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THUMB RULES
Particulars PIPING PRESSURE DROP : For Raynold's no 2100 to 106 EQUIVALENT LENGHTS for Pressure drop in the system MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE 41, 12 & 2" only ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS SONIC VELOCITY CALCULATION PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE VENTURI Pressure Drop FLOW RECTANGULAR WEIR CONTROL VALVE SIZING RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES NPSH Pressure Drop in Pipeline TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER MOTORS kVA MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION PUMP EFFICIENCY PUMP HORSE POWER RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER MOTOR HP OUTPUT MOTOR TORQUE GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY POWER FACTOR SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY) FUEL TO AIR RATIO COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS Physical Properties

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PIPING PRESSURE DROP


For Raynold's no 2100 to 106 : viscosity Flow rate Density internal pipe diameter Frictional pressure loss, m W r d DPF cp lb/hr lb/ft3 Inch psi/100 equivalent ft of pipe

#DIV/0!

Home Globe v/v or ball check v/v

EQUIVALENT LENGHTS
Nominal pipe size (in) 90 miter bend Gate or ball valve Swing chek valve Enlargement sudden d/D = 1/4 d/D = 1/2 d/D = 3/4 Elbow 45 std d/D = 1/2 d/D = 3/4 Contraction sudden d/D = 1/4 d/D = 1/2 2 3 3 4 5 7 9 12 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 d/D = 3/4 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Angle valve

Equiv. Length in terms of small d Short rad Long rad Hard T 2 miter 3 miter 4 miter Soft T

1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 30 36 2 48 54 60

55 70 80 100 130 200 260 330 400 450 500 550 650 688 750

26 33 40 50 65 100 125 160 190 210 240 280 300 335 370

13 17 20 25 32 48 64 80 95 105 120 140 155 170 185

7 14 11 17 30 70 120 170 170 80 145 160 210 225 254 312

Plug cock

1 2 2 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 21 25 30 35 40 45

1 2 2 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 21 25 30 35 40 45

3 4 5 6 7 11 15 18 22 26 29 33 36 40 44 55 66 77 88 99 110

2 3 3 4 5 8 9 12 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 40 47 55 65 70 80

8 10 12 14 19 28 37 47 55 62 72 82 90 100 110 140 170 200 220 250 260

2 3 3 4 5 8 9 12 14 28 16 32 18 38 20 42 23 46 25 52 27 56 40 70 47 84 55 98 65 112 70 126 80 190

21 24 27 30 33 36 39 51 60 69 81 90 99

20 22 24 28 32 34 36 44 52 64 72 80 92

5 7 8 10 12 18 25 31 37 42 47 53 60 65 70

3 4 5 6 8 12 16 20 24 26 30 35 38 42 46

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15

4 5 6 8 10 14 19 24 28

1 1 2 2 3 4 5 7 8

3 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 18 20 24 26 30 32 35

Contraction Std d/D = 1/2 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 d/D = 3/4 1 2 2 2

terms of small d

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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FLOW OF STEAM THROUGH PIPE :


In FPS : -3 Nominal pipe Maximum lb/hr x 10 at Pressure (psig) size (in) 600 175 30
Density (lb/ft3) 0.88 0.41 0.10

In SI : Nominal pipe size (in)


Density (kg/m3)

Maximum T/hr at Pressure (barg) 41 12


14.08 6.49

3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

7.5 15 40 76 130 190 260 360

3.6 7.5 21 42 76 115 115 220 300

1.2 3.2 8.5 18 32 58 87 117 166 227

3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

3.4 6.8 18.2 34.5 59.1 86.4 118.2 163.6

1.6 3.4 9.5 19.1 34.5 52.3 52.3 100.0 136.4

T/hr at Pressure (barg) 2


1.62

0.5 1.5 3.9 8.2 14.5 26.4 39.5 53.2 75.5 227

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ALLOWABLE VELOCITIES FOR PROCESS FLUIDS


Fluid ft/s Water 10 air 100 Dry gas 100 wet gas 60 high pressure steam 150 low pressure steam 100 Average liquid process 4 - 6.5 Pump suction (non-boiling) 1-5 Pump suction (boiling) 0.5 - 3 BFW 4-8 Drain lines 1.5 - 4 Liquid to reboiler (no pump) 2 - 7 Vapor to condenser 15 - 80 Gravity separator flow 0.5 - 1.5 Vapours 326 Hot oil headers 1.5 m/s 3.0 30.5 30.5 18.3 45.7 30.5 1.2 -2 0.3 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.9 1.2 - 2.4 0.5 - 1.2 0.6 - 2.1 4.6 - 24.4 0.2 - 0.5 99.4 psi/100 ft

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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SONIC VELOCITY
Sonic velocity Vs Absolute temperature T ratio of sp. Heats (usually = 1.4) K Accelearion by gravity g Universal gas constant R Ft/s R ft/s2 /mol wt 0 1.4 32.2 1544

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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PERMANENT HEAD LOSS THROUGH ORIFICE :


Do/Dp 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Permanent loss 95 82 63 40

Permanent loss = Dh (1-Co) For orifice : (Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gDh)1/2 Where Uo = Up = Dh = D= Co =

Velocity through orifice (ft/s) Velocity through pipe (ft/s) Orifice pressure drop (ft of fluid) Diameter Coefficient (0.6 for typical applns)

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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VENTURI Pressure Drop


(Uo2 - Up2)1/2 = Co(2gDh)1/2 Venturi pressure drop (ft of fluid) Permanent Head loss (ft of fluid)* Velocity through orifice (ft/s) Velocity through pipe (ft/s) Diameter Coefficient (0.98 for typical applns) Dh = Uo Up D Co #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

* Permanent head loss @ 3 - 4 % of Dh

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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RECTANGULAR WEIR
Flow over weir Width of weir Height of liquid over weir ft3/s Fv ft L ft H 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CONTROL VALVE SIZING


For liquids : Cv = Q (G/DP)1/2 Hence if control valve specs are known, Q can be calculated as : Flow rate m3/hr Body differential pressure psi Specific gravity Liq. Sizing coeff Q DP G Cv 85 3.5 1 2

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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RELIEF VALVE SIZING FOR LIQUID EXPANSION


Required capacity (gpm) = Heat input (Btu/hr) Coefficient of volumetric expansion per F (Select fluid) Specific gravity Specific heat (Btu/lbF) #DIV/0! #DIV/0! m3/hr

0.0008

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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STORAGE VESSEL VOLUMES


For Horizontal Cylindrical vessel : Choose Type of head : Liquid hold up (m3) = Diameter (m) Height of liquid in vessel (m) Depth of head (m) Length of straight portion (m)
* For spherical vessels same formula can be used with length of straight portion = 0

4 #DIV/0!

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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NPSH
Net Positive Suction Head = Where, Suction head Vessel abs pressure Vapor pressure (pumping) specific gravity Suction friction losses NPSH #DIV/0!

Feet Psia Psia Ft of fluid

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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PRESSURE DROP IN PIPELINE


DP = Pressure drop, Pa = Laminar flow : f = Fanning friction factor = Enter : r = Fluid density, kg/m3 m = Fluid viscosity, kg/m-s D = Pipe diameter, m L = Pipe length, m e= Pipewall roughness, m 3 Q = Volumetric flowrate m /s #DIV/0!

#DIV/0!

Ref. : Calc & shortcut deskbook, Chemical engg

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


I. Straight tube loss : viscosity Flow rate through one tube Density Internal tube diameter Length of tube No. of tubes Velo.in pipe leading to & from HE Number of tube passes Frictional pressure loss in tubes DP by Entering & exiting the HE DP by Entering & exiting the tubes DP by end losses in tubeside bonnets & channels Total tubeside pressure drop m W r d L n N psi psi psi psi psi #DIV/0! 0 #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! cp lb/hr lb/ft3 Inch ft ft/s

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTORS kVA
Current Line to line voltage kVA Amps V kVA

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTORS AMPS ETIMATE


Motor horse power Line to line voltage Motor efficiency Power factor Motor amps : For three phase motor : For single phase motor : 393.1521832 680.153277 HP V fraction fraction 6900000 11000 0.8 0.86

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HP
Suction temperature Suction pressure Discharge pressure Flow Adiabatic efficiency Avg compressibility factor Universal gas constant Adiabatic component Adiabatic Head Had (ft) = Horse power = T1 P1 P2 W Ea Z R K R psia psia lb/min fraction /mol wt Cp/Cv #DIV/0! #DIV/0! 1 1544 1.4

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR HEAD


Suction temperature Suction pressure Discharge pressure Polytropic efficiency Avg compressibility factor Universal gas constant Adiabatic component polytropic component T1 P1 P2 Ep Z R K N R psia psia fraction /mol wt Cp/Cv =KEp/(KEp-K+1)

0.8 1 1544 1.4 1.6

Polytropic Head Hpoly (ft)= Adiabatic Head Had (ft) =

#DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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TEMPERATURE RISE IN COMPRESSION


Suction temperature Suction pressure Discharge pressure Adiabatic component T1 P1 P2 K R psia psia Cp/Cv

1.4

Adiabatic : Disch Temp (C)=

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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PUMP EFFICIENCY
SI units Developed head Flow Efficiency

m m3/hr %

80

Applicable for : Head = 15 - 92 m Flow = 23 - 227 m3/hr

fps units : Developed head Flow Efficiency

ft GPM %

80

Applicable for : Head = 50 - 300 ft Flow = 100 - 1000 GPM

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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PUMP HORSE POWER


SI units : Flow rate Discharge pressure Suction pressure Pump efficiency Pump power FPS units : Flow rate Discharge pressure Suction pressure Pump efficiency Pump power m3/hr bar bar % HP 1.5 7.5 1 80 20.0211

GPM psi psi % HP

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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RELATION OF HP, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED


Initial impeller diameter (m) = Initial speed (rpm) = Initial HP = New impeller diameter (m) = New speed (rpm) = New HP =

#DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

U can Calculate any one by specifying other two parameters in column B

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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RELATION BETWEEN PUMP HEAD, IMPELLER DIA & SPEED


Initial impeller diameter (m) = Initial speed (rpm) = Initial head (m) = New impeller diameter (m) = New speed (rpm) = New head (m) =

#DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

U can Calculate any one by providing other two parameters in column B

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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CHANGE IN PUMP CAPACITY WITH IMPELLER DIAMETER


Initial diameter (m) = Initial capacity (m3/hr) = New diameter (m) = New capacity (m3/hr)

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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TUBESIDE PRESSURE DROP IN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER


viscosity of fluid Flow rate through one tube Density Internal tube diameter Length of tube No. of tubes Number of tube passes Frictional pressure loss in tubes All other losses Total tubeside pressure drop Total tubeside pressure drop m W r d L n N cp lb/hr lb/ft3 Inch ft

psi psi psi bar

#DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MOTOR HP OUTPUT
Motor power input Motor efficiency HP output = OR : Torque speed HP output = kW fraction 0

rpm 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

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MOTOR TORQUE
Motor power Speed Full load torque HP rpm #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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GAS EXPANDERS : AVAILABLE ENERGY SI units :


Cp Inlet temperature Inlet pressure Outlet pressure K= Cp/ Cv Actual available power Btu/lbC C psia psia Btu/lb #DIV/0! Cp kJ/kgC Inlet temperature C Inlet pressure barg Outlet pressure barg K= Cp/ Cv Actual available power kWh/kg

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

#DIV/0!

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POWER FACTOR
kW input kVA input Power factor kW kVA #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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SELECTION OF TYPE OF VACUUM EQUIPMENT

Reciprocating piston pump Rotary piston pump Two-lobe rotary pump Steam jet ejectors 1 stage Steam jet ejectors 3 stages Steam jet ejectors 5 stages

down to 1 torr down to 0.001 torr down down down down to to to to 0.0001 torr 100 torr 1 torr 0.05 torr

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FAN / BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR ??

Fans Blowers

For 3% rise in pressure For differential of 40 psig

Compressors Higher than 40 psig

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SPRAY WATER FOR PRDS (Pressure Reduction Desuperheating Stations)


Enthalpy of high pressure steam Enthalpy of lower pressure steam Enthalpy of the spray water Spray water required kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg T/T

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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MAXIMUM AVAILABLE ENERGY (EXERGY)


Receiver temperature Enthalpy at receiver conditions Enthalpy at source conditions Entropy at receiver conditions Entropy at source conditions Maximum available energy To C Ho kJ/kg H kJ/kg So kJ/kgC S kJ/kgC Ex kJ/kg Ex kWh/kg

0 0

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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FUEL TO AIR RATIO


For fuel gas : Density of fuel gas relative to air (i.e. MW/MWair) Fuel gas / air ratio (mass/mass) For Fuel oil : % Carbon % hydrogen Fuel oil / air ratio (mass/mass) 0.78 2145

#DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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COOLING TOWERS : WINDAGE LOSSES


Type of cooling device Spray pond Atmospheric cooling tower Mechanical draft cooling tower Windage loss as per centage of system circulating rate 3 0.7 0.2

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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COOLING WATER CONCENTRATION RATIO


Chloride concentration in make-up water Chloride concentration in blow down Concentration ratio #DIV/0!

Ref : "Rules of thumb for chemical engineers"

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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APPROXIMATE EFFICIENCIES OF COMPRESSORS


Efficiency Compression ratio Reciprocating 65% 75% 80 - 85% Large centrifugal Rotary compressor (except liquid liner type) Liquid liner type rotary 76 - 78% 70% 50% 1.5 2 3.6

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

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Physical Properties
Units KJ/kg C Btu/lb F Water 4.2 1 1000 62.29 1200-2100 516-903 0.55-0.70 0.32-0.40 1.8 @ 0 C 0.57 @ 50C 0.28 @ 100C 0.14 @ 200C Organic Liquids 1.0-2.5 0.239-0.598 700-1500 43.6-94.4 200-1000 86-430 0.10-0.20 0.057-0.116 varies with temp. 0.025-0.070 0.025-0.05 Steam 2 0.479 Air 1 0.239 1.29@STP 0.08@STP

Property Heat Capacity

Density

kg/m3 lb/ft3

Latent Heat

KJ/kg Btu/lb

Thermal Cond.

W/m C Btu/h ft F

0.0144-0.040 0.014-0.029 0.01-0.03 0.02-0.05

Viscosity

cP

Prandtl Number

1-15

10-1000

0.7

Compiled by : Ms Gauri

Organic Vapors 2.0-4.0 0.479-0.958

0.02-0.06 0.116-0.35 0.01-0.03

0.7-0.8

Compiled by : Ms Gauri