25 ways for Teaching Without Talking: Presenting Students with New Material in Theory Lessons Draft 1 ! "e# 2!!
$eoff Petty Sutton %oldfield %ollege
A. B. C. D. Introduction Why use Active Learning Strategies? Using the List of Teaching Strategies List of Active Learning Strategies for presenting students with new ateria! D "i# $ethods re%uiring very !itt!e preparation or resources D "ii# $ethods re%uiring resources such as handouts or sets of cards. D "iii# Activities that re%uire a &it ore preparation' si p!est first (. (ffective $anage ent of Active Learning Strategies to a)i ise participation.
Teaching fa!!s into three phases* each re%uiring appropriate ethods. "See +A, paper# -. Present. $ethods to present new ateria! to students* or to encourage the to thin/ it out for the se!ves. This ight invo!ve facts* theories* concepts* stories or any other content. 2 &((ly: $ethods re%uiring students to app!y the new ateria! 0ust presented to the . This is the on!y way to ensure that students conceptua!ise the new ateria! so that they can understand it* reca!! it* and use it appropriate!y in the future. ) *e+iew: $ethods to encourage students to reca!! for er !earning so as to c!arify and focus on /ey points* ensure understanding* and to practice and chec/ reca!!. This paper concentrates on active ethods to (resent dea! with ethods for the a((ly and re+iew phases. ateria! to students. 1ther papers
Co on!y used 2present3 ethods such as teacher ta!/ can &ore students if they go on for too !ong* so active 2present3 strategies are particu!ar!y usefu!. Idea!!y an active presenting strategy* cou!d inc!ude an 2a((ly, activity and &e fo!!owed &y a &rief active reviewing strategy. Then a!! the !earners needs are et in an active way.
B. Why use &cti+e -(resenting, Strategies.
*esearch shows that it works: • A!! research shows that we !earn &y Doing. That is* &y app!ying what we have !earned* in order to answer %uestions for e)a p!e. This a/es !earners process the infor ation and a/e their own sense of it. This is ca!!ed 2constructivis 3.
't /akes your life easier: • It fosters active* constructive student participation • 5our !essons have ore i pact* and are ore interesting • It ay give you a &rea/* and a chance to ar/ the register6
% 0sing the list of teaching strategies
A !ist of teaching strategies fo!!ows with references for further reading. Share out the wor/ to deve!op the strategies and their resources in detai!. 7or given !essons* topics* sections of the sy!!a&us or units etc* deve!op a Teaching Strategy $anua! to go with the Sche e of Wor/. :. Idea!!y the $anua! has a "suggested or re%uired# activity for every !esson or at !east every topic on the Sche e of Wor/.esearch e phatica!!y shows that active ethods.or docu ent for . +u&!ish your $anua! in e!ectronic and. Assisting in the deve!op ent of an 2Active Sche e of Wor/3 or 2Topic +!an3 which gives a student activity for every topic or su&stantia! su&<topic so that students process the infor ation given the . • create deeper !earning and higher achieve ent "4# • create &etter reca!! &y students • deve!op high order reasoning s/i!!s in students • are ore en0oyed &y students • Active !earning a/es students for their own eaning of the ateria! and co e to
their own understanding of it. Choose particu!ar strategies for particu!ar topics or !essons etc 8. +oo! your tea 3s &est teaching strategies to add to the !ist 9. Choose whichever strategy &ests he!ps you to achieve your goa!s "fitness for purpose# 1ou can create a Teaching Strategy Manual in your tea/: A su&0ect* unit* or course tea can use the !ist "avai!a&!e in an edita&!e e!ectronic for # as part of a strategy to.. 7ind ethods which wor/ in your su&0ect 4. 1ou can #rowse: Use the fo!!owing !ist of teaching strategies to find ones that wi!! suit you and your students. Students deve!op their reasoning s/i!!s* as we!! as the factua! /now!edge of the su&0ect and practise the s/i!!s they wi!! &e assessed &y. -. This is what we ca!! !earning 't checks learning: • 5ou get feed&ac/ on whether students understand the •
ateria! and can correct
. 5ou can use this !ist in three ain ways.
“What methods are used to market food products? Think of as many as you can. If students get ha!f of the answer* it saves ha!f of the teacher ta!/* and generates interest and thin/ing s/i!!s.” “Why do you think managers value staff training?” “Who would have supported Cromwell.ather than 2teaching &y te!!ing3* start the topic &y as/ing students a %uestion which !eads to what you want to teach. and why?” “Here is a maths pro lem you can!t solve with the methods we have seen so far " how would you solve it?” Students wor/ in pairs or s a!! groups "&u== groups# to answer a %uestion or series of %uestions using co on sense* e)perience* and prior !earning. As/ the if they need ore ti e* and if they have finished* as/ each pair or group for one idea they have had* ensuring that each group offers so ething. Students can a!! have the sa e %uestions* or they can &e given different %uestions on the sa e topic. who would not. D "i# $ethods re%uiring very !itt!e preparation or resources D "ii# $ethods re%uiring resources such as handouts or sets of cards. "See a!so ?interrogating the te)t@ &e!ow* where students are given a handout or other ateria! to he!p the answer the ?Teaching &y As/ing@ %uestion you give the .
D List of &cti+e Learning Strategies for (resenting students with new /aterial
$ethods re%uiring the !east preparation are given at the &eginning of each section of the !ist.# Teacher Ask the provides the question rest of the
answer Students provide part of the answer (Students provide part of the answer)
. A!!ow the c!ass to discuss any points of disagree ent unti! they have agreed a co on answer.1ou can create an &cti+e Sche/e of Work in your tea/: 5ou can create a Sche e of Wor/ or Topic +!an which gives suita&!e activities for each stage in teaching a topic. See (ffective $anage ent of Active Learning Strategies for ore detai! on how to anage this activity* and the activities which fo!!ow.# When the c!ass has its co on answer* 2top up3 the answer with any additiona! points the c!ass has issed* and correct any isunderstandings. Write the strong ideas on the &oard saying a !itt!e in support of each idea if you wish. 7or e)a p!e. (nsure each group has a scri&e* and chec/ their attention to tas/* and the %ua!ity of their wor/* &y chec/ing what the scri&es have written down. This group discussion can !ast for !itera!!y a inute or !ess* or for 4> inutes or !onger. This can &e created &y your tea * so that your &est ethods are avai!a&!e to the who!e tea . "See section ( for ore detai! on this. D "iii# Activities that re%uire a &it ore preparation' si p!est first
D 2i3 Methods re4uiring +ery little (re(aration and no resources
1 Teaching #y asking .
Instead of starting &y 2teaching &y te!!ing3* you as/ a %uestion that !eads to what you want students to !earn. "-# each individua! writes down their thoughts without reference to others* "4# students then share what they have written in pairs or threes "8# 1ptiona!!y the pairs or threes co &ine to create !arger groups which again co pares their answers* and then agrees a group answer. (ach person has a inute say* to descri&e their e)periences on a given topic and to e)press their point of view whi!e others !isten. 7or e)a p!e $anagers on a part ti e anage ent course sharing e)periences of how new staff are inducted into their organisation. ) %lass 5rainstor/ The teacher re%uests as any ideas as possi&!e fro the who!e c!ass as/ing %uestions such as. 6 Thought 78(eri/ent 2or 7/(athy3 Students are as/ed to i agine the se!ves in a given situation* and are as/ed %uestions a&out the situation. 7or e)a p!e Aea!th Studies students &eing as/ed to i agine they are a chi!d who has 0ust &een ad itted to hospita!. 1ptiona!!y you cou!d as/ students to &rainstor in groups and the session then &eco es !i/e 2teaching &y as/ing3 a&ove. "9# The teacher as/s each &ig group in turn for one idea they have had* and writes the usefu! ideas on the &oard* perhaps saying a !itt!e in support of each idea.
. Students !earning interviewing s/i!!s are as/ed what the interviewer wou!d &e !oo/ing for. Then. Students can 2pass3 if they wish. Used to ine usefu! e)perience and e!icit a range of viewpoints and &ui!d a sense of safe participation. Li/e 2Teaching &y As/ing3* the teacher then tops up and corrects the c!ass answer. It is usua! to &e non 0udge enta! at this stage. What are the advantages of prior ooking? What diseases are common in childhood? Why might Hamlet not have taken revenge straight away? The teacher or a student co pi!es the answers on the &oard* c!assifying the &y writing the in groups.2 Snow#all This is !i/e 2teaching &y as/ing3 a&ove. 5 *ound This ethod is usefu! for s a!! groups if the e)periences of the students are a particu!ar!y usefu! resource. if necessary
This ethod invo!ves the who!e group and can en!iven a du!! session.
(. The teacher then as/s each group to give one /ey point "that has not a!ready &een entioned &y another group# with a fu!! e)p!anation and 0ustification. Students shou!d need to read* understand* and then refor u!ate "i. <ey (oints -. We!! designed activities !i/e these wi!! usua!!y produce &etter understanding reca!! and engage ent than conventiona! 2teacher ta!/3.
9 %oo(erati+e Learning : Learning Tea/s do 4uestions on resource /aterial This is the sa e as 2teaching &y as/ing3* e)cept that resources are provided.o s* Internet sites and other resources* and a/e their own sense of it. A!ternative!y* different students can &e assigned different resources* and then &e re%uired to cooperate to answer the %uestions. ?Who supported Cro we!! and why?@ • The answer to the %uestion"s# shou!d not appear &a!d!y and si p!y stated in one p!ace in the te)t. Students are put in groups and given an unfa i!iar piece of te)t or other resources. The e)p!anation often refers to 2te)t3 or 2handouts3* &ut c!ear!y any appropriate resources wi!! do* and the ore varied the &etter. • It he!ps a great dea! to give students individua! ro!es in their group such as scri&e* voca&u!ary chec/er etc as descri&ed in the section on $anaging Broup Wor/ for a)i u participation.
.e. 4.D 2ii3 Methods re4uiring resources such as handouts or sets of cards
The strategies &e!ow re%uire students to understand te)t* videos* CD . Students are given a handout or si i!ar resources. . The c!ass agrees or changes that point and the teacher writes it on the &oard. This re%uires that students construct their own understanding and don3t 0ust repeat the te)t &ac/ to you. They are as/ed to use the te)t to answer a %uestion"s# prepared &y the teacher. "It he!ps if the nu &er of /ey points is the sa e as the nu &er of groups. It is usefu! to test !earning at the end with a test* %ui= or an e)a sty!e %uestion on the su&0ect* on which students wor/ individua!!y. • There shou!d idea!!y &e a range of ateria!s of differing difficu!ty which ust &e shared &y the group. .# 8. They are as/ed to read the te)t a!one for a few inutes with an eye on the ne)t tas/. The group identify* say* five /ey points ade &y the te)t. Learning re%uires an 2app!y3 activity that goes &eyond the infor ation given direct!y in the resources < for e)a p!e an e)a sty!e %uestion on the ateria!* to ensure they have processed the ateria! and deve!oped their own understanding. Students wor/ in groups* and when they have finished* feed&ac/ can &e e!icited fro the groups one idea at a ti e* as it is in 2teaching &y as/ing3. They shou!d &e thought provo/ing. Aowever* it is rare!y sufficient to !et students see ateria! and ta/e notes fro it. thin/ a&out# the te)t to answer the %uestion. • These %uestions re!ate to the /ey points in the te)t and to the /ey !esson o&0ectives.g.
(ach student e)p!ains their topic to the other who as/s %uestions unti! they understand. This produces headings such as 2The heart is a &!ood pu p3 ' 2The heart has four cha &ers3' 2Arteries ta/e &!ood fro the heart3. 7or e)a p!e a hea!th !eaf!et cou!d &e turned into a newspaper report. Integrative tas/. Students are given an unfa i!iar piece of te)t* a wor/ed e)a p!e* a !a&e!!ed diagra * a set of accounts* a po!icy* etc.video etc* &ut !oo/ at different aspects of it. 1! Transfor/ation Students are given te)t in one for at and are as/ed to present it in another. Discuss the /ey points and agree answers to the %uestions for u!ated in 2-3. ? 'nterrogating the te8t Students are given an unfa i!iar piece of te)t. The pair then wor/s together at a tas/ that re%uires the to wor/ together on &oth topics.
.Students can of course physica!!y high!ight the i portant sections in the te)t. 7or u!ate i portant %uestions the te)t shou!d &e a&!e to answer* or they hope the te)t wi!! answer. They are as/ed to study this and to su arise an e)p!anation of 2how it wor/s3 or 2how it cou!d &e used3 etc in* say* five /ey points. -.@ 1r ?Considering &oth strengths and wea/nesses* what do you thin/ of the ar/eting po!icy? Aow cou!d strengths &e &ui!t upon* and wea/nesses addressed?@ 12 >eadings Students are given a handout with no headings or su&headings* &ut with space for these. A usefu! %uestion for this is to as/ students to ?State what is the sa e* and what is different a&out eas!es and u ps. The teacher as/s each group to su arise one /ey point* writing those points the c!ass agrees on the &oard. 11 Peer e8(laining Students in pairs are given two re!ated te)ts a&out topics that have not &een e)p!ained to the * for e)a p!e one a&out eas!es and another a&out u ps. They each study one of these a!one for say : inutes. A!ternative!y they cou!d use the sa e te)t. 7or e)a p!e students cou!d watch a video or read a te)t on the ar/eting po!icy of a s a!! co pany* and one student cou!d !oo/ out for strengths in the po!icy and another for wea/nesses. A chrono!ogica! account cou!d &e refor u!ated under given* non<chrono!ogica! headings etc. (tc. In pairs or s a!! groups they are as/ed to. 2Cey points3 can &e adapted to &eco e 2Aow does it wor/?3 as shown &e!ow. = >ow does it work. A!ternative!y students can &e as/ed to answer %uestions that re%uire the to e)p!ain the ateria!. 7eed&ac/. 4. Students read the handout and decide headings that summarise what follows in that section of te#t in the form of a statement .* or a set of instructions cou!d &e turned into a state ent a&out how the devise wor/s and when it wou!d &e usefu!. 5ou can of course adapt an e)isting handout &y re oving e)isting headings* and or &y as/ing students to write a 2heading3 for each paragraph in the argin.ead the te)t* high!ighting /ey points* 8. .
16 Su//ariAing Students* wor/ing in pairs ust su arise the /ey points in the te)t* e)pressing the as &rief!y and as c!ear!y as possi&!e. This is si i!ar to 2Cey +oints3 a&ove. They are as/ed to study the te)t in pairs and then to produce a f!owchart.5ou can do this activity the other way round* that is provide the headings and as/ students to find out a&out each heading and then write a short section on this. 1) "lowcharts@digra/s@drawings Students are given a te)t on an unfa i!iar topic.
. This is a good way of structuring independent !earning.diagra that su arises the process descri&ed in the te)t. ?Aeadings@* ?+eer ()p!aining@ and other activities a&ove wou!d &e usefu! introductory activity for this su ary activity. 7or e)a p!e the %ua!ity syste in a anufacturing co pany.
Bet the students to su arise genera! state ents of good practice. 78(laining 78e/(lars 2%arroll 1??63 : "or skills teaching An e)e p!ar is a ode! of good practice or wor/ed e)a p!e. -.g. After e)a ining and discussing it* each group critica!!y appraises the e)e p!ar to the rest of the c!ass. The e)a p!es so!ve s!ight!y different pro&!e s or use s!ight!y different ethods* and are correct in each case. This ight focus on the ethods used to create the e)e p!ar as we!! as its %ua!ity. Try it with ca!cu!ations* written wor/* e)a %uestion answers* case studies* assign ents* essays* craft artefacts etc. This is a great!y en0oyed activity with the at osphere of a ga e. Again so e are true and so e fa!se (. 19 Student Presentation Students prepare a presentation on a topic in groups. • 2Conse%uences cards3 which state conse%uences of the facts given in the te)t. • 2Su ary cards3 which purport to su arise /ey points fro the te)t* so e of which are true and so e of which are fa!se. Bive pairs or s a!! groups of students e)a p!es of good practice* and perhaps so e e)a p!es of &ad practice or e)a p!es containing a few co on errors. • The !eft ventric!e feeds the !ung • Aeart rate is easured in &eats per inute* and if you are very fit your heart rate wi!! pro&a&!y &e !ower than average.D "iii# Activities that re%uire a &it
ore preparation' si p!est first
15 DecisionsBDecisions Students* wor/ing in pairs are given a te)t or watch a video etc* a!ong with. -. 4. They ay have the sa e* or different e)e p!ars. They study these* and prepare to e)p!ain and 0ustify the ethod to their partner. This strategy can &e used in a! ost any su&0ect fro athe atics to craft catering. These conse%uences are not actua!!y stated in the te)t itse!f. 1. • If you &!oc/ed the !eft ventric!e no &!ood wou!d get to the head • 7urring of the arteries wou!d usua!!y raise &!ood pressure. Don3t te!! students what their su&topic is unti! after they have studied the topic as a who!e* to ensure they do not overspecia!ise. 4. They cou!d 2 ar/3 the wor/* either infor a!!y or against agreed criteria. e. Students do so e si i!ar %uestions the se!ves. D. Together the pairs agree 2Aow to do it3 advice. :. It cou!d &e used with any su&0ect. (ach pair of athe atics students is given the sa e four wor/ed e)a p!es. The pairs of students ust decide which cards are correct* and what is wrong with the incorrect ones. Students cou!d study the ateria! using one of the other strategies descri&ed here. It he!ps if the topic &eing studied can &e divided up so each group presents a different su&<topic. Students e)p!ain and 0ustify their e)a p!es to their partners 9. 8. 8. (ach individua! student ta/es two of the four wor/ed e)a p!es.
. C!ass discussion to agree 2how to do it3. $#emplars in pairs% This strategy wi!! &e e)p!ained &y e)a p!e.g.
As/ing students to e)a ine e)e p!ar essays or assign ents i ediate!y after co p!eting one of their own with the sa e tas/s is a!so very instructive. Don3t use friendship groups. &uestion 'airs% Learners prepare for the activity &y reading an agreed te)t* and generating %uestions and answers focused on the a0or points or issues raised. -.5ou can of course give students wor/ed e)a p!es inc!uding co to find these.esearch into teaching a!ge&ra suggests that showing students a !arge nu &er of varied wor/ed e)a p!es can wor/ &etter than the ore co on strategy of 2showing the a coup!e on the &oard and then getting the to do !ots the se!ves3. This wor/s we!! as a fo!!ow up activity. 4. Students ay co p!ain at first &ut wi!! soon accept it if you are insistent. The students now for new groups. 1? Cigsaw & %oo(erati+e learning /ethod Eigsaw is one of any cooperative !earning ethods with high effect si=esF. This strategy is underused* and is particu!ar!y he!pfu! for right &rain students &ecause it gives students an ho!istic 2fee!3 for the characteristics of good wor/. (earning Cells. The teacher chooses the groups and they shou!d &e i)ed a&i!ity* e)perience* ethnicity gender etc. ()a p!es of wor/ with co on errors are instructive and good fun. "They ay have two e)perts in one disease#
. This is true even if the a ount of ti e spent doing e)a p!es is reduced to a/e ti e to !oo/ at the wor/ed e)a p!es. At the ne)t c!ass eeting pairs are rando !y assigned. Divide students into four groups. 7or e)a p!e a!! students are given the sa e infor ation a&out the &e!iefs and po!icies of the Ga=i party* and different groups !oo/ at this fro the point of view of wo en* the wor/ing c!ass* the idd!e c!ass and the church. Divide a topic up into* say* four su&<topics. (ach new group is a 20igsaw3* with one student fro each of the four origina! groups. 7or e)a p!e chi!dhood diseases cou!d &e divided into u ps* eas!es* whooping cough and Ber an eas!es. It has &een found that students who e)p!ain their ethod to each other !earn athe atics uch faster than those who do not. Any students !eft over act as pairs in a fu!! group. (ach !earner reads different se!ections and then teaches the essence of the ateria! to his or her rando !y assigned partner. "See Independent Learning# 8. By e)p!aining conceptua! re!ationships to others* tutors define their own understanding. +artners a!ternate!y as/ their %uestions of each other* and provide corrective feed&ac/ on the answers. 1= Peer Teaching : "or skills teaching 78(laining: Students e)p!ain to each other how they did so ething* for e)a p!e* so!ving a pro&!e . (ach group now has one 2e)pert3 in each of the four chi!dhood diseases. (ach group studies one disease or %uestion with the he!p of te)ts and wor/sheets etc. This is usua!!y done in c!ass ti e* though you ight &e a&!e to adapt the ethod for students to do their !earning outside of c!ass ti e.
on errors* and as/ the
Carro!!3s . A!ternative!y students can &e given four different /ey %uestions or 2spectac!es3 that re%uire students to ana!yse the sa e ateria!s fro a different point of view. Low achievers a/e particu!ar!y good achieve ents.
9. Idea!!y GI4H so a!! groups have at !east two students. 'f you ha+e N students and E su#to(ics then: 1ou /ust start with E grou(sF 2with G. Doesn3t atter6. Then pair students up in these !arger su&<topic groups. It is re!ated to high attain ent high order reasoning s/i!!s* creative thin/ing* and e)ce!!ent transfer of !earning to unre!ated topics. In your !eaf!et. (ase of protection Cooperative !earning is very &ig in the USA with tons of ateria!s on the internet a&out it. 5ou wi!! find that so e of the teaching groups are one 2e)pert3 short. y -. 7or e)a p!e they cou!d &e as/ed to. Ginety years of research and D>> studies shows that cooperative !earning rea!!y wor/s.
Help* + have a remainder when + divide . The new group now co p!etes an activity that re%uires the to +eer Teach each other a&out their disease* and re%uires the to cooperate with the rest of the group over a co &ined tas/ that re%uires the to integrate the four topics. How to decide groupings with )igsaw 5ou can do 0igsaw with any group si=e and with any nu &er of 2su&topics3 if the fo!!owing ru!es are fo!!owed. a. 5ou can ta/e the p!ace of these issing e)perts &y visiting these groups in turn. i. A!ternative!y* if the re ainder is !arge* and you want to avoid pairing up too any students then consider the fo!!owing. ()p!ain your disease to the rest of your new group* using the sa e headings as for the ear!ier tas/s. If you wou!d !i/e a fu!!er e)p!anation of how to group with 0igsaw p!ease e< ai! e fro y we&site and I wi!! send a paper on it. It is e)ce!!ent for 2&onding3 groups* deve!oping socia! s/i!!s* wor/ing with others* and for pro oting e%ua! opportunities. This pairing up strategy wi!! a!ways wor/* whatever the re ainder. "incu&ation ti e* ode of trans ission etc# &. Design a !eaf!et on chi!dhood diseases. +air up two students in each of these groups and !et the share the tas/s. Let so e su&topic groups &e one student &igger than the others. e.H students in each group.# These then Gigsaw to N@E grou(s 2with H students in each group. Severity of potentia! conse%uences ii. d. Gu &er off and for 2teaching groups3 in the usua! way. Cooperate to find* for each of the four diseases* four uni%ue characteristics. +!ace the four diseases in order of. Cooperate to find three things a!! the diseases have in co on c. So e peop!e have used it for years* any ore wi!! soon. 7or e)a p!e if the re ainder is two* you wi!! have two su&topic groups that are one &igger than the others. Again a!!ow so e of your su&<topic groups to &e one !arger than the others.
2! &cade/ic %ontro+ersy : & %oo(erati+e Learning Method with a +ery high effect siAe see: htt(:@@www clcrc co/@(ages@acade/ic ht/lDwhat
.# 1&vious!y GIH.
The ethod is descri&ed as for two points of view on!y* &ut is easi!y adapted for ore. Integration. It he!ps if students are given ro!es such as 2teacher3 or 2%uestioner3 as descri&ed &e!ow in section (. "1ptiona!# Students chec/ each other3s argu ents for the swapped positions. This ethod wor/s &est if used in con0unction with 2peace a/ing3 approaches. htt(:@@www clcrc co/@ . This pro otes discussion* re%uires student to 0ustify their points of view* which encourages good !earning. 9. The controversy cou!d &e around anything fro a a0or schis * to a inor controversy e. It so eti es he!ps curiosity and focus of the student3s reading if they read the %uestions &efore studying the resources. Students are shown the answers with any reasoning or wor/ing ade c!ear* and then ar/ or score the se!ves.This ethod is for a topic where there are two or ore conf!icting points of view. Students drop their advocacy ro!es. The %uestions shou!d re%uire ore than 0ust copying answers fro the resources. D. Students engage in an open discussion in which they argue forcefu!!y for their position* re&utting attac/s* whi!e arguing against the opposing view. Students are a!!ocated one of the points of view and given ateria!s that e)p!ain it if necessary. Students are arranged in pairs with opposing points of view* or put in groups of four containing two students with each point of view.g. Its &est to te!! students this is co ing so they !isten to the opposing view6 Aowever* if you fee! ischievous you can spring this on students and a/e a teaching point a&out how &ad!y they !istened ear!ier on6 :. They co pare answers to the %uestions and co &ine their wor/ to produce a 2&est answer3 without further consu!tation of the reading un!ess rea!!y necessary. They research and prepare their point of veiw* and ensure they understand the argu ents for their point of view* preparing a persuasive 2&est case possi&!e3 for their position. (ach side presents their position in as persuasive a anner as possi&!e. Student3s swap positions and present the other position as accurate!y* co p!ete!y* persuasive!y* and forcefu!!y as they can. 4. Students co &ine individua!s into pairs* or pairs into fours.
$ore on Cooperative Learning. Students wor/ on the resources and the %uestions individua!!y or in pairs.
21 Snow#alling 4uestions Students are given resources on the topic to &e !earned a!ong with past paper %uestions or u!tip!e choice tests. Do prisons wor/? Is this ar/eting po!icy effective for a s a!! country hote!? -. 8. They try to reach a consensus on the issue &y synthesising the two positions.
Students wor/ on this ateria! in pairs or s a!! groups* usua!!y outside of c!ass contact ti e. Student3s wor/ is onitored &y a designated 2!eader3 in their group or &y the teacher. She as/s her students to study ateria!s on these accounts in order to co p!ete an eva!uation atri) "i. Instead students are given an assign ent which descri&es in detai! what they ust !earn. 4.
>ow should we sa+e. :. 8. The student3s notes are not usua!!y ar/ed* instead their !earning is assessed &y a short test. ta&!e# !i/e this. Suppose a teacher of accountancy wanted to teach students a&out &ui!ding society accounts* &an/ accounts* shares* and other ways of saving oney. At !east one tas/ re%uires students to go &eyond reca!! of ideas in the ateria!s* and to app!y their !earning. $ore e)perienced independent !earners ight need !ess direction. 2) S(ectacles This ethod is &est e)p!ained &y e)a p!es. The !earning fro this wor/ is assessed in a short test.22 'nde(endent Learning -. The 0udge ents the students a/e show the teacher whether the !earner has understood the ethod of saving. After co p!eting this independent !earning assign ent* or indeed &efore* students use an independent !earning co petences %uestionnaire to identify their wea/nesses as an independent !earner* and to set the se!ves targets for their ne)t independent !earning assign ent. They en0oy this* and the controversy this creates can he!p c!arify isunderstandings. Any easy section of the sy!!a&us is identified and this is not taught. 1ptiona!!y students can &e re%uired to reta/e tests* or do other re edia! wor/ if their test resu!t is unsatisfactory. This is to encourage deep !earning* otherwise students ay si p!y co!!ect infor ation and write it down without rea!!y thin/ing a&out it or understanding it. See Beoff or Teaching Today for this %uestionnaire or devise your own6 This is not an easy teaching ethod to use &ut it is great!y en0oyed &y students if it is anaged we!!. 9. D. The activities set re%uire students to wor/ in pairs or groups* are thought provo/ing* and are not entire!y 2&oo/ and &iro3.e. 5uilding society account 5ank account Shares etc If the eva!uation criteria are we!! chosen the students ust study and understand the different ethods of saving very we!! in order to a/e their 0udge ents. 7or ore detai! see the chapter on it in 2Teaching Today3 &y Beoffrey +etty. etc
*ate of interest %an the +alue 7ase of go down as withdrawal well as u(. Broups can co pare their 0udge ents &y p!acing the on a c!ass grid provided on a f!ip<chart* &oard* or 1AT.
g. • Learning a&out co puter printers &y eva!uating the as three star two star one star or no star against criteria !i/e cost* speed* etc. the teacher te!!s the students the 2offica!3 strengths and wea/nesses* grades or ar/s for the e)e p!ars. Students are put in pairs or s a!! groups* and are given a grid !i/e the one &e!ow "on!y uch &igger6# on f!ip chart or A8 paper. 7or e)a p!e they cou!d add a few e)a p!es of how the criteria cou!d &e et in practice. Aowever* using this ethod* students wi!! a!so deve!op their eva!uation s/i!!s.
26 Skill Gudging Got a!! !earning is &ased on factua! content. They wor/ in groups to a/e a &u!!et pointed !ist of i portant si i!arities and differences &etween the two concepts. • !earning a&out chi!dhood diseases &y eva!uating the against criteria !i/e 2 ethod of i unisation3 2ease of i unisation3 2!i/e!ihood of per anent effects3 etc. 7or e)a p!e* an essay with !ots of i pressive detai!* &ut that does not address the topic in the tit!e we!!. Li/e the other ethods descri&ed in this docu ent the ai is to get students to !earn content "in this case* ethods of saving# without direct e)p!anation fro the teacher. It he!ps if this is a shoc/ for the students. "irst students wor/ as a c!ass or in groups do devise criteria for good practice in the s/i!!. Third. 1ptiona!!y* they wor/ to i prove their eva!uation criteria at this stage.Students cou!d then &e given a scenario* and as/ed to a/e a 0udge ent as to the ost appropriate ethod"s# of saving for a particu!ar person. They can wor/ fro previous!y unseen* or fro other notes to do this. It is a preferred ethod for he!ping students to c!arify concepts that are often confused* or poor!y understood. A!ternative!y they cou!d use e)a &oard grading criteria &ut wor/ on interpreting and e)panding this. C!ear!y this cou!d &e used in any su&0ect to he!p teach a! ost any pair of si i!ar concepts. It he!ps if these e)a p!es inc!ude so e that appear at first sight to &e good practice* &ut are actua!!y f!awed. They cou!d a!so give ar/s or grade the wor/. 7or e)a p!e. 7or e)a p!e* the !ongest essay did not get the &iggest ar/6 This is a very instructive activity that is great!y va!ued &y students. This is a very powerfu! ethod to teach a s/i!! such as writing an essay* !a& report* co puter progra e* enu* care p!an* ar/eting po!icy' de!ivering a presentation* carving a 0oint etc. Second. e)a p!e essays. 25 %o/(are and %ontrast Co paring and contrasting has &een found to i prove students understanding of the topics co pared &y uch ore than one grade. 1ther e)a p!es inc!ude. This produces a atri) si i!ar to the ones produced &y consu er organisations !i/e 2Which?3* and product reviews in aga=ines. Students discuss the e)a p!es given and write strengths and wea/nesses for the . This ethod is great!y en0oyed* and is &est done in groups.
. So e !earning is s/i!! &ased. "ourth. students are given e)a p!es of the s/i!! to 0udge with their criteria* e.
?5our ro!e is to study the aspect or a section of the ateria!s that the teacher gives you* and to e)p!ain this to the other students in your group.pair. It he!ps to give students in groups specific ro!es such as those which fo!!ow. The teacher ay as/ %uestions of ore than one student fro your group. Eust after the first ti e you use these ro!es it wou!d &e usefu! to ref!ect with the c!ass on how to a/e the wor/ we!!. ?The teacher wi!! choose students at rando fro your group to report &ac/ on what your group has !earned and decided. 5ou wi!! &e the on!y student in your group. Students en0oy these ro!es and soon get used to the .
. Consider ensuring that each student in a group has at !east one ro!e. But don3t e)pect the to use the ro!es effective!y without practice. They ay a!so set a %ui= or test on the ateria!. Usefu! co &inations of ro!es are given !ater.7ractions and +ercentages Char!es I and Char!es II re!ations with +ar!ia ent 1s osis and diffusion Shares and Bonds Co as and se ico!ons (tc Si/ilarities %o/(aring <inetic 7nergy and Mo/entu/
<inetic energyH 5ut Mo/entu/H Mo/entu/H 5ut <inetic energyH
7 7ffecti+e Manage/ent of &cti+e Learning Strategies to /a8i/ise (artici(ation
0sing roles to /a8i/ise (artici(ation A!! the activities a&ove are &est done in pairs* or s a!! groups. Consider rotating the ro!es during the ter . It is un!i/e!y that you wou!d use a!! these ro!es at the sa e ti e.o!e descriptors are given in a anner suita&!e for !eve! 8* or adu!t !earners. Aowever* so e can &e adapted for individua! students. *ole card descri(tors: Teacher. +!ease change these descriptors to suit your students. . This avoids so e students &eco ing 2passengers3.pair to study your particu!ar aspect of the topic* so a/e sure you understand it we!! and practice how to e)p!ain it6 5ou can as/ the teacher for he!p if you get stuc/.@ Checker.
If they /now that any e &er of their group ight &e as/ed %uestions on the ateria!* they wi!! wor/ with their %hecker to ensure that a!! e &ers understand a!! the points. The ro!es of 4uestioner and checker etc he!p to show students good practice in reading te)t.5our ro!e is to chec/ that all the students in your group understand your group3s findings* and can report it to the rest of the c!ass c!ear!y. 5ou wi!! need to run a %ui= with your group to chec/ everyone can e)p!ain each technica! ter .@ Leader: ?5our ro!e is to !ead and anage your group in a de ocratic way* to ensure that the group co p!etes a!! its tas/s in the ti e avai!a&!e.
. 7or e)a p!e ?Who supported Cro we!! and why?@ The ai is to focus the group3s attention on the /ey points. They a!so chec/ they /now the voca&u!ary and su arise /ey points etc. 5our ro!e is to research and e)p!ain the eaning of a!! the technica! ter s. ?There is so e technica! voca&u!ary in this ateria!. ?5our ro!e is to 2s/i 3 the resources and then decide on i portant %uestions that the resources shou!d answer. The ris/ of course is that you put hu i!iating pressure on a wea/ student* &ut if you have so e easy %uestions up your s!eeve this can &e avoided if you 0udge it necessary. 5ou can give other students in your group specific ro!es if you thin/ this he!ps. 5ou can spice this up "at so e ris/6# &y saying that any student who gets one %uestion wrong* wi!! auto atica!!y get the ne)t %uestion and so on unti! they get one right. ?5our ro!e is to su arises the /ey points that your group is a/ing* chec/ that the who!e group agrees with the * and then write the down. Aence the ro!es are not ar&itary or pure!y anageria!* &ut ode! good study practice. Vocabulary chief. 7or e)a p!e* good readers for u!ate i portant %uestions that the te)t ight answer' as/ the se!ves 2do I understand this?3 and 2is this i portant?3 as they read. 5ou cou!d devise a 2g!ossary3 for your group if you thin/ this wou!d he!p. Do this &y preparing and as/ing %uestions of your group. 5ou then give your %uestions to the group for it "inc!uding you6# to answer. This can &e done during feed&ac/ or with a %ui= or test warned of in advance.he wi!! test every student3s !earning after the activity. 5ou are a!!owed a fu!! "five?# inutes to do this.@ These ro!es wor/ &est if the teacher a/es sure that s. Do point this out to students. 5ou can add to* or change your %uestions as you get ore fa i!iar with the ateria!s. 5ou wi!! need to share out the resources in a way that he!ps the group to wor/ with a)i u effectiveness. 5ou ay a!so &e e)pected to e)p!ain your group3s findings to the rest of the c!ass. There is uch ore to &eing a Scri&e than 0ust writing6@ Questioner. 5ou ay a!so as/ supportive and c!arifying %uestions to he!p the group co p!ete its tas/"s#@. If one of your group can3t answer the teacher3s %uestions < guess whose fau!t this wi!! &e6@ Scribe.
A Leader a Questioner* a Scribe and a Checker. 8. Teacher tests the understanding of the who!e c!ass
. 4. (sta&!ish purposes* tas/s* and %uestions etc. Chec/. J. +!an how to co p!ete the tas/ successfu!!y de!egating if necessary :. Co unicate findings to rest of the group and teacher --. $a/e a record.review any necessary prior !earning. K. Bet to wor/ on the tas/s D. 0seful co/#inations of roles for your grou(s: Try to give every student in the group a ro!e 1 2 ) 6 5 9 . Locate infor ation and resources. = Two or ore Teachers
A Scribe and a Checker Two or Two or ore Teachers and a Checker "who is not a!so a teacher# ore Teachers and a Checker and a Leader ateria!
Two or ore teachers. (va!uate infor ation and tas/ co p!etion L. 9. -. $onitor progress and understanding. a Vocabulary chief and a %hecker who chec/s other than the voca&u!ary A Leader who is a!so a Questioner* a Scribe and a Checker.o!es can rotate fro !esson to !esson.Students can &e given 2ro!e cards3 with a!! the ro!es descri&ed unti! they get used to it. Chec/ the groups3 understanding ->. . etc! "$iss out the Chec/er at your own peri!6#
Task Design A usefu! chec/!ist to ensure your tas/s and supporting ateria!s cover everything.
Teacher chec/s attention to tas/ &y visiting groups and e)a ining the scri&e3s ateria! Cha!!enging ti e constraints are given* i. Avoid students with dys!e)ia un!ess they can wor/ ver&a!!y as they are s!ow writers. ana!ysis "2why3 %uestions# synthesis "2how3 %uestions# or eva!uation "2which3 or 2how good is this3 %uestions# • As we!! as scri&e consider giving so e students ro!es such as. (ncourage and ca0o!e. There ay &e different tas/s for each group.g.. As/ for their ideas and !isten. There ay &e a tas/ sheet to fi!! in • Ti e a!!owed for the tas/ is given in advance.ote such ro!es fro !esson to !esson. • A 2Scri&e3 is identified &y the group or the teacher.e. Teacher* Chec/er* Moca&u!ary chec/er* Nuestioner* Su ariser* Leader etc. &y nu &ering round the roo . Specific ro!es ay &e set for students
Students work on task
wor/ing in groups or individua!!y
Teacher gets 7eed&ac/ fro students on their findings
Cey points are e phasised.Managing $rou( workF indi+idual learningF (ractical etc
Task is set
tas/ is c!ear and in writing. A group scri&e is appointed "&y group or teacher# to record ideas in progress. the tas/ doesn3t go on too !ong The Scri&e ro!e rotates fro ti e to ti e %heck and correct Chec/ Scri&e3s notes to deter ine the group3s progress. .e%uire a!! !earners to &e prepared to feed&ac/ for their group and 0ustify their answer. Do not overhe!p. 7eed&ac/ is 2 eda! and ission3 at !east so e of the ti e. Gotes are ta/en or /ept
%heck I %orrect
Teacher chec/s attention to tas/ and wor/ in progress
Pointers for success in grou(work:
Pre(are: review or confir any !earning re%uired for success at the tas/ Task is set • The tas/ is c!ear and in writing.or there are so e stretching tas/s • At !east so e of the tas/s are high on B!oo 3s Ta)ono y* that is* re%uiring. a
. . Students work on task Broups are for ed* prefera&!y rando e. If they are having trou&!e !eave the with a c!arifying %uestion and say you wi!! co e &ac/ in a coup!e of inutes or so. • Tas/s differentiate &y &eing open* graduated and. As/ c!arifying %uestions if necessary.
. The c!ass are as/ed to agree a c!ass answer.... http.ht !Qthoughtfu! Bi&&s. is usefu! for Cooperative Learning
.c!crc. B...nsccu). Cey points are reviewed &y %ui=* test or &y NOA at so e !ater ti e A p!ea for he!p +!ease te!! Beoff +etty of any other approaches* or of ways of i proving this. and others say . Who3s right and why?@ "see Teaching Today# *e+eiw Students are as/ed to state their /ey !earning points these are i proved &y discussion.Peceprog.edu. "-LL4# ?I proving the %ua!ity of student !earning@ Technica! and (ducationa! Services Ltd Carro!!* W. Cha!!enge with support
"eed#ack and re+iew (very group is as/ed for their findings and no sing!e group provides a!! the answers "for e)a p!e* each group is as/ed to a/e one point on!y* one group at a ti e... There is a tangi&!e outco e. So/e *eferences: $any of these ideas are fro . The 2correct3 answer is not given away.sccd. ?1/ay* so e groups say.ctc.$. Cey !earning points are e phasised and written up on the &oard.co . Gotes* ind< ap* su arising handouts given out etc.oht 2Assertive %uestioning3 sty!e is used where the teacher gets a nu &er of answers 0ust saying 2than/you3.# Consider appointing a 2Chec/er3 and then pic/ing anyone in a group at rando to e)p!ain their findings..&stprac. Teaching Today a +ractica! Buide Beoffrey +etty fro ..www."-LL9# Using wor/ed e)a p!es as an instructiona! support in the a!ge&ra c!assroo * Eourna! of (ducationa! +sycho!ogy* K8* pp8D><8DJ http..
2 eda!3 for progress ade to date* effort* ideas etc* and a 2 ission3 cha!!enging the go further...