourds. 15. 15. 9. 2. 22. 27. 25. 25 mastic. 2. 12. 42. 5. 7. 27. 35. 18. 47 54 . 20. 21. 19. 28. 29. 12. 23. 24. 35. 38. 32. v. 18. 15 W water holy. 41. 34. 42. 15. 41. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 23 saffron. 23. 45. 13. 14. 23 common. 7. 45 mustard. 32. 4. 32. 36. 4. 45 paradise seed. 2. 22 talemouse. 31. 31. 16. 35. 8. 13. 28. 49 T tarts apple. 32. 9. 33. 43. 30. 27 onions. 24. 22 trimolette. 6. 42. 14. 28. 28. 7. 36. 13. 38. 47. 21. 20. iv. 46 sage. 26. 3. 19.
-D. 1611. Godefroy. un.thousandeggs.VI. 1684. Davidson. Antoine.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Furetière. 1892. 2002. Paris : E. New York: Crown Publishers. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. Legrand d'Aussy. 1889. Franklin.ac. Paris: F. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. Inc. J. 1694. Larousse Gastronomique. Hildesheim-New York. de Guerlins. Vicaire. Les repas. Alfred. Pierre Jean-Baptiste.. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. C. Bourgeois parisien. de Crapelet. Montagné. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. Alan. Toulouse : J. 1694. Paris : imp. Paris. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. D. Histoire de la vie privée des français. Le ménagier de Paris. impr. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. Reprint. 1970. George Olms Verlag. Vieweg.com/glossary. Nourrit. 1782. Pierres. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. Prosper. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. usages des Parisiens. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. – 1889. modes. moeurs.kfunigraz. Frédéric. dédié au Roy. 1961. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. impr. Cotgrave. 1846.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. 1881. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Paris : P. Plon. Randle. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. Penguin Books. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours.t Ed. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard.html 55 . Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. M.at/~katzer/engl/index. Le cuisinier Taillevent. Pichon and G. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. The Penguin Companion to Food. London. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes.