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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef.
Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern. Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .
and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. 1455 for my lord of Mayne.
Several very different versions of the book exist. among other luminaries.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. — to the exotic. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. peacock. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. complete with measurements. Le Viandier. eggs. peas. swan . This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. some would say barbaric: heron. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. at this time it referred to any food. “cookbook”. Charles V and Charles VI). — and yes. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. For a modern reader. etc. The work’s title. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. stork. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. i . quite simply.
I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. for other words. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . Several special classes of words exist here. Some. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. too. If some passages seem redundant. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. In some cases. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. illogical or confused.
Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. Strictly speaking. To complicate matters. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. to a pâté. however. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. Also. may have been too hardened to eat. effectively. The pastry itself. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. Pastie (Pasté) iii . Here and in other cases.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here.
moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. However. though. Were these assumed to include that fish.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. or. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. the translation is nearly direct.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. In context. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. Here. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. In practice. to “under-fry”. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. it seems to mean to brown the food. succulent state before cooking it. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. when liquid is present. iv . “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). In this case. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. to dissolve. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. As an old cooking term. However.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
For Lark Grané Take larks. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. diluted with vinegar. with the following spices: cinnamon. and strain with the broth. diluted with verjuice. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. ginger. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. Boil in water and pea puree. and for spices. and put the shells aside. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. Take bread and livers. marjoram. and strain. and crush. raw. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. and egg yolks. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. Once it has been strained. and put herbs. ginger. paradise seed. cooked egg yolks. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. ginger and assorted spices. and infuse with verjuice. and put veal in the pot with them. restore them. and nutmeg if you have it. Soak livers with the bread and strain. and boil it all together. for a better broth. and scale and slice up pike. and set the broth separately. and cook them. clove. And then boil the spices. and put it all together. and fry them. the costmary. cut up in pieces. not too much. paradise seed and clove. and take bread soaked in beef broth. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. and add in the broth. diluted with verjuice. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. as above. To thicken. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. and poultry livers. you will shell them. that is cinnamon. put it all in a pot. then brown. spices and verjuice. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. and strain it all together. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. When the bread is strained. and take a great quantity of parsley. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. wild spinach. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot.Taillevent egg yolks.
Make similar broth as for seyme. and strain pike livers with it. and infuse with verjuice. when they are browned. and saffron for color. and sweeten moderately. to the chaudumé. Put with the other spices. and sprinkle with salt. and then use pure mustard. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. cinnamon. and soak in the beef broth. and sweeten moderately. Salt to taste. And if you do not have enough meat. and soak in beef broth. fry eggs in oil or butter. with the same spices. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. 5 .Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. if you have them. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. paradise seed. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. When it is roasted. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. cinnamon and assorted spices. and. take some puree. ginger. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. and fry in a pot. Cut up in pieces. if you have them. add a reasonable amount of sugar. and strain the almonds all together. Add ginger. and verjuice. and then fry finely chopped onion. Take ginger. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. Salt to taste. and boil everything together. Take bread and livers. Then strain the bread and the livers. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. and salt to taste. and boil them all together. set it to boil. infused with verjuice. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. assorted spices. and salt to taste. clove. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. and put the broth apart. and put in the pot. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. pike browned on the grill.. And put cinnamon. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and boil all together. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and roast it. and paradise seed. ginger and assorted spices. and infuse it with verjuice. Infuse with verjuice. ginger.
and set them to cook. if you have it. and other broth. Fry onion and parsley. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. When the potage is ready. cut up in pieces. such as livers. and soak it in pea purée. When 6 . and saffron for color. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. put cinnamon. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and salt to taste. clove. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. clove and seeds. Put in a pot. etc. boil it thus. paradise seed. and take some small giblets of poultry. and add some red Burgundy wine. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. that is ginger. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. slice it up in large cubes. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. Put some bread in to soak. and some spices. It is best to strain it. For spices. put it in your pot. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. the best that you can find. gizzards. each one with its lardoons. Clean and cut up. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. with no other spices – this is enough. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. For spices. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. and put in seed ginger. Boil it all together. poultry. Add to the pot. cinnamon and assorted spices. Then take ginger. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. When it is not too well cooked along the side. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Take browned bread. or its own broth. infused with vinegar. and strain. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. and verjuice and salt to taste. cinnamon and assorted spices.
and boil and. Then put the broth in a pot. and season with salt. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. without leaving it too long on the fire. and serve them in dishes or bowls. Take peeled almonds. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. and prepared. boil it all together. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. After straining it through cheesecloth. Slice up the giblets. and just a little white wine. Salt 7 . so that. crushed up and ground fine. and throw it in when you boil it. and fry them in its broth. with the appropriate sauce. and color it. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. once they are cooked. and crush them and strain them. Then take white wine and verjuice. When the meat is served in dishes. put them in a pot to boil. slice up partridge. two or three with each dish. or some white sugared almonds. When the poussins are cooked. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. and let the color soak in. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. Put in a large amount of sugar. the best lard you can find. if you have them. and cook them. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). take peeled almonds. And to give a red color. Add some ginger and a little saffron. slice them lengthwise. it thickens. amount of sugar. also known as alkanets. Once they are strained. internally]. such as green sauce . and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. and put in a pot. and strain with the almonds and the broth. fry them in lard. and filter into the pot to give it color.Le Viandier they are cooked. and add a generous. and heat in lard. with some verjuice. but reasonable. When serving. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. some white wine and verjuice. and soak them in the poultry broth.
and take some finely chopped onion. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. seed and clove. the pork. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. and washed. Brown bread. take pork cut into pieces. when it boils. and soak in 8 . Take cinnamon. if the spices are not well beaten. and salt just enough. put in a cellar. Once it is cooked. and crush.Taillevent to taste. while it is straining. brown the geese on the spit. take eggs whites and put with the broth. and a lot of saffron. If the jelly is too fatty. and infuse the spices with vinegar. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. and a bit of saffron for color. Once it is browned. and put in a pot on the coal fire. that is. and then when the meat is in dishes. Put in a pot. fry them in a pot. Take a little bread and poultry livers. then put in a pot to brown. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. And when the meat is cooked. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. put the meat in dishes. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. When they are browned. when it starts to boil. and young rabbits. well cleaned. with a moderate amount of sugar. take the broth. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. put with the meat. clove and seed) to the bread. Add cinnamon. the young rabbit and poultry. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. and halved poussins. and. and a moderate amount of vinegar. if you can find them. Put in lard and beef broth. soak it with poultry livers. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. a little mastic. whichever you can find. Bousac For bousac. and cut up in small pieces. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. a hare is to be restored. ginger and assorted spices (that is. Boil it all together. Then strain it. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. Then take ginger and seed. parboiled and cut up in pieces. and cook.
and salt to taste. and salt it well. the crops of pike and their broth. paradise seed. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. put a little saffron for color. When they are boiled. cook tripe of pike and carp. and boil it all together. that is cinnamon. When it is cooked. take some rice. When it is strained. brown without burning. the best you can find. and add the liquid. Add salt as appropriate. put the broth in a pot. When it is boiled. Take a carp or two and pike. Scald the eels. in wine. and. and the tripe of fish. Take bread. slice it into round slices. add the cut up pike. While cooking. Salt to taste. and prepare it. add a little vinegar. Strain the bread and the spices together. ginger. take pike and prepare them. Rice For rice. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. and infuse with vinegar. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. remove their bones. and the tripe as well. so long as it does not smell of brass. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. When it is cooked. Once they are chopped up fine. removing the bones as best you can. and fry them. Boil the cow’s milk. put the pike and eel in by sections. and a large amount of clove. then strain. 9 . Take cinnamon. and tie them all around. put the spices in all together with the broth. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. that is the livers. and a moderate amount of mustard. When the fish is scaled. then leave to cool. while boiling. and also any other spices. then slice them up. take spices. assorted spices. and add sugar. When it is strained. slice into large chunks. and slice them up. Strain again one time. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. and boil as long as you can without burning. Strain and put with the pot. ginger.Le Viandier broth beef. cook in a pot or frying pan. Then boil. clove and beaten galanga. and put the fried fish in the pot.
Put in the pot. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. when serving. and salt to taste. Press it as well as you can. Mix just a little cheese. and add some verjuice while thickening. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. slice it into thin slices. and cut up into small pieces. 10 . Put in some white ginger. boil milk on the fire. take it off the fire. or partridge. Take spices. with a little bread to thicken. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. When it is ready. Take some eggs and beat very well. the following day. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. put the meat in dishes and. moistened with just a little verjuice. beaten white ginger. with a little saffron for color. and boil in a pot. Soak the poultry in beef broth. season with a little cooked lard. When the meat is cooked. Brown in a frying pan with lard. some broth. and beaten white ginger. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. Add saffron. or capon meat. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Take some fatty lard. and beat with your eggs. Put in a pot and boil. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. and chop it as fine as you can. Boil. slice it up finely. and put it all in. good and fine. When it has been pressed a whole night. and tie it up. fry it in lard or pork fat. When it is sliced up. take poussins or poultry. Brown a little onion. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. Add salt. Thicken the broth with it. and take their broth. and add some parsley leaves. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. take prepared capons or large poultry. and strain. When it is on the point of being cooked. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. When everything is cooked. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks.
Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. Remove all the skin. and brown the meat. After. When they are browned. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. Salt to taste. clove and seed. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. and a great deal of parsley. when taken in heat. well and whole. For Haricoq To make haricoq. Do not cook it too much. and boil it all together. and split it and clean it. ginger. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Put on a table. and put in a pot. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. roast the shoulder on the spit. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. cinnamon and assorted spices. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. Leave as long as it is cold. hyssop. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. When it is as if rotted from cooking. assorted spices in large quantity. then take it from the fire. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. cut up them into pieces. 11 . Press it between two dishes. the thinnest that you can find. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Put it all together. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Take peeled onions. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. and boil in wine and vinegar. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. Add a large quantity of sugar. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Take it off the spit. Put the skin aside. with stones on it to press well. and chop them up fine. that is. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. and salt to taste. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. sugar and salt. Put in the pot with the meat. Take white ginger. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Remove all meat from the bones. take its head. Some like to add ginger.
Once they have been scalded. if you have it. chop it up as finely as you can. After. all the way to the knee.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. so that it solidifies. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. sweeten the poussins. put in a dish and serve last. Then take the chicken meat. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. wings or neck. Once they are well cooked. Cook it all together with meat broth. hyssop. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. a needle across the opening. lard. pennyroyal and basil. gild it with egg yolks while turning. if there is a shoulder. all cooked together. When serving. bone and meat. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. Put it in a straining cloth. for a long while. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. just a little bit. ginger and assorted spices. a great deal of parsley. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. Take everything inside. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. Then take a veal or kid membrane. and boil in pure white wine. Once it is crisp. leaving only skin. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. 12 . Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. it is advisable to scald them…. and cook it all together. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Take saffron for color. Strain until there is no liquid left. Put with the meat. parsley. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. without cutting off their feet. take poultry liver or lard. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. a pig or poultry liver. filter until no more liquid is left. When they are cooked. split them at the shoulders. When it is done. Once this is done. being careful not to burn it. and put the stuffing in it. hyssop and raw marjoram. except the head and the legs. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks.
and also the livers and almonds. and salt it. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. and strain it all together through a cloth. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. long pepper. When they are half cooked. and strain through a cloth. Stir all the spices together. Scald and pluck and clean very well. whole. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. Add strong vinegar. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . strain. and put in your meat. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. Take capon or poultry broth. put in dishes. Strain the almonds. This done. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. Put. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. clove. and for two servings. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. Boil pig and poultry livers. take a veal’s head and feet. and a handful of onion. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. and also a pound of egg yolks. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. This sauce is good on all roasts. When the roast is taken off the spit. On fish days. and crush them all together. Then slice it into fine slices. for six servings. no more or less than you want for the brewet.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. lard with clove. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. with the jelly on it. seed. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. Boil your broth. a pound of sugar. lard and put on the spit. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. Take a pound of almonds. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. After cook in wine.
Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. with the maws and livers. and chop into small cubes. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. Add in sugar and ginger. Fry in lard.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. put duke’s powder on it. take a pint of vinegar. Put in dishes as for a 14 . Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. Cover so that no steam gets out. Gild the heads on the grill. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. and after put it in a dish. Fry with butter or oil. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. cook them. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. Chop up onion. an ounce of assorted spices. and put them in once they are stuffed. Take the pike eggs. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. Take the fish maws and livers. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. Put. add a quarter pound of sugar. When the almonds are thick. and boil it all together. put in dishes. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. and the pike’s liver. Then strain through a cloth. take a new pot. while frying. and strain through a cloth. and a little soaked bread. Add a little saffron for color. When it is boiled. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. If you see that there is too much fat. then brown. and boil it all in a frying pan. remove it. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. When they are well cooked. scald it and then fry it. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. Once they are cooked. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. When serving at the table. Then put the pike on coals to stew. and take the broth in which they are cooked. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar.
crush it up in the mortar. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. After put in dishes and serve. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Take milk. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. put some duke’s powder on it. Then take sage. very fine skewers. and. saffron and sugar. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Soak in 15 . pennyroyal. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. take stale white bread. Add in ginger. and set on the grill over a low fire. and yellow the half with saffron. when it is well crushed. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. together with the butter. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. and chop them up finely. make a small hole in the end of each egg. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. and the eggs. mint and all other good herbs. strain through a cloth. bunches of grapes or wine?]. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Fry in butter.Le Viandier bar of butter. Then place them in nice rows along the length. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. Take small. as much as suits you. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. Coulis To make coulis. and take out what is inside. When serving. take veal or pork. marjoram. and put it in barely touching the almonds. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. and crush up the crumbs finely. without any liquid. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. and split each half in three parts lengthwise.
like wheat to make fromenty. after grind it. and salt to taste without anything else in it. but not too much. put some in. take a perch and cook it in water. Once it is cooked. and boned. To bind it. when it is cooked. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. cinnamon. ginger. put some thick almond milk. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. boil in a small pot. put in wine and 16 . with fat as for a potted pastie. When they are fried. and then soak in almond milk. and finely chopped onion. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. take a poussin or two. rinse and boil it very well. crush it in the mortar. After fry with lard or goose lard. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. put in assorted spices. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. Make like that of perch. vinegar. but. without crushing it. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. and chop it up finely. Afterwards. salt moderately. After it is well cleaned. or anything else. roast poultry or capons. and. in grinding it. and start in the same way as the capon above. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. and cut into pieces. and put the whole barley in it. Once it is cooked. After make like that of meat. when crushing. and.Taillevent the capon broth. if the sick person wants sugar in it. Then boil in a nice large pot and. skinned. It can be salted or not. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. Do not add verjuice. soaked in purée of peas. saffron and some verjuice.
and a moderate amount of salt. and chop all together and the said pastie. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. beef marrow. toast black bread well. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. Cook the said 17 . This done. assorted spices and saffron. and boil with the sauce in the oven. For spices. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. true cinnamon. or possibly cocks. The appropriate spices are: ginger. long pepper. in equal parts. and chop it quite small all together. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. For spices. except the clove should dominate the other spices. cameline. To make the sauce.Le Viandier verjuice. put some ginger powder and. and beef fat. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. and for spices. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. paradise seed. and. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. put in fine cheese. in winter style.] Put the capons in pastie. clove. cover with lard. put the fat in the pastie. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. when the pastie is cooked. saffron and sweeten. nutmeg. The appropriate spices are ginger. add some ginger. After. While frying. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. put in a little ginger. to thicken. remove all the meat of the capons. Fricassees For fricassees. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. take raw poultry. true cinnamon. and boil it all together. add the sauce. For spices.
with a moderate amount of sugar. and lard finely chopped. For spices. and ginger. 18 . Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. with fine powder. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. and beef marrow. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. and fine cheese. and the fat of chopped veal.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. assorted spices and saffron. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. some ginger. assorted spices and saffron. For spices. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. put it all together. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. for spices. with assorted spices added. clove and ginger. Add lard chopped fine. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. put in ginger. cinnamon and saffron. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and for spices. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and beat all together. When the pastie is cooked.
Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. For spices. ginger and clove powder. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. seed and pepper. 19 . and take. slice it into fine slices. For spices. assorted spices and saffron. And put them in the pastie. and add assorted spices. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. when they are made.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. in season. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. Add assorted spices. the following is very much a “best guess”. fry it all in butter. and roll this in butter. like those which are made double. or the smaller one whole. For spices. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. raised up high and. and chopped lard. well made pasties. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. and parboil it. It is best that these be small. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. For fish. clove. ginger. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. pressed between three fingers. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. Add ginger and a little pepper.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. new beans and parboil them. After.
Parboil the marrow. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. without anything else. and some gooseberries. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. raised up high and well made. fine powder and saffron. Put in assorted spices. ginger and saffron. with spices and sugar mixed together. Eel Pastie Take saffron. and fry in lard. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. 20 . Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie.
Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart.e. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. Strain through cloth and add the powder. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. so that the contents do not leak out. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Fry onion in butter. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Make the crust strong and thick. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. if you have some. Make the sauce separately. and sugar. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Once the pastie is high and raised.. crush up cheese. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. After put in the oven briefly. then put it in the oven. pies]. If you cannot find cream. and pat it. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. 21 . and rounded. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. Dolphins Lily flowers. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. and quite black. star with fried cream. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. gild it well. After boil it.
turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. and put on the tart. When it is cooked. turn it in a dish. with a great quantity of sugar. with oranges on it. of the thickness of a finger. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. soak the crust in eggs and butter. before adding the cheese and the cream. but not too 22 . The slices should be less than two fingers high. and cook like the other side. soaked in cream. use fine cheese. well soaked in egg yolks. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. and enough egg yolks. Seat well in the tart. take it out and let it cool. and good cream. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. like the other side. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. When ready to dine. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. put in the oven. Once it is a little cooked. and take off the crust where cooked. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. take it out. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Covered Tart For covered tart. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. and cover the whole top with orange. Cut eel into sections and boil it. with egg yolks mixed into it. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. then cook in the oven as said. and stuffed in two fingers deep. Knead the crust well with eggs. When it is cooked. Fry them in butter. and cook them. and cover the crust with wafers. crushed.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. so that nothing of it shows. set it to cool.
brown bread in front of a good red fire.Le Viandier much. so all this presumably is the filling. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. Clean grapes well. and fill the hollow with the sugar. and put in with the apples and the figs. or a dish. put with the surplus and add the saffron. and put orange all over it. then gild it with saffron. Make two big pastry undercrusts. For each tart. Once it is soaked. that is candied pine nut. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . soak with cream. [Darioles were small pastries. without burning it. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. true cinnamon and white ginger. and put in the oven. Knead the crust well with eggs. Fry the cream well in butter. This is how it should be made. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. Add onion fried with butter or oil. then put in the tart and layer over the top. a bit of assorted spices. and enough egg yolks. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. and cook. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. well mixed by hand. Cover it with a top. candied ginger might be used instead]. put eight or ten slices on end.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. if you have any. Cover well. Mix in with the other apples. and mix well together. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. Put all the fillings together. and wine. and gild with eggs or saffron. crushed up. Sweeten well. put in the oven. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. and put in figs. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. but do not strain them.
Soak it in milk. Be sure not to put it in a pot. ginger. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. roast them well on the spit. take poultry livers. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. and a little browned bread and very little broth. Take their livers. throw in a drop or two. put them over it with the sauce. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. brown one toast of bread. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. and boil in a frying pan. roast a goose. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. Bring to a boil. because it will smell of brass. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. assorted spices . Strain very well through a cloth.and soak in verjuice and wine. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. Boil a dozen eggs. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. and salt it well. and crush them up in a bowl. Put a frying pan under it. peel almonds and crush in a mortar.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Boil in a frying pan. Jance To make jance. Then when it is cooked. and strain and strain again through a cloth. brown one toast of bread on the fire. or with the mortar. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. while boiling. a half ounce of ginger. and put in a nice pot. Add in half an ounce of ginger. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk.cinnamon. and strain them through a cloth. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. because it will blacken. When the goose is cooked. and put in the poultry. and crush up spices in a mortar . and roast on the grill. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan.
Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. and a half ounce of ginger. and peel. When the birds are cooked. Soak it in milk. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. For one pint. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. hyssop and other good herbs. put in an ounce of ginger. Chop the herbs up. roast fatty capons on the spit. When the 25 . Leave it only a little. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. or other roast fowl. Filter the water. and also in other dodines. Then take marjoram. take half a dozen garlic cloves. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. and boil together. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. Boil in a frying pan. Once the bread is soaked. capons. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. and boil everything together. and pour the grain in the sauce. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. Soak it only in verjuice. a little parsley. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. When you boil it. Take an ounce of ginger. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. and let livers roast a little on the grill. add butter. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. or more if you wish. Sugar to taste. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. For four servings. Put on the roast. and add a little saffron. Add half a pound of sugar. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. and boil it all with milk. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. and then put in a nice pot. put a quart of milk. and boil under the capons. put the dodine on them.
Once the shad is half cooked. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. put the verjuice on the shad. one with the other. Once it has been strained. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. take two ounces of true cinnamon. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. and soak in purée of peas. Brown bread. Then when the bread is soaked. half an ounce of ginger. take some vinegar and wine. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. and strain it all together through a cloth. with a little saffron. and put it to soak in broth. and some puree. and then put over the roast. Put the fish with the broth. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. Take for one shad. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. Take red wine and vinegar. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. and put on the shad. and strain it all together with your bread. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. and put in the sauce. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. For four servings. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. for four servings. and scald it. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and some fresh or salted butter. brown bread as for cameline. Strain the bread and all the spices together. and fry it. take pike. and boil. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. take verjuice and white wine. take out the capons and put in a dish. a bit of assorted spices. Put in a 26 . Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast.
Brown in butter for a long while. purée them and bind with broth. put in a frying pan to cool. a half ounce of ginger. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. boil in water. two ounces of sugar. Leeks To make leeks. Add a little water to keep it from burning. split lard into thin slices and fry. and chop up fine. Chop them up. After. and add some verjuice and parsley. If you lack grapes. Wash and parboil them. and after put them on a plank. When they are done cooking. use mulberries. Once this is done. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. 27 . then put on a plank. and strain it all through cloth. then bind with lard and warm water. When they are parboiled. if you do not have the broth. and strain it all through the cloth. When they are half cooked. put the beans to soak in the evening. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. then crush them in a mortar. and put in lard to give them taste. on fried eggs. bind with beef broth. On fast days. This sauce is good on larks. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. capons or other roast. take two ounces of true cinnamon. White Beets To make white beets. or. Onion Soup To make onion soup. and boil in river or fountain water. Squeeze out between your hands. use butter and purée of peas. For four servings. Remove the black ones. and then crush up in a mortar. On fish days. purée them and put cold water on them. then strain them through a cloth. with enough grapes. except the sugar. Milled Beans To make milled beans.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. fish and all other fried things. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. Mix with purée of peas or water. and almond milk if you like. use purée of pea and butter.
Filter out the liquid. and squeeze them between your hands. and cut into four quarters. while doing this. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. put in beef broth. Boil all together. For fast days. take your pot off the fire. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. verjuice. then purée. then 28 . Sheep. hyssop. Parboil in a frying pan. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. if there are any. Lard the length of the meat. Pig Cook in water and salt. salted. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. and turn it to one side and another. peel them and cut into round slices. and add some cold water on them.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. On fast days. add parsley. Cook with only mastic and saffron. If it is fresh. and a little saffron. take off the top leaves. Remove the seeds. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. use purée of peas with butter and oil. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. mastic and hyssop. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. and put some cold water over them. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. Once it is well cooked. and put on your pot. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. Gourds For gourds. with mustard. sage. Squeeze and chop up finely. sage. Put in some cowʹs milk. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. wine. and.
with fine powder. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. larded. Eat parboiled in pastry. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. seed. clove. and a good deal of spice. Grate ginger. Boil your meat. and add lard for flavor. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. with parsley. 29 . with cameline. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. cinnamon. sage and hyssop. Fry in lard with some onions. Add some verjuice and vinegar.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. and saffron for color. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. cook in water and salt.
Soak a little bread in beef broth. add a large quantity of eggs. without adding anything but a little white bread. Strain it. Powder ginger and cumin. pull back from the fire. broken up in beef broth. then purée. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. and watch that it does not turn. Cut up into parts. and boil it all together. long pepper. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Then take cowʹs milk. Soak white bread in milk. Boil with 30 . Take white bread. vinegar. and strain. Add egg yolks. and fry in lard. cook poultry well in water. Fry in lard. Boil. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Always let thicken on its own.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Take verjuice. Brown them in lard. Fry in lard. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. then cut up into pieces. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. saffron. Pull back from the fire. Cut up into parts. infuse with wine and verjuice. Grate ginger and cumin. then grate ginger and saffron. Put in your soup just before serving it. cook in wine and water. Fry in lard. and cook a little in water. cook the peas until they are soft. Mix in your milk. and boil on your meat. Boil. Take ginger. Take almonds infused with broth. and boil briefly. and boil with your meat. Fry in lard. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish.
paradise seed. Take a little burned bread. paradise seed. Fry in lard. Fry in lard. Then powder ginger. Civet For civet. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Cut up into parts. and made like that for hare. clove. Beat ginger. But do not wash the meat at all. and fry in lard. 31 . clove. Then take bread browned on the grill.Le Viandier your meat. then cut up into pieces. crush almonds. This should be quite thick. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. and spice it well. and do not let it thicken too much. cinnamon. cinnamon and clove. Boil with your meat. Boil it all together. Take browned bread. cinnamon. galanga and long pepper. Boil together. Strain. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. and saffron for color. infuse with verjuice. and saffron to give color. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. and add well beaten egg yolks. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. cook in wine and water. then cut up into pieces. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. paradise seed. It should be very black and not too thick. cook in water and wine. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. brown on the spit or on the grill. infuse with beef broth and wine. cinnamon. Powder ginger. Grate ginger. without letting it cook too long. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. Boil on your meat. mix with verjuice.
Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. clove. Boil so well that it is clear and black. or verjuice. or vinegar. Goose Plume a dry goose. verjuice. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. cut your veal up finely. In pastry. and cut up your meat into pieces. Cook it. with cinnamon. paradise seed. Roast without lard. Once it is cooked. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. Eat with garlic or jance. soaked in wine. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. Crush ginger and saffron. Fry in lard. Eat with cameline. and scramble eggs. also known as breast meat. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. cinnamon. and eaten with cameline in pastry. with powder and cold sage. 32 . Put on the spit. Some put onions on it. Dribble eggs over it while frying. in pastry. Roast Mutton With a little salt. or verjuice. boil it all together. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. and toasted bread. with fine powder and saffron. Restore it in water.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
as soon as it is time to serve it. Pour on your poultry in sections. when it is cooked. five wooden spoons. paradise seed. Then grate ginger. After. four pigs. cinnamon. Blend it all together. if it is fish. six young rabbits. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. Boil with your fish or meat. skimming it the whole time. For pork. thirty legs of veal. because it will not flow. paradise seed. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. take twenty five poussins. bleed it by the mouth. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. and. three quarter pounds of string ginger. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. mastic. mixed with vinegar. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. cinnamon. six ells of cloth. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. and paradise seeds. To make jelly. Tie it in a white cloth. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. Powder ginger. three quarter pounds of ginger. twenty earthen pots. The sauce should not be too black. Some add cooked yolks. Remove the tongue. Have it well bled. take poultry and cook in water.Taillevent pepper. clove. if it is fish. six ounces of saffron. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. nutmeg. Strain. whole. 36 . take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. folded over two or three times. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. six dishes: and drink for the workers. and. galanga. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. Put it on a spit. See that the broth is clear and clean. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. saffron to give color. make the cold sauce without eggs. you must stay alert. Put them in a cold place. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. skimming it the whole time. put in the drippings and soak clove in them.
Add the fat from beef broth. and sugar the bowls. Take cowʹs milk. During Lent. on a meat day. and wheat. add your rice. wash in warm water. 37 . use almond milk. and boil together on a low fire.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. then wipe your rice by the fire. cull.
Grate ginger. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. which once meant a variety of pike. some of your broth. Cook on the fire. seed. Then cool. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. Serve it on your fish. or verjuice. mix in some white wine. Some put in a little verjuice. almond oil and a little verjuice. cinnamon. 38 . except that one puts in a bit of sage.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. but here appears to mean a green. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. at the evening. eggs and milk. in oil. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. take ginger. take tenches. Add ginger and pepper. dissolve in white wine. and saffron. Boil together. If it is too sour. with wine and verjuice. add sugar. Boil. If you do not have that. wine. [*This might be a variant of lus. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. when it is boiled. cinnamon. scald and wash very well. and no other spices. some of your milk and mix together. For the sick. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. boil a little water. Crush. especially. lux* and carps and. paradise seed and saffron. Grind almonds. Soak egg yolks in white wine. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. Boil together with the oysters. and strains it through a cloth. and put on your fish.
Crush almonds.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Boil until thick. It should be clear. Boil it all together. 39 . mix with broth in a little wine. Crush almonds and the perch together. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. Put pomegranates over it. cook in water. and strain with broth.
either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. dace. barbell. Add as much spring onion as you like. cinnamon. Salt it with wine. pike. Eat with green sauce. Eat with cameline. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Split along the back. pepper and a little saffron. “cream”. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Eat with green sauce. 40 . Powder ginger. cook in water. or roast on the grill. carp. fresh shad. Do not make it too yellow. Take wine and the liquid of the fish.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. paradise seed. in pastry and with fine powder. Cresme [*Literally. Add a little salt or mustard. eat with garlic. – cook all of these in water and add salt. eels. Boil. Eat with cameline. Salt the shad. Porpoise For porpoise.
41 . Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. Cod Cook in water. sole. with wine and verjuice. Eat with jance. turbot. Add fine powder. Salt it.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. ray. with mustard or butter. flounder: cook in water.
pepper. paradise seed. Crush bread. white garlic. cinnamon. galanga. Crush ginger. 42 . Pour on your fish. infuse with vinegar. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. a little saffron. parsley and salad burnet.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. green sauce and garlic camelines. nutmeg.
Jance Crush almonds. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Some add seed and galanga to it. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. saffron. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. crush seed and livers. Boil. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Some add seed and galanga to it. Infuse with verjuice and wine. then grind up ginger. Boil when you are ready to serve it. 43 . Some like it with cowʹs milk. Boil. Strain and boil.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. pepper. and browned bread. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. with the fat from the roast. string ginger and white bread. Infuse with other verjuice.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
pears. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. jonchées [a soft cheese]. and pine nuts. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. sea pullets. silvered. sweetened white cream. Larded milk. scattered about. half-sour. and Duke’s powder over it. Wild boar made with fried cream. venison with soup. white of fennel. then ginger on it. in a dish. Jelly. fried oranges. and strawberries. A suitable support for the said peacocks.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. made of sugar. white and dark red. FRUIT COURSE White cream. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. 47 . Duke’s powder on it. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. Darioles and upside-down stars. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. preserved in sugar. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. young peacocks in full display. marked with the arms said above. half-sweet. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Fried cream. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. game hen. wine. cold sauce. quails with sugar. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. hare pastie. jelly. vinegar. marked with the said arms. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. and almonds. sugared strawberries.
capons with Jean’s most. SECOND COURSE The best roast. watercress. Jelly and slices. kids.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. capon pastie. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. fried cream. pears. cretonnée of lard. partridges with sugar. pickle. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. venison with clove. 48 . swans. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. small hares with bramble vinegar. FIFTH COURSE White cream. herons. pigeon pastie. chickens with herbs. hazelnuts. Venison pasties. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. Pear pastie. navews with venison. jelly. brewet of cinnamon. peacocks with celery. jonchées. nuts. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. Sugared almonds. nuts and raw pears. young rabbits with spiced sauce. almonds. Steamed pigeons. pears with hypocras.
New almonds. lemons.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Trimolettes with sugar. Must. SECOND COURSE Roast. Pigeon pastie. Pears with sugar. capons with tulle. Venison. Capon pastie. Boiled chickens. Banquet of marrow. barded sugared chickens. Herons. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. 49 . Baked cream pancake. Quail pasties. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. White jelly and other fried cream. Jelly. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Peacocks. Young rabbits. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Tarts with sugar. Thin gilded slices. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. Pigeons. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. cherries with sugar or feathers. Thin slices. Fresh venison with soups. Venison with peas. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. brewet rappé. capes [type of apple].
5. 48. 18 eagle. 1. 14 B birds assorted. 13. 13. i. 38 cheese fine. 6. 49 white German. 23. 7. 16 brown. 23. 10. 16. 22. 31 brewet fish. 24. 25. 19. v. i. 31. 26. 39. 40 mortar. 47. 8. 1 of capons. 4. 13. 33 partridge. 15. 21. 13. 14. 38 hand towel. 48. 46. 15 C caul. 10 table. 2 meat. 33 ringdove. 49 blancmange. 31. 49 sparrow. 17. 1. iv. 12. 48 cheese. 18 capon. 48. 37. 28. 48 giblets. 14. 12. 6. 30. 46 clairet. 1. 13. 47 dove. 46. 4. 12. 34 blanch. 48.head. 36 poussin. 46. i. 10. 47. 25. 13 chaudeau. 18. 1. 2. 18 stork. 15. 16. 33. 27. 29. 7. 7. 38. 4. 5. 24. 9. 1. 5. 31 brewet. 6. 24. 2. 24. 35 de-salt. 28 gild. 49 grill. 23. iii. 25. 35. 6. 10. 8. 33 bittern. 14. 47. iv. 34. 10. 34 goose. 10. 29. 13. 18 duck wild. 8. 15. 46. 8. 3. 11. 10. v. 27. 30. 24. 21. 47. 34 jonchée. 17. 39. 26. 1. 3. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 4 Georget. 6. 5. 11. 39 bousac. 12. 10. i. 7. 27. 28. 4. 19 peacock. 49 pheasant.INDEX A almonds. 48. 11. 22. 8. 38. 25. 33 gosling. 23. 16. 2. 5. 16. 3. 26. 17. 18. 38. 35. 32. 7. 33 swan. 18. 43. 47. 13. 10. 33. 28. 33. 14. 46. 32. 12. 10. 48. 24. 36 cooking methods baste. 9. 30. 16 quail. 27 . 34. 7 gizzards. 13. 43. 2 green. 23. 3. 10. 15. 14. 30. 36. 1. 4. 8. 35. 26. 14. 46. 14. 19. 33 blackbird. 5. 48. 2. 44 cloth. 13 pigeon. 49 irson. 29. 21. 16. 23 guin. 24. 2 covered. 2. 3. 15. 7. 4 butter fried. 24. 31. 10. 3 rappé. 31. 29. 33. 11. 18. 30. 49 chicken. 11 civet. 31. 16. 9. i. 49 poultry. 31. 32 cele. 46 heron. 2.
26 pears. 26. 40 salt water. 23. iv. 1. 28. 42 sea pullets. 36. 32. 21. 40 mullet.Le Viandier parboil. 35. 49 figs. 38 fraze. 24. 34. 38 greens parsley. 41 cod. 19. 9. 16 spelt (wheat). 26. 27. 12. 26. 23. 22. 31. 34. 25. 16. 23. 47 salad burnet. 6 flounder. 15. 26. 25. 1. 42. 9. 20. 32. 16 grains barley. 34. 12. 41 eel. 4. 22. 13. 34. 33. 40 porpoise. 30. 28. 35 fruit apples. 32. 5. 12. 23. 26. 13 fish blancmange. 12. 11. 35. 4. 36. 14. 8. 10. 24. 4. 47 F fayenne. 18. 34. 41 fresh water. 7 spit. 13. 25. 6. 14 fricassee. 41 cretonnée. 21. 8. 20. 40 simmer. 2. 7. 48. 4. 3. 35. 49 D drinks clairet. 15. v. 38. 38 removing burnt taste. 34. 28. 36. 20. 44 E eggs. 11. 29. 18. 13. v. 25. 40 jelly. 35 scald. 24. i. 32. 3 cuttlefish. 30. 40. 13. 20 oysters. 41 carp. 9 gallimaufrey. 47 G galantine. 13. 47 shad. 29. 10. 20. 10. 19. 38. 17. 3. 20 turbot. 47. 39 cream. 16. 16 perch. 35. 28. 26. 22. 47 tench. 5. 9. 27. 8. 5. 40. 2. 31. 11. 31. 2. 46. 43 coulis. 36 strain. 14. 23. 17 fromanty. 20. 20 sorvige. 35. iv. 6. 12. 40 conger. 35 wheat. 1. 40 mackerel. 9. 3. 21. 42 51 . 1 bream. 21. 34. 4 brill. 48 plums. 47. 38 trout. 27. 9. 5. 23. 39 pike. 15. 11. 14. 1. 48. 44 hypocras. 28. 15. 41. 49 cappes. 36. 21. 38. 24. 4. 41 flan. 40 brewet. 36. 12. 38 perch. 37. 40 cockles. 3. 20 gurnard. 35 lamprey. 8. 40 goatfish. 16. 40 ray. 36. 27. 23 grapes. 3. 41 salmon. 49 fried. 28 restore. 4. 1.
48. 20 shad. 13. 12. 2. 18. 34 rabbit. 26. 10. 48. 18 partridge. 19. 24. 47. 28. 11. 6. 23 P pasties. 11. 44. 18. 4. 35. 8 stag. 28. 11. 17 chicken. 30. 43 grenon. 19. 32. 49 rabbit. 3. 4. 47 kid. 36. 30. 31. 28 cow. 43. 6. 43 teat. 32. 32. 32 bellies. 20 ringdove. 15. 6. 35. 37. 26. 34. 1. 14. 46. 8. 46. 29. 16. 19. 19. 10. 6. 27. 14. 16. 36. 29. 17. 17. 18 halebrans. 47 lamb. 1. 17. 34 H haricoq. 3. 19. iii. 38. 21 leg of lamb. 46. 47. 28 buttock. 33. 10 O orange. 8. 19 pear. v. 13. 43 marrow. 2. 8 venison. 21. 49 suckling pig. 31. 20. 47. 23 pigeon. 25. 4. 19 hare. 8. 29. 18 conger eel. 49 blackbird. 11. 18. 47 kid. 13. 15. 12. 23. 36. 36. 4. 32. 10. 20 mullet. 20 capon. 9. 46 ham. 8. 21. 21 mutton. 21 lorais. 4. 21. 11. 27. 14. 37. 48 J jelly. 48. 7.Taillevent sorrel. 48 houdet. 32. 14 tongue. 11 liver. 7. 46 veal. 19. 13. 18 bream. 22. 48. 16 hare. 12. 6. 34. 12. 10. 17. 9. 20 mutton. 28. 8. 9. 28. v. 18. 46. 15. 6. 47 morterel. 20. 3. 12. 18. 28 shoulder. 30. 15. 2. 31 hyocras. 49 L lard. 32 sheep bristle. 8. 48 M meat beef. 11. 10. 7. 8. 36 boar. 11. 47. 6. 34. 18 lamprey. 28. 49 milk larded. 19. sheep. 13. 31. 14. 46 foot of. 11 hazelnuts. 3. 20 gosling. 38. 29. 35 leg of. 24. 11. 15. 21. 46 scum. 33. 16. 28. 47 boiled. 5. 6. 20 52 . 34. 18. 6. 19 red mullet. 2. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 30. 17. 8. 28. 35. 5. 29. 16. 8. 20 goatfish. 35 spleen. 49 pork. 35. 34. 25. 1. 18 salmon. 20. 19 marrow.
24. 40. 9. 45 garlic. 38. 24. 6. 23 53 . 17. 34. 17. 31. 4. 14 preserves. 5. 28. purée of. 28 grané. 23. 40. true.Le Viandier sparrow. 7 roasts. 28. 21. 36. 48 costmary. 32. 10. v. 30 poultry. 23. 9. 21. 13. 31. 7 powdered. 8. 42. 19. 7. 41 sauces. 16. 4 shrimp. 8. 18 stag. 35. 13. 3 de-salting. 48 almond. 1. 43 red. 24. 19. 43. 25. 3. 27. 45 basil. 10 salamine. 30 Spanish. 45. 46 jance. 29. 17. 32. 32. 7. 32. 33. 43. 24. 24. 4 small birds. 29. 12 cinnamon. 35. 36. 27. 13. 43. 21. 21 peas. 13. 35. 15. 24. 17 pastries dariole. 16. 26.fat. 42. 48 cinnamon. 2 salt. 30. 34. 25 green. 36. 30 fish. 26. 5 skin. 17. 17. 6 soups chaudin. 47 sorvige. 8. 4. 25. 26 shad. 23. 26 small wine. 44 clove. 28. 3 new bean. 5. 40. 41. 21. 30 peas. 5. 42 ginger. 47 saupiquet. 20 veal. 16. 3. 7. 26. 38 cold. 2. 2. 24. 35. 4 galanga. 32. v. 45 string. 28 spices anis. 8. 5. 32. 23. 7 warm. 15. 20. 9. 11. 46. 38. 25 violet. 27 pottage. 24. 3. 2. 3. 38 pork. 7. 44 white. 49 oblongs. 9. 20 turbot. 30. 30 cretonnée. 36. 47 dolphins. 19 wild duck. 36 with most. 42 chaudumé. 2. 1. 30 new peas. 33 S sabourot. 2 lark. 36. 14. 26. 34. 33. 23. 14. 18 with warm sauce. 9. 44. 29. 1. 11. 19. 3. 47 dodine. 26 seyme. 6 removing burnt taste from. 31. 29. 10. 34 garlic. 45. 37 flour. 44. 12. 27. 5. 13. 6. 15. 20. 17 wild boar. 31. 4. 13. 43 Jean’s must. 42. 15. 24 Poitevin. 6. 2. 23. 40. 24. 47. 32. v. 9. 7. 26. 18. 1 cameline. 26. 35. 13 R rice. 11. 40. 42. 19 trout. 11. 2. 11. 36. 18. 28. 9. 27. iv. 25 my lady’s. 36. 40. 30 fish. 10 potful. 21. 29. 26. 18. 30 onion. 6.
4. 38. 13. 38. 17. 40. 19. 47 pepper. 12. 42. 45 powder. v. 5. 36. 9. 27. 1. 49 V vegetables beans. 22. 11. 15. 14. 42. 28. 34. 7. 13. 12. 28. 24. 36. 18. 9. 25. 35. 27 onions. 27 beets white. 28. 21. 7. 34. 30. iv. 29. 36. 12. 41. 8. 43. 36. 42. 11. v. 13. 11. v. 6. 17. 3. 5. 23. 16. 29. 15 W water holy. 29 marjoram. 5. 43. 46 sage. 43. 4. 38 stuffing. 22. 9. 25. 4. 44. 35. 40. 37. 38. 28. 25 mastic. 5. 42. 45. 45. 13. 28 leeks. 34. 32. 18. 38. 49 vintage. 29. 12. 2. 17. 4. 5. 23. 26. 38. 9. 40. 11. 23 common. 16. 25. 14. 14. 35. 8. 13. 12. 8. 29. 43 vinaigrette. 27. 3. 6. 30. 11. 40. 16. 34. 32. 15. 29. 32. 2. 16. 28. 11. 23 saffron. 34. 17. 17. 13. 47. 45 paradise seed. 4. 7. 27. 8. 6. 28 gourds. 15. 19. 47 sugar. 15. 45 mustard. 45 pennyroyal. 5. 5. 39. 6. 8. 11. 34. 41 verjuice. 32. 13. 34 moteaulx. 48. 3. 5. 3. 23. 21. 22 talemouse. 20. 4. 14. 15. 40. 25. 29. 35. 19. 8. 1. iv. 27. 18. 31. 32. 14. 29. 19. 2. 14 rose. 36. 16. 26. 12. 24. 34. 22 trimolette. 1. 31. 2. 31. 42. 7. 48 vinegar. 29. 1. 26. 30. 12. 44. 11. 23. 35. 42. 14. 35. 14. 32. 36. 43. 7. 10. 43. 44. 18. 48. 15. v. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 47 pygurlac (unknown). v. 17. 31. 31. 32. 9. 8. 32. 15. 22. 14. 20. 41 nutmeg. 6. 8. 25. 31. 30. 15. 41. 21. 19. 16. 14. 2. 30. 19. 18. 28. 21. 13. 26. 9. 20. 25. 22. 6. 45. 49 T tarts apple. 17. 36. 13. 38. 2. 2. 8. 35. 21. 47 wine. 41. 38. 40. 47. 33. 47 54 . 22 Jacobine. 23. 11. 28. 21. 20. 10. 13. 23 Bourbonnaise. 30. 44. 11. 36. 26. 48. 21 covered. 27 cabbage. 21. 31. 40. 22 two-faced. 38. 10. 25.Taillevent hyssop. 17. 7. 11. 31. 28.
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