The Spleen

…the spleen…
 an organ of mystery and perplexity since ancient
times  The spleen is the largest organ derived from mesenchyme and lying in the mesentery  It consists of masses of lymphoid tissues  is a secondary lymphoid organ

…functions…
 in the destruction of old red blood cells and
holding a reservoir of blood

 It is a major site for mounting the immune
response  site of immune and phagocytic action

Location…
 The spleen is located between the fundus of the
stomach and the diaphragm, while also being in contact with the left kidney posteriorly

 The gastric surface is concave and located at
the level of the eleventh thoracic vertebra. The lower extremity of the spleen lies against the flexure of the colon

Size…
 weighs about 150 grams  approximately 12cm long, 7cm wide, and
3-4cm thick  is affected by many factors

Spleen Histology

Capsule and Trabeculae
 Surface is covered by
mesothelium

 Consist of thick

connective tissue, smooth muscle cells, and elastic networks

 Trabeculae carry

arteries and veins

The Red and White Pulp

Area

Composition

Function

Red pulp

"sinuses" (or "sinusoids") which are filled with blood "splenic cords" of reticula fibers "marginal zone" bordering on white pulp

Mechanical filtration. Removes unwanted materials from the blood, including senescent red blood cells

White pulp

"periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths" (PALS)

Helps fight infections

White pulp
 Forms the periarteriolar    
lymphoid sheaths (PALS) Contains the “germinal center” Both consist of lymphoid tissues Has loose irregular network of reticular fibers with associated reticular cells Contains lymphocytes and some macrophages and plasma cells

Red Pulp
 Consist of a network of venous sinuses
separated by splenic/pulp cords
 Spongy cellular mass supported by reticular fiber

 The mesh of reticulum are filled with free
cells which includes macrophages, erythrocytes, platelets, and few plasma cells.

Spleen Processes

Stains

Mallory-Azan stain

Reticulin Stain

H&E

Clinical Focus
 Hemolytic Anemia  Hereditary Spherocytosis  Hereditary Elliptocytosis (Ovalocytosis)  Hyposplenism  Etc..  Leads to splenomegaly (enlargement)  Splenectomy (Spleen Removal)

…END…

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