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wOHdmkh

w;:H wjldYhl mqoa., wkkH;d wnqoh


i`f WmlrKhla f,i

miq .sh ld,h ;=< wikakg ,enqK lK.dgqodhl m%jD;a;s w;r m%Odk ia:dkhla ysjqfha
wka;cd, iudc inkaO;d fj wv mdol lr f.k mdi,a jhfia yd Bg uola je jhfia
;reK ;reKhka lsysm fofkla uqyqKka wjdikdjka; is fm<ls' fuh tla w;lska
f.da,ShlrKh jQ w-ikaksfokh yryd wmj fmd<Ujk fj<`om, uq,a lr.;a f,!lsllrKh
yd b;du ;reK jhiaj, isk mrmrdj ta yryd ;u jk f,dalh ilialr .ekSug W;aidy
lsu ;=< u;= we;s jHdl+, ;;ajh yd wfkla w;ska o.aO fkdjQ jeys mrmrdj ovqj u
yd ;yku Tiafia w;dlsl yd wfya;=l (irrational) wdldrhlg f ;;ajh yd .Kqfokq lsug
fm<u ksid we;s jQ fojdpl ;;ajhls'

ckdm;sjrhd o meye,s m%ldYlr ;snQ m

wka;cd, iudc fj wv ;yk lsu ;=<ska ,nd .; yels m%;sM,hla ke;s nj i;Hhla
f,i mj;soa u" fuu mdi,a hk jhfia miqjk ;reK ;reKshka yg uqyqK ug is we;af;a
zjeys m%pKav;ajhlgZ h'

fuu kj mrmrdjg Tjqkag u`. fmkau i`oyd zm;alr we;sZ


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(appointed) Tjqkag jvd oYl follg fmr Wmka mrmrdjg jvd b;du ixlSK meje;af
wnqohlg (crisis in existence) uqyqK md we;s nj ^tla w;lska mj;akd merKs mrmrdfjs Is;
foaYmd,kh Tjqkaf.a wkd.;h Wrd f.k we;" Wiia wOHdmkh yryd ,nd .; yels
wkd.;hla o ke;" ukqIH inkao;d l,dmh fkka fkka msfyka mj;S" ckudOH
;kslru msiaiq fl,ska is''' fuu ,ehsia;=j b;d .h& wm f;are .; hq;af;a tu mrmrdjg
fYaIj we;af;a zw;:H wjldYhZ muKla nj ;dlslj iudc oHd;aulj

wjfndaOlr

.ekSfuks'
w:;H h;d:h (virtual reality) fjkqjg iaf,fjdahs cela fhdackd lrkafka h;d:h
w:;HlrKh (virtualization of the reality) hk fhu hs'

fuys isjkafka wm j;a jk

ndysr h;d:h ;=< isk wfkld wu;l lr oud w:;H wjldYfha isk wfkld h;d:h
njg m;a lr .ekSuhs'

fuys fuu fI ksrEmK wjldYh ;=< (simulated reality) isk

wfkld iska tfkod wm w;aolsk ndysr f,dalfha wfkld wm ;=< we;s lrk laIs;sh (trauma)
u`. yeu i`oyd Wo f' WodyrK f,i l=reKE., mdi,l y,am;sjrfhl=f.a uey;au
ksid h.sh isiqh inkaO isoah isysm;a lrkak' tu y,am;sjrhd inkaOfhka me;sreK
Tyqf.a phdj yd noaO jQ wfOda jHqyh yd inkaO m%jD;a;sh ;=<ska ^fuu lreKqj,
i;Hdi;H;djh ms<sn`o ;yjqre u ;jrg;a jD; wjldYhl mj;S& w:;H wjldYfha isk
wfkldg jvd fl;r CIs;suh iajNdjhla ndysr h;d:fha wfkld ord is o hkak myiqfjka
wjfndaO lr .; yel ^wm l%u iskudj-adventure movies ;=< olsk wfkldg jvd w;=reoka jQ
uef,aishdkq .=jka hdkfha h;dra:h fl;rus ixlSK o?&' wmf.a kj fhdjqka mrmrdj w:;H
wjldYh ;=< wfkld yryd ,nd .kakd m%fudaoh olajd ;u wkkH;djh mKduh lr .ekSu
;=< Tjqkaf.a w;g wvq,g ,e we;s m.Kl yd veka rl;k (Smart phones) fuu
fudfydf;a l%shdlrkafka (function) m%fndaOl jia;+ka (evocatory objects) f,ih' fuys
.=rejreka yd jeyshka f,i we;sfjka mj;sk fuu Nhdkl zwjfndaOd;aul mrmrd ysveiZ
f;are .ekSu fukau ms<s;=re fiu wo ojfia ld,Sk wOHdmk wjYH;djhla fjka mj;S'
foaYmd,kfhka osfkka osk wE;a jkafkao fuu kj mrmrdjh'
wOHdmkh .ek idlPd lrk g fYaIfhkau wo ojfia iqfYaI jQ ldrKhla biau;= fjka
mj;S' tk ;dCIKsl w-ikaksfok WmlrK yd ksia meje;au ms<sn`o .eg`Mj inkaOfhka
kq;k Y%S ,dxlsl wOHdmk yd iudh wdh;k iska m%udKj;a ms<s;=rla f.dvk`.d .ekSug
fkdyelsf kHdhsl .eg`Mjhs'

flfhkau lsjfyd;a fuu g,a w-ikaksfokh .-

ksh. mqrd f.fhka me;su je,elau flfiaj;a l< fkdyels we;s ;rug f.da,Sh
Okjdoh w;sYhskau m%N, wdl fudv,hla f,i wm im%odhsl iudch wNsfhda.hg ,lalr
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we;s ;;ajh yuqf tys wdm;slodhl m%fYhka .e,h fkdyelsf tla m%N, fldkafoaishla
we;af;a mqoa., Ih ;=< we;s inqoalNdjh ms<sn`o .eg`Mjla jYfhka fuu ,smsh ;=<
fmkajdug leue;af;' fuhska OfkaYajr wdl fudv,h ;=< we;s wj-udkqIsl;ajh yd tys
ksoh fj<`om,lrKh yryd we;sjk mqoa., .,s;Ndjh (alienation) ms<sn`o iNdjH udlaiajd
l;sldj neyer lsu flfiaj;a fkdflfrk w;r fuys W;aidy lrkqfha miq -OfkaYajr
hq.hl kj-iudcdkqfhdackhla yryd u;= flfrk wdpdrOdl yd iodpdr m%fYhla yryd
mqoa., meje;au ms<sn`o iajhx-wjfndaOhla ;=< Wiia iodpdr Nd.hla (higher ethical judgment)
w;alr .kafka flfia o hkak fidhd ne,Suls'

tys wksYaph we;s Okjd fj<`om,

iodpdrh ms<sn`o mrd;Ska wNsfhda.hg ,lalsu fukau kj Wiia {dk Nd.hla w;alr .kafka
flfia o hk Ialr ;;ajh ms<sn`o fldkafoaish ms<sn`oj wm w;sYhskau i{dKsl h hq;=h'
fuys fuu ,smsh u`.ska *%ekala* .=rel=,fha m%Odk llfhla jk h.ka ynudia iska
ldkahdkq l;sldj ;jrg;a mYapd;a OfkaYajr iudch i`oyd fhdod .ekSu inkaOfhka
olajk woyia yryd wo ojfia mYapd;a hg;a; miq-kq;k ;;ajhla hgf;a ,dxlsl jHqyhla ;=<
wOHdmkh hkafkys jeo.;alu ixlaIsma;j i<ld nef,a'

fuys udf.a fhdackdj jkafka

,dxlsl jHqyhla ;=< we;s m%d:l iudchkays im%odhsl w.;Ska (traditional prejudices) Wiia
inqoallrKfha

Yah

ft;sydislh

l%shdoduh

(universal-historical

process

of

rationalization) g yiq lsfuka wm iudchkays ;jrg;a uq,aneif.k we;s zudhd-;Hdjkaf.a


f,dal oelauZ fjkia lsu Tiafia oHd-;dCIKh iy .;dkq.;sl wd.l iodpdrh w;r .egqu
h ksYa; kq;k wjidkhlg f.k hd yels njhs' tfia lsu yryd woH;k ,dxlsl;ajh ;=<
we;s oHd-;dCIK frdaOh

yd

w-;dCIK fuj,

yryd

wm

yuqjg

/f.k tk

f,!lsllrKh k idOhl yryd we;s we;s CIs;suh ;;ajh inqoalj u`.yrjd .; yels
njhs' fuu ;;ajh ms<sn`oj inqoal wOHdmkhla yryd f.fhka ;reK mrmqr .Kqfokq lrk
w;:H wjldYh (virtual space) yd mqoa., wkkH;djh inkao .eg`Mj ms<sn`o kj
{dKNd.d;aul wjfndaOhla ,eh yels njhs'

ta w:fhka woH;k mdGYd,d wOHdmkh

tla;rd wdldrhlg mqoa., wkkH;d wnqohka ^fYaIfhkau Okjdofha f ld;=f m%Odku


m%Yakh jk& wjfndaOlr .ekSug fukau tajdfha .eg`Mld ;;ajhka iukh lsug Wmfhda.S jk
wdldrfha .=Kd;aul fjkilg md;% l< hq;= f' fuu l%shdj,sfha .=rejrhdf.a ldhNdrh
w;sYhska jeo.;a jk nj o i`oyka l< hq;=h'
mqoa., fkdaoh wruqKq lr.;a w;s Yd, mdfNda.sl fj<`om,la f jkg Okjdoh ;u m%Odk
.dul n,h njg m;alr f.k wjidkh'

ta Tiafia b;du wvq uqo,g g,a ikaksfok

WmlrK f,dalfha hqKq flakafha isg mjdrfha W!k ixj;" im%odhsl yd m%d:l
iudchka fj;g b;d f.fhka f,dal f.da,h mqrd ksndOld wdldrfhka jHdma; lrkq ,en
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we;'

flakafha rgj,g fuu oHd-;dCIK hqKj


q ms<sn`o mKdh wjfndaOhla fukau

w;aoelSula iys;h' tfukau ta yd neKq inqoal-f,!lsl wOHdmkh iska mqoa., wjfndaOh


yd ;u ndysr h;d:h yd .Kqfokq lrk wdldrh ms<sn`o idfmaCI Wiia fukau ixlSK
wOHdmkhla hqKq iudchkays mqoa.,hka i;=f ^iqfYaIs mqoa., idol fuys fjku u idlPd
l< hq;=f&'

fuu f,!lsl jk f,dalh ms<sn`oj we;s ioaNd wjfndaOh i`oyd ixialD;sl

inqoallrKh hkqfjka o ye`kah yelsh'


w ;dCIKsl WmlrKj, we;s m%Odku ,CIKh k tys we;s mqoa.,SlrK ^fm!oa.,SlrK&
Nj;djhhs' WodyrK jYfhka Smart phone, IPod, Laptops fukau idudkH Desktop j.fha
m.Klhla jqj o ;ks mqoa.,fhl=g ;u *ekagis-wdYd l,dmh ;ksju kaokh lsug bv
i,id fohs' ta w:fhka oe wd;au uq,sl;ajhla fukau tu ;udgu iqfYaI w;s uq,sl wdYdjka
(fundamental desires) iu`. w-y`kd .ekSulg (over-identification) .uka l< yel'

yryd wnqohg hkfka ksia Ih i;= ^fukau idudhj w;sY hskau jeo.;a& zwka;-mqoa.,Z
inkaO;d (inter-personal relationships) lafIa;%hhs'

tla mqoa.,fhla ;j;a mqoa.,fhla oek

y`kd.ekSu i`oyd Tyq$weh iu`. uq,sl ikaksfokhlg .uka lsu w;HdjYH f'

wm

idukHfhka okakd zflfkla y`kd .kakjdZ ke;ak zwdorh lrkjdZ ke;ak z;%YS,S
fjkjdZ hk ;;ajhla g fmr is jqfha lsish jHuh udkhl mej;=k" mqoa., Ifhka ndysr
jia;=jla iu`. lrk" .Kqfokqjl iajrEmfhks'

kuq;a wo ojfia mqoa., wkkH;djh w;:H

wjldYhl olakg we;af;a tlaflda wi;H iajrEmfhkah ke;ak zWjukdjg;a jvd i;HZ
iajrEmfhks'

ud is;k wdldrhg jvd;au .eg`M iy.; jkafka fuu fojk ;;ajhhs'

mqoa.,fhl= wm y`kd.kakd g ^idudkH y`kd .ekSul & wm h mqoa.,fhl=f.a we;e wx.


,CIK wu;l lrkq ,nhs'

we;e g Tyqf.a ,sx.sl;ajh" we;e wdYdj,a" yeiS rgdj,a

;djld,sl wu;l lr tu mqoa.,hdf.a ixfYda; ixialrKhl rEmhla fj; wm uq,skau wmf.a


y`kd .ekSu fhduq lrkq ,nhs' wm wu;l l< ,CIK wod, mqoa.,hd ;=< ;sfnkjd jqj o wm
wmf.a y`kd .ekSf myiqj i`oyd tajd wu;l lrkq ,nhs'

kuq;a w:;H wjldYhl

mqoa.,hska ;u ishu mqoa., iqfYaI;d ^;ud i`.jd ;nd .kakd foh mjd& jvd;a jD;j
fy<sor lrkq ,nk ;;ajhla ;=< uq,sl zy`kd .ekSf NdId ikaksfokhZ wkjYH fohla
njg m;aj hhs'

;u Yrh u y`kd .ekSf NdIdj f,i Nd;d lr we;s wjldYhl

ynudishdkq jd.a oHduh ikaksfokh wkjYH fohla njg m;af'

^WodyrK f,i"

Facebook wjldYhl iu,sx.slfhl= ;udj u y`kajd fok jHqyhla ;=< Tyq y`kd .ekSu i`oyd
jdia;l NdIdjla ;jrg;a wjYH fkdf'

g fmr h mqoa.,fhla yuq Tyq iu`.

l;dnyla we;s h b;sydihla ;=< Tyq ia:dk.; lrka iajhx-l:khla yryd y`kd .kakd
wka;-mqoa., inkaO;djh ^ndysr f,dalfha wfkld& fuys wfydais hhs'

tu w:fhka

fuu kj ;;ajh ;=< mqoa., inkao;djhla we;sug fya;= jkakd jQ m%Odk fldkafoaishla
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wfydais hhs' wo ojfia wmf.a g,a ;dreKHh uqyqK we;s m%Odku .eg`Mj fuh fkdf
o@ fuu .eg`Mf wfkla ir, iajrEmh k jHdc wkkH;djh ms,sn`o .eg`Mjhs' tysoS mqoa.,hd
;u wkkH;djh iu. fi,a,us lrkq ,nhs'
w;:H m%;srEmh
(virtual image)

i;Hhg;a
jvd i;H

i;H

ixfYda;
i;H

wi;H

wm fldfydug;a wdYd lrkafka zixfYda; i;HhZ lg jk neka ^wm mqoa.,fhlaf.a wleu;s


,CIK we;s nj okakjd jqj o *ekagis rEmh wdrCId lrkq jia tu wlue;s foa wu;l lrkq
,nhs&' wmf.a wdYdj m%;suq;su;a lrkq rEmhlg wm oDIauh mCImd; njla olajhs' tu ksid"
wmf.a zYajdihZ mdrfN!;sl w.;Ska j,ska hqla; f' flfia jqjo ienE wfkldg o wm hla
olajhs'
f lreK u; mdie,a isiq-isiqhka fukau ;reK-;reKshla lsysm fofkla ish kid .kakd
;;ajhg m;ah' ta m%;srEmh (image) yd h:dN+;h (real) w;r we;s iu;=,Hh wfydais hEu
(equivalence) ksid yg.kakd bpdNx.;ajhhs' f kj ;;ajhka ms<sn`o m%udKj;a wjfndaOhla
kq;k wOHdmkh iska wmf.a oreoehkag ,nd h hq;= nj udf.a Yajdi hhs' fYaIfhkau
f.da,ShlrKh jQ ,dxlsl wjldYhl wOHdmkh ;ju;a mj;skafka oYl .Kklg fmr mej;s
;;ajfhau u lK.dgqjg lreKla jqj o w;sYhska u f.j;a wdldrhlg mKduh jk
;dCIKh yd mqoa., i{dKl;ajh ms<sn`o l;dny ;ju;a wjika fkdjQ ;;ajhla ;=< wm
;jrg;a ne?re f,i yeoE l< hq;= nj udf.a ye`.Suhs'

YajoHd, ;=< .ska .gu

mq`M,a jk f;dr;=re ;dCIKh .ek jvjvd h;, myiql mq`M,a lrkjd kd ksia Ih yd
;dCIKh w;r iudcdkqfhdackh ms<sn`o l;sldjla we;s ke;s ;rh'
zoekquZ hkak wo ikaoNhla ;=< ia:dk.; l< hq;af;a h;d:h iy w;:Hh hkak .%yKh l<
hq;af;a flfia o hkak ms<sn`o {dK Nd.d;aul wjfndaOhla ,nd oSu Tiafia h' iq fYaIfhka
zksCIKhZ yd wjfndaOh hkak jeo.;a jk b;d ;reK ^mdie,a yd YajoHd,& wjfha
miqjkakka f ixlSK iajNdjh ms<sn`oj fukau ;u meje;au tu ixlSK h;d:h ;=, ia:dk
.; lrkafka flfia o hk ioaNd wjfndaOhla oSu ixia:dms; wOHdmkfha fukau fkdu;a
wOHdmkfha o tla;rd j.lSula jkafka h' wo wmg olskakg we;af;a fuu jHdl+, yd ixlSK
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zh;d:hZ ksid h.ssfha lsysmfofkla jqj o oe udkisl wd;;shg yd `ojeug ,la jQ


;dreKHh ms<sn`oj ixLHdf,aLk wm i;=g ke;' fuys oS wm fuu kj csg,a w-ikaksfok
;;ajh ;yk lrkq fjkqjg l< hq;af;a by; wjfndaOh fuu oHdj yd ;dCIKh yryd u
mqoa., Ihg ,nd oSuh'

;yku ;=<ska w;am;a lr .; yelafla ;j;a mrSs; zW,a,x>KhlaZ

(transgression) muKs' kuq;a wjfndaOh ;=<ska ksidf.a zcSjk jHdmD;shZ (life project) l=ula o
hkak f;dard .ekSf j.lSu Tyqg$ wehgu ,nd osh yels jkafka by, {dKk YlH;djhla
yryd muKs'
.=rejreka f,i YsIHhkaf.a kh inkaofhka lghq;= lsf isjk nrm;, im%odhsl
w.;shla jkafka zmd,kh yd inqoal;ajh w;r ;dlsl inkaohla Z oelaug .=rejrhd
wfmdfydi;a u ksid yg.kakd jHdl+, ;;ajh hs'

h y,am;sjrfhla fyda mka;sNdr

wdpdhjrfhla ^we;e g YajoHd, .=rejrfhla fjd& ;u YsIHhdf.a phdj md,kh lsf


tfia lrkafka l=uk mrud:hla idCId;a lr .ekSug o hkak ms<sn`oj ;dlsl meye,s
lsula NdIdjg ke`.sh hq;=h' th ikaksfokh l< hq;=h' WodyrK f,i YsIHfhla f*aianqla
.sKu
q la idod we;ak tfia iEu u`.ska fyda th Nd;d lsu yryd Tyqf.a p;hg"
wOHdmkhg" iudc inkaO;d l<dmhg isjk wk:ld n,mEu ^tfia jkafka k& ;dlslj
wjfndaO lr h hq;=h'

tfia fkdue;sj w;dlsl ;yku yd o`vqju y`kajdu u`.ska tla

w;lska m; fkdaoh i`oyd ud.h jr lrk w;fu idm%odhsl w;dlsl lafgdahdkq


iodpdrh m%;s ;yjqre lsula lrkq ,nhs' f folska l=ula is jqjo thska fuu kj mrmrdjg
isjk iq.;shla ke;'

jeys mrmrdjg ;djld,sl i;=g fjkqfjka ,eh yelsh'

kuq;a

fuu ;djld,sl i;=g fjkqfjka f.ug isjk wkd.; jkah iq`Mmgq ke;' ^wo ojfia w:;H
rEmhl meje;au ms<sn`oj orejkag we;s wjfndaOhla j;a .=rejrekag ke;s nj l=reKE., mdi,a
isoafhka fydkau wjfndaO f&'
tfukau b;du flfhka fuys wm zim%odhsl w.;SkaZ hkak meye,s lr .ekSu fukau thg
ksia Ih Ndckh jkafka flfia o hkak o meye,s lr .; hq;=h' fuys isjkafka lsish
m%mxphla ms<sn`o zksYaphZ ,nd ,nd.kafka ;Hduh yd mdrfN!;sl Yajdi yd wd.l ;yjqre
ls u; mok jQ udhdjka Wmld lr f.k i z;l nqoahZ u; mokj fkdf hkak h'
WodyrK f,i f*aianqla rEmhl (image) we;s i;H;djh ms<sn`o ;dlsl-oHd;aul j. Nd.hla
mqoa., Ihg ;sh hq;=h'

tjka rEmhla zi;Hhg jvd i;HfhaZ (truth more than itself) isg

imqK wi;Hh olajd jQ fLdf kEu ,CIKhlg msysgq h yel'

tu ksid tys

YajikShlajh wmf.a *ekagis wdYdjkaf.a wd;ah w.;shg myiqfjka wkq.; h yelsh' wm


wdYd lrk rEmhla ;su ksid thg wdYla; th i;Hhla$ h:d;hla jYfhka ms<sf.k wmf.a
jk f,dalfha fldgila f,ig th mj;kh lr .ekSu hk lreK z;lhZ blaujd
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zfkdaohZ fohg .uka lrk nj ta;a;= .; hq;=h' fuh wo ojfia zoekquZ blaujd" zw;dlslZ
Yajdihla olajd .uka lsu Tiafia wjidkfha h:d;h ^ienE wfkld& th fkdjk njg
ld,dkqrEmj Tmamq u yryd YajdiNx.ula is h yelsh'

tjka

mYapd;a-kQ;k

mriamr;djhla ord .ekSug ;r mK; fkdjq ;reK mrmrdj ;u meje;au wfydais lr


.ekSu ^urKh& olajd .uka lrka mj;S'

we;uqka j;a jqj o h;d:h ms<sn`o we;s

wYajikSh;ajh ksid ixfla;Sh urKhla w;a ka iskjdo h yel' fuys .=rejrhdf.a


j.lSu fohdldrh'
1' wo ojfia w;:H h;d:fha wnqoh" ixlSK;d yd jOkhka ms<sn`oj fukau
2' ksia wkkH;djh tjka h;d:hla u; f.dvkexug is u" mYapd;a f,!lsl iudcfha
ixlSrK;d ord .ekSug ;r Yla;su;a ukila ksudkh lsu hk j.lSu b;d blaukska
.=rejrhd f;are .; hq;=h'
zwjfndaOhZ hkak iEugu ;ykug yd o`vqjug jvd by, ;;ajhla nj wm iEu fofklau
ta;;
a = .; hq;=h' jvd Wiia iudchla ms<snoj isysk oelsh yels jkafka tgh'

lshjkak
Baudrillard, Jean (1994). Simulacra and Simulation (Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser). USA. The University of
Michigan Press.
Habermas, Jurgen (2007). The Future of Human Nature. London. Polity.

ufyaIa ymqf.dv