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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
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Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. 1455 for my lord of Mayne. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .
Le Viandier. i . Though in modern French viande means “meat”. complete with measurements. peacock. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. The work’s title. swan . and so the closest modern sense of the title is. Several very different versions of the book exist. For a modern reader.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. at this time it referred to any food. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. peas. quite simply. “cookbook”. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. stork. among other luminaries. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. some would say barbaric: heron. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. — to the exotic. eggs. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). Charles V and Charles VI). The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. etc. — and yes.
reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. If some passages seem redundant. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. In some cases. too. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. for other words. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. illogical or confused. Some. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . Several special classes of words exist here. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense.
These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. effectively. to a pâté. The pastry itself.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. may have been too hardened to eat. Also. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. however. Here and in other cases. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. To complicate matters. Pastie (Pasté) iii . Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. Strictly speaking.
succulent state before cooking it. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. Here. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. iv . the translation is nearly direct. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. In this case. However. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. In context. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. to dissolve. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. As an old cooking term. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. In practice. to “under-fry”. However. though. Were these assumed to include that fish. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. when liquid is present. it seems to mean to brown the food. or. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
you will shell them. the costmary. paradise seed and clove. with the following spices: cinnamon. and for spices. and nutmeg if you have it. When the bread is strained. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. and take a great quantity of parsley. and take bread soaked in beef broth. and strain with the broth. cooked egg yolks. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. and put the shells aside. and put veal in the pot with them. Take bread and livers. To thicken. and strain. diluted with vinegar. wild spinach. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. diluted with verjuice. For Lark Grané Take larks. and add in the broth. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . Once it has been strained. then brown. and infuse with verjuice. for a better broth. not too much. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. clove. and cook them. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. Soak livers with the bread and strain. and scale and slice up pike. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. and boil it all together. and poultry livers. ginger. ginger. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. put it all in a pot. and fry them. Boil in water and pea puree. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. as above. paradise seed.Taillevent egg yolks. and set the broth separately. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. and put herbs. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. diluted with verjuice. cut up in pieces. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. And then boil the spices. ginger and assorted spices. and egg yolks. that is cinnamon. marjoram. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. spices and verjuice. and crush. restore them. and put it all together. raw. and strain it all together. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley.
and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. assorted spices. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. and sweeten moderately. fry eggs in oil or butter. And put cinnamon. if you have them. Take ginger. and boil all together. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and boil them all together. Put with the other spices. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. cinnamon and assorted spices. Make similar broth as for seyme. cinnamon. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. And if you do not have enough meat. if you have them. and put in the pot. and then use pure mustard. and infuse it with verjuice. and infuse with verjuice. infused with verjuice. 5 . paradise seed. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. Add ginger.. and soak in beef broth. and. when they are browned. and soak in the beef broth. to the chaudumé. and verjuice. and salt to taste. Salt to taste. and strain pike livers with it. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. add a reasonable amount of sugar. and roast it. and saffron for color. set it to boil. When it is roasted. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. ginger. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. and strain the almonds all together. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. clove. and sweeten moderately. and sprinkle with salt. and fry in a pot. Take bread and livers. and then fry finely chopped onion. To Make Chaudumé Take eels.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. Then strain the bread and the livers. Cut up in pieces. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. with the same spices. Infuse with verjuice. pike browned on the grill. and put the broth apart. take some puree. ginger and assorted spices. and boil everything together. ginger. Salt to taste. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. and paradise seed. and salt to taste.
Once it is cut into round sections and fried. poultry. if you have it. clove and seeds. Put in a pot. and soak it in pea purée. Put some bread in to soak. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. that is ginger. and other broth. When it is not too well cooked along the side. For spices. Take browned bread. Add to the pot. When the potage is ready. and some spices. For spices. paradise seed. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. and put in seed ginger. boil it thus.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. and saffron for color. or its own broth. infused with vinegar. and take some small giblets of poultry. and verjuice and salt to taste. Clean and cut up. such as livers. put cinnamon. put it in your pot. Fry onion and parsley. and salt to taste. Then take ginger. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. and add some red Burgundy wine. and strain. cinnamon and assorted spices. cut up in pieces. each one with its lardoons. and set them to cook. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. etc. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. When 6 . the best that you can find. clove. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. Boil it all together. with no other spices – this is enough. slice it up in large cubes. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. cinnamon and assorted spices. gizzards. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. It is best to strain it.
such as green sauce . without leaving it too long on the fire. or some white sugared almonds. the best lard you can find. and heat in lard. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. and serve them in dishes or bowls. Then put the broth in a pot. amount of sugar. and let the color soak in. slice up partridge. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. Put in a large amount of sugar. and throw it in when you boil it. and boil and. and add a generous. and cook them. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. also known as alkanets. and fry them in its broth. Salt 7 . and color it. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. put them in a pot to boil. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. so that. and put in a pot. fry them in lard. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. Slice up the giblets. and soak them in the poultry broth. slice them lengthwise. And to give a red color. Once they are strained. crushed up and ground fine. When the poussins are cooked. and strain with the almonds and the broth. once they are cooked. Take peeled almonds. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. some white wine and verjuice. and crush them and strain them. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. After straining it through cheesecloth. and season with salt. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. and just a little white wine. two or three with each dish. take peeled almonds. Then take white wine and verjuice.Le Viandier they are cooked. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. When the meat is served in dishes. and filter into the pot to give it color. but reasonable. and prepared. with some verjuice. internally]. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). Add some ginger and a little saffron. it thickens. When serving. with the appropriate sauce. if you have them. boil it all together.
then put in a pot to brown. a little mastic. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. the young rabbit and poultry. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. well cleaned. take eggs whites and put with the broth. soak it with poultry livers. Bousac For bousac. if you can find them. seed and clove. whichever you can find. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. and infuse the spices with vinegar. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. and washed. and a lot of saffron. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Put in a pot. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. when it starts to boil. when it boils. and cut up in small pieces. Once it is browned. the pork. while it is straining. and take some finely chopped onion. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. and. Once it is cooked. a hare is to be restored. Boil it all together. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. and a moderate amount of vinegar. and young rabbits. Add cinnamon. parboiled and cut up in pieces. and crush. Brown bread. and a bit of saffron for color. and then when the meat is in dishes. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. put in a cellar. Take cinnamon. put with the meat. brown the geese on the spit. and put in a pot on the coal fire. Take a little bread and poultry livers. When they are browned. and halved poussins.Taillevent to taste. And when the meat is cooked. with a moderate amount of sugar. and soak in 8 . If the jelly is too fatty. if the spices are not well beaten. and cook. Then strain it. Then take ginger and seed. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. fry them in a pot. take pork cut into pieces. clove and seed) to the bread. put the meat in dishes. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. take the broth. that is. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. Put in lard and beef broth. and salt just enough. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. ginger and assorted spices (that is.
Once they are chopped up fine. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. and salt to taste. and boil as long as you can without burning. paradise seed. While cooking. When it is boiled. and. When it is strained. and slice them up. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. Take cinnamon. take some rice. removing the bones as best you can. put a little saffron for color. that is cinnamon. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. and boil it all together. take pike and prepare them. Add salt as appropriate. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. add a little vinegar. then strain. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. add the cut up pike. cook tripe of pike and carp. and the tripe as well. and prepare it. then slice them up. put the pike and eel in by sections. Scald the eels. while boiling. in wine. ginger. Strain again one time. Take a carp or two and pike. Take bread. clove and beaten galanga. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. put the spices in all together with the broth. assorted spices. slice it into round slices. When the fish is scaled. When it is strained. brown without burning. and a large amount of clove. then leave to cool. and the tripe of fish. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. slice into large chunks. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. and fry them. the crops of pike and their broth. put the broth in a pot. that is the livers. Rice For rice. so long as it does not smell of brass. When it is cooked. Boil the cow’s milk. and tie them all around. Strain and put with the pot. When it is cooked. and put the fried fish in the pot. ginger. and also any other spices. Strain the bread and the spices together. and add sugar.Le Viandier broth beef. When they are boiled. 9 . and a moderate amount of mustard. and add the liquid. cook in a pot or frying pan. the best you can find. remove their bones. and salt it well. Then boil. and infuse with vinegar. take spices. Salt to taste.
Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. and chop it as fine as you can. Mix just a little cheese. Add saffron. Add salt. and strain. with a little bread to thicken. with a little saffron for color. when serving. or capon meat. and add some verjuice while thickening. and salt to taste. and beat with your eggs. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. boil milk on the fire. Take some fatty lard. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. fry it in lard or pork fat. Put in some white ginger. season with a little cooked lard. moistened with just a little verjuice. Soak the poultry in beef broth. When it is sliced up. Press it as well as you can. and cut up into small pieces. take poussins or poultry. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. Take some eggs and beat very well. Take spices. beaten white ginger. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. slice it into thin slices. and add some parsley leaves. Boil. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. Brown a little onion. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. When everything is cooked. Thicken the broth with it. and tie it up. good and fine. Put in the pot. and boil in a pot.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. take it off the fire. put the meat in dishes and. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. When it has been pressed a whole night. take prepared capons or large poultry. or partridge. When it is on the point of being cooked. When it is ready. and beaten white ginger. some broth. Brown in a frying pan with lard. the following day. slice it up finely. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Put in a pot and boil. and put it all in. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. 10 . and take their broth. When the meat is cooked.
You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. that is. Put in the pot with the meat. Put it all together. cinnamon and assorted spices. Add a large quantity of sugar. when taken in heat. Do not cook it too much. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. with stones on it to press well. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Put the skin aside. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. and boil it all together. For Haricoq To make haricoq. ginger. then take it from the fire. and brown the meat. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. Leave as long as it is cold. and boil in wine and vinegar. Take peeled onions. Remove all meat from the bones. Take it off the spit. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. cut up them into pieces. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. and chop them up fine. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. When it is as if rotted from cooking. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Salt to taste. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. hyssop. roast the shoulder on the spit. and salt to taste. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Some like to add ginger. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. clove and seed. sugar and salt. and split it and clean it. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. Press it between two dishes. Remove all the skin. well and whole. pennyroyal and raw marjoram.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. When they are browned. and a great deal of parsley. assorted spices in large quantity. take its head. and put in a pot. Put on a table. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. After. the thinnest that you can find. 11 . Take white ginger.
Put it in a straining cloth. Cook it all together with meat broth. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. for a long while. split them at the shoulders. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. After. Strain until there is no liquid left. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. pennyroyal and basil. just a little bit. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. Take saffron for color. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. ginger and assorted spices. Then take a veal or kid membrane. hyssop and raw marjoram. When it is done. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. filter until no more liquid is left. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. a needle across the opening. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. lard. bone and meat. Put with the meat. parsley. and put the stuffing in it. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. sweeten the poussins. leaving only skin. Take everything inside. Then take the chicken meat. chop it up as finely as you can. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. Once this is done. and boil in pure white wine. When they are cooked. wings or neck. it is advisable to scald them…. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. 12 . all the way to the knee. Once they have been scalded. gild it with egg yolks while turning. without cutting off their feet. a pig or poultry liver. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. When serving. so that it solidifies. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. Once they are well cooked. a great deal of parsley. Once it is crisp. take poultry liver or lard. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. and cook it all together. all cooked together. hyssop. being careful not to burn it. if you have it. if there is a shoulder. except the head and the legs.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. put in a dish and serve last.
and strain it all together through a cloth. Strain the almonds. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. and for two servings. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. When they are half cooked. Then slice it into fine slices. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. and strain through a cloth. and also the livers and almonds. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. and also a pound of egg yolks. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. for six servings. lard with clove. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. no more or less than you want for the brewet. After cook in wine. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. On fish days. Take capon or poultry broth. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. When the roast is taken off the spit. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. Scald and pluck and clean very well. Add strong vinegar. lard and put on the spit. with the jelly on it. take a veal’s head and feet. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. clove. put in dishes. Boil your broth. Boil pig and poultry livers. seed. whole. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . and serve it with parsley and vinegar. strain. This done. and put in your meat. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. and salt it. and crush them all together. Stir all the spices together. This sauce is good on all roasts. a pound of sugar. Put. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. and a handful of onion. Take a pound of almonds. long pepper.
Add a little saffron for color. Cover so that no steam gets out. Add in sugar and ginger. When it is boiled.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. cook them. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. Then strain through a cloth. and after put it in a dish. add a quarter pound of sugar. Take the pike eggs. an ounce of assorted spices. Put. take a new pot. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. put duke’s powder on it. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. and boil it all together. Fry in lard. scald it and then fry it. When serving at the table. and strain through a cloth. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. If you see that there is too much fat. and a little soaked bread. and chop into small cubes. Gild the heads on the grill. Chop up onion. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. remove it. put in dishes. Then put the pike on coals to stew. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. When the almonds are thick. When they are well cooked. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. and boil it all in a frying pan. Once they are cooked. Fry with butter or oil. Take the fish maws and livers. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. take a pint of vinegar. Put in dishes as for a 14 . then brown. and take the broth in which they are cooked. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. with the maws and livers. while frying. and put them in once they are stuffed. and the pike’s liver.
take a capon and boil until well cooked. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. and yellow the half with saffron. as much as suits you. Then take sage. and crush up the crumbs finely. without any liquid. Take small. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. and put it in barely touching the almonds. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. After put in dishes and serve. Then place them in nice rows along the length. pennyroyal. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. together with the butter. and the eggs. take stale white bread. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. put some duke’s powder on it. Coulis To make coulis. marjoram. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. Fry in butter. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. bunches of grapes or wine?]. When serving. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. when it is well crushed. mint and all other good herbs.Le Viandier bar of butter. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. Soak in 15 . saffron and sugar. and set on the grill over a low fire. and chop them up finely. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. take veal or pork. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and. Add in ginger. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. strain through a cloth. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Take milk. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. make a small hole in the end of each egg. and take out what is inside. very fine skewers. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. crush it up in the mortar. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic].
cinnamon. boil in a small pot. but. ginger. and.Taillevent the capon broth. roast poultry or capons. but not too much. and boned. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. soaked in purée of peas. When they are fried. skinned. take a perch and cook it in water. and then soak in almond milk. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. and. Make like that of perch. Afterwards. put some in. After fry with lard or goose lard. and start in the same way as the capon above. and chop it up finely. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. put some thick almond milk. and cut into pieces. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. put in wine and 16 . vinegar. Do not add verjuice. saffron and some verjuice. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. crush it in the mortar. After it is well cleaned. To bind it. and put the whole barley in it. and salt to taste without anything else in it. when crushing. and finely chopped onion. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. if the sick person wants sugar in it. in grinding it. After make like that of meat. take a poussin or two. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. put in assorted spices. after grind it. Then boil in a nice large pot and. like wheat to make fromenty. salt moderately. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. with fat as for a potted pastie. when it is cooked. rinse and boil it very well. Once it is cooked. without crushing it. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. or anything else. Once it is cooked. It can be salted or not. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis.
Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. To make the sauce. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. add some ginger.Le Viandier verjuice. paradise seed. For spices. Cook the said 17 . except the clove should dominate the other spices. take raw poultry. For spices. remove all the meat of the capons. and chop it quite small all together. toast black bread well. in winter style. put in fine cheese. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. and a moderate amount of salt. Fricassees For fricassees. true cinnamon. or possibly cocks. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. nutmeg. put some ginger powder and. cover with lard. to thicken. and chop all together and the said pastie. and boil with the sauce in the oven. saffron and sweeten. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. beef marrow. This done. After. The appropriate spices are ginger. true cinnamon. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. cameline. For spices. in equal parts. long pepper. put the fat in the pastie. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks.] Put the capons in pastie. add the sauce. The appropriate spices are: ginger. While frying. clove. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. and for spices. assorted spices and saffron. and. and beef fat. put in a little ginger. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. and boil it all together. when the pastie is cooked.
When the pastie is cooked. For spices. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and for spices. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. with fine powder. 18 . and the fat of chopped veal. and ginger. for spices. some ginger. and beat all together. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. put in ginger. with assorted spices added. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. For spices. and lard finely chopped. assorted spices and saffron. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. and fine cheese. with a moderate amount of sugar. clove and ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. Add lard chopped fine. put it all together. assorted spices and saffron. and beef marrow. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. cinnamon and saffron. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces.
the following is very much a “best guess”. new beans and parboil them. pressed between three fingers. and parboil it. For spices. and take. clove. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. For spices. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. After. Add ginger and a little pepper. raised up high and. well made pasties.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. or the smaller one whole. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. ginger and clove powder. It is best that these be small. assorted spices and saffron. ginger. slice it into fine slices. Add assorted spices.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. fry it all in butter. when they are made. like those which are made double. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. seed and pepper. And put them in the pastie. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. and add assorted spices. and roll this in butter. 19 . For fish. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. For spices. in season. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. and chopped lard.
fine powder and saffron. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. Eel Pastie Take saffron. Parboil the marrow. without anything else. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. ginger and saffron. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Put in assorted spices. and fry in lard. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. and some gooseberries. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. 20 .Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. with spices and sugar mixed together. raised up high and well made.
cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. 21 . Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Make the crust strong and thick. pies]. and quite black. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar.. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. if you have some. Dolphins Lily flowers. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. crush up cheese. star with fried cream. After boil it. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. and rounded.e. Make the sauce separately. Once the pastie is high and raised. After put in the oven briefly. If you cannot find cream. Fry onion in butter.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. gild it well. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. then put it in the oven. and sugar. so that the contents do not leak out. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. and pat it. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar.
soak the crust in eggs and butter. before adding the cheese and the cream. The slices should be less than two fingers high. like the other side. with a great quantity of sugar. and put on the tart. turn it in a dish. When it is cooked. well soaked in egg yolks. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. and cover the crust with wafers. put in the oven. set it to cool. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. crushed. When ready to dine. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Knead the crust well with eggs. Once it is a little cooked. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. with oranges on it. and cook them. and cover the whole top with orange. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. and enough egg yolks. and take off the crust where cooked. When it is cooked.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. then cook in the oven as said. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. but not too 22 . take it out. take it out and let it cool. Cut eel into sections and boil it. Fry them in butter. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. Seat well in the tart. soaked in cream. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. of the thickness of a finger. Covered Tart For covered tart. and good cream. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. and stuffed in two fingers deep. and cook like the other side. with egg yolks mixed into it. so that nothing of it shows. use fine cheese.
Clean grapes well. [Darioles were small pastries. without burning it. Knead the crust well with eggs. then gild it with saffron. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. Put all the fillings together. Fry the cream well in butter. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. This is how it should be made. well mixed by hand. For each tart. and wine. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . and cook. Make two big pastry undercrusts. Once it is soaked. Mix in with the other apples. a bit of assorted spices. put eight or ten slices on end. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine.Le Viandier much. but do not strain them. crushed up. put with the surplus and add the saffron. and enough egg yolks. if you have any. Cover it with a top. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. and gild with eggs or saffron. and put in with the apples and the figs. and put in figs. that is candied pine nut. soak with cream. and mix well together. so all this presumably is the filling. Cover well. brown bread in front of a good red fire. candied ginger might be used instead]. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. and put orange all over it. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. and put in the oven. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. put in the oven. Add onion fried with butter or oil. Sweeten well. true cinnamon and white ginger. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. or a dish. and fill the hollow with the sugar. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry.
and boil in a frying pan. throw in a drop or two. and put in a nice pot. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. ginger.cinnamon. Bring to a boil. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts.and soak in verjuice and wine. Be sure not to put it in a pot. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. Put a frying pan under it. and strain them through a cloth. Then when it is cooked. Boil a dozen eggs. brown one toast of bread. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. assorted spices . a half ounce of ginger. Add in half an ounce of ginger. and a little browned bread and very little broth. and crush them up in a bowl. When the goose is cooked. roast a goose. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. and crush up spices in a mortar . put them over it with the sauce. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. and put in the poultry. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. because it will blacken. brown one toast of bread on the fire. take poultry livers. Boil in a frying pan. or with the mortar. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. while boiling. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. Take their livers. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. roast them well on the spit. and salt it well. If you would like it to have the taste of milk.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. Soak it in milk. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. Jance To make jance. and roast on the grill. Strain very well through a cloth. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. because it will smell of brass.
For four servings. Add half a pound of sugar. Chop the herbs up. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. or other roast fowl. and pour the grain in the sauce. or more if you wish. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. and let livers roast a little on the grill. and a half ounce of ginger. When the 25 . take half a dozen garlic cloves. When you boil it. and then put in a nice pot. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. put a quart of milk. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. and peel. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Filter the water. put in an ounce of ginger. Soak it only in verjuice. hyssop and other good herbs. Leave it only a little. add butter. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. and also in other dodines. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. put the dodine on them. Boil in a frying pan. roast fatty capons on the spit. Put on the roast. and add a little saffron. and boil it all with milk. Soak it in milk. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. When the birds are cooked. For one pint. Once the bread is soaked. and boil together. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. Sugar to taste. a little parsley. Take an ounce of ginger. and boil under the capons. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. capons. Then take marjoram. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. and boil everything together. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird.
Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. take verjuice and white wine. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. one with the other. and put on the shad. and scald it. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. Put in a 26 . soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and soak in purée of peas. Strain the bread and all the spices together. Once the shad is half cooked. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. take out the capons and put in a dish. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. Take red wine and vinegar. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. and fry it. Take for one shad. a bit of assorted spices. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. and some fresh or salted butter. and some puree. and strain it all together through a cloth. Then when the bread is soaked. brown bread as for cameline. and put it to soak in broth. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. Brown bread. take pike. and strain it all together with your bread. half an ounce of ginger. with a little saffron. and then put over the roast. Once it has been strained. and boil. take some vinegar and wine. take two ounces of true cinnamon. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Put the fish with the broth. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. For four servings. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. put the verjuice on the shad. for four servings. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and put in the sauce.
then crush them in a mortar. Wash and parboil them. Chop them up. and boil in river or fountain water. or. Onion Soup To make onion soup. Remove the black ones. split lard into thin slices and fry. then put on a plank. purée them and bind with broth. fish and all other fried things. Milled Beans To make milled beans. capons or other roast. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. with enough grapes. and chop up fine. If you lack grapes. When they are half cooked. Mix with purée of peas or water. Leeks To make leeks. Brown in butter for a long while. purée them and put cold water on them. and add some verjuice and parsley. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. On fast days. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. After. and almond milk if you like. When they are done cooking. and after put them on a plank. use purée of pea and butter. two ounces of sugar. This sauce is good on larks. and put in lard to give them taste. put the beans to soak in the evening. and strain it all through the cloth. use mulberries. then bind with lard and warm water. take two ounces of true cinnamon. boil in water. On fish days. on fried eggs. and then crush up in a mortar. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. Squeeze out between your hands. White Beets To make white beets.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. use butter and purée of peas. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. bind with beef broth. Once this is done. Add a little water to keep it from burning. When they are parboiled. if you do not have the broth. then strain them through a cloth. except the sugar. 27 . put in a frying pan to cool. and strain it all through cloth. a half ounce of ginger. For four servings.
while doing this. Once it is well cooked. and turn it to one side and another. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. use purée of peas with butter and oil. Remove the seeds. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. Cook with only mastic and saffron. wine.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. take off the top leaves. mastic and hyssop. Put in some cowʹs milk. Sheep. take your pot off the fire. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. salted. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Squeeze and chop up finely. Lard the length of the meat. if there are any. and squeeze them between your hands. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. If it is fresh. peel them and cut into round slices. Boil all together. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. then 28 . and cut into four quarters. and. Gourds For gourds. Filter out the liquid. Pig Cook in water and salt. and put some cold water over them. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. put in beef broth. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. sage. and put on your pot. Parboil in a frying pan. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. with mustard. sage. then purée. add parsley. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. hyssop. verjuice. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. and add some cold water on them. For fast days. On fast days. and a little saffron. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef.
cinnamon. with cameline. cook in water and salt. with parsley. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Eat parboiled in pastry. Fry in lard with some onions. sage and hyssop. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. larded. Grate ginger. clove. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. and a good deal of spice. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. with fine powder. 29 . seed. Add some verjuice and vinegar. and saffron for color. and add lard for flavor. Boil your meat. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag.
then grate ginger and saffron. Then take cowʹs milk. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. then purée. Take almonds infused with broth. Take verjuice. and watch that it does not turn. cook poultry well in water. and cook a little in water. Mix in your milk. infuse with wine and verjuice. Soak white bread in milk. Take ginger. Always let thicken on its own. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. saffron. cook the peas until they are soft. Cut up into parts. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Powder ginger and cumin. Fry in lard. Add egg yolks. cook in wine and water.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Infuse with wine and verjuice. add a large quantity of eggs. Strain it. Cut up into parts. Boil. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. and boil on your meat. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. and fry in lard. Soak a little bread in beef broth. and boil with your meat. Boil. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Brown them in lard. Grate ginger and cumin. pull back from the fire. Pull back from the fire. without adding anything but a little white bread. Boil with 30 . and boil it all together. Fry in lard. Put in your soup just before serving it. then cut up into pieces. Take white bread. and strain. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Fry in lard. Fry in lard. vinegar. and boil briefly. long pepper. broken up in beef broth.
and made like that for hare. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. galanga and long pepper. infuse with verjuice. Boil together. then cut up into pieces. and spice it well. paradise seed. and saffron for color. Boil on your meat. mix with verjuice. Take a little burned bread. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Beat ginger. without letting it cook too long. cook in wine and water. infuse with beef broth and wine. cinnamon. Fry in lard. But do not wash the meat at all. Then take bread browned on the grill. and add well beaten egg yolks. then cut up into pieces. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. It should be very black and not too thick. and do not let it thicken too much. cinnamon. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. Boil with your meat. clove. clove. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. and saffron to give color. Grate ginger. and fry in lard. brown on the spit or on the grill. Powder ginger. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. Take browned bread. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. paradise seed. Fry in lard. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat.Le Viandier your meat. Then powder ginger. Cut up into parts. crush almonds. cinnamon. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. Boil it all together. This should be quite thick. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Strain. paradise seed. 31 . cook in water and wine. Civet For civet. cinnamon and clove.
Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. with powder and cold sage. and scramble eggs. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Roast without lard. with cinnamon. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. paradise seed. Crush ginger and saffron. with fine powder and saffron. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. or verjuice. soaked in wine. 32 . or vinegar. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. Fry in lard. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Goose Plume a dry goose. Cook it. boil it all together. Restore it in water. Roast Mutton With a little salt. or verjuice. also known as breast meat. verjuice. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. and cut up your meat into pieces. Eat with cameline. in pastry. Put on the spit. Eat with garlic or jance. clove. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. and toasted bread. Some put onions on it. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. In pastry. Once it is cooked. Dribble eggs over it while frying. cinnamon. cut your veal up finely.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
Some add cooked yolks. After. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. and paradise seeds. you must stay alert. paradise seed. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. Tie it in a white cloth. when it is cooked. twenty earthen pots. skimming it the whole time. three quarter pounds of ginger. Put it on a spit. six ounces of saffron. Then grate ginger. four pigs. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. as soon as it is time to serve it. Boil with your fish or meat. take poultry and cook in water. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. nutmeg. Pour on your poultry in sections. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. cinnamon. thirty legs of veal. and. because it will not flow. Put them in a cold place. cinnamon. To make jelly. and. saffron to give color. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. clove. See that the broth is clear and clean. bleed it by the mouth. whole. if it is fish. The sauce should not be too black. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. Remove the tongue. mastic. Strain. six young rabbits. For pork. Blend it all together. paradise seed. skimming it the whole time. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine.Taillevent pepper. six dishes: and drink for the workers. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. six ells of cloth. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. take twenty five poussins. folded over two or three times. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. five wooden spoons. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. mixed with vinegar. if it is fish. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Powder ginger. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. Have it well bled. galanga. make the cold sauce without eggs. three quarter pounds of string ginger. 36 . Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly.
Take cowʹs milk. and wheat. During Lent. wash in warm water. then wipe your rice by the fire. add your rice. use almond milk. cull. on a meat day. and sugar the bowls. 37 . Add the fat from beef broth. and boil together on a low fire.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice.
Then cool. some of your broth. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. cinnamon.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. Grate ginger. seed. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. but here appears to mean a green. except that one puts in a bit of sage. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. at the evening. and no other spices. take tenches. add sugar. If it is too sour. Boil together with the oysters. and saffron. with wine and verjuice. Crush. For the sick. dissolve in white wine. Grind almonds. [*This might be a variant of lus. wine. boil a little water. eggs and milk. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. If you do not have that. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. Add ginger and pepper.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. when it is boiled. Serve it on your fish. which once meant a variety of pike. scald and wash very well. some of your milk and mix together. and put on your fish. 38 . especially. Boil together. paradise seed and saffron. take ginger. in oil. almond oil and a little verjuice. Cook on the fire. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. Boil. lux* and carps and. Soak egg yolks in white wine. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. mix in some white wine. or verjuice. cinnamon. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. Some put in a little verjuice. and strains it through a cloth.
Boil it all together. It should be clear. Boil until thick. cook in water.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. and strain with broth. Put pomegranates over it. 39 . Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. Crush almonds and the perch together. Crush almonds. mix with broth in a little wine.
cook in water. Add as much spring onion as you like. in pastry and with fine powder. Eat with cameline. pepper and a little saffron. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Porpoise For porpoise. paradise seed. Add a little salt or mustard. pike.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Do not make it too yellow. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. eat with garlic. Eat with green sauce. Salt the shad. barbell. Eat with green sauce. dace. Eat with cameline. Boil. cinnamon. “cream”. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. fresh shad. 40 . Split along the back. Powder ginger. Salt it with wine. or roast on the grill. carp. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. eels. Cresme [*Literally.
ray. Salt it. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. with mustard or butter. sole. Cod Cook in water. turbot. Eat with jance. 41 . Add fine powder.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. flounder: cook in water. with wine and verjuice.
Crush bread. infuse with vinegar. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. Pour on your fish. pepper.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. white garlic. green sauce and garlic camelines. nutmeg. parsley and salad burnet. 42 . galanga. paradise seed. Crush ginger. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. cinnamon. a little saffron.
Boil when you are ready to serve it. Strain and boil. Jance Crush almonds. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Infuse with other verjuice. 43 . and browned bread. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. then grind up ginger. pepper.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. with the fat from the roast. Boil. Boil. Some add seed and galanga to it. string ginger and white bread. crush seed and livers. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Infuse with wine and verjuice. saffron. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. Infuse with verjuice and wine. Some add seed and galanga to it. Some like it with cowʹs milk.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
young peacocks in full display. Wild boar made with fried cream. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. A suitable support for the said peacocks. sea pullets. quails with sugar. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. marked with the said arms. in a dish. Fried cream. marked with the arms said above. Larded milk. scattered about. Jelly. and Duke’s powder over it.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. and pine nuts. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. half-sweet. fried oranges. pears. preserved in sugar. made of sugar. venison with soup. jonchées [a soft cheese]. game hen. hare pastie. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. jelly. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. Darioles and upside-down stars. then ginger on it. cold sauce. and almonds. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. sweetened white cream. FRUIT COURSE White cream. half-sour. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. 47 . hares or young rabbits with almond cream. wine. and strawberries. Duke’s powder on it. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. sugared strawberries. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. vinegar. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. white and dark red. white of fennel. silvered.
THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. small hares with bramble vinegar. cretonnée of lard. herons. Jelly and slices. jelly. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. Pear pastie. hazelnuts. watercress. kids. almonds. young rabbits with spiced sauce.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. pigeon pastie. capons with Jean’s most. Sugared almonds. SECOND COURSE The best roast. peacocks with celery. capon pastie. nuts and raw pears. swans. pears with hypocras. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. nuts. 48 . gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. fried cream. venison with clove. partridges with sugar. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. Venison pasties. jonchées. pickle. brewet of cinnamon. navews with venison. chickens with herbs. FIFTH COURSE White cream. pears. Steamed pigeons.
Tarts with sugar. Venison. Trimolettes with sugar. Pigeons. cherries with sugar or feathers. SECOND COURSE Roast.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Thin slices. Fresh venison with soups. Pigeon pastie. 49 . Quail pasties. Pears with sugar. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. Venison with peas. Jelly. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. barded sugared chickens. Peacocks. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Herons. lemons. Capon pastie. Baked cream pancake. White jelly and other fried cream. brewet rappé. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Thin gilded slices. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Banquet of marrow. Young rabbits. capes [type of apple]. Must. Boiled chickens. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. capons with tulle. New almonds.
49 white German. 11. 26. 19 peacock. 3. 14 B birds assorted. 31. 23. 10 table. 12. iv. 35. 46. 40 mortar. 19. 16 quail. 10. 46 clairet. 25. 48. 37. 18 capon. 27 . 10. 46. 24. 13. 4. 1. 7. 43. 26. 10. 16. 7. 14. 44 cloth. 28. v. 49 sparrow. 21. i. 49 chicken. 13. 8. 15. 34 goose. 48. 13. 30. 33. 33. 29. 8. 47. 10. 23. 12. 46. 32. 30. i. 35 de-salt. 49 grill. 18 duck wild. 8. 24. 18. 24. 49 blancmange. i. 11. 10. 7. 24. 9. 3. 30. 31. 46. 31. 39. 8. 32. 24. 8. 13. 48. 18. 31. 11 civet. 34 jonchée. 48 cheese. 28 gild. 49 irson. 46. 34 blanch. 6. 39. 15 C caul. 39 bousac. 6. 2. 36 cooking methods baste. 12. 22. 47. 7. 3 rappé. 48. 14. 18. 1. 46 heron. 38. 32 cele. v. 18. 38 cheese fine. 4. 26. 17. 2 covered. 28. 46. 4 Georget. 2. 6. 10. 23. 33 partridge. 33 bittern. 25. 38. 16.head. 27. 33. 7 gizzards. 3. 2. 33 gosling. i. 24. 14. 16. 36. 27. 18 eagle. 13. 38 hand towel. 16. 23. 1 of capons. 10. 31 brewet fish. 15. 26. 49 poultry. 25. 4. 21. 3. 7. 1. 5. 13 chaudeau. iii. 10. 33 swan. 10. 9. 49 pheasant. 48. 6. 36 poussin. 48. 31. 23 guin. 13. 17. 28. i. 16 brown. 29. 43. 34. 3. 4. 13. 48. 21. 9. 15. 10. 16. 34. 30.INDEX A almonds. 24. 5. 6. 47. 7. 12. 13 pigeon. 38. 31 brewet. 18 stork. 16. 31. 11. 24. 35. 48 giblets. 30. 33 ringdove. 1. 10. 19. 27. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 14. 14. 25. 35. 2. 1. 1. 29. 5. 17. 33 blackbird. 15. 15. iv. 5. 1. 8. 5. 22. 14. 47. 11. 23. 4. 2. 2. 14. 2 green. 29. 5. 13. 33. 4 butter fried. 2 meat. 47. 47 dove. 12.
34. 4 brill. 28. 32. 36. 35 scald. 23.Le Viandier parboil. 16. 21. 47. 27. 39 pike. 23. 5. 34. 20. 25. 1 bream. 9. 14. 34. 9. 12. 4. 30. 26 pears. 12. 23. 42. 28. 38 greens parsley. 26. 5. 40 conger. 9 gallimaufrey. 27. 25. 4. 23. 24. 41 flan. 3 cuttlefish. 41 cod. 38. 3. 49 fried. 40 brewet. 17 fromanty. 35. 1. 34. 36. 11. 16. 19. 8. 9. 25. 27. 16. 3. 21. 8. 36 strain. 6. 40. 7. 10. 20 gurnard. 20 sorvige. 2. 13. 39 cream. 35 lamprey. 44 E eggs. 6 flounder. 17. 24. 49 D drinks clairet. 11. 35. 41 salmon. 12. 20. iv. 13. 38 trout. 20 oysters. 23. 20. 31. 34. 24. 34. 11. 13. 23. 38 perch. 13 fish blancmange. 15. 10. v. 26. 21. 8. 37. 5. 40 mullet. 36. 40 cockles. 38. 13. 9. i. 26. 6. 4. 32. 23 grapes. 47 salad burnet. 1. 3. 9. 38 fraze. 41 fresh water. 18. 40. 42 51 . 5. 26. v. 32. 22. 29. 1. 1. 22. 12. 3. 36. 36. 40 porpoise. 12. 22. 35 wheat. 20 turbot. 4. 21. 48. 14. 36. 11. 47 G galantine. 16 spelt (wheat). 35. 40 jelly. 15. 35. 12. 28. 47 F fayenne. 13. 35 fruit apples. 43 coulis. 47 shad. 40 simmer. 33. 18. 28 restore. 35. 27. iv. 48. 49 figs. 20. 26. 40 mackerel. 15. 42 sea pullets. 44 hypocras. 41 carp. 16 perch. 30. 2. 1. 41. 49 cappes. 41 eel. 8. 19. 34. 16 grains barley. 41 cretonnée. 47 tench. 21. 24. 15. 32. 38. 48 plums. 3. 46. 25. 40 goatfish. 40 salt water. 28. 4. 40 ray. 4. 10. 31. 14. 2. 31. 26. 14 fricassee. 7 spit. 28. 47. 20. 29. 38 removing burnt taste.
29. 18 salmon. 7. 3. 23 pigeon. 20 mutton. 43 grenon. 10. 5. 34. 1. 9. 30. 2. 18 bream. 4. 12. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 20 52 . 48. 20. 17. 11. 32. 2. 12. 13. 48. 7. 3. 43 marrow. 49 rabbit. 16. 49 suckling pig. 32. 46. 14. 19. 12. 6. 46 veal. 49 blackbird. 8. 35. 34. 44. 6. 21 lorais. 47. 15. 19. 20 capon. 23. 8. 9. 15. 8. 18 conger eel. 17. 11. 19. 25. 20 mullet. 27. 14. 47. 16. 19. 28. 3. 6. 35. 1. 28. 4. 19 marrow. 33. 6. 28. 20. 37. 35. 13. 20. 15. 11 liver. 48. 31. 37. 28. 6. 13. 34 H haricoq. sheep. 11. 17. 17. 20 goatfish. 14. iii. 27. 21. 2. 43 teat. 47. 29. 1. 46 scum. 34. 5. 2. 4. 10. 14 tongue. 34. 18. 46. 35 leg of. 13. 28. 18. 8. 17 chicken. 6. 11. 21. 10. 10. 33. 32. 23 P pasties. 21 mutton. 16. 8. 19 pear. 18. 19 red mullet. 29. 48 J jelly. 22. 47 lamb. 18 lamprey. 6. 47 boiled. 8. 29. 47 kid. 43. 25. v. 18 partridge. 28. 6. 18.Taillevent sorrel. 11. 47 kid. 21. 31. 7. 48 M meat beef. 11. 35. 38. 20 ringdove. 8 stag. 30. 36. 11 hazelnuts. 49 L lard. 31. 11. 18. 4. 11. 47. 30. 38. 4. 35 spleen. 13. 9. 16. 32. 21 leg of lamb. 26. 15. 29. 10. 46. 48. 28 buttock. 18. 8. 24. 36. 28 cow. 8. 46 foot of. 19. 19. 31 hyocras. 46. 20 shad. 14. 36 boar. 17. 32. 6. v. 28. 15. 49 pork. 12. 16 hare. 47 morterel. 24. 32 sheep bristle. 34 rabbit. 19. 30. 28 shoulder. 46 ham. 26. 20 gosling. 49 milk larded. 8 venison. 3. 19 hare. 12. 34. 36. 36. 32 bellies. 18 halebrans. 8. 10 O orange. 21. 48 houdet.
29. 31. 24. 10 potful. 20 turbot. 32. 13 R rice. 23 53 . 16.Le Viandier sparrow. 37 flour. 25 violet. 48 costmary. 19. 21 peas. 34. 30 Spanish. 32. 1. 30. 35. 13. 29. 34. 14 preserves. 11. 4 shrimp. 11. 26. 34 garlic. 2. 23. 29. 21. 47 saupiquet. 6. 12. 24. 33. 27. 2 salt. 42. 8. 3. 21. 5. 13. purée of. 44. 42. 38 pork. 43 red. 30. 8. 7 roasts. 11. 28 grané. 16. 27. 36. 23. 40. 3. 20 veal. 3. 18 stag. 5. 46 jance. iv. 32. 1 cameline. 20. 8. 28 spices anis. 30 poultry. 29. 24 Poitevin. 32. 26. 45. 3. 9. 25. 18. 6. 1. 33 S sabourot. 7. 5 skin. 26. 43. 24. 32. 27. 35. 10. 3 new bean. 42 ginger. 48 almond. 36. 17. 5. 6. 28. 43. 30 onion. 49 oblongs. 14. 4. 7. 17 pastries dariole. 28. 6 soups chaudin. 2 lark. 26. 17. 36. 19 wild duck. 19. 32. 4 small birds. 26. 9. 40. 25. 19. 18 with warm sauce. 35. 17. 13. 4. 26 seyme. 7. 7 powdered. 31. 42. 2. 7 warm. 38. 1. 16. 20. true. 48 cinnamon. 24. 26. 44. 9. 23. 43. 10 salamine. 21. 47 sorvige. 30 peas. 47 dolphins. 15. 3. 17. 19 trout. 6 removing burnt taste from. 26 shad. 28. 12 cinnamon. 18. 15. 46. 43 Jean’s must. 23. 30 cretonnée. 11. 40. 4. 24.fat. 6. 31. 15. 24. 14. 24. 35. 2. 36 with most. 29. 7. 32. 34. 36. 17. 18. 25 green. 36. 2. 11. 9. 36. 45. 26. 10. 42. 45 string. 30 new peas. 38 cold. 13. 9. 17 wild boar. 30 fish. 21. 8. v. 33. 21. 2. 38. 45 garlic. 28. 31. 47 dodine. 13. 4 galanga. 15. 13. 27 pottage. v. 9. 44 clove. 9. 42 chaudumé. 5. 40. 36. 23. 40. 44 white. 24. 40. 47. 23. 30 fish. 7. v. 27. 45 basil. 41 sauces. 2. 35. 3 de-salting. 24. 41. 25 my lady’s. 5. 26 small wine.
28. 2. 20. 28 gourds. 29. 27. 22. 42. 34 moteaulx. 41. 15. 6. 43. 45 mustard. 22. v. 34. 21 covered. 21. 49 V vegetables beans. 19. 43. 22. 23. 13. 23. 18. 41.Taillevent hyssop. 5. 47. 1. 9. 31. 38. 42. 3. 29. 11. 19. 20. 29. 21. 31. 30. 44. 43 vinaigrette. 11. 9. 42. 38. 29 marjoram. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 36. 49 vintage. 6. 41 verjuice. 7. 26. 17. 21. 40. 2. 25 mastic. 17. 32. 44. 12. 28 leeks. 36. 45. 47 sugar. 25. 11. 4. 23. 38. 11. v. 8. 8. 14. 18. 36. 13. 13. 27. 14. 29. 4. 12. 11. 5. 28. 20. 25. 8. 40. 11. 9. 40. 32. 12. 6. 21. 48. 17. 42. 32. 9. 22 two-faced. 7. 48. 2. 41 nutmeg. 23 saffron. 16. 1. 13. 25. 22 Jacobine. 4. iv. 45. 14. 16. 45. 27 onions. 18. 34. 6. 38. 33. 30. 7. 45 paradise seed. 5. 11. 13. 28. 13. 48 vinegar. 17. 36. 2. 35. 35. 27. 35. 42. 44. 22 trimolette. 28. 48. 21. 31. 7. 5. 19. 2. 8. 28. 29. 34. 11. v. 23. 14. 9. 32. 27. 19. 14 rose. 3. 47 pepper. 17. v. 40. 11. 7. 8. 38. 35. 30. 43. 4. 17. 38. 5. 14. 22. 45 pennyroyal. 31. 45 powder. 14. 27 beets white. 1. 32. 34. 2. 20. 43. 32. 47. 15. 15. 4. 47 54 . 15. 34. 18. 1. 6. 43. 31. 15. 8. 16. 21. 12. 23 common. 12. 41. 26. 10. 2. 4. 13. 15 W water holy. iv. 30. 15. 17. 16. 35. 36. 28. 30. 13. 8. 19. 16. 36. 22 talemouse. 16. 9. 7. 40. 35. 23 Bourbonnaise. 17. 38. 28. 32. 12. 26. 13. 25. 25. 5. 29. 11. 30. 5. 40. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 39. 21. 31. 15. 47 wine. 25. 15. 3. 37. 24. 25. 10. 13. 35. 42. 10. 44. 14. 31. 46 sage. 6. 19. 38. 29. 34. v. 28. 49 T tarts apple. 14. 18. 26. 23. 12. 34. 31. 27 cabbage. 40. 29. 26. 32. 8. 36. 8. 14. 5. 36. 11. 24. 38 stuffing. 3.
1684. M. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . Antoine. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. Paris : P. Vicaire. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. George Olms Verlag. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. usages des Parisiens. 1961. Histoire de la vie privée des français.at/~katzer/engl/index. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. modes.ac. Plon. 1694. C. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. 1694. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle.thousandeggs. de Guerlins. D. Vieweg. Furetière.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. Inc. moeurs.VI. de Crapelet. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. Godefroy. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. Pichon and G. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. J. Paris : E. Hildesheim-New York. 1611. Penguin Books. 1970. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. – 1889. dédié au Roy. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. Le ménagier de Paris. 1846. Cotgrave.-D. Montagné. impr. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Bourgeois parisien. 2002. 1889. Le cuisinier Taillevent. Alfred. Paris: F. Franklin. Pierres. 1881.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise.kfunigraz. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Alan. Legrand d'Aussy. The Penguin Companion to Food. New York: Crown Publishers. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. 1782. Paris.. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. un. Prosper. Randle. Nourrit. Paris : imp. Frédéric.t Ed. London. Toulouse : J. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. Larousse Gastronomique. 1892. impr. Davidson.com/glossary. Reprint. Les repas.html 55 .
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