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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
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Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef.
Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern. Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .
1455 for my lord of Mayne.BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .
The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. i . quite simply. Several very different versions of the book exist. peas. among other luminaries. Le Viandier. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). stork. Charles V and Charles VI). The work’s title. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. — and yes. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. “cookbook”.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. eggs. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. complete with measurements. some would say barbaric: heron. peacock. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. For a modern reader. — to the exotic. swan . Though in modern French viande means “meat”. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. at this time it referred to any food. etc.
Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. too. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word. Some. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. In some cases. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. If some passages seem redundant.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. for other words. Several special classes of words exist here. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. illogical or confused.
To complicate matters. Also. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. may have been too hardened to eat. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. Here and in other cases. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. Strictly speaking. effectively. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. to a pâté. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. however. Pastie (Pasté) iii . either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. The pastry itself.
we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. However. to dissolve. though. However. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. As an old cooking term. In this case. Here. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. or. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. it seems to mean to brown the food.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). In practice. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. when liquid is present. to “under-fry”. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. the translation is nearly direct. iv . to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. Were these assumed to include that fish.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. In context. succulent state before cooking it.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. diluted with verjuice. and nutmeg if you have it. put it all in a pot. and add in the broth. Soak livers with the bread and strain. spices and verjuice. that is cinnamon. When the bread is strained. and cook them. Take bread and livers. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . Once it has been strained. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. raw. and take bread soaked in beef broth. and boil it all together. and infuse with verjuice. and put herbs. and put it all together. restore them. cooked egg yolks. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. and poultry livers. wild spinach. you will shell them. and egg yolks. and strain it all together. with the following spices: cinnamon. clove. and put veal in the pot with them. To thicken. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. ginger. and set the broth separately. as above. for a better broth. and crush. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. diluted with verjuice. For Lark Grané Take larks. and scale and slice up pike. and fry them. paradise seed. And then boil the spices. paradise seed and clove. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. cut up in pieces. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. marjoram. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. the costmary. Boil in water and pea puree. ginger. then brown. ginger and assorted spices. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp.Taillevent egg yolks. and strain. and for spices. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. diluted with vinegar. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. not too much. and take a great quantity of parsley. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. and strain with the broth. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. and put the shells aside.
take pike and put in place of the shrimp. and then fry finely chopped onion. 5 . and verjuice. ginger and assorted spices. ginger. and strain the almonds all together. Cut up in pieces. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. ginger. And put cinnamon.. fry eggs in oil or butter. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. cinnamon. and sprinkle with salt. and. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. pike browned on the grill. set it to boil. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. and boil everything together. Make similar broth as for seyme. if you have them. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. Then strain the bread and the livers. and sweeten moderately. and salt to taste. and strain pike livers with it. Salt to taste. and boil them all together. Infuse with verjuice. Take ginger. and salt to taste. and then use pure mustard. clove. when they are browned. Salt to taste. and soak in beef broth. and saffron for color. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. add a reasonable amount of sugar. cinnamon and assorted spices. When it is roasted. Take bread and livers. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. take some puree. and boil all together. and sweeten moderately. to the chaudumé. paradise seed. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. infused with verjuice. and infuse it with verjuice. and put the broth apart. And if you do not have enough meat. assorted spices. and fry in a pot. with the same spices. and soak in the beef broth. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. if you have them. and infuse with verjuice. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. Add ginger. and roast it. and put in the pot. and paradise seed. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. Put with the other spices.
Clean and cut up. put it in your pot. that is ginger. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. and soak it in pea purée.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. with no other spices – this is enough. if you have it. and strain. or its own broth. and verjuice and salt to taste. the best that you can find. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. slice it up in large cubes. gizzards. and take some small giblets of poultry. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. Take browned bread. and put in seed ginger. clove. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. cinnamon and assorted spices. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. and salt to taste. Fry onion and parsley. For spices. etc. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Boil it all together. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. clove and seeds. and other broth. poultry. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. and add some red Burgundy wine. Then take ginger. Add to the pot. Put in a pot. put cinnamon. When 6 . When the potage is ready. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. and saffron for color. For spices. Put some bread in to soak. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. boil it thus. and some spices. cinnamon and assorted spices. When it is not too well cooked along the side. infused with vinegar. and set them to cook. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. paradise seed. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. It is best to strain it. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. each one with its lardoons. such as livers. cut up in pieces. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. and lard each one with a lardoon or two.
the best lard you can find. Then take white wine and verjuice. and soak them in the poultry broth. so that. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. but reasonable. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. boil it all together. also known as alkanets.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. it thickens. After straining it through cheesecloth. with some verjuice. internally]. and heat in lard. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. Salt 7 . fry them in lard. some white wine and verjuice. slice them lengthwise. and add a generous. and put in a pot. Once they are strained. such as green sauce . Put in a large amount of sugar. and serve them in dishes or bowls. Then take a moderate amount of rose water.Le Viandier they are cooked. and fry them in its broth. and strain with the almonds and the broth. crushed up and ground fine. and let the color soak in. and cook them. without leaving it too long on the fire. and boil and. and prepared. When serving. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. if you have them. or some white sugared almonds. and season with salt. and color it. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. and filter into the pot to give it color. take peeled almonds. Add some ginger and a little saffron. and throw it in when you boil it. Slice up the giblets. with the appropriate sauce. and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). amount of sugar. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. When the meat is served in dishes. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. once they are cooked. and just a little white wine. two or three with each dish. put them in a pot to boil. When the poussins are cooked. And to give a red color. Then put the broth in a pot. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. and crush them and strain them. slice up partridge. Take peeled almonds.
Bousac For bousac. take the broth. and young rabbits. And when the meat is cooked. and a bit of saffron for color. and halved poussins. Add cinnamon. and cut up in small pieces. and then when the meat is in dishes. Take a little bread and poultry livers. when it starts to boil. put with the meat. Once it is browned. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. a hare is to be restored. and a lot of saffron. and take some finely chopped onion. when it boils. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. the pork. and crush. Put in a pot. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. well cleaned. with beef broth in the pot to brown it.Taillevent to taste. clove and seed) to the bread. Put in lard and beef broth. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. brown the geese on the spit. and washed. ginger and assorted spices (that is. take pork cut into pieces. and cook. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. if the spices are not well beaten. seed and clove. with a moderate amount of sugar. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. then put in a pot to brown. and a moderate amount of vinegar. take eggs whites and put with the broth. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. and put in a pot on the coal fire. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. Once it is cooked. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. put in a cellar. and. and infuse the spices with vinegar. if you can find them. Then strain it. Take cinnamon. and soak in 8 . parboiled and cut up in pieces. put the meat in dishes. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. fry them in a pot. and salt just enough. Boil it all together. whichever you can find. the young rabbit and poultry. If the jelly is too fatty. Brown bread. Then take ginger and seed. When they are browned. a little mastic. soak it with poultry livers. while it is straining. that is.
and. and also any other spices. When it is cooked. take pike and prepare them. remove their bones. and infuse with vinegar. put the pike and eel in by sections. so long as it does not smell of brass. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. Then boil. Add salt as appropriate. the best you can find. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. Rice For rice. clove and beaten galanga. then strain. When it is strained. When it is cooked. Salt to taste. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. put a little saffron for color. take spices. put the spices in all together with the broth. cook in a pot or frying pan. and fry them. paradise seed. Boil the cow’s milk. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. Take a carp or two and pike. and slice them up.Le Viandier broth beef. Take cinnamon. Strain again one time. removing the bones as best you can. Strain and put with the pot. and salt it well. assorted spices. and prepare it. take some rice. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. Scald the eels. Strain the bread and the spices together. and tie them all around. and a moderate amount of mustard. put the broth in a pot. Take bread. slice into large chunks. and salt to taste. and add the liquid. and boil it all together. and add sugar. in wine. and the tripe of fish. and put the fried fish in the pot. add the cut up pike. ginger. When it is boiled. brown without burning. then leave to cool. and the tripe as well. 9 . add a little vinegar. and a large amount of clove. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. While cooking. that is the livers. while boiling. When it is strained. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. ginger. When they are boiled. Once they are chopped up fine. cook tripe of pike and carp. then slice them up. that is cinnamon. slice it into round slices. When the fish is scaled. and boil as long as you can without burning. the crops of pike and their broth.
when serving. Put in a pot and boil. the following day. Mix just a little cheese. boil milk on the fire. beaten white ginger. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. some broth. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. Add saffron. season with a little cooked lard. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. When it has been pressed a whole night. Soak the poultry in beef broth. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. with a little saffron for color. Take some fatty lard. Add salt. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. with a little bread to thicken. and beaten white ginger. When it is ready. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. Boil. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. When it is sliced up. slice it into thin slices. When it is on the point of being cooked. take poussins or poultry. moistened with just a little verjuice. Brown a little onion. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. and salt to taste. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. put the meat in dishes and. Press it as well as you can. slice it up finely.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. or partridge. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. Put in some white ginger. and boil in a pot. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. Brown in a frying pan with lard. Thicken the broth with it. and add some verjuice while thickening. fry it in lard or pork fat. and add some parsley leaves. take prepared capons or large poultry. When everything is cooked. and tie it up. and take their broth. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. When the meat is cooked. take it off the fire. 10 . Take some eggs and beat very well. and cut up into small pieces. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. and put it all in. and chop it as fine as you can. Put in the pot. and beat with your eggs. or capon meat. Take spices. and strain. good and fine.
Then have a veal or sheep membrane. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. clove and seed. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. sugar and salt. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. 11 . and well beaten clove and nutmeg. Remove all the skin. well and whole. Press it between two dishes. For Haricoq To make haricoq. Put it all together. When it is as if rotted from cooking. When they are browned. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Leave as long as it is cold. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. roast the shoulder on the spit. hyssop. cinnamon and assorted spices.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. Put on a table. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. Take white ginger. take its head. and boil it all together. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. and boil in wine and vinegar. when taken in heat. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Some like to add ginger. Put the skin aside. and brown the meat. Salt to taste. and chop them up fine. then take it from the fire. the thinnest that you can find. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. with stones on it to press well. Add a large quantity of sugar. Take peeled onions. that is. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. cut up them into pieces. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. and a great deal of parsley. and put in a pot. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. and salt to taste. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Do not cook it too much. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. Remove all meat from the bones. and split it and clean it. After. Put in the pot with the meat. ginger. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. assorted spices in large quantity. Take it off the spit.
split them at the shoulders. hyssop. it is advisable to scald them…. After. all the way to the knee. Once this is done. Once they are well cooked. Cook it all together with meat broth. When serving. Put it in a straining cloth. for a long while. hyssop and raw marjoram. lard. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. sweeten the poussins. Then take a veal or kid membrane. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. chop it up as finely as you can.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. and cook it all together. except the head and the legs. Once they have been scalded. and boil in pure white wine. pennyroyal and basil. a pig or poultry liver. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. When they are cooked. put in a dish and serve last. a needle across the opening. Once it is crisp. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. leaving only skin. When it is done. a great deal of parsley. just a little bit. if you have it. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. so that it solidifies. take poultry liver or lard. Put with the meat. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. Take saffron for color. being careful not to burn it. 12 . bone and meat. and put the stuffing in it. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. without cutting off their feet. wings or neck. if there is a shoulder. Take everything inside. Strain until there is no liquid left. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. all cooked together. Then take the chicken meat. parsley. gild it with egg yolks while turning. ginger and assorted spices. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. filter until no more liquid is left.
For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. Put. lard and put on the spit. no more or less than you want for the brewet. with the jelly on it. whole. and salt it. long pepper. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. and crush them all together. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. On fish days. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. Strain the almonds. lard with clove. When the roast is taken off the spit. clove. and also the livers and almonds. seed. and strain through a cloth. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. and for two servings. Boil your broth. put in dishes. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. and also a pound of egg yolks. After cook in wine. Then slice it into fine slices. Add strong vinegar. This done. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. This sauce is good on all roasts. Take capon or poultry broth. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. and a handful of onion. take a veal’s head and feet.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. and strain it all together through a cloth. Boil pig and poultry livers. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. Scald and pluck and clean very well. Take a pound of almonds. a pound of sugar. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. strain. When they are half cooked. Stir all the spices together. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. and put in your meat. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. for six servings. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 .
Cover so that no steam gets out. remove it. while frying. then brown. add a quarter pound of sugar. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. and a little soaked bread. and after put it in a dish. and strain through a cloth. Add in sugar and ginger. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. If you see that there is too much fat. Put. Chop up onion. Add a little saffron for color. Then put the pike on coals to stew.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. When serving at the table. take a pint of vinegar. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. Then strain through a cloth. Take the pike eggs. Put in dishes as for a 14 . cook them. take a new pot. When they are well cooked. with the maws and livers. and the pike’s liver. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. and put them in once they are stuffed. Fry with butter or oil. and boil it all together. When the almonds are thick. scald it and then fry it. Gild the heads on the grill. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. and chop into small cubes. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. put duke’s powder on it. and take the broth in which they are cooked. an ounce of assorted spices. Once they are cooked. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. and boil it all in a frying pan. Take the fish maws and livers. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. When it is boiled. Fry in lard. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. put in dishes. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. Holy Water To make holy water on pike.
take a capon and boil until well cooked. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. and set on the grill over a low fire. and crush up the crumbs finely. saffron and sugar. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. Take milk. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. Soak in 15 . and the eggs. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. make a small hole in the end of each egg. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. take stale white bread. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. strain through a cloth. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. pennyroyal. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. marjoram.Le Viandier bar of butter. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. very fine skewers. When serving. Take small. and yellow the half with saffron. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. Fry in butter. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. bunches of grapes or wine?]. Coulis To make coulis. Then place them in nice rows along the length. crush it up in the mortar. put some duke’s powder on it. and take out what is inside. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. and put it in barely touching the almonds. when it is well crushed. and chop them up finely. as much as suits you. take veal or pork. and. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. without any liquid. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. Then take sage. After put in dishes and serve. mint and all other good herbs. together with the butter. Add in ginger. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan.
but not too much. Once it is cooked. and start in the same way as the capon above. and finely chopped onion. put some in. vinegar. Then boil in a nice large pot and. and put the whole barley in it. put some thick almond milk. Afterwards. rinse and boil it very well. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. and salt to taste without anything else in it.Taillevent the capon broth. but. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. take a poussin or two. salt moderately. roast poultry or capons. and then soak in almond milk. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. and cut into pieces. and boned. take a perch and cook it in water. without crushing it. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. in grinding it. skinned. like wheat to make fromenty. with fat as for a potted pastie. Make like that of perch. After fry with lard or goose lard. cinnamon. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. After make like that of meat. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. boil in a small pot. It can be salted or not. put in assorted spices. To bind it. When they are fried. and. saffron and some verjuice. put in wine and 16 . After it is well cleaned. or anything else. after grind it. and. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. soaked in purée of peas. Once it is cooked. when crushing. crush it in the mortar. Do not add verjuice. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. ginger. if the sick person wants sugar in it. and chop it up finely. when it is cooked.
and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. To make the sauce. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. beef marrow. For spices. put the fat in the pastie. cameline. assorted spices and saffron. After. long pepper. nutmeg. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. except the clove should dominate the other spices. add some ginger.Le Viandier verjuice. This done. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. and. put in a little ginger. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. For spices. While frying. and beef fat. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. and boil with the sauce in the oven. saffron and sweeten.] Put the capons in pastie. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. add the sauce. true cinnamon. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. clove. cover with lard. remove all the meat of the capons. Cook the said 17 . in winter style. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. and chop it quite small all together. in equal parts. take raw poultry. put in fine cheese. Fricassees For fricassees. paradise seed. The appropriate spices are ginger. put some ginger powder and. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. and chop all together and the said pastie. toast black bread well. to thicken. and a moderate amount of salt. The appropriate spices are: ginger. or possibly cocks. and for spices. For spices. true cinnamon. and boil it all together. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. when the pastie is cooked.
and beat all together. with assorted spices added. and for spices. cinnamon and saffron. and the fat of chopped veal. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. For spices. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. for spices. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. put in ginger. 18 . put it all together. clove and ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. and ginger. It is best that the poultry be cut up. assorted spices and saffron. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. For spices. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. assorted spices and saffron. and lard finely chopped. and beef marrow. with a moderate amount of sugar. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. When the pastie is cooked. Add lard chopped fine. some ginger. and fine cheese. with fine powder.
new beans and parboil them. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. Add assorted spices. or the smaller one whole. For fish. the following is very much a “best guess”. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. fry it all in butter. and add assorted spices. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. And put them in the pastie. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. pressed between three fingers. seed and pepper. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. and roll this in butter. in season. 19 . It is best that these be small. like those which are made double. After. ginger and clove powder. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. well made pasties. For spices. raised up high and. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. when they are made. For spices. and chopped lard. slice it into fine slices. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. For spices. and parboil it. assorted spices and saffron. clove. ginger. and take. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. Add ginger and a little pepper.
and some gooseberries. raised up high and well made. without anything else.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. Parboil the marrow. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. with spices and sugar mixed together. ginger and saffron. fine powder and saffron. Put in assorted spices. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. and fry in lard. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. 20 . Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Eel Pastie Take saffron.
Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. Once the pastie is high and raised. and pat it. After put in the oven briefly. if you have some. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. and rounded. Make the sauce separately. Dolphins Lily flowers. 21 . After boil it. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. then put it in the oven. and sugar. and quite black. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. If you cannot find cream. pies]. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. star with fried cream. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. so that the contents do not leak out. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. gild it well.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. crush up cheese. and put the sauce in a small clean pot.. Make the crust strong and thick. Fry onion in butter. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. Strain through cloth and add the powder.e.
Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. take it out. take it out and let it cool. and cover the crust with wafers. and cook like the other side. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. and stuffed in two fingers deep. of the thickness of a finger. soaked in cream. Covered Tart For covered tart. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. crushed. and good cream. and enough egg yolks. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Knead the crust well with eggs. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. Fry them in butter. with oranges on it. and take off the crust where cooked. but not too 22 . After put a large quantity of sugar on it. then cook in the oven as said. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Cut eel into sections and boil it. and put on the tart. The slices should be less than two fingers high. When it is cooked. with egg yolks mixed into it. so that nothing of it shows. before adding the cheese and the cream. use fine cheese. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. When ready to dine. Once it is a little cooked. Seat well in the tart. set it to cool. turn it in a dish. like the other side. put in the oven. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. When it is cooked. with a great quantity of sugar. soak the crust in eggs and butter. well soaked in egg yolks. and cook them.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. and cover the whole top with orange. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices.
[Darioles were small pastries. but do not strain them. true cinnamon and white ginger. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. Knead the crust well with eggs. without burning it. Fry the cream well in butter. Add onion fried with butter or oil. For each tart. and put in the oven. well mixed by hand. This is how it should be made. and fill the hollow with the sugar. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. and enough egg yolks. and put in with the apples and the figs. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. and put in figs. that is candied pine nut.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. Make two big pastry undercrusts. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. and gild with eggs or saffron. crushed up. Sweeten well. then gild it with saffron. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot.Le Viandier much. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. Cover well. Clean grapes well. and wine. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. soak with cream. Mix in with the other apples. Put all the fillings together. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. put eight or ten slices on end. and put orange all over it. candied ginger might be used instead]. Once it is soaked. put in the oven. or a dish. a bit of assorted spices. and cook. and mix well together. Cover it with a top. so all this presumably is the filling. brown bread in front of a good red fire. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. if you have any.
while boiling. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. and strain them through a cloth. Strain very well through a cloth. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. Take their livers. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . Jance To make jance. put them over it with the sauce. then take the yolks and chop them up finely.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. brown one toast of bread on the fire. and boil in a frying pan. Soak it in milk. a half ounce of ginger. ginger. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. and put in the poultry. Soak it with the livers in a little broth.and soak in verjuice and wine. because it will smell of brass. because it will blacken. Then when it is cooked. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. and a little browned bread and very little broth. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. or with the mortar. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Boil a dozen eggs. Be sure not to put it in a pot. roast a goose. and crush up spices in a mortar . My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. and salt it well. and roast on the grill. and crush them up in a bowl. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. roast them well on the spit. Put a frying pan under it. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. Boil in a frying pan. When the goose is cooked. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. throw in a drop or two. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. Add in half an ounce of ginger.cinnamon. Bring to a boil. assorted spices . brown one toast of bread. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. take poultry livers. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. and put in a nice pot.
put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. When you boil it. Boil in a frying pan. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. For four servings. Once the bread is soaked. Soak it only in verjuice. add butter. put the dodine on them. a little parsley. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. Then take marjoram. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. Soak it in milk. Filter the water. When the 25 . and a half ounce of ginger. and boil under the capons. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. When the birds are cooked. Sugar to taste. and also in other dodines. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. hyssop and other good herbs. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. and boil everything together. take half a dozen garlic cloves. and add a little saffron. and peel. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. For one pint. Chop the herbs up. or other roast fowl. and boil together. put a quart of milk. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. and let livers roast a little on the grill. Take an ounce of ginger. Put on the roast. and boil it all with milk. or more if you wish. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Add half a pound of sugar. and then put in a nice pot. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Leave it only a little.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. and pour the grain in the sauce. capons. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. put in an ounce of ginger. roast fatty capons on the spit. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks.
Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. brown bread as for cameline. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. Put in a 26 . take out the capons and put in a dish. for four servings. with a little saffron. Then when the bread is soaked. and boil. Strain the bread and all the spices together. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. For four servings. Once the shad is half cooked. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. Take red wine and vinegar. Once it has been strained. and put in the sauce. half an ounce of ginger. and fry it. and soak in purée of peas. and some puree. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. Brown bread. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. put the verjuice on the shad. and some fresh or salted butter. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. take two ounces of true cinnamon. one with the other. Put the fish with the broth. Take for one shad. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. take some vinegar and wine. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. take pike. and put it to soak in broth. a bit of assorted spices. take verjuice and white wine. and put on the shad. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. and strain it all together through a cloth. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. and scald it.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. and strain it all together with your bread. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. and then put over the roast.
put the beans to soak in the evening. and chop up fine. On fast days. Chop them up. Onion Soup To make onion soup. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. White Beets To make white beets. and then crush up in a mortar. Mix with purée of peas or water. purée them and bind with broth. and boil in river or fountain water. boil in water. capons or other roast. Milled Beans To make milled beans. When they are parboiled. When they are done cooking. 27 . and strain it all through cloth. and strain it all through the cloth. a half ounce of ginger. then bind with lard and warm water. take two ounces of true cinnamon. and almond milk if you like. or. This sauce is good on larks. put in a frying pan to cool. Add a little water to keep it from burning. bind with beef broth. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. Squeeze out between your hands. and after put them on a plank. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. on fried eggs. then crush them in a mortar. fish and all other fried things. Remove the black ones. When they are half cooked. Leeks To make leeks. and put in lard to give them taste. if you do not have the broth. except the sugar. purée them and put cold water on them. Brown in butter for a long while. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. On fish days. use mulberries. use purée of pea and butter.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. For four servings. with enough grapes. If you lack grapes. Once this is done. use butter and purée of peas. two ounces of sugar. Wash and parboil them. then put on a plank. and add some verjuice and parsley. split lard into thin slices and fry. then strain them through a cloth. After.
wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. use purée of peas with butter and oil. peel them and cut into round slices. and put some cold water over them. Lard the length of the meat. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. with mustard. Filter out the liquid. Squeeze and chop up finely. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. Cook with only mastic and saffron. sage. and squeeze them between your hands. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. and cut into four quarters. sage. Parboil in a frying pan. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. Gourds For gourds. Sheep. and a little saffron. verjuice. if there are any. hyssop. Once it is well cooked. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Pig Cook in water and salt. and add some cold water on them. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. while doing this. If it is fresh. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. then 28 . and put on your pot. put in beef broth. and turn it to one side and another. For fast days. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. On fast days. Boil all together. Put in some cowʹs milk. add parsley. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. then purée. Remove the seeds. salted. mastic and hyssop. and. take off the top leaves. take your pot off the fire. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. wine.
Grate ginger. seed. and add lard for flavor. with cameline. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. cook in water and salt. cinnamon. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. sage and hyssop. 29 . and saffron for color. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. with parsley. Fry in lard with some onions. clove. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. Boil your meat. Add some verjuice and vinegar.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. with fine powder. larded. Eat parboiled in pastry. and a good deal of spice. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag.
then cut up into pieces. Take ginger. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Boil. Take verjuice. cook in wine and water. Soak white bread in milk. Then take cowʹs milk. and fry in lard. Fry in lard. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. then grate ginger and saffron. infuse with wine and verjuice. Strain it. broken up in beef broth. Fry in lard. add a large quantity of eggs. Take white bread. and strain. without adding anything but a little white bread. Fry in lard. and watch that it does not turn. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Cut up into parts. and boil briefly. Always let thicken on its own. Powder ginger and cumin. pull back from the fire. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. Add egg yolks. then purée. Put in your soup just before serving it. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. vinegar. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. cook poultry well in water. Soak a little bread in beef broth. cook the peas until they are soft. Boil with 30 . and boil it all together. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. Mix in your milk. Boil. Cut up into parts. Pull back from the fire. long pepper. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Take almonds infused with broth. Brown them in lard. and boil with your meat. and boil on your meat. saffron. and cook a little in water. Grate ginger and cumin. Fry in lard.
galanga and long pepper. crush almonds. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. Boil it all together. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. cinnamon. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. infuse with beef broth and wine. Civet For civet. Take browned bread. and saffron for color. brown on the spit or on the grill. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. This should be quite thick. and spice it well. Strain. Then powder ginger. clove. cinnamon. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. cook in wine and water. But do not wash the meat at all. paradise seed. cook in water and wine. and fry in lard. and do not let it thicken too much. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Grate ginger. cinnamon. Fry in lard. Boil with your meat. paradise seed. Take a little burned bread. It should be very black and not too thick. Beat ginger. Boil on your meat. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. mix with verjuice. clove. Then take bread browned on the grill. then cut up into pieces. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. paradise seed. cinnamon and clove. without letting it cook too long. Fry in lard. and made like that for hare. Cut up into parts. infuse with verjuice. and saffron to give color. Powder ginger. then cut up into pieces. 31 . Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar.Le Viandier your meat. Boil together. and add well beaten egg yolks.
cut your veal up finely. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. verjuice. Restore it in water. with powder and cold sage. in pastry. Crush ginger and saffron. Fry in lard. Once it is cooked. clove. or verjuice. Roast Mutton With a little salt. Cook it. Some put onions on it. Eat with cameline. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. with fine powder and saffron. and cut up your meat into pieces. boil it all together. and eaten with cameline in pastry. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. and scramble eggs. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. 32 . Put on the spit. cinnamon. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. soaked in wine. Roast without lard. or vinegar.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. paradise seed. with cinnamon. Eat with garlic or jance. and toasted bread. Dribble eggs over it while frying. or verjuice. also known as breast meat. Goose Plume a dry goose. In pastry. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
Put them in a cold place. three quarter pounds of ginger. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. and. cinnamon. Then grate ginger. take poultry and cook in water. clove. saffron to give color. as soon as it is time to serve it. make the cold sauce without eggs. if it is fish. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. six young rabbits. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. Strain. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. Put it on a spit. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. Some add cooked yolks. Tie it in a white cloth. 36 . Pour on your poultry in sections. To make jelly. thirty legs of veal. paradise seed. After. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. four pigs. three quarter pounds of string ginger. mastic. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. nutmeg. Powder ginger. skimming it the whole time. The sauce should not be too black. six dishes: and drink for the workers. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. paradise seed. cinnamon. twenty earthen pots. and paradise seeds. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. mixed with vinegar. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. whole. Blend it all together. For pork. take twenty five poussins. galanga. six ells of cloth. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. you must stay alert. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. six ounces of saffron. because it will not flow. Have it well bled.Taillevent pepper. Remove the tongue. Boil with your fish or meat. skimming it the whole time. and. when it is cooked. folded over two or three times. See that the broth is clear and clean. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. five wooden spoons. bleed it by the mouth. if it is fish.
During Lent. and boil together on a low fire. then wipe your rice by the fire. 37 . use almond milk. Add the fat from beef broth. and sugar the bowls. on a meat day. Take cowʹs milk. cull. add your rice. and wheat. wash in warm water.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice.
dissolve in white wine. which once meant a variety of pike. If you do not have that. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. when it is boiled.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. Then cool. paradise seed and saffron. eggs and milk. seed. Cook on the fire. Boil together with the oysters. but here appears to mean a green.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. Grind almonds. in oil. Serve it on your fish. Grate ginger. with wine and verjuice. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. [*This might be a variant of lus. Boil. cinnamon. at the evening. wine. boil a little water. some of your milk and mix together. lux* and carps and. For the sick. or verjuice. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. and no other spices. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. and put on your fish. Soak egg yolks in white wine. take tenches. and strains it through a cloth. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. Add ginger and pepper. 38 . take ginger. mix in some white wine. some of your broth. Crush. except that one puts in a bit of sage. especially. almond oil and a little verjuice.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. and saffron. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. cinnamon. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. Boil together. If it is too sour. Some put in a little verjuice. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. scald and wash very well. add sugar.
Crush almonds and the perch together. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. mix with broth in a little wine. Boil it all together. Boil until thick. cook in water. 39 . It should be clear. and strain with broth.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Put pomegranates over it. Crush almonds.
“cream”. Add as much spring onion as you like. cook in water. paradise seed. fresh shad. Cresme [*Literally. Split along the back. Eat with green sauce. Do not make it too yellow. Salt it with wine.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Eat with cameline. pepper and a little saffron. Porpoise For porpoise. 40 . Powder ginger. dace. Salt the shad. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. eels. Boil. eat with garlic. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. pike. Eat with green sauce. carp. barbell. – cook all of these in water and add salt. in pastry and with fine powder. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. Eat with cameline. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. cinnamon. Add a little salt or mustard. or roast on the grill. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey.
Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. Cod Cook in water. turbot. sole. Eat with jance. ray. with mustard or butter. flounder: cook in water. with wine and verjuice. 41 .Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. Salt it. Add fine powder.
cinnamon. parsley and salad burnet. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. white garlic. a little saffron. nutmeg. paradise seed. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. galanga. 42 . Pour on your fish. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. Crush bread. pepper. Crush ginger. green sauce and garlic camelines. infuse with vinegar.
Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Some like it with cowʹs milk. then grind up ginger. Jance Crush almonds. string ginger and white bread. Some add seed and galanga to it. crush seed and livers.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. 43 . with the fat from the roast. Strain and boil. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. pepper. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Infuse with verjuice and wine. Some add seed and galanga to it. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. saffron. and browned bread. Boil. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Infuse with other verjuice. Boil.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
Duke’s powder on it. half-sweet. game hen. jelly. venison with soup. made of sugar. sweetened white cream. cold sauce. white and dark red. sugared strawberries. silvered. quails with sugar. Wild boar made with fried cream. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. sea pullets. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. marked with the arms said above. A suitable support for the said peacocks. and pine nuts. Fried cream. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. hare pastie. 47 . scattered about. jonchées [a soft cheese]. Darioles and upside-down stars. white of fennel. FRUIT COURSE White cream. Larded milk. Jelly. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. wine. marked with the said arms. in a dish. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. young peacocks in full display. half-sour. fried oranges. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. pears. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. vinegar. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. then ginger on it. preserved in sugar. and almonds. and Duke’s powder over it. and strawberries. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?].
gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. capon pastie. cretonnée of lard. pickle. Pear pastie. nuts. watercress. peacocks with celery. capons with Jean’s most. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. venison with clove. navews with venison. pears. Venison pasties. kids. jelly. almonds. jonchées. Jelly and slices. SECOND COURSE The best roast. partridges with sugar. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. pears with hypocras. nuts and raw pears.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. swans. small hares with bramble vinegar. fried cream. 48 . FOURTH COURSE Eagles. chickens with herbs. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. herons. young rabbits with spiced sauce. brewet of cinnamon. FIFTH COURSE White cream. pigeon pastie. Steamed pigeons. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. Sugared almonds. hazelnuts.
Trimolettes with sugar. capes [type of apple]. White jelly and other fried cream. Banquet of marrow. Boiled chickens. barded sugared chickens. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. capons with tulle. Pigeon pastie. Jelly. Pigeons. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. Fresh venison with soups. Venison. Venison with peas. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Peacocks. Quail pasties. cherries with sugar or feathers. Thin slices. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Baked cream pancake. lemons. brewet rappé. Tarts with sugar. Pears with sugar. SECOND COURSE Roast. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. 49 . Young rabbits. New almonds. Thin gilded slices. Must. Herons. Capon pastie.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie.
2 green. 47. 46. 13. 34 jonchée. 2. 19 peacock. 39 bousac. 30. 5. 39. 33. 33 gosling. 38 cheese fine. 38 hand towel. 30. 7. 43. 6. 46. 27. 5. 31. 34 goose. 13 chaudeau. 47. 33 partridge. 1. 47. 12. 21. 24. 24. 6. 1. 10. 31. 1. 24. 7. 19. 24. 35 de-salt. 49 blancmange. 23. 1. iv. 49 irson. 1. 11. 15. 27 . 26. 18. 4. 6. 48. 14. 26. 16 quail.INDEX A almonds. 13. 17. 15. 31. 3. 15. i. 46 clairet. 49 white German. v. i. 13 pigeon. 8. 18. 14. iii. 37. 15. 12. 3. 46. 43. 27. 25. 3 rappé. 21. 24. 25. 31 brewet fish. 7. 29. 32. 8. 11. 23 guin. 28. 2. 22. 21. 34 blanch. 46. 23. 49 poultry. 48. 31. 16. 27. 3. 34. 33 blackbird. i. 10. 33. 44 cloth. 6. 19. 3. 35. 36 cooking methods baste. 7 gizzards. 4. 30. 12. 2. 14 B birds assorted. 10. 7. 28. 9. 2. 7. 46. 8. 17. 1. 48. 18 capon. 24. 10. 47. 7. 33. 31. 10. 18 stork. 39. 13. 2 covered. 22. 24. 28 gild. 31. 10. 49 sparrow. iv. 18. 32 cele. 36. 9. 16. 11. 5. 48 giblets. 23. 26. 13. 31 brewet. 33 ringdove. 48 cheese. 25. i. 30. 10. 48. 1 of capons. 13. 10. 2 meat. 48. 33 swan. 14. 14. 30. 28. i. 4 butter fried. 9. 18 duck wild. 26. 14. 16. 47 dove. 11 civet. 13. 6. 5. v. 3. 1. 2. 38. 29. 18. 23. 40 mortar. 5. 11. 49 grill. 36 poussin. 33 bittern. 29. 14. 17. 49 chicken. 5. 29. 25. 12. 18 eagle. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 35. 15 C caul. 34. 23. 35. 16. 10. 4. 48. 32. 46. 2. 16. 10. 46 heron. 47.head. 8. 4. 33. 13. 10. 12. 14. 8. 38. 4. 4 Georget. 48. 49 pheasant. 24. 15. 13. 38. 8. 16. 10 table. 16 brown.
28. 4. 32. 34. 32. 24. 20 gurnard. 8. 21. 13. 34. 3. 20. 31. 38 perch. 46. 12. 32. 38 trout. 47. iv. 20. 2. 35 scald. 15. 37. 17. 44 E eggs. 19. 1. 5. 36. iv. 26 pears. 26. 41. 28. 48 plums. 40 mackerel. 15. 18. 9. 9. 1. 12. 41 cod. 25. 21. 3. 1. 41 fresh water. 34. 9. 15. 44 hypocras. 49 cappes. 40 jelly. 25. 23. 11. 4. 38 removing burnt taste. 16. 22. 9 gallimaufrey. 40. 23 grapes. 23. 35. 4 brill. 36. 42. 26. 4. 36 strain. 14. 21. 40. 47 tench. 5. 16 perch. 34. 20 oysters. 13. 36. 35. 3. 14 fricassee. 40 mullet. 35. 21. 3 cuttlefish. 23. 29. 34. 7 spit. v. 27. 14. 38. 24. 33. 16 spelt (wheat). 40 brewet. 6. 28 restore. 47 F fayenne. 5. 42 51 . 26. 35. 13. 31. 49 figs. 6. 40 salt water. 8. 21. 36. 34. 11. 43 coulis. 40 simmer. 35. 38. 49 fried. 30. 32. 11. 12. 10. i. 9. 47 G galantine. 38 greens parsley. 20 sorvige. 40 porpoise. 5. 25. 48. 41 eel. 1. 4. 23. 4. 16 grains barley. 12. 3. 1 bream. 24. 4. 13. 35 wheat. 47 salad burnet. 14. 16. 41 cretonnée. 30. 23. 20. 7. 27. 40 ray. 28. 28. 25.Le Viandier parboil. 10. 34. 20. 12. 2. 24. 3. 16. 38 fraze. 26. 47 shad. 41 salmon. 18. 47. 6 flounder. 27. 1. 35 lamprey. 39 cream. 26. 13. 40 goatfish. 31. 11. 41 flan. 26. 23. 17 fromanty. 10. 40 conger. 40 cockles. 29. 22. 15. 2. 35 fruit apples. 8. 9. 38. 22. 36. 20 turbot. 19. 41 carp. 12. 13 fish blancmange. 49 D drinks clairet. 36. 28. 39 pike. 48. 42 sea pullets. 20. v. 27. 8.
48 J jelly. 5. 16 hare. 28. 43 grenon. 3. 15. 20. 10. 6. 13. 13. 47. 12. 28 shoulder. 8. 7. 15. 19 marrow. 13. 31. 46. 46 veal. 27. 10. 12. 48. 6. 17 chicken. 6. 28. 38. 47. 10. 6. 13.Taillevent sorrel. 25. 20 capon. 48 M meat beef. 28. 34. 47. 23 P pasties. 18. 20 mutton. 8. 4. 34 rabbit. 38. 17. 12. 14. 32. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 47 kid. 16. 14 tongue. v. 18 partridge. 33. 28. 7. 36. 5. 46. 35. 32 sheep bristle. 30. 20 mullet. 3. 9. 32. 18 bream. 31. 19. 14. 30. 11 liver. 18. 19. 48. 18 salmon. 12. 44. 43. 8. 2. 28. 19. 3. 16. 34. 11. 18. 32. 19. 11. 24. 28 buttock. 10 O orange. 18. 49 pork. 8. 14. 35. 46. 47 kid. 4. 12. 29. 36 boar. 43 marrow. iii. 1. 1. 49 rabbit. 11 hazelnuts. 9. 18. 15. 28. 29. 10. 32 bellies. 46 scum. 11. 18. 4. 37. 35. 28 cow. 49 milk larded. 49 suckling pig. sheep. 48. 48 houdet. 19. 19. 24. 35. 2. 10. 33. 32. 25. 49 L lard. 9. 34. 20 shad. 34. 47. 18 lamprey. 17. 4. 35 spleen. 21. 18 halebrans. 21 leg of lamb. 47 morterel. 6. 26. 31. 11. 48. 17. 30. 29. 8 venison. 34 H haricoq. 32. 29. 2. 8 stag. 19 hare. 16. 14. 47 boiled. 31 hyocras. 46 foot of. 36. 8. 21. 15. 26. 29. 8. 28. 8. 37. 20 52 . 23 pigeon. 20 ringdove. 23. 3. 11. 17. 6. 21 mutton. 49 blackbird. 20. 21. 8. 34. 19. 18 conger eel. 43 teat. 6. 20 gosling. 6. 1. 11. 19 pear. 13. 11. 7. 30. 4. 17. 21 lorais. 47 lamb. 22. 6. 36. 8. 21. 2. 27. 35 leg of. 16. 36. 11. 20 goatfish. 15. 19 red mullet. 46. 46 ham. 20. v.
33 S sabourot. 11. 23 53 . 13. 49 oblongs. 29. 2 lark. 24. 12. 11. 41 sauces. 45 basil. 19 wild duck. 40. 4 galanga. 40. 9. 29. 5. 7 warm. 15. 10. 9. 23. 24. 3. 26. 26. 31. 23. 20. 21. 46. 45 garlic. 26 seyme. 17. 36. 7 roasts. 28. 26. 40. 4. 21. 3. 24. 26. 36. 30 fish. 8. 8. 11. 45. 44 white.Le Viandier sparrow. 43 red. 43. 30 new peas. 6 removing burnt taste from. 31. 25 violet. 15. 35. 29. 26 small wine. 4 small birds. 24. 18. 27. 42. 33. 32. 31. 15. 2. 16. 36. 35. 38. 3. 19. 13. 36. 20 veal. 15. 10 potful. 47. 30 cretonnée. 2. 47 dodine. 30. 27 pottage. 5. 19. 28. 7. 40. 14. 47 sorvige. 17. 36. 28. 21. 8. 35. 8. 26 shad. 17 pastries dariole. 1. 47 saupiquet. 43. 25. 4. 42. 18. 32. 30 peas. 20. 35. 10 salamine. 21. 13. 5. 40. 29. 23. 12 cinnamon. true. 26. 2. 9. 6 soups chaudin. 20 turbot. 27. 7. 9. 18 with warm sauce. 43. 17 wild boar. 44. 43 Jean’s must. 24. 9. 13. purée of. 5. v. 29. 26. 9. 30. 42 chaudumé. 36. 3 de-salting. 2. 30 fish. 23. 47 dolphins. 42. 41. 40. 24. 19 trout. 46 jance. 36 with most. 44. 34. 32. 1. 32. 6. 13. 27. 32. 23. 32. 17. 30 poultry. 6. 6. 7. 48 almond. 14 preserves. 7. 18 stag. 7 powdered. 6. 5. 10.fat. 9. 13 R rice. 5 skin. v. 38 cold. 17. 33. 48 cinnamon. 37 flour. 11. 25 my lady’s. iv. 1. 32. 16. 31. 1 cameline. 27. 17. 45. 19. 38 pork. 24. 24. 4 shrimp. 28 grané. 4. 18. 42. v. 48 costmary. 2. 28 spices anis. 7. 2. 25 green. 25. 13. 26. 3 new bean. 44 clove. 3. 35. 38. 23. 24 Poitevin. 2 salt. 30 Spanish. 24. 36. 34 garlic. 30 onion. 45 string. 42 ginger. 3. 14. 16. 34. 21 peas. 21. 34. 11. 28.
20. 11. 44. 27 onions. 38. 36. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 31. 25. 10. 24. 34 moteaulx. 41. 47. 2. 16. 28. 16. 15. 31. 15. 26. 30. 29. v. 43. 39. 38. 42. 41. 4. 4. 27 beets white. 2. 42. 27 cabbage. 7. 38. 22 trimolette. 8. 11. 25. 25. 32. 14. 23 common. 31. 4. 14. 13. 6. 28. 19. 11. 38. 14. 5. 24. 28. 23 Bourbonnaise. 5. 43. 49 V vegetables beans. 12.Taillevent hyssop. 32. 15. 18. 29. 6. 47. 49 T tarts apple. 21. 32. 10. 40. 3. 14. 13. 35. 2. 12. 14 rose. 13. 7. 20. 17. iv. 12. 28. 14. 6. 8. 2. 22. 15. 11. 41 verjuice. 40. 6. 38. 21. 5. 9. 36. 21. 17. 8. 11. 14. 28. 43. 28 gourds. 1. 23. 31. 35. 43. 22 Jacobine. 48 vinegar. 42. 1. 2. 5. 29. 7. 32. 11. 23. v. 9. 22. 17. 47 pepper. 21. 5. 4. 28 leeks. 31. 4. 38. 19. 26. 40. 1. 19. 28. 33. 8. 48. 32. 45 paradise seed. 15. 1. 17. 8. 48. 28. 12. 35. 34. 14. 13. 45 powder. 27. 44. 18. 36. 41 nutmeg. 13. 38. 11. 44. 43 vinaigrette. 30. 38. 41. 17. 16. 12. 5. 16. 10. 25. 22. v. 34. v. 40. 45 mustard. 12. 17. 9. 22. 9. 47 wine. 8. 38 stuffing. 32. 9. 11. 6. 14. 30. 13. 15. 34. 25. 26. 37. 35. 3. 4. 36. 45. 34. 11. 29. 29. 21 covered. 47 sugar. 25. 19. 35. 7. 36. 13. 40. 36. 20. 17. 17. 45 pennyroyal. 5. 2. 35. 27. 19. 18. 40. 21. 34. 34. 22 talemouse. 48. 29. 2. 13. 15. 29 marjoram. 20. 46 sage. 27. 31. 28. 23. 16. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 18. 27. 23. 26. 13. 19. 31. 30. 3. 30. 45. 11. 40. 47 54 . 3. 16. 42. 18. 42. 29. 6. 22 two-faced. 8. 8. 36. 25 mastic. 43. 8. 36. 11. 30. 35. 45. 42. 9. 29. 15 W water holy. 32. 23. iv. 14. 49 vintage. 23 saffron. 34. v. 26. 12. 7. 32. 15. 21. 31. 5. 21. 44. 7. 25. 13.
Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. J. 1970. George Olms Verlag. 1846. dédié au Roy. Plon. moeurs. Paris : E. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. Davidson. Vicaire. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. modes. 1611. Le ménagier de Paris.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent.thousandeggs. D. Vieweg.-D.kfunigraz. Nourrit. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers.at/~katzer/engl/index. impr. Frédéric. Toulouse : J. Montagné. New York: Crown Publishers. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. impr. 1961. Prosper. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . 2002. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Larousse Gastronomique. Paris : P.com/glossary.ac. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages.. Antoine. Paris. Franklin. 1892. Legrand d'Aussy. M. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel.html 55 . & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. Paris : imp. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. usages des Parisiens. Cotgrave. Pierres. Pichon and G. Alan. Inc. Reprint. Le cuisinier Taillevent. 1694. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. de Guerlins. Histoire de la vie privée des français. The Penguin Companion to Food. Furetière.VI. C. Paris: F. 1881. Penguin Books. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. Godefroy. Randle. – 1889. de Crapelet. Alfred. Hildesheim-New York. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. 1694. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. 1782. Les repas. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent.t Ed. Bourgeois parisien. London. 1684. 1889. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. un.
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