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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
To contact the translator, e-mail: email@example.com
Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 . 1455 for my lord of Mayne.
The work’s title. Le Viandier. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. Several very different versions of the book exist.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. peacock. among other luminaries. swan . The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. “cookbook”. eggs. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. etc. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. For a modern reader. Charles V and Charles VI). at this time it referred to any food. some would say barbaric: heron. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. quite simply. — and yes. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. stork. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. i . — to the exotic. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. peas. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. complete with measurements.
illogical or confused. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. Several special classes of words exist here. too. Some. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. In some cases. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. If some passages seem redundant. for other words. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves.
either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. may have been too hardened to eat.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. however. Here and in other cases. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. To complicate matters. The pastry itself. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. effectively. Pastie (Pasté) iii . to a pâté. Also. Strictly speaking.
the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. to dissolve. or. Were these assumed to include that fish. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. it seems to mean to brown the food. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. when liquid is present. However. the translation is nearly direct. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. As an old cooking term. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). However. succulent state before cooking it. Here. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. In practice. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. In context. though. iv . or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. to “under-fry”. In this case.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
and fry them. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. cut up in pieces. diluted with verjuice. and strain. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. paradise seed and clove. diluted with verjuice. ginger and assorted spices. and for spices. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. and infuse with verjuice. for a better broth. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . Take bread and livers. and set the broth separately. and put veal in the pot with them. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. the costmary. Once it has been strained. not too much. ginger. cooked egg yolks. diluted with vinegar. For Lark Grané Take larks. put it all in a pot. Soak livers with the bread and strain. and take a great quantity of parsley. and crush. that is cinnamon. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. clove. and strain it all together. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. and cook them. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and nutmeg if you have it. When the bread is strained. you will shell them. and poultry livers. and put it all together. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. as above. To thicken. And then boil the spices. with the following spices: cinnamon. and egg yolks. marjoram. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. paradise seed. spices and verjuice. and add in the broth. raw. restore them. and put the shells aside. and put herbs. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. and strain with the broth.Taillevent egg yolks. ginger. and boil it all together. and take bread soaked in beef broth. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. wild spinach. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. then brown. Boil in water and pea puree. and scale and slice up pike.
and then fry finely chopped onion. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. and infuse it with verjuice. Take ginger. cinnamon. Make similar broth as for seyme. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. assorted spices. And put cinnamon. if you have them. Then strain the bread and the livers. and sprinkle with salt.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. infused with verjuice. set it to boil. and paradise seed. clove. and boil everything together. When it is roasted. Infuse with verjuice. pike browned on the grill. fry eggs in oil or butter. and strain pike livers with it. and verjuice. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and saffron for color. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and then use pure mustard. with the same spices. and put in the pot. Put with the other spices. and roast it. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and fry in a pot. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. and boil them all together. Cut up in pieces. Salt to taste. and sweeten moderately. cinnamon and assorted spices. Salt to taste. and salt to taste. and. to the chaudumé. And if you do not have enough meat. ginger. and boil all together. if you have them. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. and strain the almonds all together. ginger. take some puree. Take bread and livers. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. 5 . assorted spices such as cloves and seed. and soak in beef broth. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. paradise seed. and soak in the beef broth. when they are browned. Add ginger. add a reasonable amount of sugar. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge.. and sweeten moderately. and infuse with verjuice. and salt to taste. ginger and assorted spices. and put the broth apart. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill.
Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. with no other spices – this is enough. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. put cinnamon. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. put it in your pot. gizzards. and add some red Burgundy wine. cut up in pieces. and verjuice and salt to taste. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. and salt to taste. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. poultry. and set them to cook. Put in a pot. Fry onion and parsley. and saffron for color. and soak it in pea purée. each one with its lardoons. and some spices. that is ginger. When it is not too well cooked along the side. and other broth. or its own broth. When the potage is ready. such as livers. slice it up in large cubes.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. Add to the pot. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. For spices. paradise seed. and strain. Take browned bread. infused with vinegar. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. the best that you can find. Put some bread in to soak. if you have it. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. cinnamon and assorted spices. and put in seed ginger. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. Then take ginger. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. For spices. and take some small giblets of poultry. It is best to strain it. When 6 . Boil it all together. Clean and cut up. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. clove and seeds. etc. clove. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. boil it thus. cinnamon and assorted spices. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it.
When the meat is served in dishes. Slice up the giblets. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. crushed up and ground fine. When the poussins are cooked. take peeled almonds. internally]. or some white sugared almonds. When serving. and just a little white wine.Le Viandier they are cooked. but reasonable. and let the color soak in. without leaving it too long on the fire. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. and season with salt. and strain with the almonds and the broth. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. such as green sauce . and cook them. also known as alkanets. the best lard you can find. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. Salt 7 . and boil and. Then put the broth in a pot. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. amount of sugar. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. Take peeled almonds. if you have them. so that. and fry them in its broth. two or three with each dish. and color it. once they are cooked. slice them lengthwise. fry them in lard. and put in a pot. slice up partridge. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. Put in a large amount of sugar. and crush them and strain them. and add a generous. boil it all together. Once they are strained. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. and heat in lard.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. with some verjuice. and soak them in the poultry broth. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. and filter into the pot to give it color. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. and throw it in when you boil it. and prepared. Then take white wine and verjuice. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. And to give a red color. After straining it through cheesecloth. Add some ginger and a little saffron. put them in a pot to boil. it thickens. some white wine and verjuice. and serve them in dishes or bowls. with the appropriate sauce. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs.
Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. parboiled and cut up in pieces. Put in a pot. seed and clove. whichever you can find. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. and a bit of saffron for color. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. Brown bread. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. and halved poussins. And when the meat is cooked. brown the geese on the spit. and young rabbits. and soak in 8 . the young rabbit and poultry. and infuse the spices with vinegar. if you can find them. a little mastic. Bousac For bousac. then put in a pot to brown. the pork. take pork cut into pieces. fry them in a pot. and put in a pot on the coal fire. Once it is browned. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. and. Once it is cooked. and take some finely chopped onion. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. when it starts to boil. and a lot of saffron. Add cinnamon. a hare is to be restored. Then take ginger and seed. put the meat in dishes. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. when it boils. ginger and assorted spices (that is. and a moderate amount of vinegar. with a moderate amount of sugar. while it is straining. Take cinnamon. and salt just enough. and cut up in small pieces. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. and cook. Put in lard and beef broth. Boil it all together. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. soak it with poultry livers. When they are browned. and crush. If the jelly is too fatty. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. well cleaned. put with the meat. and then when the meat is in dishes. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. if the spices are not well beaten. clove and seed) to the bread. take eggs whites and put with the broth. Take a little bread and poultry livers. put in a cellar. that is. Then strain it.Taillevent to taste. and washed. take the broth. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown.
slice it into round slices. When they are boiled. and a moderate amount of mustard. that is the livers. in wine. put a little saffron for color. take some rice. clove and beaten galanga. Strain the bread and the spices together. Once they are chopped up fine. add a little vinegar. and add sugar. take pike and prepare them. the best you can find. Scald the eels. so long as it does not smell of brass. take spices. ginger. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. that is cinnamon. and a large amount of clove. and infuse with vinegar. 9 . and put the fried fish in the pot. the crops of pike and their broth. cook tripe of pike and carp. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. When it is strained. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. brown without burning. slice into large chunks. add the cut up pike. and fry them. and boil as long as you can without burning. When it is boiled. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. Take a carp or two and pike. When it is cooked. When it is cooked. Salt to taste. while boiling. and. and prepare it. Boil the cow’s milk. When the fish is scaled. Then boil. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. and the tripe of fish. then slice them up. and salt it well. then strain. remove their bones. assorted spices. Take cinnamon. Take bread. Add salt as appropriate. then leave to cool. put the pike and eel in by sections. Strain and put with the pot. and tie them all around. Strain again one time. and boil it all together. Rice For rice. cook in a pot or frying pan.Le Viandier broth beef. While cooking. and salt to taste. put the broth in a pot. ginger. removing the bones as best you can. paradise seed. When it is strained. and also any other spices. and the tripe as well. and slice them up. and add the liquid. put the spices in all together with the broth.
Brown a little onion. Take spices. slice it into thin slices. or partridge. When it is ready. good and fine. and put it all in. slice it up finely. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. and beat with your eggs. some broth. and tie it up. and beaten white ginger. boil milk on the fire. When everything is cooked. put the meat in dishes and. 10 . or capon meat. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. and boil in a pot. When it has been pressed a whole night. when serving. take poussins or poultry. and cut up into small pieces. the following day. Put in a pot and boil. and chop it as fine as you can. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. Soak the poultry in beef broth. Add saffron. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. take it off the fire. take prepared capons or large poultry.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. Thicken the broth with it. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. with a little bread to thicken. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. Put in some white ginger. Brown in a frying pan with lard. Press it as well as you can. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. Take some fatty lard. Take some eggs and beat very well. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. Put in the pot. and add some verjuice while thickening. When the meat is cooked. beaten white ginger. and strain. and add some parsley leaves. Boil. and salt to taste. with a little saffron for color. season with a little cooked lard. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. moistened with just a little verjuice. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Mix just a little cheese. When it is sliced up. fry it in lard or pork fat. and take their broth. When it is on the point of being cooked. Add salt.
ginger. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Take it off the spit. and a great deal of parsley. For Haricoq To make haricoq. the thinnest that you can find. take its head. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. After.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. then take it from the fire. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. 11 . and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Put it all together. Put on a table. roast the shoulder on the spit. When it is as if rotted from cooking. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Put in the pot with the meat. Remove all meat from the bones. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. When they are browned. and put in a pot. Salt to taste. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. Add a large quantity of sugar. and split it and clean it. Put the skin aside. Some like to add ginger. and brown the meat. Leave as long as it is cold. clove and seed. sugar and salt. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. that is. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. and chop them up fine. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Do not cook it too much. and boil it all together. Press it between two dishes. well and whole. Take white ginger. and boil in wine and vinegar. and salt to taste. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. Remove all the skin. hyssop. assorted spices in large quantity. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Take peeled onions. with stones on it to press well. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. cinnamon and assorted spices. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. cut up them into pieces. when taken in heat.
leaving only skin. Then take the chicken meat. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. and cook it all together. it is advisable to scald them…. Once this is done. Cook it all together with meat broth. just a little bit. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. When they are cooked. Then take a veal or kid membrane. wings or neck. parsley. all the way to the knee. take poultry liver or lard. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. put in a dish and serve last.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. Strain until there is no liquid left. ginger and assorted spices. without cutting off their feet. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. lard. and boil in pure white wine. a great deal of parsley. split them at the shoulders. When serving. sweeten the poussins. After. bone and meat. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. a needle across the opening. Once they have been scalded. filter until no more liquid is left. hyssop. Take saffron for color. Put with the meat. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. if you have it. so that it solidifies. hyssop and raw marjoram. Once they are well cooked. a pig or poultry liver. if there is a shoulder. all cooked together. Take everything inside. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. pennyroyal and basil. for a long while. Put it in a straining cloth. and put the stuffing in it. Once it is crisp. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. chop it up as finely as you can. except the head and the legs. When it is done. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. 12 . being careful not to burn it.
Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. whole. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . strain. take a veal’s head and feet. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Then slice it into fine slices. and crush them all together. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. Take capon or poultry broth. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. long pepper. When the roast is taken off the spit. and also a pound of egg yolks. Boil pig and poultry livers. and salt it. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. After cook in wine. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. This sauce is good on all roasts. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. Add strong vinegar. and for two servings. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. Boil your broth. with the jelly on it. a pound of sugar. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. and put in your meat. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. This done. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. and strain through a cloth. Put. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. for six servings. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. put in dishes. Strain the almonds. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. clove. Take a pound of almonds. lard and put on the spit. Stir all the spices together. no more or less than you want for the brewet. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. seed. and strain it all together through a cloth. and a handful of onion. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. On fish days. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. Scald and pluck and clean very well. When they are half cooked. and also the livers and almonds. lard with clove.
and boil it all in a frying pan. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. and take the broth in which they are cooked. Take the fish maws and livers. while frying. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. Then put the pike on coals to stew. take a new pot. When they are well cooked. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. add a quarter pound of sugar. When serving at the table. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. When it is boiled. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. an ounce of assorted spices. and after put it in a dish. Add a little saffron for color. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. with the maws and livers. Put. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. Add in sugar and ginger. When the almonds are thick. cook them. and strain through a cloth. Fry in lard. remove it. take a pint of vinegar. and the pike’s liver. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. Cover so that no steam gets out. and a little soaked bread. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. then brown. If you see that there is too much fat. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. put duke’s powder on it.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. Then strain through a cloth. and boil it all together. Take the pike eggs. and chop into small cubes. Fry with butter or oil. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. Chop up onion. Once they are cooked. scald it and then fry it. put in dishes. Gild the heads on the grill. Put in dishes as for a 14 . and put them in once they are stuffed. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram.
and take out what is inside. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. and. bunches of grapes or wine?]. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. and put it in barely touching the almonds. strain through a cloth. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. and set on the grill over a low fire. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. Add in ginger. Coulis To make coulis. Then place them in nice rows along the length. together with the butter. and yellow the half with saffron. take veal or pork. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. take stale white bread. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. very fine skewers. When serving. and chop them up finely. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. saffron and sugar. pennyroyal. crush it up in the mortar. Take milk. Soak in 15 . and the eggs. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. make a small hole in the end of each egg. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. without any liquid. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. when it is well crushed. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. Then take sage. mint and all other good herbs. and crush up the crumbs finely. Take small.Le Viandier bar of butter. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. as much as suits you. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. put some duke’s powder on it. After put in dishes and serve. Fry in butter. marjoram. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar.
with fat as for a potted pastie. Do not add verjuice. It can be salted or not. and finely chopped onion. like wheat to make fromenty. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. When they are fried. boil in a small pot. rinse and boil it very well. roast poultry or capons. and start in the same way as the capon above. vinegar. in grinding it. when it is cooked. take a perch and cook it in water. ginger. Then boil in a nice large pot and. put in assorted spices. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. or anything else. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. but not too much. and boned. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. and then soak in almond milk. without crushing it. and chop it up finely. put some in. soaked in purée of peas. when crushing. take a poussin or two. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. skinned. and. and cut into pieces. and salt to taste without anything else in it. Once it is cooked. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley.Taillevent the capon broth. put some thick almond milk. After make like that of meat. salt moderately. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. but. cinnamon. Make like that of perch. crush it in the mortar. Once it is cooked. saffron and some verjuice. and put the whole barley in it. After fry with lard or goose lard. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. put in wine and 16 . After it is well cleaned. To bind it. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. if the sick person wants sugar in it. Afterwards. after grind it. and. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked.
except the clove should dominate the other spices. add some ginger. beef marrow. and chop it quite small all together. put in fine cheese. toast black bread well. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. put some ginger powder and. add the sauce. long pepper. take raw poultry. The appropriate spices are ginger. For spices. and beef fat. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons.] Put the capons in pastie. For spices. saffron and sweeten. or possibly cocks. and boil it all together. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. and chop all together and the said pastie. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. and. assorted spices and saffron. This done. For spices. To make the sauce. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. cameline. Cook the said 17 .Le Viandier verjuice. true cinnamon. in equal parts. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. when the pastie is cooked. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. and boil with the sauce in the oven. put in a little ginger. and for spices. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. in winter style. and a moderate amount of salt. paradise seed. The appropriate spices are: ginger. true cinnamon. nutmeg. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. to thicken. After. cover with lard. put the fat in the pastie. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. While frying. Fricassees For fricassees. clove. remove all the meat of the capons.
Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. with fine powder. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. and the fat of chopped veal. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. For spices. When the pastie is cooked.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. For spices. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. and ginger. Add lard chopped fine. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. and lard finely chopped. for spices. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and beef marrow. put in ginger. with assorted spices added. 18 . and for spices. and beat all together. It is best that the poultry be cut up. and fine cheese. some ginger. put it all together. cinnamon and saffron. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. with a moderate amount of sugar. assorted spices and saffron. clove and ginger. assorted spices and saffron.
sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. and chopped lard. After. For fish. seed and pepper. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. assorted spices and saffron. or the smaller one whole. well made pasties. in season. raised up high and. And put them in the pastie. fry it all in butter. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. For spices. slice it into fine slices. For spices. It is best that these be small. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. and take. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. and parboil it. like those which are made double. new beans and parboil them.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. and roll this in butter. when they are made. For spices. ginger and clove powder. and add assorted spices. 19 . Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. clove. Add assorted spices.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. pressed between three fingers. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. the following is very much a “best guess”. Add ginger and a little pepper. ginger. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original.
Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. raised up high and well made. without anything else. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. 20 . with spices and sugar mixed together. Eel Pastie Take saffron. and some gooseberries. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. ginger and saffron. fine powder and saffron. and fry in lard. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Parboil the marrow. Put in assorted spices. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow.
Dolphins Lily flowers. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Make the crust strong and thick. After boil it. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Fry onion in butter. Once the pastie is high and raised. pies].e. and rounded. star with fried cream.. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. then put it in the oven. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. After put in the oven briefly. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. crush up cheese. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. and quite black. if you have some. so that the contents do not leak out. If you cannot find cream. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. Make the sauce separately. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. and sugar. gild it well. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. and pat it. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. 21 . to boil the sauce with the lamprey. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it.
of the thickness of a finger. with egg yolks mixed into it. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. The slices should be less than two fingers high. set it to cool. soaked in cream. take it out. put in the oven. Fry them in butter. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. Cut eel into sections and boil it. and good cream. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. soak the crust in eggs and butter. and cover the whole top with orange. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. and cover the crust with wafers. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Once it is a little cooked. and enough egg yolks. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. crushed. When ready to dine. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. Knead the crust well with eggs. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. before adding the cheese and the cream. Seat well in the tart. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. then cook in the oven as said. with oranges on it. use fine cheese. and cook like the other side. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. but not too 22 . When it is cooked. take it out and let it cool. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. turn it in a dish. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. When it is cooked. and stuffed in two fingers deep. and cook them. like the other side. well soaked in egg yolks. with a great quantity of sugar. and put on the tart. and take off the crust where cooked. so that nothing of it shows. Covered Tart For covered tart.
Make two big pastry undercrusts. put with the surplus and add the saffron. and put orange all over it. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings.Le Viandier much. Put all the fillings together. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. and put in with the apples and the figs. well mixed by hand. Cover it with a top. Fry the cream well in butter. but do not strain them. and fill the hollow with the sugar. then gild it with saffron. so all this presumably is the filling. Mix in with the other apples. Once it is soaked. and enough egg yolks. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. true cinnamon and white ginger. and wine. crushed up. put eight or ten slices on end. that is candied pine nut. For each tart. brown bread in front of a good red fire. and gild with eggs or saffron. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. or a dish. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Add onion fried with butter or oil. without burning it. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. soak with cream. This is how it should be made. Clean grapes well. Cover well. [Darioles were small pastries. and mix well together. put in the oven. a bit of assorted spices. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. and put in figs. Knead the crust well with eggs. and put in the oven. if you have any.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. Sweeten well. candied ginger might be used instead]. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. and cook. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese.
and strain and strain again through a cloth. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. take poultry livers. Jance To make jance. Add in half an ounce of ginger. Strain very well through a cloth. and crush up spices in a mortar . Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. Then when it is cooked. and put in a nice pot.cinnamon. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. while boiling.and soak in verjuice and wine. Put a frying pan under it. or with the mortar. and a little browned bread and very little broth. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. roast them well on the spit. roast a goose. and put in the poultry. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. and boil in a frying pan. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. Take their livers. a half ounce of ginger. throw in a drop or two. Bring to a boil. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. and salt it well. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. assorted spices . and crush them up in a bowl. because it will smell of brass. brown one toast of bread on the fire. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. and strain them through a cloth. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. Be sure not to put it in a pot. put them over it with the sauce. and roast on the grill. brown one toast of bread. When the goose is cooked. ginger. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Boil a dozen eggs. because it will blacken. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. Boil in a frying pan. Soak it in milk. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce.
When you boil it. When the 25 . Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. Filter the water. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. For one pint. put in an ounce of ginger. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. and then put in a nice pot. add butter. Sugar to taste. For four servings. put a quart of milk. and boil everything together. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. and add a little saffron. or more if you wish. and also in other dodines. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Then take marjoram. Chop the herbs up.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. Leave it only a little. and peel. put the dodine on them. and let livers roast a little on the grill. Put on the roast. Boil in a frying pan. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. Soak it in milk. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. and boil together. a little parsley. and boil under the capons. and pour the grain in the sauce. capons. and boil it all with milk. hyssop and other good herbs. take half a dozen garlic cloves. or other roast fowl. Add half a pound of sugar. Soak it only in verjuice. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Once the bread is soaked. and a half ounce of ginger. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. When the birds are cooked. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. Take an ounce of ginger. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. roast fatty capons on the spit.
Take red wine and vinegar. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. take some vinegar and wine. For four servings. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and fry it. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. and strain it all together through a cloth. and put it to soak in broth. Put the fish with the broth. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. one with the other. Put in a 26 . with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. and some fresh or salted butter. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Brown bread. half an ounce of ginger. Once it has been strained. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. a bit of assorted spices. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. Take for one shad. put the verjuice on the shad. brown bread as for cameline. for four servings. and boil. with a little saffron. take verjuice and white wine. and put in the sauce. take pike. and strain it all together with your bread. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and scald it. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. and then put over the roast. take out the capons and put in a dish. Strain the bread and all the spices together. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. and put on the shad.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. and some puree. and soak in purée of peas. Once the shad is half cooked. Then when the bread is soaked. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must.
a half ounce of ginger. Once this is done. On fish days. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. and chop up fine. After. Wash and parboil them. Mix with purée of peas or water. bind with beef broth. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. or. use mulberries. If you lack grapes. Add a little water to keep it from burning. and add some verjuice and parsley. capons or other roast. put the beans to soak in the evening. and boil in river or fountain water. This sauce is good on larks. Chop them up. then crush them in a mortar. Milled Beans To make milled beans. When they are parboiled. and put in lard to give them taste. then bind with lard and warm water. on fried eggs. Leeks To make leeks. use butter and purée of peas. fish and all other fried things. and after put them on a plank. put in a frying pan to cool. and strain it all through the cloth. boil in water. split lard into thin slices and fry. if you do not have the broth. Brown in butter for a long while. For four servings. 27 . two ounces of sugar. When they are done cooking.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. Squeeze out between your hands. purée them and bind with broth. and almond milk if you like. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. then strain them through a cloth. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. Remove the black ones. with enough grapes. Onion Soup To make onion soup. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. then put on a plank. take two ounces of true cinnamon. White Beets To make white beets. except the sugar. and strain it all through cloth. When they are half cooked. On fast days. purée them and put cold water on them. and then crush up in a mortar. use purée of pea and butter.
Boil all together. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. salted. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. use purée of peas with butter and oil. if there are any. add parsley. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. hyssop. take off the top leaves. Remove the seeds. put in beef broth. and put some cold water over them. then 28 . then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. and put on your pot. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. and squeeze them between your hands. Sheep. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. and. take your pot off the fire. For fast days. Gourds For gourds. and turn it to one side and another. peel them and cut into round slices. Lard the length of the meat. while doing this. then purée. and a little saffron. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. Parboil in a frying pan. Put in some cowʹs milk. If it is fresh. with mustard. mastic and hyssop.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Pig Cook in water and salt. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. Cook with only mastic and saffron. Filter out the liquid. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. and add some cold water on them. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. Squeeze and chop up finely. verjuice. and cut into four quarters. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. Once it is well cooked. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. sage. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. wine. sage. On fast days.
Eat parboiled in pastry. seed. with parsley. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. with cameline. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Grate ginger. and saffron for color.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. cinnamon. Fry in lard with some onions. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. clove. and a good deal of spice. Add some verjuice and vinegar. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. sage and hyssop. larded. with fine powder. cook in water and salt. 29 . Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. Boil your meat. and add lard for flavor.
and watch that it does not turn. saffron. Always let thicken on its own. Cut up into parts. cook poultry well in water.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Fry in lard. cook the peas until they are soft. and boil with your meat. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. and cook a little in water. and boil it all together. and boil briefly. Strain it. add a large quantity of eggs. then cut up into pieces. infuse with wine and verjuice. and fry in lard. Boil. cook in wine and water. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Grate ginger and cumin. Put in your soup just before serving it. broken up in beef broth. and boil on your meat. then purée. without adding anything but a little white bread. Cut up into parts. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Pull back from the fire. Mix in your milk. Soak a little bread in beef broth. then grate ginger and saffron. Fry in lard. Take ginger. Fry in lard. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. and strain. vinegar. Boil. Powder ginger and cumin. Fry in lard. Take white bread. Take verjuice. Then take cowʹs milk. Boil with 30 . Take almonds infused with broth. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Brown them in lard. long pepper. pull back from the fire. Soak white bread in milk. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Add egg yolks.
infuse with verjuice. cinnamon and clove. and made like that for hare. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. Then powder ginger. Boil on your meat. paradise seed. and add well beaten egg yolks. cinnamon. Beat ginger. Grate ginger. Take browned bread. It should be very black and not too thick. Cut up into parts. Boil it all together. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. Boil with your meat. clove. Then take bread browned on the grill. then cut up into pieces. cinnamon. galanga and long pepper. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. Powder ginger. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. Boil together. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. 31 . infuse with beef broth and wine. cinnamon. paradise seed. Take a little burned bread. crush almonds. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. brown on the spit or on the grill. This should be quite thick. Civet For civet. and spice it well. Strain. Fry in lard. mix with verjuice. But do not wash the meat at all. cook in wine and water. paradise seed. then cut up into pieces. Fry in lard. and saffron to give color. clove.Le Viandier your meat. and fry in lard. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. cook in water and wine. without letting it cook too long. and do not let it thicken too much. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. and saffron for color.
cut your veal up finely. Fry in lard. or verjuice. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. and scramble eggs. boil it all together. and cut up your meat into pieces. 32 . verjuice. Goose Plume a dry goose. Crush ginger and saffron. Dribble eggs over it while frying. Eat with cameline. soaked in wine. Roast without lard. or verjuice. cinnamon. Once it is cooked. also known as breast meat. with fine powder and saffron.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. clove. or vinegar. with cinnamon. in pastry. Restore it in water. In pastry. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. with powder and cold sage. Put on the spit. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. and toasted bread. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. Some put onions on it. Roast Mutton With a little salt. Eat with garlic or jance. paradise seed. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. Cook it. and eaten with cameline in pastry.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
you must stay alert. folded over two or three times. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. cinnamon. three quarter pounds of string ginger. skimming it the whole time. Put them in a cold place. take twenty five poussins. and. Blend it all together. when it is cooked. 36 . Strain. clove. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. and paradise seeds. paradise seed. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. Powder ginger. take poultry and cook in water. cinnamon. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. galanga. six dishes: and drink for the workers. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. if it is fish. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. and. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. Tie it in a white cloth. whole. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. Remove the tongue. twenty earthen pots. mixed with vinegar. The sauce should not be too black. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. Pour on your poultry in sections. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. mastic. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. saffron to give color. Have it well bled. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. thirty legs of veal. three quarter pounds of ginger. bleed it by the mouth. Some add cooked yolks. Boil with your fish or meat. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. skimming it the whole time. After. because it will not flow. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. See that the broth is clear and clean. if it is fish. six young rabbits. For pork. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. as soon as it is time to serve it. four pigs. Then grate ginger.Taillevent pepper. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. To make jelly. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. paradise seed. six ounces of saffron. five wooden spoons. six ells of cloth. make the cold sauce without eggs. nutmeg. Put it on a spit.
Add the fat from beef broth. add your rice. wash in warm water. During Lent. 37 . on a meat day. cull. then wipe your rice by the fire.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. and boil together on a low fire. Take cowʹs milk. use almond milk. and wheat. and sugar the bowls.
For the sick.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Boil together. with wine and verjuice. scald and wash very well. cinnamon. especially. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. Grate ginger. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. and put on your fish. take ginger. lux* and carps and. Cook on the fire. add sugar. seed. Grind almonds.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. cinnamon. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. eggs and milk. take tenches. Boil. boil a little water. except that one puts in a bit of sage. some of your broth. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. Some put in a little verjuice. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. Add ginger and pepper. mix in some white wine. which once meant a variety of pike. when it is boiled. Serve it on your fish. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. Boil together with the oysters. in oil. Soak egg yolks in white wine. some of your milk and mix together. paradise seed and saffron. Then cool. 38 . and no other spices. If you do not have that. at the evening. and strains it through a cloth. but here appears to mean a green. [*This might be a variant of lus.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. and saffron. Crush. almond oil and a little verjuice. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. wine. or verjuice. dissolve in white wine. If it is too sour.
39 . mix with broth in a little wine. cook in water. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. Boil it all together. Boil until thick.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. It should be clear. and strain with broth. Crush almonds. Put pomegranates over it. Crush almonds and the perch together.
eels. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Porpoise For porpoise. Eat with cameline. Eat with cameline. barbell. Powder ginger. pepper and a little saffron. Add a little salt or mustard. cook in water. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. carp. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. cinnamon. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Add as much spring onion as you like. 40 . fresh shad. Salt it with wine. in pastry and with fine powder. Boil. Salt the shad. dace. or roast on the grill. Eat with green sauce. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. paradise seed.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. pike. Split along the back. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. Cresme [*Literally. “cream”. Do not make it too yellow. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. eat with garlic. Eat with green sauce.
flounder: cook in water. sole. Eat with jance. turbot. with wine and verjuice. with mustard or butter.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. 41 . Cod Cook in water. ray. Add fine powder. Salt it. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions.
42 . parsley and salad burnet. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. cinnamon. white garlic. Pour on your fish. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. pepper. green sauce and garlic camelines. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. Crush ginger.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. infuse with vinegar. galanga. Crush bread. paradise seed. a little saffron. nutmeg.
Some add seed and galanga to it. with the fat from the roast. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Infuse with other verjuice. Jance Crush almonds. Some like it with cowʹs milk. Infuse with verjuice and wine. saffron. pepper. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. Boil. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Strain and boil. string ginger and white bread. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Some add seed and galanga to it. and browned bread. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. then grind up ginger.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. crush seed and livers. 43 . Boil.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. sweetened white cream. hare pastie. and pine nuts. pears. quails with sugar. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. FRUIT COURSE White cream. A suitable support for the said peacocks.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. Duke’s powder on it. Fried cream. scattered about. venison with soup. made of sugar. sugared strawberries. marked with the said arms. half-sweet. cold sauce. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. young peacocks in full display. half-sour. and Duke’s powder over it. and almonds. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. vinegar. silvered. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Wild boar made with fried cream. white of fennel. in a dish. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. Darioles and upside-down stars. Jelly. Larded milk. wine. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. white and dark red. jonchées [a soft cheese]. marked with the arms said above. fried oranges. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. preserved in sugar. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. then ginger on it. game hen. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. 47 . sea pullets. and strawberries. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. jelly.
Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. nuts and raw pears. FIFTH COURSE White cream. Steamed pigeons. Jelly and slices. capons with Jean’s most. partridges with sugar. almonds.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. pears. Pear pastie. navews with venison. swans. hazelnuts. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. fried cream. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. venison with clove. nuts. chickens with herbs. kids. watercress. 48 . Venison pasties. small hares with bramble vinegar. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. capon pastie. Sugared almonds. young rabbits with spiced sauce. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. cretonnée of lard. herons. pigeon pastie. pears with hypocras. jelly. peacocks with celery. jonchées. brewet of cinnamon. SECOND COURSE The best roast. pickle.
Jelly. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Capon pastie. Peacocks. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. New almonds. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. capons with tulle. Pigeons. Boiled chickens. Baked cream pancake. Herons. Banquet of marrow. Thin gilded slices. 49 . lemons. brewet rappé. Pigeon pastie. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. capes [type of apple]. Pears with sugar. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. cherries with sugar or feathers. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Must.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Tarts with sugar. SECOND COURSE Roast. Trimolettes with sugar. Fresh venison with soups. Thin slices. Quail pasties. Venison with peas. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. Venison. barded sugared chickens. Young rabbits. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. White jelly and other fried cream.
29. 24. 24. 31. 10. 47. 5. 40 mortar. iii. 31. 48 cheese. 12. 33 bittern. 12. 5. 15. 36 cooking methods baste. 28. 24. 1. 13. i. 13. 5. 18 stork. 15. 30. 18 eagle. 19. 33 blackbird. 1. 21. 16. 14. 16. 25. 26. 4 Georget. 16. 33. 31 brewet fish. 12. 4. 8. 35. 48. 2 green. 18. 44 cloth. 47. 26. 13. 10. 29. 6. 48. 27. 33 swan. 47 dove. 14 B birds assorted. 10. 25. 24. 26. 7 gizzards. 24. 27 . 28. 14. 34 blanch. 34. 28 gild. 37. 19. 16. 23. 27. 19 peacock. 32 cele. 2. 27. 30. 7. 6. 2. 9. 31. 49 irson. 32. 10. 46. 16 quail. 33 ringdove. v. 7. 15. 18 duck wild. 1. 30. i. 24. v. 1. 7. 38 hand towel. 1. 23. 16. 10. 3 rappé. 15 C caul. 18. 2 meat. 23. 7. 13 chaudeau. 46 clairet. 29. 8. 46. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 4. 2 covered. 46 heron. 10. 33. 18 capon. 49 poultry. 10. 16. 39. 38 cheese fine. 24. 39. 31. 49 sparrow. 1 of capons. 9. 29. 49 chicken. 48. 13. 10. 16 brown. 15. 11. 17. 34. 46. 13. 46. 4. 46. 2. 8. 8. 1. 15. 39 bousac. 31. 49 pheasant. 17. 14. 14. 48 giblets. 48. 32. 7. 14. 10. 21. 47. 8. 38. 13. 3. 2. 24. 7. 4. 3. 23 guin. 28. 6. 38. iv. 23. 3. 14. 34 goose. 35. 38. 4 butter fried. 11 civet. 12. 14. 33 partridge. 36. iv. 13 pigeon. 25. 22. 25. 49 grill. 3. 33. 13. 43. 31 brewet. 11. 11. 10. i. 36 poussin. 33. 4. 6. 49 blancmange. 9. 10 table. 30.head. 47. 8. 18. 18. 35. 48. 26. 5. 21. 3. i. 11. 31. 12. 5. 2. 30. 33 gosling. 17. 35 de-salt. 34 jonchée. 13. 22. 47. 5. 23. 1.INDEX A almonds. 49 white German. 10. i. 48. 46. 48. 2. 6. 43.
28. 26. 41 salmon. 42 51 . 6 flounder. 47. 23 grapes. iv. 36. 35. 19. 12. 34. 26. 19. 8. 20. 35 scald. 23. 35 lamprey. 16. 40 brewet. 12. 5. 17. 35. 38. v. 48. 28. 49 fried. 35 fruit apples. 30. 3. 36 strain. 26 pears. 39 pike. 27. 15. 31. 16. 48. 40 ray. 47 salad burnet. 1. 35. 24. 23. 29. 1. 38 fraze. 23. 9. 34. 4. 26. 20 sorvige. 25. 27. 3. 34. 20 oysters. 27. 28. 44 E eggs. 35. 35. 3. i. 39 cream. 12. 40 porpoise. 13. 23. 35 wheat. 15. 22. 49 D drinks clairet. 13 fish blancmange. 36. 44 hypocras. 41 carp. 41 cod. 11. 41 fresh water. 38 perch. 26. 36. 38. 1. 12. 41 eel. 41. 16 spelt (wheat). 15. 9. 20 turbot. 32. 31.Le Viandier parboil. 5. v. 16 grains barley. 4 brill. 4. 42 sea pullets. 10. 14. 18. 40. 12. 29. 13. 47 F fayenne. 21. 25. 41 cretonnée. 12. 24. 47 G galantine. 38 trout. 48 plums. 9 gallimaufrey. 18. 38. 36. 40 salt water. 4. 1. 27. 41 flan. 40 goatfish. 24. 9. 5. 1 bream. 21. 9. 4. 47. 38 removing burnt taste. 40. 13. 16. 13. 40 cockles. 14. 49 cappes. 22. 25. 32. 26. 31. 1. 8. 6. 11. 28 restore. 14 fricassee. 40 mullet. 28. 9. 20. iv. 11. 3 cuttlefish. 4. 26. 2. 34. 23. 34. 37. 25. 17 fromanty. 21. 34. 40 conger. 22. 36. 5. 42. 13. 49 figs. 7. 36. 3. 38 greens parsley. 14. 3. 10. 47 shad. 15. 32. 34. 8. 30. 16 perch. 43 coulis. 40 mackerel. 47 tench. 20 gurnard. 11. 20. 24. 2. 21. 2. 32. 23. 4. 33. 40 jelly. 28. 8. 20. 10. 7 spit. 20. 21. 40 simmer. 46. 6.
48. 10. 1. 25. 28. 32. 20 ringdove. 47 kid. 34. 8. 19. 29. 4. 21. 5. 27. 16. 2. 6. 26. 34 H haricoq. 43 marrow. 21 leg of lamb. 49 pork. 47. 28 buttock. 10. 36. 16. 4. 47 kid. 46. 20 shad. 15. 29. 48. 30. 19. 16. 49 suckling pig. 43. 2. 47. 19 pear. 34. 32. 17. 43 teat. 8. 12. 20. 17. 13. 28 cow. 14 tongue. 34. 48. 14. 34. 46 scum. 28. 20 goatfish. 11. 15. 24. 20 capon. 19. 49 milk larded. 6. 15. 46 ham. 6. 17. 2. 12. 37. 18. 18 bream. 8 stag. 46. 13. 48 M meat beef. 12. 23 pigeon. 7. 17. 47 lamb. 28. 47 morterel. 1. 31 hyocras. 28. 19 hare. 14. 12. 11. 4. 9. 47 boiled. 8. 10. 7. 18 salmon. 34. 34 rabbit. 31. 4. 46 foot of. 2. 28. 48 houdet. sheep. 46 veal. 7. 9. 18 lamprey. 16 hare. 20 mullet. 3. 49 L lard. 8 venison. 13. 30. 17. 8. 32. 38. 35. 28. 13. 44. 3. 21 mutton. 10. 18 halebrans. 23. 36 boar. 33. 36. 11. 6. 18. 3. 20. 8. 4. 29. 11. 19 marrow. 32. 35. 43 grenon. 6. 26. 29. 35. 17 chicken. 31. 6. 24. 18 conger eel. 11. 18. 30. 1. 21. 19 red mullet. 13. v. 11 hazelnuts. 14. 6. 21 lorais. 46. 28 shoulder. 20 gosling. iii. 5. 11. 18 partridge. 15. 32 bellies. 8. 9. 19. 49 blackbird. 47. 36. 21. 23 P pasties. 48. v. 8. 14. 19. 11. 32. 15.Taillevent sorrel. 3. 10. 19. 28. 35. 20 mutton. 6. 11. 46. 16. 19. 37. 20. 10 O orange. 20 52 . 35 leg of. 31. 18. 36. 22. 32 sheep bristle. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 35 spleen. 27. 21. 38. 11 liver. 48 J jelly. 8. 12. 49 rabbit. 30. 18. 6. 47. 8. 33. 29. 25. 18.
3. 2. 40. 4 shrimp. 19. 13. 7. 26. 8. 24.Le Viandier sparrow. 42. v. 27. 43 Jean’s must. 47. 24. 13. 9. 23. 21. 26 shad. 1 cameline. 25 green. 10. 33. 2. 24. 48 cinnamon. 27. 26 seyme. 16. 7. 11. 36. 18 stag. 9. 3. 46. 7. 48 almond. 8. 21. 17. 10. 29. 30 peas. 32. 35. 7 warm. 23. 9. 15. 44. 4. 24. 26. 45. 30. 14. 18 with warm sauce. 40. 12 cinnamon. 38 cold. 15. 17. 23 53 . 3 new bean. 4. 17. 15. 44 white. 43. 6. 42 ginger. 26. 36. 1. 9. 46 jance. 28 spices anis. 37 flour. 33. 26. 19. 13. 17 wild boar. v. 3. 32. 18. 44. 7. 34 garlic. 47 saupiquet. 36 with most.fat. 1. 31. 3 de-salting. 25. 19. 36. 24 Poitevin. 42 chaudumé. 23. 18. 13. 2. 30 new peas. 28. 24. 45 basil. 17. 4. 43. 43 red. 28 grané. 5. 34. 23. 26. 36. 14. 1. 30 Spanish. 42. 20. 19 wild duck. 45 string. 8. 30 onion. 21. 45 garlic. 13 R rice. 47 sorvige. 23. 28. 38. 2 salt. 42. 11. 24. 44 clove. 40. 25 violet. 43. 9. 26. 2. 28. 41. 14 preserves. 27 pottage. 32. 11. 27. 29. 24. 5 skin. 19 trout. 4 small birds. 36. 6. 32. 12. 40. 7. 2. 5. 29. 4 galanga. true. 30 poultry. 24. 16. 34. 25 my lady’s. 10 salamine. 41 sauces. 2 lark. 30 cretonnée. 45. 30 fish. 11. 47 dodine. 28. 7 powdered. 29. 6. 3. 31. 5. 21. 17 pastries dariole. 21. 23. 35. 30. 32. 42. iv. 35. 8. 10 potful. 13. 31. 38 pork. 11. 6 removing burnt taste from. 36. 6. 9. 29. 26 small wine. 5. v. 40. 2. 15. 36. 17. 25. 5. 30 fish. 48 costmary. 32. 38. 18. 20 turbot. 20. 13. 34. 27. 35. 32. 3. 47 dolphins. 40. 16. 26. 20 veal. 35. purée of. 9. 24. 21 peas. 31. 6 soups chaudin. 33 S sabourot. 7 roasts. 49 oblongs.
34. 5. 22 Jacobine. 31. 15. 5. 8. 12. 30. 9. 36. 19. 4. 2. 25. 42. 8. 48. 41. 16. 45 mustard. v. 31. 47 pepper. 29. 8. 17. iv. 40. 15. 13. 2. 42. 47. 36. 2. 21. 11. 49 T tarts apple. 38. 45 paradise seed. 43. 6. 32. 19. 31. 31. 9. 4. 38. 29. 37. 7. 15. 23 common. 8. 32. 8. 11. 27. 27 onions. 11. 17. 10. 22. 28. 3. 32. 32. 30. 17. 35. 14. 44. 43. 6. 22. 30. 9. 20. 27 cabbage. 27. 40. 7. 11. 21. 36. 45 powder. 35. 36. 36. 25. 25. 34. 31. 28. 40. 4. 38. 14. 24. 13. 34. 15. 18. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 31. 11. 5. 23. 31. 17. 41 verjuice. 40. 20. v. 28. 43. 29. 14. 10. 1. 26. 30. 47 wine. 29. 35. 28 leeks. 30. 3. 3. 26. 13. 19. 11. 40. 33. 35. v. 17. 36. 9. 29. 2. 7. 21. 4. 23. 15. v. 14. 26. 34. 19. 22. 23 saffron. 11.Taillevent hyssop. 8. 26. 15. 28 gourds. 31. 9. 13. 48. 23. 35. 11. 35. 28. 28. 28. 21. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 38. 45. 6. 38. 11. 16. 30. 25. 5. 27 beets white. 38. 13. 49 vintage. 16. 16. 6. 40. 5. 32. 21. 5. 38. 45 pennyroyal. 18. 42. 13. 12. 12. 18. 46 sage. 22 trimolette. 9. 1. 42. 11. 43. 44. 34. 34. 14 rose. 42. 49 V vegetables beans. 15. 13. 1. 5. 25. 13. 40. 34 moteaulx. 38 stuffing. 44. 23 Bourbonnaise. 8. 1. 3. 14. iv. 6. 6. 18. 4. 10. 45. 29. 22 talemouse. 7. 27. 17. 36. 47. 36. 22. 25 mastic. 19. 7. 12. 44. 48. 28. 48 vinegar. 43. 18. 17. 4. 47 54 . v. 2. 13. 13. 41. 16. 14. 22 two-faced. 11. 20. 21. 15. 27. 26. 39. 21 covered. 47 sugar. 19. 23. 25. 16. 17. 41. 24. 23. 12. 45. 43 vinaigrette. 42. 8. 35. 32. 25. 7. 34. 32. 12. 29 marjoram. 2. 38. 29. 8. 12. 41 nutmeg. 21. 20. 14. 2. 32. 14. 14. 5. 15 W water holy. 28. 29.
M. Paris. Bourgeois parisien. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. Le ménagier de Paris.. de Guerlins. New York: Crown Publishers. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Godefroy. Franklin.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Antoine. 1881. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. London. Larousse Gastronomique. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Davidson. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent.at/~katzer/engl/index. 1694. Vicaire. de Crapelet. J. Le cuisinier Taillevent. 1694. 1782. 1892. Les repas. Pierres. Pichon and G. Reprint. impr. Prosper. 1611.thousandeggs. Histoire de la vie privée des français.-D. 1684. Paris : E. 1970. Randle. dédié au Roy. D. – 1889. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. Cotgrave. Furetière. C. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. Nourrit. moeurs. 1889. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . Paris : imp. Penguin Books.VI.ac. un. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. 1961. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. usages des Parisiens.com/glossary.html 55 . de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. George Olms Verlag. Legrand d'Aussy. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. Plon. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. 2002. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. Inc. 1846. Montagné. Alan. Hildesheim-New York. Toulouse : J. Frédéric. Paris: F. The Penguin Companion to Food. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. impr. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. Alfred.kfunigraz. Paris : P.t Ed. modes. Vieweg.
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