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Translated by Jim Chevallier
Copyright © 2004, 2007, 2008 by Jim Chevallier published by Chez Jim
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Although the author and publisher have made every effort to ensure the accuracy and completeness of this translation and any additional information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. In addition, the reader is reminded that this is a translation of an historical document. Any attempt to adapt these recipes from a previous era for modern use is done at the reader’s sole and complete responsibility and risk.
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Published by: Chez Jim North Hollywood, CA
Table of Contents
NOTE: The headings for the Viander itself are as in the original transcription. The index provides a more accurate guide to general subjects and specific ingredients.
TAILLEVENT ______________________________________________i NOTES AND GLOSSARIES _________________________________ ii Old French terms left untranslated ____________________________iii Non-standard uses of familiar French words ____________________ iv Unusual ingredients________________________________________ v THE VIANDER____________________________________________ To Make White Brewet Of Capons __________________________ To Make Fish Blancmange ________________________________ To Make White German Brewet ____________________________ To Make Salamine_______________________________________ To Make Brewet Georget _________________________________ To Make Fish Grané _____________________________________ To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat ______________________ For That Of Fish ________________________________________ To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas _________________________ To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage ____________________________ To Make Spanish Cretonnée _______________________________ For Fish Cretonnée ______________________________________ To Make Green Brewet ___________________________________ To Make Fish Brewet ____________________________________ For Covered Brewet _____________________________________ To Make Civet Of Hare ___________________________________ For Lark Grané _________________________________________ For Shrimp Grané _______________________________________ To Make Chaudumé _____________________________________ To Make Mustard Soup ___________________________________ For Partridge Trimolette __________________________________ For Seyme _____________________________________________ For Gibelet Of River Bird _________________________________ For Larded Boil of rabbit or poultry _________________________ For Brewet Rappé _______________________________________ To Make Venison In Soup_________________________________ Venison Of Deer ________________________________________ Venison Of Wild Boar____________________________________ To Make A Sorvige Of Eels _______________________________ To Make A Mock Grenon _________________________________ To Make Cold Sage ______________________________________ To Make Red [Dish] _____________________________________ To Make A Violet [Dish]__________________________________ 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7
For Jelly_______________________________________________ 8 To Make Vinaigrette _____________________________________ 8 Bousac ________________________________________________ 8 Geese Treason-Style _____________________________________ 8 Rice __________________________________________________ 9 Fish Arbalesty __________________________________________ 9 Galantine ______________________________________________ 9 Larded Milk___________________________________________ 10 To Make A Morterel ____________________________________ 10 Poussin Sabourot _______________________________________ 10 Quail Brewet __________________________________________ 10 For Fried Cream _______________________________________ 11 For Haricoq ___________________________________________ 11 Wild Boar Head Cheese _________________________________ 11 Lamb Shoulder ________________________________________ 11 For Moteaulx __________________________________________ 12 Stuffed Poussins _______________________________________ 12 To Make Sturgeon ______________________________________ 12 Meat Sturgeon _________________________________________ 13 To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display______________ 13 To Make Fayenne ______________________________________ 13 For Cele Preserve For Four _______________________________ 13 To Make A Potful ______________________________________ 14 For Fish Fraze _________________________________________ 14 Holy Water ___________________________________________ 14 For Steamed Poussins ___________________________________ 14 Almond Irson__________________________________________ 14 Eggs Roasted On The Spit________________________________ 15 Meat Vintage __________________________________________ 15 Fried Fresh Butter ______________________________________ 15 Coulis________________________________________________ 15 To Make Coulis ________________________________________ 16 Fish Coulis____________________________________________ 16 Another Coulis_________________________________________ 16 Blanched Barley _______________________________________ 16 For Potted Pastie _______________________________________ 16 Gallimaufrey __________________________________________ 16 Fricassees_____________________________________________ 17 Beef Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie With Warm Sauce _________________________________ 17 Veal Pastie____________________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 17 Pastie Of Halebran Capons _______________________________ 17 Pastie Of Capons _______________________________________ 18 Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert _________________________ 18 Pigeon Pastie __________________________________________ 18 For Ringdove [Pastie] ___________________________________ 18 .
Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion __________________________ Blackbird Pastie________________________________________ Sparrow Pastie _________________________________________ Wild Duck Pastie_______________________________________ Kid Pastie ____________________________________________ Gosling Pastie _________________________________________ Partridge Pastie ________________________________________ Rabbit Pastie __________________________________________ Hare Pastie____________________________________________ Stag Pastie ____________________________________________ Wild Boar Pastie _______________________________________ Lorais Pastie __________________________________________ Marrow Pastie _________________________________________ Mullet Pastie __________________________________________ Bream Pastie __________________________________________ Trout Pastie ___________________________________________ Eel Pastie _____________________________________________ Conger Eel Pastie ______________________________________ Turbot Pastie __________________________________________ Red Mullet Pastie ______________________________________ Goatfish Pastie_________________________________________ Shad Pastie ___________________________________________ Salmon Pastie _________________________________________ Lamprey Pastie ________________________________________ Cow Pastie____________________________________________ Leg Of Lamb Pastie_____________________________________ Common Tart _________________________________________ Two-Faced Tart ________________________________________ Dolphins _____________________________________________ Make Oblongs _________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Covered Tart __________________________________________ Talmouse _____________________________________________ Two Faced Tart ________________________________________ Jacobine Tart __________________________________________ Apple Tart ____________________________________________ Raw Pear Pastie ________________________________________ Bourbonnaise Tart ______________________________________ Darioles Of Cream______________________________________ Cameline _____________________________________________ My Lady’s Sauce_______________________________________ To Make Poitevin Sauce _________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Milk__________________________________ Red Garlic Sauce _______________________________________ Garlic Sauce With Mustard _______________________________ 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 .
Small Wine Sauce ______________________________________ Dodine _______________________________________________ Dodine Of Verjuice _____________________________________ Jean’s Must ___________________________________________ Saupiquet _____________________________________________ Chaudumé ____________________________________________ Shad Sauce ___________________________________________ Another Shad Sauce ____________________________________ Sauce With Must _______________________________________ White Beets ___________________________________________ Milled Beans __________________________________________ Leeks ________________________________________________ Onion Soup ___________________________________________ Heads Of Cabbage______________________________________ Gourds _______________________________________________ To De-salt Soups _______________________________________ To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups _________________ Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. Sheep. Pig ____________________ Sheep Bristle __________________________________________ Larded Boiled Meat_____________________________________ Wild Kid _____________________________________________ Fresh Wild Boar _______________________________________ Capon And Veal With Herbs______________________________ Civet Of Singed Veal____________________________________ THICK SOUPS __________________________________________ Pork Chaudin __________________________________________ Cretonnée Of Peas ______________________________________ New Bean Cretonnée ____________________________________ Cretonnée Of Poultry____________________________________ Almond Cretonnée______________________________________ Grané Of Small Birds ___________________________________ White Brewet Of Capons_________________________________ Hare Bousac __________________________________________ Houdet Of Capons ______________________________________ Civet ________________________________________________ Civet Of Hare _________________________________________ Civet Of Rabbit ________________________________________ CHAPTER ON ROASTS ___________________________________ Roast Pig _____________________________________________ Roast Veal ____________________________________________ Veal's Caul____________________________________________ Roast Mutton __________________________________________ Kid And Lamb_________________________________________ Goose________________________________________________ Roasted Hens __________________________________________ Boiled Fresh Wild Boar__________________________________ 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 .
Cormorant______________________________________ Heron ________________________________________________ River Ducks___________________________________________ Stuffed Suckling Pig ____________________________________ Stuffed Poultry_________________________________________ To Gild [The Poultry] ___________________________________ Mock Grenon__________________________________________ For A Fish Jelly ________________________________________ Warm Sauce __________________________________________ Chicken Shaken With Ginger _____________________________ Fromanty _____________________________________________ Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It __________________________ Hundred Dishes Of Jelly _________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cold Sauce____________________________________________ Mouthfuls of Rice ______________________________________ MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT ____________________________ Beginning Of Fish ______________________________________ Green Sauce___________________________________________ Civet Of Oysters _______________________________________ Roast Pike With Chaudumé_______________________________ Flans And Tarts ________________________________________ Flemish Chaudeau ______________________________________ Coulis Of Perch ________________________________________ Blancmange ___________________________________________ Fresh Water Fish_________________________________________ Lamprey______________________________________________ Cresme_______________________________________________ Porpoise ______________________________________________ Gurnard And Red Mullets ________________________________ Mackerel _____________________________________________ Salmon_______________________________________________ 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Salt Water Fish __________________________________________ 41 Cod _________________________________________________ 41 Cuttlefish And Cockles __________________________________ 41 UNBOILED SAUCES _____________________________________ 42 Cold Sauce____________________________________________ 42 .Fresh Venison _________________________________________ Pigeons ______________________________________________ Assorted Small Birds____________________________________ Turtle Doves __________________________________________ Peacock ______________________________________________ Storks________________________________________________ Pheasants _____________________________________________ Bittern.
and my lady of Chasteaubrun ___________ 46 Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes ____________________________ 47 Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche ________________________ 48 Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes _________________________ 48 Banquet For My Lady ___________________________________ 49 INDEX __________________________________________________ 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY__________________________________________ 55 . 1455 for my lord of Mayne.BOILED SAUCES ________________________________________ Black Pepper __________________________________________ Yellow Pepper _________________________________________ Poitevin Sauce _________________________________________ Jance ________________________________________________ Green Verjuice_________________________________________ 43 43 43 43 43 43 [DRINKS] ______________________________________________ 44 Clairet _______________________________________________ 44 Hypocras _____________________________________________ 44 Spices Used In The Present Viander __________________________ 45 AFTERMATTER/MEALS __________________________________ 46 Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June.
quite simply. stork. Le Viandier. eggs. etc. i . swan . and so the closest modern sense of the title is. Several very different versions of the book exist. which is the least coherent and most fragmentary of the few versions known. and a famous restaurant in Paris still bears his name. The portrait on his tomb however does not show a pronounced proboscis. the fourteenth century cook who served three kings (Philip VI. The recipes in it range from fairly detailed explanations. peacock. peas. — and yes. What is sure is that a cookbook credited to him was long regarded as the first professional French cookbook. Though in modern French viande means “meat”. can only be translated into archaic English as “The Viander” or “The Victualler”. “cookbook”. — to the exotic. The discovery of a similar work that predates his birth has not dislodged him from his place in French culinary history. to cursory suggestions of how to serve the dish in question (with no real explanation of how to make it). the ingredients range from the familiar — chicken. some would say barbaric: heron.TAILLEVENT Did the French king’s cook have a big nose? This is one explanation given for the nickname “Taillevent” (“Slice-wind”) given to Guillaume Tirel. The work’s title. among other luminaries. at this time it referred to any food. Charles V and Charles VI). This translation is of the so-called “Fifteenth Century” version. complete with measurements. For a modern reader.
illogical or confused. it seemed best to let the reader decide for themselves. If some passages seem redundant. Several special classes of words exist here. Some of the words used here seem only to occur in this work. are used in ways that have no relation to their meaning either in modern French or as defined in older dictionaries. I have sometimes either deleted a word or phrase (indicated by “…”) or left it in French. too. reasonably complete translation of a work that is itself incomplete and corrupt. I have interpreted ambivalent references to give them their most likely sense.NOTES AND GLOSSARIES This is a reasonably accurate. for other words. which are addressed in the following mini-glossaries: • • • Old French terms left untranslated (or adapted into archaic English equivalents) Non-standard uses of familiar French words Unusual ingredients ii . In some cases. Some. it’s very likely that’s how they were in the original French. others may have been so garbled in transcription that no useful guess can be made as to the intended word.
many of these are not really recipes so much as suggestions on how to accompany the dishes named. Strictly speaking. Also. effectively. Here and in other cases. To complicate matters. Many of the recipes here really refer to the contents of the pastie – that is. to a pâté.Old French terms left untranslated Many titles of dishes have been left in French. These are the most common: Brewet (Brouet) This word once meant ‘soup’ or ‘broth’ – as did a number of other names of dishes here. either because they have no real equivalent in English or because any translation would be too general to be useful. however. this refers to food – usually meat in pâté – in a pastry shell. something like a meat pie or a pâté en croûte. may have been too hardened to eat. the old idea of a soup was more solid than liquid. The pastry itself. I’ve kept the old word in its Anglicized form. Pastie (Pasté) iii .
Though the Menagier de Paris says that a similar word means to fry in a pot rather than a frying pan. However. A modern cook might do this by blanching or “brining” meat (in a sugar and salt brine). However. or. In this case. to dissolve. Here.) “Deffaire” means to undo or break up. I suspect this spelling of the word is a slight mistranscription of “sousfrire” – that is. or are they replacements for it? Or did the word once have another meaning (so far unknown)? Infuse for deffaire Restore for reffaire Sturgeon for esturgon Several other terms.Non-standard uses of familiar French words Brown or simmer for souffrire “Souffrire” means to suffer. the translation is nearly direct. succulent state before cooking it. to “under-fry”. to simmer it (especially since the modern word for that – “mijoter” – does not appear here. In context. Were these assumed to include that fish. it seems to mean to brown the food. though. we are told at least once here to “souffrire” something in a frying pan. But neither dish under that name includes sturgeon. it is an excellent way to keep chicken tenders (for instance) moist when grilling them. such as “vinaigrette” and “blancmange”. “Reffaire” means to redo or to restore (as in restoring a house). In practice. Some dictionaries say specifically to do this by grilling it lightly. As an old cooking term. when liquid is present. it means to “restore” meat to a fresh. several recipes refer to doing this in cold or hot water. moisten or infuse spices or other solid matter. are also used in ways unrelated to their modern meanings. the sense is to ‘break up” in liquid – that is. iv .
Verjuice The most common definition of this is as the tart juice of a specific grape when under-ripe. But various sources suggest it was a more general term for a “green juice”. Cotgrave’s dictionary (1611) defines the French word as follows: “Verjus: m. Verjuice, especially that which is made of sowre, and unripe grapes; also, the grapes whereof it is made”. Legrand d’Aussy says that it was originally the ‘sweat’ of sorrel, but this may just have been a method for replacing or reinforcing the grape version. “Verjuice of grain” might refer to either a verjuice made from young wheat (again per Legrand) or using the verjuice grapes themselves. Lemon juice or vinegar are two modern replacements. Though some writers discuss this ingredient as if it were specific to medieval times, in fact it was still used in the late nineteenth century, and can still be obtained from specialized sources. Paradise seed, a rarer, pricier cousin to cardamom, is still used for brewing. Cardamom and pepper together are one possible replacement. These are different mixtures of spices used to season dishes (like salt or pepper) after cooking. Both are made up of the same spices used in many recipes here: ginger, cinnamon, clove, etc. The proportions probably varied in different households. (The five-spice mix sold today in Chinese markets is similar, though it often includes anise.) Basically, this is obtained by grinding up almonds, mixing them with water and pressing out the resulting liquid. Different recipes exist for this. Some stores also offer a modern, more complex equivalent.
Seed or Paradise Seed Powder (Fine Powder) and Duke’s Powder
Here follows the viander to prepare all manners of victuals that Taillevent, chief cook of the king our lord, did so much to dress and to prepare gruel, roast, salt water and fresh water fish: With this, sauces, spices and other things suitable and necessary, as will be said below. And firstly of the first chapter. [The original includes a cursory table of contents at this point] Here ends the table and begins the matter of this book.
To Make White Brewet Of Capons
Or poultry or veal, it is best to boil it and take the broth, once it is cooked, and to put it aside. Blanch the almonds, and crush them, and soak them in the broth of the poultry, capons or veal, and then strain the almonds through a cheesecloth, and take a reasonable quantity of powdered white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and white wine, and put a large quantity of large lumps of sugar to boil. When it is boiled, put the broth separately in a nice pot and also the meats (that is, the poultry, capon or veal), and, when serving it, put your meats in a dish with your broth.
To Make Blancmange of Fish
Of pike, perch or other fish suitable for blancmange, and scale it, and fry with oil or butter and take almonds, and mix them as above, and pea puree. Add white wine and mix, and add white ginger, and infuse with verjuice and enough sugar, and set it apart as with that for meat.
To Make White German Brewet
Take veal or poultry, and restore it, and then cut it up into pieces. Set to simmer with a nice beef broth and lard, and put in an onion finely cut. Crush almonds with the skins, and infuse with beef broth, and strain. While straining, put in poultry livers and almonds, and when the broth is strained, put it in the pot, when the meat is cooked and put a moderate amount of sugar in the pot while simmering, and the appropriate spices: that is, cinnamon, 1
ginger, assorted spices (clove and paradise seed), and saffron for color. Infuse with verjuice, white wine or red Burgundy wine, and then serve, when the time comes, in plates or bowls.
To Make Salamine
Take pike, carp or other fish of the sort, and scale it, and fry it. Crush up almonds with the skins, infuse with purée of peas, then take the same spices as for the German Brewet, and infuse with verjuice. Boil your broth, and set it apart until it is time to serve it.
To Make Brewet Georget
Take veal, poultry or rabbit, cut up in pieces and grill lightly. When it is browned, fry it in a little lard and some beef broth, and add some finely cut raw onion. Fry with the meat, and put some parsley leaves in it. Brown some bread, and, when it is browned, soak it in beef broth and put in poultry livers and strain with the meat. Beat and crush the spices which go with it (cinnamon, ginger, clove and seed), and infuse with verjuice. Add saffron for color, and put it all in a pot. When ready, serve it in dishes or bowls
To Make Fish Grané
Take pike, carp or other fish. Scale and fry the fish. Then toast bread, and soak it in purée of peas, strain it, and put in fried onion sliced large. Boil it all together, with ginger, cinnamon and various spices, infused with vinegar, and add a bit of saffron for color.
To Make Cinnamon Brewet With Meat
Take veal and poultry, and cut up into pieces. Grill them lightly. Then fry, with a little lard, and also some beef broth. Then take almonds crushed with the skins, and infuse with sufficient beef broth, and take poultry livers, and strain with the almonds. Then take some spices, that is, a very large quantity of cinnamon, ginger, clove and paradise seed, and crush up the spice and infuse with red Burgundy wine. Add a large quantity of sugar, and salt as appropriate.
For That Of Fish
Take carp, pike or another fish, and scale it, and fry it, and make the broth like that for meat, except with pea puree, and put similar
spices as for meat, and sweeten as with the other, and season like the other, and boil your broth, and set your broth apart and the fish in the other.
To Make A Cretonnée Of New Peas
Or with new broad beans or whatever legume you desire: cut veal or kid up in parts and poussins, with the legume that goes with it, and then fry it with lard or other fat, with whatever broth you have available to put over it. Boil milk in a pot or frying pan, with egg yolks to thicken, and, when it is thickened, infuse with ginger. Put it in, and salt to taste.
To Make Thin (Fasting) Pottage
Take new peas or new broad beans, and similar broth as for meat. And to thicken with poached eggs, make as above but do not add ginger to this thickening. Season it as appropriate.
To Make Spanish Cretonnée
Take veal or poultry cut in pieces, and cook the meat, and fry with lard or any shortening you can find. Take almonds, and strain, and make milk of them or use milk if you have it, and take parsley and marjoram, if you have it, and throw a good deal in. Strain with the greenery, and, when the milk is boiled, you thicken as with eggs. Beat together ginger and assorted spices, and infuse with verjuice and white wine. When your soup is ready and thickened, put it in a pot. When it is time to serve, take hard-boiled eggs, and shell them and split them down the middle. Then fry them with lard. When the broth is in your dish, if you want to put your eggs on it, or browned toasts, they will look lovely there.
For Fish Cretonnée
Take carp or pike, scaled, and fry when it is in pieces, and make your broth as for that of meat, except that it is made with pea puree, and the other is made with meat broth, and all the rest is made like that for meat.
To Make Green Brewet
Take veal and poultry, cut up in pieces. Grill them lightly and fry in lard and beef broth. Take a large amount of parsley, and strain with
and put it all together. clove. and put the shells aside. Fry it in lard and beef broth in a pot. and take a great quantity of parsley. And then boil the spices. and nutmeg if you have it. put it all in a pot. beaten ginger and a little assorted spices. spices and verjuice. diluted with verjuice. paradise seed. For Lark Grané Take larks. When the bread is strained. and strain it all together. with the following spices: cinnamon. and poultry livers. restore them. For Covered Brewet Take veal or poultry. and strain with the broth. Fry onion in lard and throw in the pot with the meat. Boil in water and pea puree. To thicken. that is cinnamon. Take bread and livers. Once it has been strained. and fry them. and put veal in the pot with them. then brown. diluted with vinegar. and set the broth separately. and put herbs. diluted with verjuice. as above. marjoram. and scale and slice up pike. wild spinach. Brown the bread and soak it in beef broth. and simmer in a pot with lard and beef broth.Taillevent egg yolks. raw. and take bread soaked in beef broth. To Make Fish Brewet Slice up eels. not too much. ginger. Cut up into pieces and put in a pot. For Shrimp Grané Take shrimp. and boil it all together. for a better broth. cut up in pieces. Once they are properly cooked and salted to taste. and crush the bodies of the shrimp in the 4 . put everything together in the pot and cinnamon. you will shell them. paradise seed and clove. and strain. the costmary. and cook in a separate pot: the parsley. ginger. and crush. To Make Civet Of Hare Brown a hare. add in bread soaked together with the beef broth. and add in the broth. and infuse with verjuice. cooked egg yolks. and for spices. and egg yolks. ginger and assorted spices. veal or pig on the spit or on the grill. Soak livers with the bread and strain. and cook them.
and paradise seed. Add what is appropriate: cinnamon. if you have them. and sweeten moderately. and infuse it with verjuice. For Partridge Trimolette Take partridge. cinnamon and assorted spices. ginger. ginger and assorted spices. to the chaudumé. and then fry finely chopped onion. assorted spices. To Make Mustard Soup For a fish day. set it to boil. Salt to taste. with the same spices. and strain the almonds all together. 5 . And put cinnamon. take some puree. and soak in the beef broth. fry eggs in oil or butter. clove. and sprinkle with salt. Put with the other spices. Take bread and livers. and boil all together. and fry in a pot. infused with verjuice. and put the broth apart. Salt to taste. with lard and beef broth to make the broth. add a reasonable amount of sugar. Cut up in pieces. and saffron for color. For Seyme Put some rabbits to brown on the spit or on the grill.. assorted spices such as cloves and seed. and soak in beef broth. To Make Chaudumé Take eels. and then use pure mustard. take pike and put in place of the shrimp. And if you do not have enough meat. fry it in a pot with lard and beef broth. and strain through cheesecloth and pour in the pot with the partridge. paradise seed. and infuse with verjuice.Le Viandier mortar and almonds with the skins. Then strain the bread and the livers. For Gibelet Of River Bird Brown the birds on the spit or on the grill. and take verjuice and wine to put with chaudumé. and. if you have them. Make similar broth as for seyme. pike browned on the grill. and put in the pot. and roast it. and salt to taste. and salt to taste. Infuse with verjuice. Strain it all together and boil in a pot. and strain pike livers with it. ginger. and sweeten moderately. and boil everything together. cut up and put in a frying pan or a pot. when they are browned. Take ginger. and boil them all together. and verjuice. cinnamon. When it is roasted. Add ginger. Take browned bread and poultry livers of.
To Make A Sorvige Of Eels Take scalded eels. and fry in a pot with lard and beef broth. gizzards. For Brewet Rappé Take veal. clove and seeds. and add some red Burgundy wine. Boil it all together. etc. put cinnamon. and soak it in pea purée. For spices. Take some browned bread and soak in a little broth. or its own broth. and a lot of ginger in the pot with the venison. slice it up in large cubes. and verjuice and salt to taste. and salt to taste. It is best to strain it. Add to the pot. cinnamon and assorted spices. such as livers. Clean and cut up. take verjuice of grain or gooseberries on it. the best that you can find. cinnamon and assorted spices. When 6 . Boil in a pot with some beef broth. Fry onion and parsley. To Make Venison In Soup Take venison cut up in nice big parts and boil them. and strain. if you have it. boil it thus. and set them to cook. paradise seed. and saffron for color. with no other spices – this is enough. each one with its lardoons. clove. Boil in a pot in of beef broth to cook it. When the potage is ready. Put in a pot. For spices. and other broth. Once it is cut into round sections and fried. put it in your pot. Put in a pot and cook in wine and beef broth. cut up in pieces. To Make A Mock Grenon Take a pig buttock and cook it.Taillevent For Larded Boil of Rabbit or Poultry Cut up in pieces. When it is not too well cooked along the side. poultry. and crush them and soak in verjuice and a little vinegar. Put some bread in to soak. Take browned bread. that is ginger. and lard each one with a lardoon or two. Venison Of Wild Boar To put in soup or pottage. Venison Of Deer Put in soup as for the other above. and some spices. Then take ginger. and put in seed ginger. and take some small giblets of poultry. infused with vinegar.
and giblets (such as gizzards and livers). take peeled almonds. To Make A Violet [Dish] Take veal and whole poussins. crushed up and ground fine. After straining it through cheesecloth. some white wine and verjuice. slice them lengthwise. without leaving it too long on the fire. and filter into the pot to give it color. amount of sugar. Then put the broth in a pot. and let the color soak in. and throw it in when you boil it. with some verjuice. also known as alkanets. and crush them and strain them.it makes no difference which as long as there is sage. take orchanet [EDITOR’S WARNING: Several modern herbals warn AGAINST taking this herb. put the broth over it and gilded garlic bulbs. so that. if you have them. Put in a large amount of sugar. fry them in lard. or some white sugared almonds. When serving. when your soup is on the fire and it boils. the best lard you can find. boil it all together.Le Viandier they are cooked. Add some ginger and a little saffron. slice up partridge. When the meat is served in dishes. and some toressot of violet to give color to the soup. And to give a red color. two or three with each dish. and color it. and soak them in the poultry broth. To Make Cold Sage Take poussins split along the back. put very well cooked eggs on the plates in halves. and mix in beaten rice flour and some broth. and boil and. Take peeled almonds. Once they are strained. and prepared. it thickens. and strain with the almonds and the broth. and put in a pot. and season with salt. When the poussins are cooked. Salt 7 . Take white bread and soak it in the broth in which the pig was cooked if you have no beef broth and also mix in egg yolks with your bread. Slice up the giblets. and add a generous. put them in a pot to boil. and cook them. and heat in lard. and just a little white wine. Then take a moderate amount of rose water. and fry them in its broth. internally]. but reasonable. such as green sauce . and serve them in dishes or bowls. and take some powdered rice and infuse with rose water. To Make Red [Dish] Take poussins and veal. once they are cooked. Then take white wine and verjuice. with the appropriate sauce. Simmer them in a pot after in the broth of your veal and of your poussins.
take the broth. and infuse the spices with vinegar. well cleaned. Take cinnamon. Infuse the spices with a little vinegar. Add cinnamon. Then strain it. Bousac For bousac. Serve it with the broth poured over it and on that sugared almonds. with a moderate amount of sugar. and then when the meat is in dishes. then put in a pot to brown. and cook. a little mastic. After the leg of lamb or foot of veal is about half cooked.Taillevent to taste. Once it is browned. while it is straining. if you can find them. To Make Vinaigrette Take small pieces of pig spleen browned on the spit or on the grill. and a lot of saffron. and a bit of saffron for color. the young rabbit and poultry. and washed. and take some finely chopped onion. Then take ginger and seed. If the jelly is too fatty. put in a cellar. and soak in 8 . and crush. take eggs whites and put with the broth. the pork. and. if the spices are not well beaten. seed and clove. and cut up in small pieces. Brown bread. Boil it all together with verjuice and good red Burgundy wine. take pork cut into pieces. For Jelly Take leg of lamb or foot of veal. put the meat in dishes. Add cinnamon and ginger and some assorted spices. Take a little bread and poultry livers. when it boils. Once it is cooked. and boil in white wine with the appropriate meat. a hare is to be restored. Geese Treason-Style To make geese treason-style. that is. brown the geese on the spit. Put the spices in the pot with it to brown. put with the meat. and halved poussins. have a cloth right at hand to strain it with. soak it with poultry livers. and pour the broth on the meat in each dish. and salt just enough. Put in lard and beef broth. when it starts to boil. and young rabbits. When they are browned. fry them in a pot. parboiled and cut up in pieces. Boil it all together. and put in a pot on the coal fire. and a moderate amount of vinegar. whichever you can find. clove and seed) to the bread. ginger and assorted spices (that is. And when the meat is cooked. Put in a pot. with beef broth in the pot to brown it.
and add sugar. remove their bones. add the cut up pike. Take bread. and prepare it. take the broth and put in an earthen pot or another of wood. and salt it well. When it is strained. take spices. and salt to taste. Rice For rice. assorted spices. Take a carp or two and pike. brown without burning. ginger. then slice them up. When it is strained. removing the bones as best you can. Salt to taste. and fry them. Add salt as appropriate. and. and the tripe as well. and a moderate amount of mustard. paradise seed. the best you can find. Take cinnamon. While cooking. and boil as long as you can without burning. put the pike and eel in by sections. and soak in the broth that you will have filtered from the fish. and infuse with vinegar. and the tripe of fish. while boiling. the crops of pike and their broth. take pike and prepare them. wash it and take cow’s milk of cow or milk of peeled almonds. clove and beaten galanga. cook in a pot or frying pan. that is the livers. Fish Arbalesty For fish arbalesty. Boil the cow’s milk. ginger. and a large amount of clove. then leave to cool. put the broth in a pot. take some rice. put a little saffron for color. then strain. When the fish is scaled.Le Viandier broth beef. and boil it all together. and also any other spices. put in a wooden or earthen vessel to cool. Galantine For pike and eels in galantine. put the spices in all together with the broth. Strain the bread and the spices together. and tie them all around. that is cinnamon. Once they are chopped up fine. 9 . slice it into round slices. slice into large chunks. and add the liquid. Brown bread very well without burning it and soak in pea purée and red Burgundy wine. When the eel is on the point of being cooked. When it is cooked. Strain again one time. add a little vinegar. When it is boiled. and put the fried fish in the pot. When it is cooked. Then boil. and slice them up. Strain and put with the pot. so long as it does not smell of brass. in wine. cook tripe of pike and carp. Scald the eels. When they are boiled.
and beat with your eggs. Brown in a frying pan with lard. Take spices. When it is sliced up. with a little saffron for color. or tripe of kid and thighs of kid and some of all these four things. and take their broth. or partridge. Put in some beaten white ginger and a little verjuice. and put it all in. season with a little cooked lard. slice it into thin slices. 10 . When everything is cooked. When it has been pressed a whole night. and tie it up. Chop up the meat as finely as you can. take poussins or poultry. Mix just a little cheese. Boil. and beaten white ginger. Take some eggs and beat very well. Put in the pot. good and fine. Brown a little onion. Mix in eggs to thicken your morterel. or capon meat. Quail Brewet For quail brewet. and add some parsley leaves. Strain through a cloth or beat very well. moistened with just a little verjuice. put it in a tablecloth or a hand towel. put the meat in dishes and. and chop it as fine as you can. boil milk on the fire. fry it in lard or pork fat. When the meat is cooked. some broth. the following day. Add salt. take it off the fire. Put in a pot and boil. Put in some white ginger. Add saffron. To Make A Morterel It is best to use pheasant. When it is on the point of being cooked. When it is ready. and add some verjuice while thickening. Take some fatty lard. Take out the meat and mix in egg yolks. Press it as well as you can. and cut up into small pieces. Thicken the broth with it. take bread crumbs to put with the broth. beaten white ginger.Taillevent Larded Milk To make larded milk. and strain. and salt to taste. with a little bread to thicken. Poussin Sabourot To make sabourot of poussins. take prepared capons or large poultry. when serving. slice it up finely. Strain it until there is no liquid left and pour it in all together with the eggs and the milk. Soak the poultry in beef broth. When you have put it all together and it is boiled. and boil in a pot. then cook it in a pot or frying pan.
Remove all the skin. You must keep the shoulder bone stripped of meat. take sheep bellies and brown them on the grill. roast the shoulder on the spit. After. Do not cook it too much. Add spices to the meat: beaten cinnamon. Stretch it out on a plank very neatly. or a large quantity of crumbled wafers and put with the cream. Then put them on the outside of the membrane on top of the other. assorted spices in large quantity. Press it between two dishes. Remove all meat from the bones. when taken in heat. and boil in wine and vinegar. For Haricoq To make haricoq. cut up them into pieces. Moisten with verjuice and add to the pot. clove and seed. Take it off the spit. and then take the bone of the shoulder and knock on it until as it enters in. Take egg yolks stirred in with the milk and cream. Add a large quantity of sugar. that is. Chop it up as finely as possible with cooked lard and a pig’s liver. Chop all this up with the shoulder and eight egg yolks for the stuffing. Put half of the stuffing on the veal or sheep membrane. Wild Boar Head Cheese To make head cheese of wild boar. When they are browned. Leave as long as it is cold. and salt to taste. Lamb Shoulder To stuff lamb shoulder. sugar and salt. Take peeled onions. take the extra stuffing and make as for the shoulder. and well beaten clove and nutmeg.Le Viandier For Fried Cream Take cream and boil and then white bread broken into small crumbs and put it in the cream. and boil it all together. and a great deal of parsley. ginger. the thinnest that you can find. Put in a piece of cloth like a headscarf. When it is as if rotted from cooking. Put on a table. pennyroyal and raw marjoram. then take it from the fire. Then take the skin and put the meat back in it. and put in a pot. Take white ginger. Put in the pot with the meat. Put it all together. with stones on it to press well. and brown the meat. cinnamon and assorted spices. take its head. and split it and clean it. Then have a veal or sheep membrane. Some like to add ginger. and chop them up fine. Salt to taste. 11 . well and whole. Put the skin aside. hyssop.
Then put the stuffing back in the skin of the chicken. Put it in a straining cloth. gild it with egg yolks while turning. Wrap in the membrane and put on the grill. leaving only skin. it is advisable to scald them…. Strain until there is no liquid left. for a long while. all the way to the knee. Take the fish’s skin and cover all the flesh with it. Once it is crisp. For Moteaulx [Possibly meaning “clumps” or “clods”] To make the moteaulx stuffing. all cooked together. just a little bit. Then take a veal or kid membrane. Put in a little ginger and a little saffron. if you have it. hyssop and raw marjoram. When they are cooked. bone and meat. Then spit it through the bottom to the head on a small spit. remove all the bones from the flesh of the fish. and boil in pure white wine. if there is a shoulder. To Make Sturgeon Take tench and eels. Once this is done. put in a dish and serve last. and do not fill it too much lest it burst. Then put it on the grill over a low fire. Gild with egg yolks with the shoulder. take poultry liver or lard. Take everything inside. except the head and the legs. Make it about half a foot long and as round as a full fist. a needle across the opening. split them at the shoulders. Because it is best to put it in boiling water. being careful not to burn it. Take saffron for color. and put the stuffing in it.Taillevent with two or three small wooden skewers to hold them. Stuffed Poussins To make stuffed poussins. Then take the chicken meat. so that it solidifies. When serving. Put with the meat. sweeten the poussins. wings or neck. hyssop. Once they have been scalded. a great deal of parsley. and cook it all together. filter until no more liquid is left. pennyroyal and basil. Once they are well cooked. After. When it is done. because this is [served as part of] a whole service. ginger and assorted spices. without cutting off their feet. chop it up as finely as you can. Cook it all together with meat broth. 12 . lard. parsley. Chop up fine and add some ginger and egg yolks. gild with egg yolk on one side and with a feather on the other. a pig or poultry liver.
and rewrap it in the skin of the veal head. and also a pound of egg yolks. Strain the almonds. Then take one pint of rose water and one pint of vinegar and put under the roast. put it on the meat and cool in a spout or elsewhere. put in dishes. When they are half cooked. Boil your broth. and crush them all together. lard with clove. Then take half a pound of true cinnamon. Preserve in sugar and other household spices. Sprinkle it with the same spices as for jelly. Take a pound of almonds. whole. no more or less than you want for the brewet. seed. Scald and pluck and clean very well. strain. a pound of sugar. Put. and put in your meat. Meat Sturgeon To make a meat sturgeon. To Make Pheasant And Peacocks In Full Display To make pheasant and peacocks in full display. take off the skin of the head and the feet of veal. with the jelly on it. and serve it with parsley and vinegar. After cook in wine. and also the livers and almonds. Crush the shrimp shells like the almonds and strain with your broth through the cloth. Put some broth under it without touching the preserves. and strain it all together through a cloth. and mix them up with a quarter pound 13 . Put a quarter pound of sugar in the sauce. On fish days. This done. Add strong vinegar. Then take the veal sliced into thin slices. lard and put on the spit. When the roast is taken off the spit. and strain through a cloth. Take capon or poultry broth. Stir all the spices together. To Make Fayenne Take a pig and cook in pure wine as for jelly. an ounce of powder of assorted spices. and for two servings. and a handful of onion. long pepper. Then slice it into fine slices. and nutmeg and two ounces of true cinnamon beaten to powder. Then press the sturgeon and cut into beautiful thin slices with parsley and vinegar.Le Viandier Press it in a mortar. Boil pig and poultry livers. This sauce is good on all roasts. lard with the preserved true cinnamon. clove. For Cele Preserve For Four Take two pounds of almonds. take a veal’s head and feet. for six servings. and salt it.
take a pint of vinegar.Taillevent of true cinnamon and two ounces of ginger. Take half a glass of rose water and as much verjuice. remove it. put in a straining cloth or on a new cloth and let it cool. and boil it all in a frying pan. with the maws and livers. then brown. Put. When it is boiled. scald it and then fry it. take a new pot. put duke’s powder on it. and strain through a cloth. cook them. Then strain through a cloth. If you see that there is too much fat. add a quarter pound of sugar. a little ginger and a moderate amount of marjoram. and the pike’s liver. When serving at the table. and add a pint of verjuice and a half pound of sugar. an ounce of assorted spices. Fry in lard. and put them in once they are stuffed. Take powdered ginger soaked in verjuice. Almond Irson To make almond irson for four. To Make A Potful of beef tongue and cow teat. and take the broth in which they are cooked. Gild the heads on the grill. and a little soaked bread. Take the fish maws and livers. Cover so that no steam gets out. crush approximately four pounds of almonds in a mortar. Fry with butter or oil. Once they are cooked. and put about an eight of a pound of sugar per dish. put in dishes. Cut up the tongues and teat into small pieces like beans. and boil it all together. and strain them through a cloth with a little warm water. Add a little saffron for color. Holy Water To make holy water on pike. and after put it in a dish. Chop up onion. Put in dishes as for a 14 . When the almonds are thick. Take the pike eggs. For Steamed Poussins [or] for stuffed steamed hens. and chop into small cubes. Then put the pike on coals to stew. while frying. and put it all in the pot with a quarter pound of duke’s powder. Add in sugar and ginger. For Fish Fraze Take pike heads and roast them on the grill. When they are well cooked.
Then take the best-looking almonds and split in half. Take small. when it is well crushed. and yellow the half with saffron. When serving. After put in dishes and serve. Fry in butter. and put on a plank and chop them up finely. strain through a cloth. saffron and sugar. together with the butter. take a capon and boil until well cooked. Then make it as fine as a sheet of paper. Then place them in nice rows along the length. Take the white of the capon and other meat from the capon. and the eggs. Take milk. marjoram. take veal or pork. and sprinkle the dough with egg yolks. and crush up the crumbs finely. Then take sage.Le Viandier bar of butter. without any liquid. Take sheep stomach and pack the stuffing in it as for an andouille. Eggs Roasted On The Spit To roast stuffed eggs on the spit. Put a dozen eggs on each skewer. Put three egg yolks studded with clove. and fry in the frying pan with other beef [sic]. Add in ginger. a quarter ounce of assorted spices and add a little saffron. Take two ounces of starch and two ounces sugar. crush it up in the mortar. and boil in a pot with herbs and lard. Soak in 15 . Fried Fresh Butter To make fresh butter in a frying pan. chop it up small and put in a half dozen eggs with the meat and one dozen crus [literally. pennyroyal. “wine growths” – meaning grapes. and put it in barely touching the almonds. as much as suits you. and. Then put the stuffing in the egg shells. Then wrap the bar of butter in it. and soak the dough in eggs and sugar. Meat Vintage For a half dozen vintages of meal. and chop them up finely. Put eggs in a pot separately and when the meat is half cooked. Coulis To make coulis. take stale white bread. put some duke’s powder on it. and split each half in three parts lengthwise. bunches of grapes or wine?]. make a small hole in the end of each egg. very fine skewers. and take out what is inside. and set on the grill over a low fire. Take a half ounce of true cinnamon. mint and all other good herbs.
soaked in purée of peas. skinned. cinnamon. For Potted Pastie Take veal or beef buttock. Then boil in a nice large pot and. and cut into pieces. It can be salted or not. mix in a dozen blanched almonds.Taillevent the capon broth. if the physician does not order that sugar be put in it. vinegar. and start in the same way as the capon above. roast poultry or capons. After fry with lard or goose lard. put some thick almond milk. Blanched Barley To make blanched barley. take a poussin or two. To Make Coulis To make another coulis for the sick. Afterwards. but. After make like that of meat. and. take a perch and cook it in water. or anything else. To bind it. without crushing it. after grind it. salt moderately. and boned. in grinding it. boil in a small pot. Another Coulis Take pike cooked and soaked. add a dozen almonds to make it more substantial. and. and put the whole barley in it. rinse and boil it very well. like wheat to make fromenty. saffron and some verjuice. and salt to taste without anything else in it. When they are fried. Once it is cooked. when crushing. beat the barley and grind it up in a mortar. Gallimaufrey For gallimaufrey. And if you want to make blanched whole barley. and chop it up finely. Fish Coulis To make another fish coulis. and then soak in almond milk. put in wine and 16 . Make like that of perch. when it is cooked. with fat as for a potted pastie. and finely chopped onion. but not too much. crush it in the mortar. put some in. Do not add verjuice. Once it is cooked. After it is well cleaned. if the sick person wants sugar in it. put in assorted spices. ginger.
remove all the meat of the capons. when the pastie is cooked.Le Viandier verjuice. and beef fat. Add cheese and ginger and saffron. or possibly cocks. put the fat in the pastie. except the clove should dominate the other spices. nutmeg. in winter style. ginger powder soaked in verjuice. For spices. After. clove. and. Boil the sauce in an iron frying pan and. Pastie With Warm Sauce From the heart of the loin. in equal parts. and after soak in verjuice and vinegar and strain through a cloth. and boil with the sauce in the oven.] Put the capons in pastie. cameline. add some ginger. The appropriate spices are ginger. cut into thin tender slices and chop fat over them. true cinnamon. While frying. toast black bread well. beef marrow. For spices. and boil it all together. Veal Pastie Take veal and beef fat. the hard boiled egg yolks studded with clove. cut up into pieces and fry in lard. take raw poultry. assorted spices and saffron. and chop it quite small all together. Pastie Of Halebran Capons [Probably meaning very young castrated ducks. Cook the said 17 . long pepper. Fricassees For fricassees. and chop all together and the said pastie. The appropriate spices are: ginger. This done. To make the sauce. true cinnamon. put in fine cheese. add the sauce. Beef Pastie Chop meat quite small and put in in winter style. put finely chopped onion and afterwards beef broth. to thicken. put some ginger powder and. cover with lard. For spices. saffron and sweeten. and a moderate amount of salt. and for spices. paradise seed. put in a little ginger. Pastie Of Capons For pastie of capons.
put in ginger. When the pastie is cooked. except it goes well with onion fried in lard. and fine cheese. Chicken Pastie With Sauce Robert Take verjuice and egg yolks. Mutton Pastie With Welsh Onion Chop the pastie up fine in mutton fat. for spices. and ginger. Sparrow Pastie Take beef or veal. and for spices. Kid Pastie Parboil the kid and after cut up in pieces. and beef marrow. with fine powder.Taillevent spices in powder to cook as said above. Pigeon Pastie Put on this pastie finely chopped lard. Wild Duck Pastie Take some lard and. clove and ginger. assorted spices and saffron. For spices. and the fat of chopped veal. and beat all together. with a moderate amount of sugar. and lard finely chopped. Blackbird Pastie Take some fine cheese and put in the birds. Pastie Of Capons Put in this pastie finely chopped lard. put it all together. with assorted spices added. It is best that the poultry be cut up. 18 . For spices. some ginger. Add lard chopped fine. assorted spices and saffron. For Ringdove [Pastie] Take warm sauce as for beef and similar spices. cinnamon and saffron.
] Take white capon meat finely chopped. raised up high and. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. new beans and parboil them. and roll this in butter. in season. Wild Boar Pastie Take tenderloin of wild boar. or the smaller one whole. ginger and clove powder. and take. Lorais Pastie [NOTE: This is particularly incoherent in the original. Rabbit Pastie Cut old ones into pieces and use the young ones whole. and parboil it. the following is very much a “best guess”. clove. For fish. Add ginger and a little pepper. Add spices such as sugar and true cinnamon. After. ginger. For spices. 19 . Hare Pastie Take a large hare cut up in pieces. like those which are made double. fry it all in butter. when they are made. Add assorted spices. pressed between three fingers. It is best that these be small. or a sufficient quantity of spears [slices?] of fish. it is best to fry them in a frying pan with lard. and it goes well with lettuce [this apparently refers to a pastry]. Sprinkle with finely chopped lard. For spices. Partridge Pastie Put finely chopped lard on the partridge. seed and pepper. and add assorted spices. assorted spices and saffron. And put them in the pastie. well made pasties. slice it into fine slices. For spices. Stag Pastie Boil it and lard it and after make into pastie. and chopped lard. sugar and egg and cover this base as with small pasties.Le Viandier Gosling Pastie Cut the gosling up.
Eel Pastie Take saffron. Parboil the marrow. ginger and saffron.Taillevent Marrow Pastie Take marrow. Trout Pastie Put saffron and fine powder on it. Mullet Pastie Put in the belly of a mullet verjuice of grain. Put in assorted spices. Red Mullet Pastie Add fine powder. fine powder and verjuice in making it. fine powder and saffron. Goatfish Pastie Only add white ginger. and fry in lard. Salmon Pastie With white ginger. Turbot Pastie Only add white ginger. and some gooseberries. raised up high and well made. Bream Pastie Put fine powder and saffron on it. Shad Pastie With white ginger and assorted spices. Conger Eel Pastie Slice up sea congers. with spices and sugar mixed together. and crush up like a ball and push between three fingers into a small pastie. without anything else. 20 .
Common Tart For common covered tarts [i. Cow Pastie Take cheese cut in strips and a large amount of sugar. pies]. a lot of sugar and egg yolks.. Once the pastrie is cooked add the sauce. to boil the sauce with the lamprey. and quite black. Make the sauce separately. If you cannot find cream. After put in the oven briefly. Strain through cloth and add the powder. then put it in the oven. Burn a piece of bread quite black and soak the burned bread in verjuice and vinegar. Put thin slices of lard on and under it. Once the pastie is high and raised. use fine cheese and put in nice hunks of it. cut fine cheese into strips and mix with eggs. Make the crust strong and thick. crush up cheese. Two-Faced Tart For two-faced tart. gild it well. and rounded. Take from the spice cabinet lamprey powder. Otherwise make as for uncovered tarts. true cinnamon and a bit of assorted spice. After boil it. and put the sauce in a small clean pot. if you have some. Leg Of Lamb Pastie Take leg of lamb and lard well with clove.e. star with fried cream. Make Oblongs Make as for a stuffed bar of fried cream. 21 . and sugar. fine cheese and many egg yolks and sugar. Fry onion in butter.Le Viandier Lamprey Pastie Only add salt. so that the contents do not leak out. Dolphins Lily flowers. and pat it.
Soak butter in cheese crushed in a mortar. After take a pastry crust cooked in the oven. Jacobine Tart Stuff with fine cheese crushed up well. When it is cooked. turn it in a dish. before adding the cheese and the cream. and stuffed in two fingers deep. take it out. and cover the whole top with orange. After put a large quantity of sugar on it. and enough egg yolks. The slices should be less than two fingers high. soaked in cream. Seat well in the tart. Talmouse Cut fine cheese in square pieces as small as beans. with egg yolks mixed into it. and cook like the other side. Bourbonnaise Tart For Bourbonnaise tart. Soak the crust in eggs and butter. Cut eel into sections and boil it. then cook in the oven as said. and cook them. like the other side. set it to cool. Soak the cheese well in eggs and mix all together. When it is cooked. well soaked in egg yolks. is of good fine cheese cut in thin slices. Covered Tart For covered tart. Put in handfuls of sliced eels. of the thickness of a finger. put in the oven. so that nothing of it shows. use fine cheese. soak the crust in eggs and butter. Once it is a little cooked. Knead the crust well with eggs. and put on the tart. layered on the wafers as thick as a finger.Taillevent Jacobine Tart Covered Jacobine tart. Fry them in butter. and good cream. but not too 22 . then [take] the crust on which it is cooked. Soak the stuffing in two eggs and some water in each tart and no more. and take off the crust where cooked. turned over on the wafers with the first layer of cheese on them. Two Faced Tart Two faced tart is made of fine cheese cut into cubes. Put cheese soaked in egg yolks on the wafers on the crust. with oranges on it. and cover the crust with wafers. crushed. take it out and let it cool. with a great quantity of sugar. When ready to dine.
Add onion fried with butter or oil. then gild it with saffron. and enough egg yolks. Once it is soaked. put in the oven. Bourbonnaise Tart Crush up fine cheese. but do not strain them. soak with cream. and fill the hollow with the sugar. crushed up. and wine. and put orange all over it. anis and pygurlac [probably a misstranscription of pignolat. true cinnamon and white ginger.Le Viandier much. and put in the oven. candied ginger might be used instead]. Put all the fillings together. strain through a cloth with red Burgundy wine. Then take a pint of vinegar and a quarter pound of true cinnamon. Then soak it in very pure red Burgundy wine in a new pot. and gild with eggs or saffron. Sweeten well. for three large pears about a quarter pound of sugar. Mix in with the other apples. Apple Tart Cut up apples into pieces. [Darioles were small pastries. Cover it with a top. if you have any. an ounce of ginger and a quarter 23 . and put in with the apples and the figs. Raw Pear Pastie Set on end in the pastry. This is how it should be made. and stuff it well so that the cheese comes through the slices of eel when it boils. Darioles Of Cream Crush up almonds. put with the surplus and add the saffron. Knead the crust well with eggs. Crush up part of the apples and soak in wine. well mixed by hand.] Cameline To make a quart of cameline. put eight or ten slices on end. or a dish. Cover well. and put in figs. that is candied pine nut. Make two big pastry undercrusts. Fry the cream well in butter. and cook. so all this presumably is the filling. For each tart. and mix well together. Clean grapes well. brown bread in front of a good red fire. a bit of assorted spices. without burning it. After put the top on it and cover it tightly. on the thick paste of apples and other fillings. then put in the tart and layer over the top.
ginger. and crush up spices in a mortar . Strain very well through a cloth. roast a goose. Take an ounce of true cinnamon. To Make Poitevin Sauce With capons or poultry. Jance To make jance. and strain and strain again through a cloth. Peel half a dozen garlic 24 .cinnamon. Take an ounce of ginger for one pint. and put in a nice pot. Soak it with the livers in a little broth. because it will smell of brass. If you would like it to have the taste of milk. roast them well on the spit. brown one toast of bread. Add in half an ounce of ginger. And do not boil it in an iron frying pan. take poultry livers. because it will blacken. Strain the bread and spices through the cloth. Toast a bit of bread on the fire. and soak the liver and the bread in a little broth. Red Garlic Sauce To make red garlic sauce for a roast or boiled meat. Boil a dozen eggs. Bring to a boil. while boiling. then take the yolks and chop them up finely. Boil in a frying pan. and a little browned bread and very little broth. assorted spices . When the goose is cooked. throw in a drop or two. Take their livers. Be sure not to put it in a pot. and strain them through a cloth. a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. and crush them up in a bowl. Take a half dozen cloves of garlic. Then when it is cooked. Put a frying pan under it. Soak it in milk.and soak in verjuice and wine. This sauce is good on goose or other roasts. and put in the poultry. or with the mortar. Garlic Sauce With Milk To make garlic sauce with milk. put them over it with the sauce. brown one toast of bread on the fire. and salt it well. and roast on the grill. Then strain with verjuice and white wine.Taillevent of an ounce of assorted spices. a half ounce of ginger. and boil in a frying pan. Take the liver of the goose or other poultry. peel almonds and crush in a mortar. My Lady’s Sauce To make my lady’s sauce. Put in the frying pan under the goose and let it boil.
and pour the grain in the sauce. Put on the roast. a little parsley. Then strain them through the cloth with very pure verjuice. Soak it only in verjuice. roast fatty capons on the spit. and then skim any solid matter from the verjuice and mix it in boiling water. and let livers roast a little on the grill. put a quart of milk. soak white bread crumbs in warm white wine. Chop the herbs up. strain through a cloth with very pure verjuice. Add half a pound of sugar. and boil under the capons. For one pint. put the dodine on them. and boil it all with milk. take half a dozen garlic cloves. put verjuice on the roast in an iron frying pan. or more if you wish. Garlic Sauce With Mustard To make garlic sauce with mustard. Once the bread is soaked. and also in other dodines. Jean’s Must To make Jeans’ must. When the 25 . When you boil it. and peel. Then take hard-boiled egg yolks and a half dozen pounds of poultry. and boil together. For four servings. Sugar to taste. Put in a little ginger and parsley leaves. and boil everything together. Take half an ounce of ginger for two dishes. Take an ounce of ginger. take some milk and put in an iron frying pan to receive the fat of the birds. Then take marjoram.Le Viandier cloves and strain through a cloth with red wine and vinegar. Leave it only a little. Strain it through cloth with two or three egg yolks. Soak it in milk. capons. put in an ounce of ginger. and then put in a nice pot. and some browned toasts of bread under the roast. Small Wine Sauce To make small wine sauce. When the birds are cooked. and add a little saffron. Dodine To make milk dodines for any river bird. hyssop and other good herbs. or other roast fowl. Boil in a frying pan. and a half ounce of ginger. add butter. and strain through a cloth with the mustard. Filter the water. Dodine Of Verjuice For another dodine of verjuice to put on river birds. This sauce is good on fried whiting and other fish.
and boil. roast the shad in a broken dish or on the spit. for four servings. For four servings.Taillevent sauce seems thick enough. half an ounce of ginger and a pint of verjuice. Sauce With Must To make sauce with must. Once the shad is half cooked. remove grapes from the bunch and crush up in a frying pan. with a little saffron. one with the other. Chaudumé To make chaudumé. Once it has been strained. and take a handful of parsley and any good herbs. take pike. Take for one shad. and take an ounce of true cinnamon. put the verjuice on the shad. and put in the sauce. take two ounces of true cinnamon. Another Shad Sauce For another sauce with shad. Melt some lard in a frying pan and chop an onion up small. and soak in purée of peas. and some puree. Put in a 26 . half an ounce of ginger. and scald it. take out the capons and put in a dish. half an ounce of ginger and a quarter of an ounce of assorted spices. and put on the shad. and put into pieces or brown whole on the grill. and then put over the roast. with toasts under them and pour the sauce on them. Then when the bread is soaked. Put the fish with the broth. soak an ounce of ginger in the broth. brown bread as for cameline. and put it to soak in broth. take verjuice and white wine. either in the oven or roasted on the spit. Saupiquet [The name suggests a tart or spicy sauce] To make saupiquet sauce on rabbit or another roast. Shad Sauce To make sauce with shad. and fry it. and boil on fire seven or eight minutes. Take red wine and vinegar. a bit of assorted spices. and some fresh or salted butter. and strain it all together with your bread. Strain the bread and all the spices together. and strain it all together through a cloth. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Brown bread. take some vinegar and wine.
except the sugar. put the beans to soak in the evening. Leeks To make leeks. Squeeze out between your hands. Squeeze them strongly between your hands. White Beets To make white beets. Add a little water to keep it from burning. and boil in river or fountain water. then put on a plank. When they are half cooked. and strain it all through the cloth. use mulberries. purée them and bind with broth. and after put them on a plank. on fried eggs. a half ounce of ginger. then bind with lard and warm water. and chop up fine. After. Brown in butter for a long while. Chop them up. and strain it all through cloth. When they are done cooking. boil in water. and add some verjuice and parsley. This sauce is good on larks. then strain them through a cloth. For four servings. Onion Soup To make onion soup. Milled Beans To make milled beans. Remove the black ones. take the white of the leeks and chop them up well. fish and all other fried things. two ounces of sugar. use purée of pea and butter. 27 .Le Viandier very little red Burgundy wine. and then crush up in a mortar. capons or other roast. Mix with purée of peas or water. take two ounces of true cinnamon. If you lack grapes. use butter and purée of peas. peel onions and chop finely or into round slices. with enough grapes. Once this is done. split lard into thin slices and fry. and put in lard to give them taste. then crush them in a mortar. put in a frying pan to cool. if you do not have the broth. On fast days. boil them again in a pot and strain together in the same way. purée them and put cold water on them. and after bind with the broth of beef or another meat. On fish days. Wash and parboil them. or. When they are parboiled. and almond milk if you like. bind with beef broth.
Larded Boiled Meat Take your venison and lard it. sage.Taillevent Heads Of Cabbage To make heads of cabbage. Boiled Large Meat Like Beef. use purée of peas with butter and oil. then put in your pot a little raw baker’s yeast. peel them and cut into round slices. while doing this. use purée of peas or butter and almond milk. To Remove The Burnt Taste From All Soups First empty your pot into another pot. Gourds For gourds. Sheep. and put on your pot. then 28 . Parboil in a frying pan. On fast days. verjuice. Strain the broth through a cloth with the milk. mastic and hyssop. and add some cold water on them. wrapped in a white cloth and only leave it a little. Put in some cowʹs milk. and put some cold water over them. take off the top leaves. Soak in half a dozen egg yolks. Squeeze and chop up finely. Boil all together. put in beef broth. wine. Then mix with broth of beef or other meat. Wash and parboil approximately a half hour. with mustard. Cook with only mastic and saffron. and. Fry everything raw in lard with finely chopped onion. take a white cloth moistened with cold water. if there are any. and turn it to one side and another. Then parboil fresh venison of stag. add parsley. and cut into four quarters. After chop up and mix with broth of beef or another meat. take your pot off the fire. Filter out the liquid. Lard the length of the meat. sage. Sheep Bristle Cut up sheep bristle into pieces. To De-salt Soups To de-salt soups without putting in or taking out anything. Pig Cook in water and salt. hyssop. Eaten with green or white garlic with verjuice. then purée. Once it is well cooked. and a little saffron. For fast days. Remove the seeds. salted. If it is fresh. and squeeze them between your hands.
Eat parboiled in pastry. Boil your meat. sage and hyssop. and add lard for flavor. with cameline. larded. Capon And Veal With Herbs For capon and veal with herbs. Fresh Wild Boar Cook fresh wild boar in water and wine. cook on the spit and on the grill without letting it cook entirely.Le Viandier cook in a great deal of water and salt with a lot of legumes. Then take singed bread soaked in wine and pea purée. 29 . with parsley. and a good deal of spice. Civet Of Singed Veal For civet of singed veal. Wild Kid Prepare and eat as fresh stag. Add some verjuice and vinegar. Fry in lard with some onions. cinnamon. cook in water and salt. clove. and saffron for color. Grate ginger. with fine powder. seed.
then grate ginger and saffron. Cut up into parts. Powder ginger and cumin. pull back from the fire. grilled bread soaked in beef broth (since the pig’s broth smells of dung) and cowʹs milk and strain through cloth. Boil. Take ginger. Grané Of Small Birds For grané of whatever assorted small meats you wish. and boil it all together. Infuse with wine and verjuice. Take poussins cooked in water and cut up into parts. Soak a little bread in beef broth. Cut up into parts. infuse with wine and verjuice. Strain it. Take almonds infused with broth. Take a large quantity of egg yolks and dribble into your pot. Soak white bread in milk. and boil with your meat. Fry in lard. Mix in your milk. cook poultry well in water. and strain. without adding anything but a little white bread. and fry in lard. cook the peas until they are soft. Fry in lard. Grate ginger and cumin. Pull back from the fire. Take verjuice. and watch that it does not turn. vinegar. cook in wine and water. Brown them in lard. long pepper. Fry in lard. Take white bread. then purée. Put in your soup just before serving it. Almond Cretonnée For almond cretonnée. Cretonnée Of Poultry For cretonnée of poultry. and boil on your meat. Always let thicken on its own. then cut up into pieces. New Bean Cretonnée As for peas. Cretonnée Of Peas For cretonnée of new peas. and boil briefly. add a large quantity of eggs.Taillevent THICK SOUPS Pork Chaudin Cook it in water and salt. broken up in beef broth. Fry in lard. Boil. and cook a little in water. saffron. Then take cowʹs milk. Add egg yolks. Boil with 30 .
Fry in lard. Boil together. clove. and made like that for hare. and saffron to give color. This should be quite thick. cinnamon. White Brewet Of Capons For white brewet of capons. galanga and long pepper. paradise seed. without letting it cook too long. Grate ginger. clove. Then take bread browned on the grill. Strain. Boil on your meat. infuse with verjuice. then cut up into pieces. Then powder ginger. Hare Bousac For bousac of hare or rabbit. brown on the spit or on the grill. Take a little burned bread. It should be very black and not too thick. Beat ginger. crush almonds. and do not let it thicken too much. Cut up into parts. Then cut up into pieces and brown in lard with onions chopped up small. cinnamon. cinnamon. infuse with wine and beef broth and purée of peas. 31 . Houdet Of Capons For houdet of capons. Boil with your meat. infuse with your broth and boil with your meat. paradise seed. mix with verjuice. Fry in lard. brown on the spit completely raw or on the grill. cinnamon and clove. Civet For civet. then cut up into pieces. infuse with beef broth and wine. Infuse the crushed almonds with broth. cook in wine and water. Civet Of Hare Must be black and made as above. and saffron for color. But do not wash the meat at all. Civet Of Rabbit Civet of rabbit must be extremely well-cooked. Infuse it with verjuice and vinegar. Boil it all together. paradise seed. Take browned bread. and spice it well. cook in water and wine. and add well beaten egg yolks. and fry in lard.Le Viandier your meat. Powder ginger.
In pastry. Roasted Hens Lard and eat with cameline. Some put onions on it. with powder and cold sage. Roast Mutton With a little salt. Restore it in water. or verjuice. and eaten with cameline in pastry. Roast Veal Roasted veal is parboiled and larded. Put on the spit. Eat with garlic or jance. in pastry. and toasted bread. clove. cinnamon. or vinegar. Fry in lard. and scramble eggs. paradise seed. Crush ginger and saffron. boil it all together. verjuice. with cinnamon. or verjuice. Once it is cooked. and cut up your meat into pieces. Boil so well that it is clear and black. Dribble eggs over it while frying. soaked in wine. Vealʹs Caul For vealʹs caul. Cook it. 32 . Goose Plume a dry goose. also known as breast meat. Eat with cameline.Taillevent CHAPTER ON ROASTS Roast Pig With verjuice. Kid And Lamb Put it in boiling water and take it out quickly. Boiled Fresh Wild Boar Put in boiling water. Roast without lard. with fine powder and saffron. cut your veal up finely. then roast and baste with a sauce of ginger. with verjuice of grain and fine powder.
Any fresh venison which is not marinated is eaten with cameline.
Roast pigeons with their heads on, without the feet. Eat with a little salt.
Assorted Small Birds
Pluck while dry. Restore in water. Lard, roast. Eat with salt; also in pastry.
Like a goose. If desired, gild along the side and cook with its feet on. Split the head down to the middle of the shoulders, and kill through the heart. Eat with yellow pepper.
Also like swan; eaten with a little salt. [This document does not include a recipe for swan – this reference is one indication of the manuscript’s general incoherence.]
Pluck while dry, leaving the feet and the head. Sprinkle and flambé with lard. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck pheasants while dry. Cut off the heads and the tails. When it is roasted, attach the head and the tail to the body with a little wooden dowel. The neck must be upright, and the head must not be cooked.
As for the stork and the heron.
Bleed it and split it up to the shoulders. Either prepare it like the stork or gild if you prefer. Eat with a little salt.
Pluck river ducks while dry and put in a spit. Retain the fat to make the dodine which must be made with lard or verjuice, and onions. Some prefer it in pieces. Once it is cooked, with the dodine, make toasts. Then pour your dodine over your meat and toast.
Stuffed Suckling Pig
Scald it and put in on the spit. Make the stuffing from the drippings of the piglet, and round slices of cooked pig, egg yolks, guin cheese [possibly a cheese made after the harvest, and so supposedly fattier], peeled and cooked chestnuts, and fine spice powders, all together. Then put it in the piglet’s belly, and close up the hole. Baste in vinegar and boiling lard. Eat with yellow pepper.
Cut their gizzards. Pluck very well and keep the skin whole. Do not restore them in boiling water. Put a pipe between the skin and flesh and blow up the bird between the shoulders. Do not make too large a hole. Leave the wings and the feet with the body and the head. Make a poultry stuffing, handling it as for pork.
To Gild [The Poultry]
Item: To gild it, take egg yolks. Crush up saffron. Dribble it over your poultry the length of the back to the opening. Watch that it does not burn while roasting.
Cook livers and poultry gizzards or finely chopped veal in wine and water. Fry in lard. Crush ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, [infuse with] wine, verjuice or its own juices, and a large quantity of egg yolks. Dribble over your meat, then boil together. Some put in it a little bread and saffron. It must be very thick, of a yellow color, soured with verjuice and with powdered cinnamon on it.
For A Fish Jelly
For fish jelly, take tenches and eels to thicken it, and pike. Cook it in white wine with the appropriate spices, that is: ginger, paradise
seed and a little white mustard. Add saffron as necessary to give color to the jelly, as long as there is enough. Strain your broth. When the fish is cooked, strain it through a cloth. Once it is strained, tightly close the dishes for the fish, and put in water or someplace else cool with the broth over it.
To make warm sauce, parboil wild boar or for wild boar bellies or beef bellies, roast them on the spit, and put a dripping pan or frying pan underneath. Sprinkle with beef broth, and cut up the meat into pieces, once it is cooked, and put in a pot. Then take bread, and brown it. Add cinnamon, ginger, paradise seed, with more clove than any of the other spices.. Strain all this with the bread, and make the broth clear. It should not be too strong. Boil in a frying pan or a pot. Once it is boiled, salt lightly and add to the meat.
Chicken Shaken With Ginger
Take whole or cut up in sections, as you like. Restore. Once they are restored, set in a pot to brown. Then take white bread, and soak it moderately with poultry livers, then strain. When they are strained, put them in a pot. Dissolve ginger in verjuice and add it to the pot.
To make fromanty, take spelt wheat and cull it very well, and if is not husked, husk it and wash it very well before cooking it. Then cook it in a pot for a long time, and let it sit. Take enough milk for your wheat, so long as you have enough, and add to the wheat, and boil in a pot, stirring well the whole time to keep it from burning. Afterwards, take as many eggs as the pot can fit. Strain the egg yolks, and once they are strained, take the pot with the wheat and the milk off the fire. Take milk and put it with the eggs, and add the eggs together with the wheat and the milk. Stir well. Watch that the milk is not too hot, because it will burn the eggs which will ruin the fromanty, so that it does not come out nicely. Add salt and a great deal of sugar.
Fish Jelly With Meat Scum On It
Cook your fish or meat in wine, verjuice, or vinegar. Some add a little bread. Then add ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed,
Powder your bowls with powder of cinnamon and mastic. clove. if it is fish. whole. Then serve it on your fish or meat through the cloth. five wooden spoons. four pigs. paradise seed.Taillevent pepper. thirty legs of veal. and do not wait to strain it until it is cold. six sextiers [sixteen English pints] of white wine. To make jelly. Put it on a spit. Powder ginger. Then put your fish or meat in bowls and reboil your broth. saffron to give color. The sauce should not be too black. four [eight English] pints of white vinegar. Cold Sauce For cold sauce. take your broth in a wooden vessel once it has settled. cinnamon. Pour on your poultry in sections. six ells of cloth. two large heads of ‘earthy’ sorrel. Put them in a cold place. Put your fish or meat on a white tablecloth. folded over two or three times. and. After. paradise seed. Remove the tongue. skin it and add the [skin] peelings to your broth while straining it the last time. as soon as it is time to serve it. and. skimming it the whole time. you must stay alert. See that the broth is clear and clean. then crush parsley and bread together to make a gay green. put in the drippings and soak clove in them. Boil with your fish or meat. then put it on a white tablecloth and let it cool. Tie it in a white cloth. Keep the blood (because it is fatty) and scald it like an eel on a spit. three quarter pounds of ginger. Have it well bled. take poultry and cook in water. if it is fish. make the cold sauce without eggs. skimming it the whole time. mixed with vinegar. six young rabbits. For pork. nutmeg and a little browned bread soaked in vinegar and the blood. 36 . Strain. Some add cooked yolks. six dishes: and drink for the workers. bleed it by the mouth. mastic. cinnamon. six ounces of saffron. and paradise seeds. galanga. twenty earthen pots. Boil briefly then put it in your lamprey. three quarter pounds of string ginger. when it is cooked. Lamprey For lamprey fried with warm sauce. Blend it all together. Hundred Dishes Of Jelly To make a hundred dishes of jelly. because it will not flow. nutmeg. Then grate ginger. take twenty five poussins.
Add the fat from beef broth. cull. wash in warm water. and wheat. During Lent. 37 . use almond milk.Le Viandier Mouthfuls of Rice For mouthfuls of rice. on a meat day. and boil together on a low fire. then wipe your rice by the fire. Take cowʹs milk. add your rice. and sugar the bowls.
paradise seed and saffron. Boil. the other is sorrel or ressise [This rare word usually means a restorative dish. Boil together with the oysters. when it is boiled. The best green [to use to color this sauce] is wheat. add sugar. eggs and milk. cinnamon. Some put in a little verjuice. almond oil and a little verjuice. but here appears to mean a green. take ginger. Roast Pike With Chaudumé Grate ginger. Crush. Parboil and fry in oil with onions. Serve it on your fish. Boil together. and put on your fish. some of your broth. Then cool. wine. and strains it through a cloth. Green Sauce Take white bread and boil in vinegar. Take browned bread soaked in purée of peas or boiled water. take tenches. Cook on the fire. in oil. and no other spices. mix in some white wine. and saffron. except that one puts in a bit of sage. If it is too sour. lux* and carps and. If you do not have that. Soak egg yolks in white wine.Taillevent MEATS AND SOUPS FOR LENT Beginning Of Fish Cook in water. Grate ginger. at the evening. especially. Flans And Tarts To make flans and tart at Lent which have the flavor of cheese. some of your milk and mix together. with wine and verjuice. Soak browned bread in purée of peas. seed. dissolve in white wine.] Sauce for meat is made the same way. [*This might be a variant of lus. For the sick. boil a little water. or verjuice. which once meant a variety of pike. cinnamon. 38 . scald and wash very well.] Flemish Chaudeau For Flemish chaudeau. Grind almonds. Civet Of Oysters For civet of oysters. Add ginger and pepper.
and strain with broth. It should be clear. mix with broth in a little wine. 39 . Crush almonds. Blancmange For capon blancmange for a sick person. cook in water.Le Viandier Coulis Of Perch Cook in water and keep the broth. Crush almonds and the perch together. Put pomegranates over it. Boil until thick. Boil it all together.
paradise seed. “cream”. Salt the shad. or roast on the grill. Porpoise For porpoise. Add a little salt or mustard. Lamprey Small lampreys with the same sauce as lamprey. barbell. Eat with green sauce. Boil. Salmon Cook fresh salmon in wine and water. Take wine and the liquid of the fish. Eat with cameline. cinnamon. Add as much spring onion as you like. dace. – cook all of these in water and add salt. pike. either split along the back or put in thin slices in water. eat with garlic. Mackerel Roast fresh on the grill. Eat with cameline. Do not make it too yellow. fresh shad. Cresme [*Literally. eels. cook in water. carp. Eat with green sauce. in pastry and with fine powder. Split along the back. Could this be a corruption of bresme (bream)?] Scald it like eel. Gurnard And Red Mullets For gurnards and red mullets. Powder ginger. Salt it with wine.Taillevent Fresh Water Fish Lux. pepper and a little saffron. 40 .
sole. with wine and verjuice.Le Viandier Salt Water Fish For brill. Salt it. Add fine powder. with mustard or butter. turbot. Cuttlefish And Cockles Fry with onions. 41 . flounder: cook in water. Eat with jance. Cod Cook in water. ray.
cinnamon.Taillevent UNBOILED SAUCES White cameline. Crush ginger. galanga. and infuse with verjuice and vinegar and strain. a little saffron. infuse with vinegar. green sauce and garlic camelines. and green garlic with fresh herring Cold Sauce A cold sauce to keep sea fish. parsley and salad burnet. Some put salad burnet on it with the whole root. nutmeg. 42 . Pour on your fish. pepper. Crush bread. paradise seed. white garlic.
and browned bread. string ginger and white bread. crush seed and livers. Infuse with verjuice and wine. Boil. saffron. Boil. with the fat from the roast. Then pour on your roast by the bowlful. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. then grind up ginger. Some add seed and galanga to it.Le Viandier BOILED SAUCES Black Pepper Crush ginger and browned bread. Jance Crush almonds. Some like it with cowʹs milk. Strain and boil. Infuse with other verjuice. Some add seed and galanga to it. Infuse with wine and verjuice. 43 . Yellow Pepper Crush up ginger. pepper. Infuse with vinegar and verjuice. Strain and put a crust of bread in so that it does not turn. Green Verjuice Take sorrel with any grain. Boil when you are ready to serve it. Poitevin Sauce For Poitevin sauce.
[In the original transcription, the following two recipes are mixed in with the menus that follow.]
To make one [two English] pint[s] of clairet, you need a half [one full English] pint of honey of wine of crumbs, and be sure to cook it well with wine, and skim it, and an ounce of strained fine powder, if you wish, as for hypocras.
To make one [two English] pint[s] of hypocras, you need three eighths of an ounce of fine prepared true cinnamon, an eighth of an ounce of string ginger or two if desired, a sixteenth ounce of clove and paradise seed, six ounces of fine sugar; and make a powder of it, and you must color it all with the wine, and the pot under it, and strain it as long as it will flow, and the more it is strained the better, but do not let it get cold.
Spices Used In The Present Viander
Ginger, cinnamon, clove, paradise seed, pepper, mastic, galanga, fine nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon, sugar, anis and powder.
[Taillevent, who died in 1395, could not have written the following. However, these
exist in the transcription and give some idea of how to assemble the different dishes.]
Of the feast served in the wood by the sea the sixth day of June, 1455 for my lord of Mayne, and my lady of Chasteaubrun
The FIRST Whites [bleaks?] and feathers covered with violets and bouquets, between dishes of other pasties set on the said large pastie, a green dragnet between the two, and whose sides were silver plated and the tops gilded, and, on each one of these a silver plated crenellated barrel, and the top sky blue, and a banner with the arms of my said lord of Mayne, and some with the other arms of my said lady of Villequier and of my said lady of Chasteaubrun; and in these shovelers, cormorants, herons and other live birds, bearing pennants with the said arms, the bouquets and the said feet of the gilded birds; and each large pastie containing a whole kid, a gosling, three capons, six chickens, six pigeons, a young rabbit; a leg of veal chopped finely with two pounds of fat put in the said pastie, and a quarter pound of hard-boiled egg yolks, larded with clove, salted well, with saffron on them; kept in the oven five long hours. They had in the dish a stuffed chicken, a half loin of veal similarly simmering, all covered with the said German brewet, and over these gilded wafers, pomegranates and sugared almonds as well. They had in the dish civet of stag and a quarter hare salted overnight, and nails [cloves?] of a crane chick [? alternately, gruel] in the middle of the dish. The SECOND They had in the dish a loin of veal, a whole kid, a pig, two goslings, a small kid or a portion of kid, a dozen chickens, a dozen pigeons, six young rabbits, two herons: two shovelers, two cormorants, a small hare. “Hedgehogs” with a stuffed fatty capon in each dish [sic] and the appropriate jack bristling under the said capons.
lasches [small shad-like fish – or lesches – “slices” misspelled?]. quails with sugar. Wild boar made with fried cream. 47 . preserved in sugar. marked with the said arms. THIRD COURSE Cream dolphins. spices from the storeroom on stags and swans. marked with the arms said above. hares or young rabbits with almond cream. sea pullets. Jelly. sweetened white cream. pears. cold sauce. half-sweet. preserved plums steamed in rosewater. Fried cream. made of sugar. Duke’s powder on it. white of fennel. Sturgeon with parsley and cooked vinegar. sugared strawberries. and strawberries. Darioles and upside-down stars. jonchées [a soft cheese]. FRUIT COURSE White cream. white and dark red. and there were gilded eggs and other appropriate mixtures. and Duke’s powder over it. game hen. hare pastie. A suitable support for the said peacocks. jelly. leaves of pennyroyal of vine between the skin and these dressed and put notched in a dish. Larded milk. then ginger on it. Banquet Of My Lord Of Foyes THE FIRST COURSE Poussins with sugar. venison with soup. silvered. SECOND COURSE Stuffed kid shoulders. in a dish. vinegar. The FIFTH The wreath [for holding the dishes?]. Sweetened jonchées [a soft cheese]. half-sour. scattered about. fried oranges. and almonds. young peacocks in full display. wine.Le Viandier With in each dish four chickens. and pine nuts.
48 . venison with clove. gilded thin slices [of bread or meat?]. cretonnée of lard. jonchées. Pear pastie. Banquet Of My Lord Of Estampes FOR THE FIRST DISH Capons with brewet of cinnamon. pears with hypocras. almonds. young rabbits with spiced sauce. Sugared almonds. THIRD COURSE Partridges with trimolette. FIFTH COURSE White cream. pickle. pigeon pastie. nuts. hazelnuts. small hares with bramble vinegar. capon pastie. fried cream. swans. capons with Jean’s most. jelly. peacocks with celery. herons. kids. FOURTH COURSE Four [“oven” – meaning a pastry?]. navews with venison. brewet of cinnamon. THIRD COURSE Capons stuffed with cream. SECOND COURSE Peacocks. Venison pasties. chickens with herbs.Taillevent Banquet Of My Lord Of La Marche And Firstly Vinaigrette. Steamed pigeons. watercress. Jelly and slices. nuts and raw pears. pears. SECOND COURSE The best roast. FOURTH COURSE Eagles. partridges with sugar.
Young rabbits. SECOND SERVICE Swans with santire. Trimolettes with sugar. brewet rappé. lemons. Thin slices. capes [type of apple]. Venison with peas. Boiled chickens. The FOURTH COURSE Emblazoned tarts and dolphins. Peacocks. THIRD SERVICE Chickens. Foynes shovelers [a type of duck]. barded sugared chickens. Venison set separately… or for afterwards. SECOND COURSE Roast. Baked cream pancake. Pigeons. Fresh venison with soups. cherries with sugar or feathers. New almonds. Banquet of marrow. Pears with sugar.Le Viandier Banquet For My Lady TABLE DISH Popie. Pigeon pastie. FIRST COURSE Chimneyed pastie with sugar. Thin gilded slices. capons with tulle. THIRD COURSE Pigeons with sugar and vinegar. White jelly and other fried cream. Herons. FOR FIRST Hams with sugar. Here ends the book of cooking named Tayllevant which treats of several things pertaining to cooking. Must. Jelly. Venison. Quail pasties. Tarts with sugar. Capon pastie. 49 .
13. 13. 46. 12. 31 brewet. 21. 49 50 cinnamon fish. 49 poultry. 48. 27. 14. 4 butter fried. 46. 3. 47 dove. 16. 23. 16. 13. 30. 33 swan. 15. 12. 44 cloth. 2. 24. 39. 47. 6. 46. 38. 18. 17. 13. 6. 33. 10. 28 gild. 24. 15. 43. 6. 1. 29. 30. 24. 10. 35 de-salt. 16 brown. 27. 23. 33 ringdove. 13 chaudeau. 14. 47. i. 49 white German. 14. 36. 18 capon. 36 cooking methods baste. 11. 26. 2. 35. 26. 10. 31. 23 guin. 48 cheese. 48. 49 irson. 29. 22. 34 goose. 31. 49 pheasant. 7. i. 48 giblets. 35. 46 clairet. 15. 24. 8. 16. 7. 7. 31. 21. 28. 29. 38 cheese fine. 2. 43. 8. 21. 26. 26. 11 civet. 32. 19. 10. 48. 47.head. 16 quail. 17. 30. 18. 18. 30. 14. 6. 48. 2. 25. 36 poussin. 48. 8. 33 blackbird. v. 1. 13. 11. 11. 28. 12. 2 green. 10 table. 5. 40 mortar. 16. 31 brewet fish. 10. 38. 3. 2. 5. 13. 3. 46. 33 partridge. 27 . 5. 10. iii. 31. 22. 3 rappé. 7. 7 gizzards. 8. 34 blanch. 49 blancmange. iv. 10. 46 heron. 10. 15. 2. 18. 32. 10. 34. 33. 5. 24. 23. v. 25. 49 chicken. 30. i. 4. 33. 32 cele. iv. 18 stork. 14. 3. 12. 19. 1. 17. 29. 10. 38 hand towel. 23. 48. 14. 14 B birds assorted. 9. 5. 13 pigeon. 24. 2 covered. 9. 25. 18 duck wild. 11. 15. 13. 23. 46. 47. 1. 13. 33 gosling. 1 of capons. 49 grill. 34. 38. 7. 48. 1. 12. 37. 24. 10. 39. 4. 47. 5. 1. 16. 35. 2 meat. 19 peacock.INDEX A almonds. 3. 8. 6. 28. 16. 31. 34 jonchée. 24. 4. 25. i. 8. 33 bittern. 4. 49 sparrow. 39 bousac. 14. 27. 1. 4. 4 Georget. 9. 18 eagle. i. 46. 7. 33. 15 C caul. 31.
11. 40. 49 figs. 23. 4. 14. 34. 16 spelt (wheat). 12. v. 24. 43 coulis. 35 fruit apples. 49 D drinks clairet. 9. 26. 1 bream. 26. 5. 21. 26. 33. 3. 3. 20 oysters. 20 turbot. 47 tench. 1. 47 salad burnet. 35. 47 shad. 21. 17. 20. 26. 7 spit. 41 flan. 23. 27. 35. 47. 12. 41 cod. 22. 9 gallimaufrey. 38 removing burnt taste. 13. 16. 32. 27. 35. 40 conger. iv. 4. 41 carp. 49 cappes. 16. 24. 23. 31. 4. 3 cuttlefish. 9. 41 cretonnée. 36. 36. 29. 32. 48. 15. 41 eel. 8. 28. 20. 21. 1. 38. 13 fish blancmange. 36. 47 G galantine. 8. 1. 21. 38 perch. 34. 5. 6 flounder. 46. 14. 1. 23 grapes. 23. 22. 26. 4. 18. 38 fraze. 25. 42 51 . 18. 20. 44 E eggs. 17 fromanty. 48. 36 strain. 26 pears. 12. 38 trout. 10. 13. 40 jelly. 34. 22. 44 hypocras. 27. 13. iv. 40 salt water. 3. 9. 40 cockles. 35 scald. 19. 35. 31. 6. 15. 40 simmer. 28. 2. 12. 4. 40 mullet. 28 restore. 30. 35 wheat. 41. 11. 32. 40 porpoise. 35. 12.Le Viandier parboil. 28. 35 lamprey. i. 34. 5. 16 grains barley. 24. 3. 23. 27. 36. 10. 26. 34. 13. 42 sea pullets. 38 greens parsley. 28. 8. 14. 21. 32. 20 gurnard. 11. 6. 34. 13. 30. 20 sorvige. 37. 9. 3. 1. 24. 15. 31. 14 fricassee. 7. 38. v. 49 fried. 34. 12. 15. 40 ray. 29. 25. 40. 48 plums. 36. 9. 2. 47 F fayenne. 25. 8. 23. 4 brill. 16. 41 fresh water. 25. 39 cream. 47. 41 salmon. 40 mackerel. 19. 40 goatfish. 36. 16 perch. 20. 28. 20. 4. 38. 2. 10. 5. 39 pike. 40 brewet. 11. 42.
47. 20 mullet. 8. 8. 21. 6. 28. 29. 13. 19 red mullet. 28 cow. 1. 20 goatfish. 6. 21 leg of lamb. 2. sheep. 10. 14. 18. 18. 20 shad. 29. 49 blackbird. 21. 11. 46. 34. 19. 9. 34. 47 kid. 18 partridge. 18. 12. 8. 36 boar. 46. 10. 19. 18 bream. 35. 48. 14 tongue. 15. 9. 23 P pasties. 23. 28. 33. 23 pigeon. 11. 2. 47 morterel. 29. 34. 11 hazelnuts. 34. 20 mutton. 34 rabbit. 46. 15. 32 bellies. 17. 32. 12. 43 grenon. 19. 3. 31. 49 L lard. 3. 20 gosling. 47 lamb. 20 ringdove. 49 pork. 31. 28. 49 suckling pig. 36. 19. 16 hare. 14. 34. 25. 38. 43. 35 spleen. 11. 13. 17 chicken. 28. 32. 32. v. 37. v. 25. 30. 30. 46 scum. 47 milk (cow’s and/or almond). 46 ham. 10 O orange. 33. 1. 20. 47. 36. 4. 43 teat. 6. 16. 6. 28 buttock. 6. 32 sheep bristle. 19. 11. 15. 6. 1. 3. 46 foot of. 38. 27. 15. 20. 46 veal. 12. 8 stag. 35. 3. 48 houdet. 31 hyocras. 35 leg of. 12. 17. 7. 19. 47 kid. 17. 47. 16. 30. 10. 21 lorais. 30. 18. 5. 4. 19 marrow. 37. 8. 26. 20. 18. 2. 21. 13. 24. 8. 48. 17. 47. 12. 10. 28. 18 conger eel. 19 pear. 14. 18 salmon. 48. 31. 22. 15. 29. 34 H haricoq. 49 milk larded. 11. 11 liver. 24. 43 marrow. 44. 9. 6. 6. 5. 48. 7. 13. 29. 11. 21 mutton. iii. 48 J jelly. 26. 4. 2. 20 52 . 32. 27. 8. 6. 18 lamprey. 4. 36. 4. 10. 18 halebrans. 21. 8. 11. 20 capon. 19 hare. 11. 35. 7. 16. 46. 18. 28. 17. 48 M meat beef. 8. 47 boiled. 14. 32. 8 venison. 35. 28 shoulder. 19. 13.Taillevent sorrel. 49 rabbit. 16. 36. 8. 28.
47 sorvige. 30 Spanish. 19 wild duck. 35. 13. 15. true. 4. 27 pottage. 5 skin. 1. 24. 24. 18 with warm sauce. 23. 26 small wine. 46. 10 salamine. 27. 11. 42. 38. v. iv. 15. 21. 40. 30. 17. v. 20 turbot. 23 53 . 49 oblongs. 5. 40. 13. 21. 4. 4 galanga. 38. 9. 42. 16. 17 pastries dariole. 31. 34. 6 soups chaudin. 45. 36. 13. 45. 43 Jean’s must. 9. 43. 13. 14 preserves. 21. 28. 14. 40. 26. 2. 26. 47 dodine. 9. 9. 17 wild boar. 8. 28 spices anis. 15. 23. 45 garlic. 30 fish. 34. 30. 8. 36. 24 Poitevin. 1. 3 new bean. 28. 27. 3 de-salting. 23. 9. 48 almond. 3. 29. 27. 29. 7 powdered. 36 with most. 33. 24. 35. 24. 44 clove. 2. 31. 16. 18 stag. 24. 6 removing burnt taste from. 8. 37 flour. 38 pork. 7. 26. 26 shad. 3. 18. 14. 15. 29. 30 new peas. 6. 9. 4 small birds. 5. 47. 30 onion. 29. 43. 32. 4. 33. 6. 13. 7. 32. 25 green. 7. 25 my lady’s. 25. 35. 24. 46 jance. 10. 25. 4 shrimp. 23. 1. 26. 7. 43. 23. 17. 40. 42. 36. 20. 13 R rice. 43 red. 10 potful. 44. 42 ginger. 2. 24. 6. 17. 30 peas. 8. 2 lark.Le Viandier sparrow. 36. 34 garlic. 41. 42 chaudumé. 47 dolphins. 45 basil. 33 S sabourot. 11. 48 costmary. 2. purée of. 26. 3. 21. 19. 20 veal. 19 trout. 44 white. 7. 18. 38 cold. 30 fish. 12. 36. 7 roasts. 16. 24. 5. 32. 47 saupiquet. 29. 21. 31. 11. 28. 30 cretonnée. 6. 23. 34. 44. 13. 41 sauces. 28 grané. 28. 5. 3. 31. 32. 42. 45 string.fat. 10. 3. 35. 36. 2 salt. 40. 2. 19. 20. 40. 32. 17. 26. 18. 1 cameline. v. 11. 24. 35. 12 cinnamon. 26 seyme. 25 violet. 9. 30 poultry. 5. 7 warm. 19. 17. 11. 2. 27. 21 peas. 48 cinnamon. 36. 32. 26. 32.
Taillevent hyssop. 42. 21. 31. 25. 32. 36. 34. 22. 43 vinaigrette. 25. 36. 35. 11. 8. 8. 38. 17. 13. 41. 13. 13. 26. 1. 14. 49 V vegetables beans. 6. 45 pennyroyal. 43. 11. 5. 43. 41 nutmeg. 18. 14. 14 rose. 14. 8. 24. 45 mustard. 38. 48. 13. 47 sugar. 26. 30. 22 trimolette. 16. 34. 15. 22. 21. 13. 47 pepper. 40. 44. 16. 23 saffron. 4. 31. 12 sturgeon (not the fish?). 29. 32. 12. 42. 5. 3. 4. 25. 8. 30. 4. 47 54 . 18. 25. 5. 27. 8. 25 mastic. 31. 35. 7. 31. 45. 10. 45. 11. 38. 29. 15. 30. 32. 34 moteaulx. 40. 11. 32. 9. 19. 30. 29. 22 two-faced. 17. 13. 15. 3. 9. 34. 27 beets white. 21. 22. 18. 17. 13. 15 W water holy. 40. 23. 47 wine. 34. 11. 3. 31. 21. 29. 17. 11. 40. 34. 15. 13. 4. 29 marjoram. 47. 47 pygurlac (unknown). 8. 14. 12. 22 talemouse. 17. 44. 45 powder. 44. 14. 7. 23. 5. 18. 14. 38. 44. 16. 34. 35. 43. 28. v. 31. 43. 28. 35. 5. 39. 21. 2. 28. 9. 20. 42. iv. 11. 35. 40. 7. 41. 9. 38. 8. 38. 16. 7. 38. 4. 25. 23. 9. 11. 14. 41. 2. 2. 25. 27 cabbage. 5. 26. 14. 23. 26. 17. 10. 2. v. 41 verjuice. 22 Jacobine. 20. 28 gourds. 16. 27. 6. 32. 28. 37. 9. 3. 17. 24. 29. 30. 48. 29. 42. 49 vintage. 45 paradise seed. 5. 36. 46 sage. 19. 20. 38. 29. 49 T tarts apple. 28. 19. 40. 42. 32. v. 19. v. 28. 28. 43. 21. 47. 2. 4. 15. 13. 1. 32. 11. 11. 10. 42. 22. 23. 40. 8. 23 Bourbonnaise. 27 onions. 36. 35. 6. 2. 6. 15. 30. 28. 21. iv. 13. 21 covered. 7. 14. 26. 7. 45. 36. 2. 36. 38 stuffing. 11. 12. 19. 25. 23 common. 17. 35. 29. 31. 12. 1. 6. 12. 20. 15. 27. 5. 19. 12. 6. 28 leeks. 18. 32. v. 36. 34. 12. 31. 48 vinegar. 48. 15. 27. 33. 1. 36. 8. 16.
Prosper.Le Viandier BIBLIOGRAPHY Taillevent. Publié pour la première fois par la Société des Bibliophiles François. Randle. Web sites: GLOSSARY OF MEDIEVAL & RENAISSANCE CULINARY TERMS http://www. 1846. 1889.com/glossary. depuis l'origine de la nation jusqu'à nos jours. M. Le ménagier de Paris. moeurs. New York: Crown Publishers.kfunigraz. traité de morale et d'économie domestique composé vers 1393.t Ed. A Dictionarie of the French and English Languages. Montagné. 1694. impr. Cotgrave. contenant généralement tous les mots françois tant vieux que modernes. Le cuisinier Taillevent. Vicaire. dédié au Roy. Nourrit. Frédéric. 1782. & les termes de toutes les sciences & des arts. 2002. de l'Académie françoise [Thomas Corneille]. Dictionnaire de L’Ancienne Langue Française et de Tout Ses Dialectes du IX au XV Siècle. Hildesheim-New York. Alan. Paris: chez la veuve Jean-Baptiste Coignard. London. Paris : P. The Penguin Companion to Food.thousandeggs. Penguin Books. Toulouse : J. Pierres. de Crapelet. J. & libraire ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise. 1970. Franklin. C. Le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel dit Tailleven. Bourgeois parisien. Larousse Gastronomique. Plon. Legrand d'Aussy. Furetière..-D. 1611. 1694. Inc. circa 1518-1520 Taillevent. modes. ordinaire du Roy & de l'Académie françoise : chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. Vieweg. – 1889. Paris : imp. un. Dictionnaire des Arts et des Sciences. usages des Parisiens. de Guerlins. impr. 1892. La vie privée d'autrefois: arts et métiers. Pichon and G. 1961. Essais d'un dictionnaire universel.htm Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages http://www-ang. Pierre Jean-Baptiste. George Olms Verlag. Antoine. Davidson. Godefroy. Paris: F.html 55 . Les repas. 1881. D. 1684. Reprint. Paris: chez Jean-Baptiste Coignard. du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle . Histoire de la vie privée des français.VI. Paris.ac. Paris : E.at/~katzer/engl/index. Le Dictionnaire de L’Académie Françoise. Alfred.
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