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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in any form.
Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 . Sheep.Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef.
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 .BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June. 1455 for my lord of Mayne.
at this time it referred to any food. quite simply. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. peacock. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. etc. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. i . Several very different versions of the book exist. eggs. “cookbook”. Charles V and Charles VI). to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. — to the exotic. — and yes. and so the closest modern sense of the title is. Le Viandier. among other luminaries. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. some would say barbaric: heron. For a modern reader.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. peas. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. The work’s title. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. complete with measurements. the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. stork. swan .
illogical or confused. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. If some passages seem redundant. Several special classes of words exist here. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. too. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. for other words. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. Some. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . In some cases.
To complicate matters.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. to a pâté. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. Here and in other cases. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. The pastry itself. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. Strictly speaking. Pastie (Pasté) iii . something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. however. effectively. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. Also. may have been too hardened to eat.
or.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms. As an old cooking term. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. In context. Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. Were these assumed to include that fish. In practice. succulent state before cooking it. to “under-fry”. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. to dissolve. it seems to mean to brown the food. iv . it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. Here. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. However. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. when liquid is present. the translation is nearly direct. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. However. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. In this case. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. though. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter.
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
and strain it all together. and take a great quantity of parsley. with the following spices: cinnamon. cut up in pieces. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. Once it has been strained. Soak livers with the bread and strain. then brown. and set the broth separately. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. and cook them. and poultry livers. Boil in water and pea puree. and crush. For Lark Grané Take larks. and put herbs. and fry them. Take bread and livers. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . you will shell them. marjoram. wild spinach. put it all in a pot. and put it all together. To thicken. put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. not too much. When the bread is strained. and put the shells aside.Taillevent egg yolks. and strain. diluted with verjuice. the costmary. and put veal in the pot with them. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. cooked egg yolks. And then boil the spices. spices and verjuice. diluted with vinegar. that is cinnamon. ginger. and nutmeg if you have it. restore them. and strain with the broth. ginger. and egg yolks. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. ginger and assorted spices. paradise seed and clove. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. paradise seed. and add in the broth. and take bread soaked in beef broth. for a better broth. as above. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. raw. and for spices. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. clove. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. and scale and slice up pike. diluted with verjuice. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth. and infuse with verjuice. and boil it all together.
and. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. Cut up in pieces. and salt to taste. fry eggs in oil or butter. and put the broth apart. and sweeten moderately. and saffron for color. Salt to taste. paradise seed. add a reasonable amount of sugar. Take browned bread and poultry livers of. and infuse with verjuice. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. and paradise seed. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. Put with the other spices. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. to the chaudumé. and fry in a pot. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. assorted spices. Add ginger. if you have them. Take bread and livers. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and strain the almonds all together. ginger. and boil everything together. and sweeten moderately. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill. and sprinkle with salt. clove.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. and then use pure mustard. if you have them. and roast it. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. and infuse it with verjuice. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. when they are browned. take some puree. and strain pike livers with it. pike browned on the grill. and then fry finely chopped onion. Make similar broth as for seyme. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. Take ginger. and soak in beef broth. And if you do not have enough meat. And put cinnamon. cinnamon. and boil them all together. cinnamon and assorted spices.. and soak in the beef broth. Then strain the bread and the livers. ginger. When it is roasted. and salt to taste. ginger and assorted spices. Salt to taste. and boil all together. 5 . and put in the pot. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. and verjuice. set it to boil. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. with the same spices. Infuse with verjuice. infused with verjuice.
and put in seed ginger.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. paradise seed. put cinnamon. Fry onion and parsley. and strain. and salt to taste. each one with its lardoons. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. and soak it in pea purée. cinnamon and assorted spices. such as livers. that is ginger. or its own broth. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. gizzards. Put some bread in to soak. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. Then take ginger. clove and seeds. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. and take some small giblets of poultry. boil it thus. if you have it. For spices. clove. slice it up in large cubes. and saffron for color. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. Boil in a pot with some beef broth. and some spices. When the potage is ready. and set them to cook. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. etc. and other broth. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. When 6 . Take browned bread. For spices. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. cut up in pieces. Clean and cut up. put it in your pot. To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. When it is not too well cooked along the side. Boil it all together. Put in a pot. Add to the pot. infused with vinegar. and verjuice and salt to taste. with no other spices – this is enough. the best that you can find. poultry. and add some red Burgundy wine. cinnamon and assorted spices. It is best to strain it. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it.
and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). internally]. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. such as green sauce . and cook them. with the appropriate sauce. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. it thickens. When the poussins are cooked. and strain with the almonds and the broth. with some verjuice. take peeled almonds. without leaving it too long on the fire. and fry them in its broth. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. And to give a red color. and serve them in dishes or bowls. some white wine and verjuice. Add some ginger and a little saffron. and add a generous. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. Put in a large amount of sugar. and season with salt. After straining it through cheesecloth. two or three with each dish. Slice up the giblets. so that. also known as alkanets. and put in a pot. or some white sugared almonds. and filter into the pot to give it color. slice them lengthwise. amount of sugar. put them in a pot to boil. When the meat is served in dishes. When serving. the best lard you can find. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. Take peeled almonds.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. and crush them and strain them. and soak them in the poultry broth. if you have them. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins. once they are cooked.Le Viandier they are cooked. Then put the broth in a pot. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. and let the color soak in. Salt 7 . and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. and heat in lard. slice up partridge. Once they are strained. boil it all together. and boil and. and just a little white wine. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. and color it. crushed up and ground fine. and prepared. fry them in lard. Then take white wine and verjuice. and throw it in when you boil it. but reasonable. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins.
Taillevent to taste. Add cinnamon. and washed. the pork. put the meat in dishes. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Once it is browned. while it is straining. clove and seed) to the bread. the young rabbit and poultry. that is. Once it is cooked. Then take ginger and seed. when it boils. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. Put in lard and beef broth. take eggs whites and put with the broth. and. and crush. and salt just enough. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. with a moderate amount of sugar. soak it with poultry livers. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. take pork cut into pieces. parboiled and cut up in pieces. put in a cellar. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. Boil it all together. seed and clove. brown the geese on the spit. well cleaned. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked. and halved poussins. and a lot of saffron. if you can find them. with beef broth in the pot to brown it. Take a little bread and poultry livers. put with the meat. then put in a pot to brown. if the spices are not well beaten. a hare is to be restored. and put in a pot on the coal fire. Take cinnamon. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. a little mastic. If the jelly is too fatty. take the broth. Put in a pot. ginger and assorted spices (that is. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. and infuse the spices with vinegar. and soak in 8 . whichever you can find. and a moderate amount of vinegar. and young rabbits. Brown bread. Then strain it. when it starts to boil. and take some finely chopped onion. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. Bousac For bousac. And when the meat is cooked. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. When they are browned. and then when the meat is in dishes. and cook. and cut up in small pieces. and a bit of saffron for color. fry them in a pot.
remove their bones. and fry them. then strain. slice into large chunks. Once they are chopped up fine. and a large amount of clove. while boiling. and the tripe as well. When it is strained. While cooking. 9 . Take a carp or two and pike. and the tripe of fish. and salt it well. and also any other spices. and slice them up. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. and add the liquid. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. Take bread. ginger. in wine. When it is cooked. ginger. that is cinnamon. Boil the cow’s milk. then slice them up. take spices. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. add a little vinegar. and. When they are boiled. Strain the bread and the spices together. then leave to cool. and a moderate amount of mustard. and infuse with vinegar. paradise seed. take pike and prepare them. slice it into round slices. Then boil. put the pike and eel in by sections. take some rice. put the broth in a pot. and boil as long as you can without burning. brown without burning. Take cinnamon. When the fish is scaled. and salt to taste. put a little saffron for color.Le Viandier broth beef. Strain again one time. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. Add salt as appropriate. and boil it all together. When it is boiled. clove and beaten galanga. When it is cooked. cook in a pot or frying pan. and tie them all around. add the cut up pike. cook tripe of pike and carp. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. that is the livers. and put the fried fish in the pot. the crops of pike and their broth. Scald the eels. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. so long as it does not smell of brass. Salt to taste. removing the bones as best you can. Rice For rice. assorted spices. and add sugar. put the spices in all together with the broth. When it is strained. the best you can find. and prepare it. Strain and put with the pot.
Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. fry it in lard or pork fat. Put in some white ginger. then cook it in a pot or frying pan. and boil in a pot. with a little bread to thicken. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. Soak the poultry in beef broth. take poussins or poultry. Take spices. Boil. put the meat in dishes and. take prepared capons or large poultry. When it is on the point of being cooked. Take some fatty lard. or partridge. Brown a little onion. and add some verjuice while thickening. Put in a pot and boil. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. when serving. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. and strain. When it has been pressed a whole night. beaten white ginger. When it is sliced up. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. and salt to taste. Add salt. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. slice it up finely. Take some eggs and beat very well. boil milk on the fire. some broth. take it off the fire. When the meat is cooked. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. good and fine. and chop it as fine as you can. the following day. Mix just a little cheese. When it is ready. Thicken the broth with it. 10 . take bread crumbs to put with the broth. Put in the pot. and take their broth. with a little saffron for color. and cut up into small pieces. When everything is cooked. and beat with your eggs. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. and tie it up. Add saffron. and add some parsley leaves. and beaten white ginger. Brown in a frying pan with lard. season with a little cooked lard. Press it as well as you can. or capon meat. slice it into thin slices. moistened with just a little verjuice. and put it all in. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins.
Put it all together. and split it and clean it. well and whole. and boil in wine and vinegar. assorted spices in large quantity. with stones on it to press well. ginger. sugar and salt. Remove all the skin. Some like to add ginger. For Haricoq To make haricoq. and chop them up fine. when taken in heat. When it is as if rotted from cooking. Salt to taste. then take it from the fire. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. Remove all meat from the bones. cinnamon and assorted spices. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Put in the pot with the meat. 11 . Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. and salt to taste. Add a large quantity of sugar. Put the skin aside. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. clove and seed. and brown the meat. After. Take white ginger. roast the shoulder on the spit. take its head. and well beaten clove and nutmeg. When they are browned. hyssop. Leave as long as it is cold. that is. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. the thinnest that you can find. Press it between two dishes. Put on a table. and boil it all together.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. Take it off the spit. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Take peeled onions. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. and put in a pot. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. and a great deal of parsley. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Do not cook it too much. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. cut up them into pieces.
Then take the chicken meat. filter until no more liquid is left. pennyroyal and basil. Put it in a straining cloth. parsley. Once it is crisp. and boil in pure white wine. ginger and assorted spices. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. sweeten the poussins. for a long while. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. so that it solidifies. After. all cooked together. hyssop. bone and meat. Once this is done. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. a pig or poultry liver. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. without cutting off their feet. Once they are well cooked. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Then take a veal or kid membrane. and cook it all together. Cook it all together with meat broth. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. split them at the shoulders. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. being careful not to burn it. lard. it is advisable to scald them…. When they are cooked. leaving only skin. and put the stuffing in it. just a little bit. 12 . Put with the meat. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. if you have it. When serving. hyssop and raw marjoram. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. if there is a shoulder. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. a great deal of parsley. chop it up as finely as you can. Take saffron for color. put in a dish and serve last. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. Strain until there is no liquid left. take poultry liver or lard. Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. a needle across the opening. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. wings or neck. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. When it is done. all the way to the knee. Once they have been scalded. except the head and the legs.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. Take everything inside.
lard and put on the spit. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. and for two servings. and put in your meat. and also a pound of egg yolks. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Scald and pluck and clean very well. Boil your broth. and a handful of onion. seed. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. and strain through a cloth. clove. Then slice it into fine slices. a pound of sugar. This done. Take capon or poultry broth. Take a pound of almonds. no more or less than you want for the brewet. After cook in wine. When the roast is taken off the spit. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. strain. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. lard with clove. put in dishes. and also the livers and almonds. for six servings. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. take a veal’s head and feet. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. long pepper. On fish days. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. This sauce is good on all roasts. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. and salt it. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. and strain it all together through a cloth. Put. When they are half cooked. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. with the jelly on it. Strain the almonds. Add strong vinegar. and crush them all together. whole. Boil pig and poultry livers. Stir all the spices together. Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce.
Put in dishes as for a 14 . and boil it all together. Fry in lard. then brown. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. When they are well cooked. When the almonds are thick. put in dishes. and after put it in a dish. and strain through a cloth. Chop up onion. and chop into small cubes. Put. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. Then strain through a cloth. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. and put them in once they are stuffed. add a quarter pound of sugar. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. take a pint of vinegar. Fry with butter or oil. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. with the maws and livers. and a little soaked bread. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. put duke’s powder on it. and boil it all in a frying pan. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. When serving at the table. remove it. cook them. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. Add a little saffron for color. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. and take the broth in which they are cooked. Then put the pike on coals to stew. Add in sugar and ginger. an ounce of assorted spices. Gild the heads on the grill.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. while frying. and the pike’s liver. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. When it is boiled. scald it and then fry it. Once they are cooked. Take the fish maws and livers. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. Cover so that no steam gets out. Take the pike eggs. take a new pot. If you see that there is too much fat.
marjoram. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. and set on the grill over a low fire. and chop them up finely. Soak in 15 . very fine skewers. pennyroyal. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit.Le Viandier bar of butter. put some duke’s powder on it. mint and all other good herbs. saffron and sugar. Then place them in nice rows along the length. Add in ginger. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. strain through a cloth. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. take stale white bread. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. together with the butter. Coulis To make coulis. without any liquid. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. After put in dishes and serve. and put it in barely touching the almonds. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. crush it up in the mortar. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. Take small. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. and. when it is well crushed. bunches of grapes or wine?]. Fry in butter. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. as much as suits you. and the eggs. Then take sage. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. take veal or pork. and crush up the crumbs finely. When serving. and take out what is inside. make a small hole in the end of each egg. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. and yellow the half with saffron. Take milk.
but. mix in a dozen blanched almonds. put in assorted spices. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. Afterwards. It can be salted or not. and. vinegar. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. with fat as for a potted pastie. Make like that of perch. and then soak in almond milk. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. and boned. ginger. Once it is cooked. boil in a small pot. but not too much. salt moderately. rinse and boil it very well. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. take a perch and cook it in water. when crushing. if the sick person wants sugar in it. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. put some thick almond milk. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. put some in. and put the whole barley in it. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. Then boil in a nice large pot and. without crushing it. take a poussin or two. After fry with lard or goose lard. soaked in purée of peas. skinned. After it is well cleaned. put in wine and 16 . and salt to taste without anything else in it. and finely chopped onion. Do not add verjuice. Once it is cooked. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it.Taillevent the capon broth. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. in grinding it. crush it in the mortar. roast poultry or capons. After make like that of meat. cinnamon. saffron and some verjuice. When they are fried. and cut into pieces. or anything else. when it is cooked. To bind it. like wheat to make fromenty. after grind it. and start in the same way as the capon above. and. and chop it up finely.
except the clove should dominate the other spices. clove. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. Fricassees For fricassees. This done. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. beef marrow. take raw poultry. For spices. to thicken. when the pastie is cooked. in winter style.] Put the capons in pastie. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons. While frying.Le Viandier verjuice. Cook the said 17 . and chop all together and the said pastie. assorted spices and saffron. saffron and sweeten. For spices. put in fine cheese. put some ginger powder and. The appropriate spices are ginger. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. remove all the meat of the capons. paradise seed. or possibly cocks. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. true cinnamon. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. and boil it all together. in equal parts. and boil with the sauce in the oven. put in a little ginger. cover with lard. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. long pepper. For spices. and. and for spices. cameline. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. add the sauce. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. nutmeg. put the fat in the pastie. toast black bread well. add some ginger. To make the sauce. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. true cinnamon. and beef fat. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. and chop it quite small all together. The appropriate spices are: ginger. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. and a moderate amount of salt. After.
Add lard chopped fine. and the fat of chopped veal. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. For spices. For spices. put in ginger. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. and lard finely chopped. 18 . cinnamon and saffron. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. clove and ginger. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. with assorted spices added. and for spices. with fine powder. and fine cheese. and beef marrow. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and ginger. When the pastie is cooked. with a moderate amount of sugar. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. and beat all together. for spices. assorted spices and saffron. put it all together. It is best that the poultry be cut up. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. some ginger. assorted spices and saffron.
Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. in season. when they are made. the following is very much a “best guess”. new beans and parboil them. seed and pepper. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. pressed between three fingers. Add assorted spices. like those which are made double. and take.] Take white capon meat finely chopped. and chopped lard. It is best that these be small. 19 . ginger and clove powder. For spices. slice it into fine slices. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. raised up high and. fry it all in butter. And put them in the pastie. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. For spices. or the smaller one whole. After. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties. and roll this in butter. ginger. and add assorted spices. For spices. For fish. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. clove. and parboil it. assorted spices and saffron. Add ginger and a little pepper. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. well made pasties.
Salmon Pastie With white ginger. 20 . Put in assorted spices. fine powder and verjuice in making it. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. and some gooseberries. and fry in lard. raised up high and well made. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. without anything else. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. fine powder and saffron. Parboil the marrow. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. ginger and saffron. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. with spices and sugar mixed together. Eel Pastie Take saffron. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain.
Common Tart For common covered tarts [i.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. and pat it. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. Once the pastie is high and raised. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. Fry onion in butter. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. crush up cheese. If you cannot find cream. Make the crust strong and thick. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. After boil it. and quite black. Make the sauce separately. 21 .e. star with fried cream. Strain through cloth and add the powder. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. a lot of sugar and egg yolks. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. then put it in the oven. and rounded. pies]. After put in the oven briefly. Dolphins Lily flowers.. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. if you have some. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove. so that the contents do not leak out. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. and sugar. gild it well. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice.
with a great quantity of sugar. then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. use fine cheese. of the thickness of a finger. take it out and let it cool. The slices should be less than two fingers high. Once it is a little cooked. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. When it is cooked. When it is cooked. like the other side. then cook in the oven as said. crushed.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. Knead the crust well with eggs. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. before adding the cheese and the cream. Fry them in butter. and good cream. with egg yolks mixed into it. well soaked in egg yolks. and cover the whole top with orange. and cook them. turn it in a dish. and enough egg yolks. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. soak the crust in eggs and butter. put in the oven. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Seat well in the tart. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. Cut eel into sections and boil it. take it out. and put on the tart. When ready to dine. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. and take off the crust where cooked. with oranges on it. soaked in cream. set it to cool. and cover the crust with wafers. and cook like the other side. Covered Tart For covered tart. so that nothing of it shows. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. and stuffed in two fingers deep. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. but not too 22 .
an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. Clean grapes well. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. true cinnamon and white ginger. Once it is soaked. Knead the crust well with eggs. and wine. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. or a dish. Put all the fillings together. and enough egg yolks. and put in figs.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. so all this presumably is the filling. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. without burning it. and put orange all over it. put eight or ten slices on end. put in the oven.Le Viandier much. candied ginger might be used instead]. For each tart. and put in with the apples and the figs. Make two big pastry undercrusts. soak with cream. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. that is candied pine nut. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. a bit of assorted spices. if you have any. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. Mix in with the other apples. This is how it should be made. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. and fill the hollow with the sugar. Add onion fried with butter or oil. [Darioles were small pastries. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. and gild with eggs or saffron. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Cover it with a top. Fry the cream well in butter. but do not strain them. and mix well together. then put in the tart and layer over the top. Cover well. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. then gild it with saffron. brown bread in front of a good red fire. and put in the oven. and cook. well mixed by hand. Sweeten well. crushed up. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry.
My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. and crush them up in a bowl. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. roast a goose.cinnamon. take poultry livers. and a little browned bread and very little broth. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Bring to a boil. Be sure not to put it in a pot. ginger. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. Take their livers. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. roast them well on the spit. and salt it well. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Soak it in milk. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. and crush up spices in a mortar . brown one toast of bread on the fire. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. Then when it is cooked. Then strain with verjuice and white wine. assorted spices . Jance To make jance. brown one toast of bread. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. and put in a nice pot. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. throw in a drop or two. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. Put a frying pan under it. while boiling. or with the mortar.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices.and soak in verjuice and wine. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. When the goose is cooked. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. Boil a dozen eggs. Boil in a frying pan. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 . and roast on the grill. because it will blacken. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. and boil in a frying pan. Add in half an ounce of ginger. a half ounce of ginger. because it will smell of brass. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. put them over it with the sauce. Strain very well through a cloth. and put in the poultry. and strain them through a cloth.
and strain through a cloth with the mustard. and boil it all with milk. When the 25 . and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. For four servings. Once the bread is soaked. When you boil it. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. and also in other dodines. and a half ounce of ginger.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. Filter the water. Then take marjoram. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. put the dodine on them. put a quart of milk. and boil under the capons. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. Leave it only a little. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. and peel. Soak it only in verjuice. add butter. and pour the grain in the sauce. and boil together. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish. or more if you wish. When the birds are cooked. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. capons. take half a dozen garlic cloves. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. or other roast fowl. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. Soak it in milk. Take an ounce of ginger. For one pint. and add a little saffron. Put on the roast. Chop the herbs up. Sugar to taste. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. roast fatty capons on the spit. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. Add half a pound of sugar. and let livers roast a little on the grill. put in an ounce of ginger. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. and boil everything together. a little parsley. and then put in a nice pot. Boil in a frying pan. hyssop and other good herbs. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry.
Brown bread. and then put over the roast.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. take two ounces of true cinnamon. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. For four servings. half an ounce of ginger. Take for one shad. and scald it. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. and strain it all together through a cloth. Once it has been strained. and some fresh or salted butter. and put it to soak in broth. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. take pike. with a little saffron. Then when the bread is soaked. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. and strain it all together with your bread. Take red wine and vinegar. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. Strain the bread and all the spices together. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. and some puree. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. take some vinegar and wine. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. Put the fish with the broth. and boil. take verjuice and white wine. and fry it. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. a bit of assorted spices. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. take out the capons and put in a dish. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. and put in the sauce. one with the other. Once the shad is half cooked. and put on the shad. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. for four servings. brown bread as for cameline. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. put the verjuice on the shad. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. Put in a 26 . and soak in purée of peas. Chaudumé To make chaudumé.
After. Leeks To make leeks. bind with beef broth. Wash and parboil them. When they are done cooking. boil in water. On fish days. a half ounce of ginger. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Remove the black ones. Add a little water to keep it from burning. When they are parboiled. with enough grapes. purée them and bind with broth. on fried eggs. purée them and put cold water on them. and add some verjuice and parsley. fish and all other fried things. two ounces of sugar. and put in lard to give them taste. use mulberries. then bind with lard and warm water. Once this is done. then crush them in a mortar. and almond milk if you like. and boil in river or fountain water. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. and then crush up in a mortar. Onion Soup To make onion soup. Milled Beans To make milled beans. If you lack grapes. then strain them through a cloth. On fast days. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. For four servings. 27 . and chop up fine. capons or other roast. Brown in butter for a long while. and strain it all through cloth. and strain it all through the cloth. use butter and purée of peas. This sauce is good on larks. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. or. split lard into thin slices and fry. then put on a plank. Squeeze out between your hands. When they are half cooked. White Beets To make white beets. put in a frying pan to cool. if you do not have the broth. Chop them up. except the sugar.Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. and after put them on a plank. Mix with purée of peas or water. put the beans to soak in the evening. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. use purée of pea and butter.
then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. If it is fresh. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. sage. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. Boil all together. salted. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. Squeeze and chop up finely. mastic and hyssop. Once it is well cooked. add parsley. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. For fast days. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. Gourds For gourds. Remove the seeds.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Cook with only mastic and saffron. with mustard. and. and put some cold water over them. take off the top leaves. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. put in beef broth. if there are any. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. and turn it to one side and another. sage. Pig Cook in water and salt. use purée of peas with butter and oil. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. Lard the length of the meat. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. and squeeze them between your hands. then purée. and put on your pot. take your pot off the fire. Filter out the liquid. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. Sheep. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. then 28 . hyssop. Put in some cowʹs milk. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. and a little saffron. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. while doing this. On fast days. peel them and cut into round slices. Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. wine. Parboil in a frying pan. and add some cold water on them. verjuice. and cut into four quarters.
and a good deal of spice. and add lard for flavor. Fry in lard with some onions. with parsley. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely. Add some verjuice and vinegar. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. seed. Eat parboiled in pastry. 29 . Grate ginger. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. larded. Boil your meat. with fine powder. and saffron for color. with cameline. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. cook in water and salt. cinnamon. sage and hyssop. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. clove.
and boil briefly. and strain. then cut up into pieces. and watch that it does not turn. Boil with 30 . Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. Take white bread. Fry in lard. then grate ginger and saffron. and boil it all together. Add egg yolks. Take verjuice. then purée. Soak white bread in milk. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Grate ginger and cumin. add a large quantity of eggs. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. broken up in beef broth. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Take ginger. Cut up into parts. Fry in lard. long pepper. pull back from the fire. and cook a little in water. Put in your soup just before serving it. cook in wine and water. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Fry in lard. Pull back from the fire. Always let thicken on its own. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. Then take cowʹs milk. and boil on your meat. Soak a little bread in beef broth. and fry in lard. cook poultry well in water. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. without adding anything but a little white bread. vinegar. and boil with your meat. Boil. infuse with wine and verjuice. Cut up into parts. Strain it. saffron. Mix in your milk. Brown them in lard. cook the peas until they are soft.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. Fry in lard. Boil. Powder ginger and cumin. Take almonds infused with broth.
crush almonds. then cut up into pieces. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. cinnamon. without letting it cook too long. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. clove. and spice it well. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. Grate ginger. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. paradise seed. Boil on your meat. But do not wash the meat at all. cook in wine and water. Fry in lard. and do not let it thicken too much. infuse with verjuice. Boil together. 31 . infuse with beef broth and wine. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. then cut up into pieces. cinnamon. Fry in lard. Take browned bread. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. paradise seed. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. paradise seed. mix with verjuice. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. Take a little burned bread. Cut up into parts. cinnamon and clove. It should be very black and not too thick. Powder ginger. This should be quite thick. and fry in lard. clove. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. and saffron for color.Le Viandier your meat. Boil it all together. Then take bread browned on the grill. Strain. Beat ginger. cinnamon. cook in water and wine. and made like that for hare. galanga and long pepper. Civet For civet. Then powder ginger. and add well beaten egg yolks. brown on the spit or on the grill. Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Boil with your meat. and saffron to give color.
cinnamon. Eat with cameline. and cut up your meat into pieces. Restore it in water. Roast Mutton With a little salt. and toasted bread. Crush ginger and saffron. Dribble eggs over it while frying. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. cut your veal up finely. in pastry. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Goose Plume a dry goose. with fine powder and saffron. or vinegar. Once it is cooked. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Roast without lard. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. with cinnamon. 32 . boil it all together. or verjuice. Some put onions on it. with powder and cold sage. Put on the spit. soaked in wine. clove. and scramble eggs. Eat with garlic or jance. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. or verjuice. with verjuice of grain and fine powder. In pastry. Cook it. verjuice. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. Boil so well that it is clear and black. paradise seed. also known as breast meat. Fry in lard.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
bleed it by the mouth. Have it well bled. Remove the tongue. clove. if it is fish. three quarter pounds of string ginger. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. 36 . and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. and. nutmeg. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. if it is fish. To make jelly. galanga. cinnamon. saffron to give color. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. cinnamon. as soon as it is time to serve it. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. For pork. folded over two or three times. take twenty five poussins. six ells of cloth. Pour on your poultry in sections. Tie it in a white cloth. four pigs. Put it on a spit. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. See that the broth is clear and clean. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. Boil with your fish or meat. whole. skimming it the whole time. Put them in a cold place. paradise seed. five wooden spoons. thirty legs of veal. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. make the cold sauce without eggs. six dishes: and drink for the workers. paradise seed. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. because it will not flow. The sauce should not be too black. when it is cooked. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. skimming it the whole time. mastic. Some add cooked yolks. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. twenty earthen pots. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. Blend it all together. and. three quarter pounds of ginger. Strain. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. take poultry and cook in water. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. and paradise seeds. Powder ginger. six young rabbits. you must stay alert.Taillevent pepper. mixed with vinegar. six ounces of saffron. Then grate ginger. After. Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic.
cull. Add the fat from beef broth. wash in warm water. add your rice. During Lent. then wipe your rice by the fire. on a meat day. and wheat. use almond milk. and sugar the bowls. and boil together on a low fire.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. Take cowʹs milk. 37 .
Some put in a little verjuice. Boil together. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. boil a little water. cinnamon. wine. when it is boiled. Cook on the fire. Soak egg yolks in white wine. [*This might be a variant of lus. scald and wash very well. Serve it on your fish. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. or verjuice. Grate ginger. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. take tenches. lux* and carps and. dissolve in white wine. and put on your fish. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. at the evening. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. some of your milk and mix together. Boil. and no other spices. add sugar. cinnamon.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. which once meant a variety of pike. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. and strains it through a cloth. but here appears to mean a green. paradise seed and saffron. eggs and milk. Add ginger and pepper. in oil. with wine and verjuice. 38 . take ginger. Then cool. If it is too sour. seed. Grind almonds. mix in some white wine. especially.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. If you do not have that. Boil together with the oysters. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. and saffron. some of your broth. For the sick. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. almond oil and a little verjuice. Crush. except that one puts in a bit of sage.
mix with broth in a little wine. Boil it all together.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. It should be clear. and strain with broth. Boil until thick. Crush almonds and the perch together. Put pomegranates over it. Crush almonds. cook in water. 39 . Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person.
Split along the back. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Add a little salt or mustard. barbell. cinnamon. in pastry and with fine powder. Eat with cameline. Add as much spring onion as you like. 40 . Salt it with wine. – cook all of these in water and add salt. Eat with green sauce. pepper and a little saffron. eat with garlic. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. eels. or roast on the grill. Take wine and the liquid of the fish.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. Powder ginger. Eat with green sauce. fresh shad. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. Eat with cameline. Boil. Salt the shad. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Do not make it too yellow. pike. dace. Porpoise For porpoise. “cream”. Cresme [*Literally. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. paradise seed. carp. cook in water.
ray. Eat with jance. with mustard or butter. Add fine powder. Cod Cook in water. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. Salt it. flounder: cook in water. with wine and verjuice. 41 . sole.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. turbot.
Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. Pour on your fish. white garlic. nutmeg. parsley and salad burnet. paradise seed. infuse with vinegar. cinnamon. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. Crush bread.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. pepper. green sauce and garlic camelines. 42 . galanga. a little saffron. Crush ginger. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish.
Some add seed and galanga to it. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. then grind up ginger. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. Jance Crush almonds. Boil. Boil. pepper. with the fat from the roast. Some add seed and galanga to it. Strain and boil. Infuse with verjuice and wine. string ginger and white bread. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Some like it with cowʹs milk. saffron. Boil when you are ready to serve it. and browned bread. 43 . Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Infuse with other verjuice. crush seed and livers. Infuse with wine and verjuice.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
FRUIT COURSE White cream. jonchées [a soft cheese]. in a dish. marked with the arms said above. quails with sugar. A suitable support for the said peacocks. young peacocks in full display. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. game hen. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. and almonds. and pine nuts. white of fennel. white and dark red. Fried cream. preserved in sugar. sea pullets. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. Darioles and upside-down stars. Jelly. silvered. half-sour. Duke’s powder on it. hare pastie. and Duke’s powder over it. marked with the said arms. Larded milk. 47 . spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. fried oranges. vinegar. preserved plums steamed in rosewater.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. scattered about. venison with soup. then ginger on it. Wild boar made with fried cream. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. jelly. made of sugar. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. and strawberries. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. pears. lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. sugared strawberries. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. half-sweet. sweetened white cream. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. cold sauce. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. wine.
nuts. herons. FIFTH COURSE White cream. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. 48 . FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. kids. venison with clove. fried cream. small hares with bramble vinegar. Pear pastie. capon pastie. pears. Venison pasties. hazelnuts. Jelly and slices. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. SECOND COURSE The best roast. chickens with herbs. pears with hypocras. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. cretonnée of lard. brewet of cinnamon. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. partridges with sugar. Sugared almonds. peacocks with celery. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. Steamed pigeons. pickle. almonds. swans. nuts and raw pears. young rabbits with spiced sauce. navews with venison. watercress. pigeon pastie. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. capons with Jean’s most. jelly. jonchées.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette.
capes [type of apple]. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. lemons. Peacocks. Thin slices. Tarts with sugar. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. capons with tulle. Quail pasties. White jelly and other fried cream. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. Pigeons. Herons. 49 . Fresh venison with soups. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. Banquet of marrow. Capon pastie. Thin gilded slices. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. barded sugared chickens. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. New almonds. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Pears with sugar. brewet rappé. Venison. cherries with sugar or feathers. Venison with peas.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Boiled chickens. SECOND COURSE Roast. Pigeon pastie. Must. Jelly. Young rabbits. Baked cream pancake. Trimolettes with sugar.
23. 12. 46. 49 poultry. 33. 12. 31 brewet. 8. 30. 30. 11. 35. 16. 13. 2. 5. 46 clairet. 24. 1. 7. 4 Georget. 49 blancmange. 27 . 31. 8. 9. 47. 39. 24. 2. 5. 33 blackbird. 26. 7. 15 C caul. 48. 33. 49 pheasant. 18 eagle. 49 sparrow. 14. 13. 35. 13 pigeon. 31. 13. 10. 46. 29. 43. 10. 3. 13. 29. 6. 36. 43. 6. 14. 4. 32. 10. 27. 30. 6. 11 civet.INDEX A almonds. 24. 16 quail. 4. 1. 16 brown. 1. 29. 35 de-salt. 1. 8. 12. 47. 2. 34 goose. 47. 2. 38 hand towel. 8. 24. 7. 48. 46 heron. 18. 19. 30. iv. 39. 26. 10 table. 16. 13 chaudeau. 1. 3.head. 18 capon. i. 33 gosling. 26. 47 dove. 34. 16. 4. 24. 10. 16. 2 covered. 3. 24. 4 butter fried. 48 giblets. 36 cooking methods baste. 32 cele. 34 jonchée. 22. 47. 36 poussin. 1. 24. 31. 31. 10. 4. 2. 7 gizzards. 31 brewet fish. v. 17. 23. 2. 39 bousac. 28 gild. 17. 14. 21. 14. 27. 49 irson. i. 3 rappé. 15. 31. 16. 25. 16. 1 of capons. 33 ringdove. 6. 28. 46. 18. 48. 26. 7. 18. 23. 2 meat. 10. 13. 21. 10. 30. 48. 25. 34 blanch. 27. 13. 13. 25. 48 cheese. 47. i. 40 mortar. 35. 3. 18 duck wild. v. 22. 5. 37. 49 grill. 5. 15. 33. 1. 15. 33 swan. 10. 18 stork. 48. 15. 5. 14. 21. 9. 23. 33 partridge. 49 chicken. 5. 2 green. 46. 38. 44 cloth. 33. 15. 48. 38. 14. 9. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 19 peacock. 10. 14 B birds assorted. 33 bittern. 46. 38. 29. 32. 8. 11. 7. i. 46. i. 4. 12. 23 guin. 10. 8. 10. 24. 28. 19. 7. 17. 6. 49 white German. 18. 3. 48. 31. 13. 12. 11. 25. 34. iv. 28. 14. iii. 23. 11. 38 cheese fine.
3. 31. 30. 44 hypocras. 7 spit. 38. 18. 13. 41 fresh water. 21. 35. 13 fish blancmange. 28. 1. 34. 42 sea pullets. 41 eel. 27. 39 pike. 25. 15. 1. 43 coulis. 20. 47 tench. 12. 23. 3 cuttlefish. 24. 22. 9 gallimaufrey. 3. 14. 17 fromanty. 4. 41 flan. 7. 15. 47 F fayenne. 22. 36. 38 greens parsley. 32. 34. i. 36. 40 jelly. 29. 35. 24. 38 perch. 49 figs. 8. 20. 20 gurnard. 40. 34. 10. 26. 16. 16. 48 plums. 1. 38. 13. 36 strain. 49 fried. 47. v. 14. 22. 12. 11. 28. 20. 28. 31. 41. 40 conger. 30. 10. 11. 40 mackerel. 40 brewet. 35 fruit apples. 24. 32. 16 spelt (wheat). 8. 40 simmer. 18. 36. 34. 47. 24. 41 salmon. 6 flounder. 1 bream. 13. 2. 1. iv. 21. 19. 12. 48. 5. 34. 4 brill. 48. 3. 16 grains barley. 20 oysters. 23. 21. 5. 3. 40 cockles. 39 cream. 12. 11. 20. 26. 35 lamprey. 42. 23. 40 salt water. 35. 28 restore. 4. 20. 12. 4. 10. 29. 23. 28. 36. 25. 21. 16. 31. 42 51 . 40 porpoise. 35. 2. 46. 14 fricassee. 19. 9. 36. 17. 9. 9. 35 wheat. 4. 9. 23 grapes.Le Viandier parboil. 12. 40. 40 mullet. 14. 41 cod. 27. 25. 49 D drinks clairet. 26. 27. 6. 47 salad burnet. 38 removing burnt taste. 47 shad. 33. 13. 25. 23. 13. 40 ray. 26. 41 cretonnée. 1. 15. 5. 28. 16 perch. 32. 6. 27. 20 sorvige. v. iv. 36. 37. 47 G galantine. 40 goatfish. 32. 49 cappes. 35. 15. 11. 44 E eggs. 2. 35 scald. 4. 21. 26. 38 trout. 20 turbot. 3. 38. 26 pears. 38 fraze. 34. 8. 5. 8. 41 carp. 23. 34. 26. 9. 4.
18 partridge. 28. 17. 1. 35. 12. 7. 3. 48 J jelly. 46. 46. 32. 36. v. 35. 28. 13. 47 boiled. 33. 12. 16. 47 kid. 36 boar. 35 spleen. 46 ham. 4. 15. 4. 47. 6. 36. 29. 11 hazelnuts. 9. 49 suckling pig. 29. 34. 10. 14. 6. 6. 34. 16. 24. 49 pork. 30. 22. 48. 32 bellies. 34. 43. 10. 49 milk larded. 18. 47 kid. 8 stag. 32. 32 sheep bristle. 34. 23. 28. sheep. 13. 19. 28. 13. 30. 11. 38. 6. 11. 21 mutton. 17. 13. 21. 29. 47 lamb. v. 49 rabbit. 21. 14. 21. 19. 18 lamprey. 19. 43 grenon. 32. 19 red mullet. 14. 17. 31 hyocras. 10 O orange. 31. 6. 4. 18. 10. 21 leg of lamb. 25. 29. 12. 13. 3. 48. 2. 3. 25. 15. 47. 27. 2. 6. 10. 11 liver. 18 halebrans. 33. 18 bream. 20. 11. 46 foot of. 15. 20 goatfish. 26. 2. 47 morterel. 11. 28. 38. 48. 32. 8. 7. 49 blackbird.Taillevent sorrel. 46. 8. 11. 18. 30. 8 venison. 36. 19 marrow. 8. 19. 2. 36. 48 houdet. 28 cow. 16. 8. 6. 19. 21 lorais. 27. 11. 20. 34. 48. 15. 37. 8. 49 L lard. 47. 16 hare. 18 salmon. 7. 20. 20 mutton. 28. 17 chicken. 15. 31. 12. 47. 26. 20 capon. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 46. 19. 35. 17. 16. 8. 6. 10. 4. 20 mullet. 19. 20 gosling. 32. 8. 46 veal. 43 marrow. 31. 11. 23 pigeon. 30. 18. iii. 20 52 . 17. 34 rabbit. 11. 23 P pasties. 44. 12. 28. 3. 18 conger eel. 1. 19 hare. 9. 46 scum. 21. 9. 8. 34 H haricoq. 35 leg of. 1. 48 M meat beef. 24. 8. 6. 14. 28 shoulder. 14 tongue. 4. 18. 29. 20 shad. 28 buttock. 35. 5. 37. 5. 43 teat. 20 ringdove. 19 pear. 18.
19. 33. 26 small wine. 42. 9. 1. 3. 6 removing burnt taste from. 48 cinnamon. 19. 33 S sabourot. 7 warm. 28. 30 fish. 21. 21. 13. 44. 44 white. 11. 26. 5. 10 potful. 47 saupiquet. 2. 36. 26. 36. 5. 41 sauces. 12 cinnamon. 28 spices anis. 43. 10 salamine. 23. 4. 40. 34 garlic. 9. 26. 36. 15. 15. 24. 35. 38 pork. 7. 28. 27. 24. 16. 8. 42 ginger. 25 my lady’s. 26. 48 almond. 28. 24 Poitevin. 11. 6. 25. 17 pastries dariole. 38 cold. 37 flour. 27. 23. 34. 32. 30 onion. 25 green. 9. 47. 14. 4. 3 new bean. 27. 6. 18. 18 stag. 40. 20. 8. 25 violet. 31. 1 cameline. 18 with warm sauce. 2. 24. 47 sorvige. 27 pottage. 10. 28 grané. 1. 3. 28. 5. 23. iv. 29. 9. 4 small birds. 9.Le Viandier sparrow. 43 red. 17. 31. 23 53 . 24. 13. 24. 11. 2. 34. 13. v. 30 fish. 3. 2 lark. 32. 20 veal. 21. 17. 5. 27. 13. 30 new peas. 25. v. 29. 18. 47 dolphins. 35. 36. 7. 6. 12. 2. 17. 19. 16. 11. 31. 40. 17 wild boar. 6. 45 string. 30. 46 jance. 14. 24. 23. 33. 26. 29. 3 de-salting. 45 garlic. 42. 38. 29. 7 roasts. 47 dodine. 2. 18. 26. 13. 34. 23. 30 poultry. 30 Spanish. 9. 35. 8. 30 peas. 7 powdered. 44. 31. 43 Jean’s must. 4 galanga. 16. 32. 24. 7. 19 wild duck. 35. 6 soups chaudin. 4 shrimp. 5. 36. 26. 4. purée of. 5 skin. 26 seyme. 14 preserves. 36. 43. 44 clove. 42.fat. 36. 19 trout. 8. 30. 2. 35. 42. 32. 45. 24. 41. 49 oblongs. 38. 32. 32. 3. 36 with most. 11. 3. 46. 7. 13. 13 R rice. 7. 20 turbot. 9. true. 29. 43. 17. 2 salt. 1. 21 peas. 17. 21. 23. 26 shad. 30 cretonnée. 21. 48 costmary. 24. 40. 10. v. 40. 15. 40. 45. 20. 15. 42 chaudumé. 32. 45 basil.
23. 16. 48. 41. 40. 29. 23. 15 W water holy. 15. 6. 45 mustard. 21 covered. 36. 26. 36. 5. 31. 38. 9. 5. 28 leeks. 45. 19. 29. 8. 31. 41 nutmeg. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 35. 7. 45. 28. 36. 3. 25. 36. 30. 13. 7. 5. 30. 20. 34 moteaulx. 43. 6. 6. 6. 31. 34. 30. 17. 26. 34. 16. 38. 17. 45. 15. 45 powder. 13. 14. 17. 40. 15. 14. 7. 26. 4. 22. 12. 31. 25. 27 cabbage. 21. 5. 11. 41. 19. 20. v. 43. 32. 3. 10. 11. 43. 8. 7. 25. 18. 21. 1. 11. 11. 40. 14. 8. 9. 43 vinaigrette. v. 7. 26. 5. 42. 13. 16. 21.Taillevent hyssop. 27. 1. 48. 37. 2. 23 common. 4. 11. 15. 47 pepper. 29 marjoram. 29. v. 40. 21. 42. 34. 27. 3. 19. 29. 18. 8. 47. 11. 9. 36. 4. 40. 25. 11. 15. 11. 23 saffron. 36. 42. 49 T tarts apple. 17. 24. 22. 49 vintage. 42. 15. 29. 25. 35. 30. 24. 5. v. 5. 18. 32. 28. 38. 28. 1. 40. 32. 27. 27 beets white. 14. 27. 43. 14. 13. 27 onions. 32. 38. 6. 21. 36. 17. 47 sugar. 42. 2. 38. 28. 38. 11. 25 mastic. 44. 45 paradise seed. 2. 13. 32. 20. iv. 47 wine. 43. 47 54 . 35. 13. 35. 34. 14. 14. 34. 38 stuffing. 44. 25. 2. 2. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 47. 32. 7. 8. 13. 22. 19. 36. 38. 3. 48 vinegar. 8. 14 rose. 44. 9. 8. 32. 34. 13. 4. 28 gourds. 14. 16. 28. 17. 9. 15. 19. 4. 32. 31. 2. 8. 29. 12. v. 14. 23. 35. 12. 1. 22. 22 Jacobine. 39. 42. 12. 16. 4. 18. 44. 5. 22 talemouse. 19. 12. 13. 2. 46 sage. 40. 31. 6. 21. 38. 12. 17. 22 two-faced. 25. iv. 28. 17. 30. 29. 41 verjuice. 13. 23. 41. 26. 31. 22 trimolette. 29. 21. 11. 28. 28. 11. 33. 35. 8. 31. 23. 48. 30. 12. 15. 10. 35. 16. 23 Bourbonnaise. 10. 49 V vegetables beans. 9. 18. 34. 45 pennyroyal. 20.
at/~katzer/engl/index. Toulouse : J. Les repas.thousandeggs. Vicaire. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393. 1611. George Olms Verlag. 1892. The Penguin Companion to Food.ac. Pichon and G. Frédéric. de Guerlins.kfunigraz. Histoire de la vie privée des français. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. Paris. Paris: F. London. Reprint. modes. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. J. Pierres. Godefroy. 1881.html 55 . Le cuisinier Taillevent. Le ménagier de Paris.t Ed. usages des Parisiens. Paris : P. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Inc. 1684. 1961.. Cotgrave. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Alan. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. de Crapelet. Nourrit. dédié au Roy. – 1889. 1694. impr. Larousse Gastronomique. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Randle. Alfred. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Davidson. Prosper. Vieweg. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel. C. Paris : E. un. Paris : imp. Montagné. impr. Franklin.com/glossary. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Penguin Books.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. M. 1889.-D. Hildesheim-New York. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. moeurs. 1782.VI. 1970. Legrand d'Aussy. Furetière. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. Antoine. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. New York: Crown Publishers. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. 1694. Bourgeois parisien. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. 2002. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. Plon. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. D. 1846.
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