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Heat Transfer—Asian Research, 43 (1), 2014

Entropy Generation and Thermo-Economic Analysis of Constructal Heat Exchanger
1

K. Manjunath1 and S.C. Kaushik2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, New Delhi-110042, India 2 Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India

Comparison of a constructal heat exchanger (CHE) and normal heat exchanger (NHE) is analyzed by using second law analysis. Analysis is carried out by considering the three irreversibilities due to heat transfer, pressure drop, and production of the materials and the construction of the heat exchanger. The entropy generation minimization method is used to formulate the entropy generation number expressions of all three irreversibilities for both CHE and NHE to study the differences. Also to realize the advantages of the CHE over the NHE, ratios of each of the entropy generation numbers are considered. Additionally, the thermo-economic aspect of the heat exchanger is considered to further analyze the economic differences between the CHE and NHE. Graphical results are presented to investigate the influence of different parameters such as the number of pairing levels and initial length-to-diameter ratio on the behavior of the three entropy generation numbers along with effectiveness and NTU. From the overall results, we can find that there is an increase in the performance and a cost reduction in the CHE when compared to the NHE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 43(1): 39–60, 2014; Published online 20 May 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/htj). DOI 10.1002/htj.21062 Key words: heat exchanger, constructal theory, entropy generation minimization, production and material irreversibility, thermo-economic analysis

1. Introduction Heat exchangers are one of the important components in thermal systems which have an energy conservation opportunity. Heat exchangers are subjected to different types of losses during their operation. In the thermal design of heat exchangers, it is important to consider these losses and to find ways to improve its performance from an energy conservation point of view. The losses due to process irreversibility can be calculated using thermodynamics second law analysis. Constructal theory is used to optimize the performance of thermo-fluid flow systems by the generating geometry and flow structure, and to explain natural self-organization and self-optimization. Bejan [1] stated the constructal law as “For a finite-size system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to the imposed (global) currents that flow through it.” The optimal © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 39

Fig. 1. Counter flow of tree-shaped streams distributed over a square area [7]. structure is constructed by optimizing volume shape at every length scale, in a hierarchical sequence that begins with the smallest building block and proceeds towards larger building blocks (which are called “constructs”) [2]. In the normal heat exchanger, the tubes or fluid path on both sides have the same dimensions. But in the constructal heat exchanger, both the fluid paths are tree-shaped (dendritic) tubes sandwiched together structurally as shown in Fig. 1 and have perfect thermal contact. Bejan [3] described the constructal route to the conceptual design of a two-stream heat exchanger with maximal heat transfer rate per unit volume and gave the advantages of the tree-like (vascularized) heat exchanger structure over the use of parallel small-scale channels with fully developed laminar flow. Chen and Cheng [4] proposed a fractal tree-like micro-channel net heat sink for the cooling of electronic chips. The micro-channel net was designed to have a top and a bottom circulation pattern in a wafer. The study showed that this type of heat sink had better heat transfer characteristics and required less pumping power than traditional parallel nets. Zamfirescu and Bejan [5] investigated constructal tree-shaped two-phase flow for cooling a surface. They studied the optimal structure of the phase change with convective heat transfer. Bonjour et al. [6] investigated the heat exchange process with counter flows in two coaxial pipes, and optimized the fin set between the two pipe walls. Silva et al. [7] described the conceptual design and performance of balanced two-stream counter flow heat exchangers, in which each stream flows as a tree network through its allotted space. The two trees in counter flow are like two palms pressed against each other. They developed the relationships between effectiveness and the number of heat transfer units for several tree-counter flow configurations. Muzychka [8] studied constructal design of force convection-cooled microchannel 40

Daniels et al. [7] to analyze the performance of balanced two-stream parallel flow constructal heat exchangers. the ‘volume to point’ constructal problem is re-analyzed and re-optimized by Chen et al. Zimparov et al. [19]. [16] proposed the design and analysis of a multi-block heat exchanger by applying the concept of constructal theory. The experimental result confirms the effectiveness enhancement when compared to that of the conventional heat exchanger. [21] showed numerically how the geometric configuration of the tubular flow structure controls the global performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger. [10] used the concepts of Silva et al. a high effective-conduction channel distribution has been optimized based on a rectangular element. which reflects the average heat conduction effect and is defined based on entransy dissipation. Raja et al. The result showed better thermal performance. Kim et al. for both laminar and turbulent flow regimes was studied by Miguel [20]. Constructal theory is applied to optimize the configuration of a body that has a T-shaped cavity intruding into a trapezoidal solid conducting wall by Xie et al. triangles. Transient response of internal fluid pressure is also modeled and analyzed. They tried to determine the best architecture that minimizes the thermal resistance for a given pressure drop under several constraints. Raja et al. By taking entransy dissipation as an optimization objective. built on a binary pattern of pores. Both the case of the elemental area with a constant cross-section conducting path and the case of the elemental area with a variable cross-section conducting path are discussed. showing a correlation between channels at the same bifurcation level and between channels at different bifurcation levels. squares. [11. channels.heat sinks and heat exchangers. [17]. ellipses. Based on entransy dissipation. Zimparov et al. composed of a series of rough ducts. rectangles. which can be taken as the fundamental for the heat transfer optimization using the extremum principle of entransy dissipation. [22]. as an optimization objective. Maximum thermodynamic performance was achieved by minimization of the entropy generated in the assemblies. Both time-averaged and instantaneous two-dimensional void fraction data are presented. [24]. on flow equidistribution in a multi-channel heat exchanger such as conventional pyramid distributors and a mini-cross flow heat exchanger. rounds. Luo et al. Constructal analysis of tree-shaped microchannels for flow boiling in a disc-shaped body has been carried out to achieve an energy efficient design for chip cooling by Daguenet-Frick et al. an experimental investigation of two-phase void fraction variations was performed by Cullion et al. Results are compared with straight channels based on flow boiling conditions. the mean temperature difference of the solenoid (electromagnet) with a high thermal conductivity material inserted is deduced by Chen et al. and performed numerical calculations for the fluid flow and heat transfer problems. without the premise of an optimized last-order construct by Wei et al. pressure drop. [13]. [18]. [23]. and streams. They investigated the heat transfer performances of different shapes of micro-channels involving parallel plates. [14] identified the adiabatic boiling characteristics within the fractal-like flow network and compared results to straight parallel channels. By taking the equivalent thermal resistance which corresponds to the mean temperature difference. 41 . The hydrodynamic performance of the network. and vapor quality distributions for a range of flow rates and subcooling.and Y-shaped assemblies of ducts. Based on predictions of lower pressure drop penalties in fractal-like branching channels as compared to parallel channels. A new method based on discrete variable cross-section conducting path is introduced by Wei et al. [9] studied the constructal optimization problem of heat exchangers by using air and water as the heat exchange mediums. [15] examined experimentally the effects of constructal distributors or collectors. 12] optimized the performance of several classes of simple flow systems consisting of T. and polygons.

heat exchangers with negligible pressure drop irreversibility. and chemistry. Xie et al. fluid flow. mechanism. [32]. magnetism. and mass transfer irreversibilities. [25]. [35] investigated the constructal design of a body where a rectangular open cavity intruded into a trapezoidal solid by taking the maximum dimensionless thermal resistance minimization as the optimization objective in the most fundamental sense. [34]. The results of design using constructal theory are heat exchangers with in-series sections which are called constructal shell and tube heat exchangers. Based on constructal theory. Constructal entransy dissipation rate minimization of a round tube heat exchanger cross-section was studied by Wei et al. Feng et al. Bejan [39] derived entropy generation numbers for balanced counter flow heat exchangers. The multidisciplinary and multiobjective constructal optimization of the insulating wall is carried out by Chen et al. The disc cooling problem is optimized by taking the entransy dissipation rate minimization as an optimization objective by Chen et al. The main features of a steam generator are determined based on the method of constructal design. the constructs of the leaf-like fins are optimized by taking the minimum entransy dissipation rate as an optimization objective by Feng et al. the constructs of three “volume-point” heat conduction models with a three-dimensional cylindrical element and rectangular and triangular elements on the microscale and nanoscale are optimized by taking the minimum entransy dissipation rate as an optimization objective by Feng et al. The non-dimensional mean temperature difference of the disc cooling model with radial high conducting fins inserted is deduced. [28] developed analytically the constructal design of steam generators with a large number of tubes. This exergetic 42 . The new approach of constructal theory has been employed to design shell and tube heat exchangers by Azad and Amidpour [26]. and heat exchangers with remanent (flow imbalance) irreversibilities. Here the irreversibility minimization method of heat exchanger optimization is extended to include a term to account for the exergy of the construction material of the heat exchanger. electricity. [29]. fluid flow. Aceves-Saborio et al.Flow boiling in a constructal tree-shaped minichannel network was numerically investigated using a one-dimensional model. taking the maximization of thermal resistance per unit mass as the optimization objective with the global constraints of fixed external dimensions and prescribed mechanical strength. Constructal theory and its application are summarized. from disciplines such as heat. Kim et al. a branch-patterned disc with first (or higher)-order assembly is optimized based on constructal minimization of maximum temperature difference without the premise that the elemental sectors that assemble the perimeter of the branch patterned disc are optimal by Xiao et al. to living and non-living systems in nature by Chen [36]. [37]. Chen et al. They considered irreversibility due to material and derived a relationship between exergetic efficiency and effectiveness. [27]. [31]. [30]. [40] have done the analysis on an extension to irreversibility minimization analysis applied to heat exchangers. the constructal optimizations of a single plane and cylindrical insulation layers as well as the multi-layer insulation layers of a steel rolling reheating furnace walls are carried out for fixed boundary temperatures and by taking the minimization of the entransy dissipation rate as an optimization objective by Feng et al. Entropy generation minimization is the method of thermodynamic optimization of real systems that have a thermodynamic imperfection to heat transfer. [38] carried out constructal optimization for a H-shaped multi-scale heat exchanger based on the entransy theory. [33] provided the analytical expression of the dimensionless mean thermal resistance based on the definition of entransy dissipation rate minimization. Based on constructal theory. By taking a T-shaped assembly of fins as an investigation subject. Based on constructal theory. Based on the constructal theory. taking into consideration the minor losses at junctions by Zhang et al.

The number of pairing levels and initial length-to-diameter ratio were varied to study the behavior of the three entropy generation numbers along with effectiveness and NTU. Comparison of a constructal heat exchanger (CHE) and normal heat exchanger (NHE) based on second law analysis and including material and production irreversibility has not been reported on so far. the cumulative exergy of raw materials is the major component of the total value. and irreversibilities due to the production of the materials and the construction of the heat exchanger. m mass of heat exchanger.efficiency shows physically more realistic values than the usual expressions. Cornelissen and Hirs [41] showed the concepts of an exergetic life cycle analysis. Irreversibilities due to heat transfer.: I: ie: k: L: M: . the electricity consumption. m2 cross-sectional area. [42]. As a result. W/m2K irreversibility. m friction factor mass velocity. The analysis has been carried out for the optimal design of a heat exchanger in a district heating system. W constructal heat exchanger specific heat. Also the thermo-economic aspect of a heat exchanger is considered to further analyze the economic differences between the CHE and NHE. and production of the materials and the construction of the heat exchanger are considered to derive entropy generation numbers for both the CHE and NHE and a comparison is done. The analysis is carried out by considering a fully developed laminar flow and constant heat flux condition for a counter flow configuration. m2 thermo-economic cost (total cost). kg/s 43 . the ratios of each of the entropy generation numbers of the CHE versus the NHE are obtained to show the advantages of the CHE over the NHE. second law analysis of both a CHE and a NHE of single-dimensioned tubes is carried out based on entropy generation numbers. The cumulative exergy of a heat exchanger production process is studied considering cumulative exergy analysis by Xiao et al. Further. j/kg K channel inner diameter. based on the cumulative exergy consumption theory a heat exchange process is optimized. kg mass flow rate. $/year cumulative exergy destruction of material. Furthermore. which can be applied for the optimal design of a component. the temperature difference between the hot and cold stream. W effective rate of return thermal conductivity. m: surface area. The cumulative exergy includes the cumulative exergy of raw materials. Because the production of heat exchangers involves mainly machining processes. the energy consumption is relatively small. where there is a trade-off between exergy saving during operation and irreversibility during construction. and the contribution of the equipment used in the production process. In this work. pressure drop. The optimization takes into account irreversibilities due to frictional pressure drops. Nomenclature As: Ac: C: Cex: CHE: cp: D: f: G: h . kg/m2 s heat transfer coefficient. W/m K channel length. the minimization of life cycle irreversibility.

m gas constant. m3 Greek Symbols ε: µ: ρ: Φ: effectiveness viscosity. Q: R: Ru: Re: . K volume. Pa pressure drop. W/K Stanton number time. j/kg K Reynolds number entropy generation rate. Sgen: St: t: T: ∆T: V: number of pairing levels normal heat exchanger number of heat transfer units entropy generation number heat transfer entropy generation number pressure drop entropy generation number material irreversibility entropy generation number Nusselt number pressure. s temperature. W disk radius.n: NHE: NTU: Ns: Nsh: Nsp: Nsm: Nu: P: ∆P: . Pa heat transfer rate. kg/m3 operation maintenance factor Subscripts c: h: i: in: max: min: n: o: out: r: R: t: cold stream hot stream channel rank inlet maximum minimum for constructal heat exchanger for normal heat exchanger outlet reference condition ratio equation total 44 . K temperature difference. N s/m2 density.

Second Law Analysis of a Constructal Heat Exchanger Referring to Fig. where i = 0. at the end. . 1 as given by Silva at al. . Considering the same type of fluid flowing in both tubes. the overall heat transfer coefficient is given as (6) The heat transfer coefficient is related to the Nusselt number as (7) The NTU expression provided by Silva et al. the counter flow heat exchanger has two identical trees.2. [7]. The inner diameter of the tube is incremented for laminar flow as given by [1] (4) The stream-to-stream heat transfer rate of the exchanger is given as (5) assuming that the heat transfer rate is impeded primarily by the internal (convective) thermal resistances of the two laminar flows and not by the thermal diffusion through the material in which the tube pair is embedded [7]. For the entire tree structure the length-doubling formula can be expressed approximately for laminar flow as given by [1] (1) As we considered pairing at every construction level. n. Each tube has the length Li and internal diameter Di. The two trees match perfectly. the stream mass flow rate will be mn that is equal to 2nmo flows through the nth construct. . Each tree is made up of tubes of (n + 1) sizes. . the tube numbers and flow rates are expressed as (2) and (3) For n level of construction stages. so that one tube of the hot tree is parallel to and in thermal contact with the corresponding tube of the cold tree. [7] considering stream-to-stream heat transfer and enthalpy difference heat transfer is (8) 45 . Tube lengths double after two consecutive construction steps. 1. Insulations are provided as shown in the figure to prevent external heat loss. one for the hot fluid and the other for the cold fluid.

The entropy generation number due to material irreversibility is provided in Ref. 40 and 41 as (14) where M is the mass of the heat exchanger which is obtained by the volume and density of the material. Cex is the cumulative exergy destruction of the material. This assumption holds good because in our analysis we have considered a balanced heat exchanger and the temperature difference between the streams. and t is the operating time. the entropy generation numbers due to heat transfer and pressure drop takes the form (11) (12) where Pr is the reference pressure which is taken equal to the inlet pressure of the cold stream and the constant τ2 is defined as (13) In our analysis. 40 as (15) By using the NTU relation we can obtain the above relation as 46 . ∆T remains constant throughout as specified in Ref. we have assumed for simplicity that the value of τ is the same for the whole heat exchanger and it corresponds to the very first entry of hot and cold fluid temperatures.The entropy generated in the heat exchanger by considering irreversibilities due to heat transfer and pressure drop is given by Ref. The irreversibility due to the manufacturing of the heat exchanger is given by Refs. 43 as (9) Defining the entropy generation number by dividing entropy generation by minimum heat capacity rate [43] (10) If we consider a balanced heat exchanger. 7.

i is the cost of the equipment which is considered to be proportional to the surface area of the heat exchanger which includes the material and production cost. The total irreversibilities in terms of the product of the entropy generation rate and reference temperature is given as (20) Some of the assumptions made while carrying out the analysis are: 1. and the pressure drops are mainly due to friction along the straight cross section of the heat exchanger. The flow is fully developed and laminar. 3. Production cost of the heat exchanger includes the secondary manufacturing processes like tube bending. (18) where Ce. the flow is in the Poiseuille regime. The heat exchanger is a balanced one. 4.(16) where Tr is the reference temperature which is taken equal to the inlet temperature of the cold stream. [45]. The cost of insulation is ignored. 2. The total entropy generation number of all t three irreversibilities is the sum total of all the three entropy generation numbers (17) The thermo-economic cost (total cost) of the heat exchanger is given as the sum of the capital cost and the irreversibility penalty costs as provided in Refs. the assumption of neglecting the local junction losses in the tree-shaped structure is clarified as follows. In our analysis. Every tube is slender. 6. 5. welding. Where the svelteness Sv is a global property of the entire flow system fixed by the size constraints and is defined as Sv = external length scale/internal length scale. One tube of hot stream tree is right next to its counterpart in the cold stream tree and has excellent thermal contact. The svelteness is formulated as (21) 47 . The same type of fluid is flowing in both the streams. Referring to the effect of the local junction losses aspect provided in Wechsatol et al. etc. While Φ is the operation maintenance factor. the domain in which junction losses have an important effect on the optimized geometry is Sv2 < 10 for a laminar flow. Cs is cost associated with the irreversibilities which is taken as equal to the electricity cost and H is the number of operation hours in a year. Neglect the local pressure drops associated in the joints of the tubes. assembling. 40 and 44. Rc is the capital recovery factor given as (19) where ie is the effective rate of return and lc is the technical life or life cycle in years.

7: 48 . 3. Let Do be the inside diameter of the NHE tube which is equal to the CHE initial channel inside tube diameter. we are able to derive the entropy generation numbers for both exchangers. Based on this assumption. Comparison of Constructal Heat Exchanger (CHE) and Normal Heat Exchanger (NHE) For the CHE. the value of the tube length of the NHE for the specified value of number of pairing levels n of the CHE can be obtained by equating Eqs. we can neglect the local junction losses in the tree-shaped heat exchangers geometry considered. the value of Lo can be obtained. Now. 46. For the NHE. and the same material of construction in both exchangers. (8) for the whole configuration as provided in Ref. Considering a suitable value for Lo / Do and Do. As the flow is fully developed and laminar. the same cold and hot inlet temperatures. the same fluid temperature difference. for the considered constructal heat exchangers dimensions. Therefore. (26) and (28) as (29) For the CHE. the ratio Lo / Do > 100 as provided in Ref. the NTU expression is obtained by the summation of the local expression of Eq. we consider the same heat transfer rate. the svelteness value is calculated having Sv2 > 10. 7: (25) (26) where (27) where ∆T is the stream-to-stream temperature difference which remains the same throughout the balanced heat exchanger. the same type of fluid flowing. the stream-to-stream heat transfer rate is obtained by the summation of the local expression of Eq. 7 as (22) (23) where (24) In the analysis. the stream-to-stream heat transfer rate is given as (28) To compare the constructal heat exchanger (CHE) and the normal heat exchanger (NHE) based on second law analysis. (5) for the whole configuration as in Ref.where AR is the area of rectangular territory of fixed size covered by the largest construct and V is the total duct volume which are given by Ref.

we are able to calculate the mass flow rate of fluid as (38) where Ac. given as (33) (34) The heat transfer entropy generation number for the CHE is obtained by the summation of the local expression of Eq. the NTU expression is given as (32) The effectiveness relationship for the balanced counter flow of the CHE and NHE are. (11) for the whole configuration as (35) (36) The heat transfer entropy generation number for the NHE is given as (37) Considering a suitable value for the laminar flow Reynolds number.o is the cross-sectional area based on the inside diameter of the NHE tube. The mass velocity for the CHE is obtained as (39) where (40) 49 . respectively.(30) (31) For NHE.

n is the cross-sectional area based on the inside diameter of the CHE tube. The mass velocity for the NHE is obtained as (41) The pressure drop entropy generation number for the CHE is obtained by the summation of the local expression of Eq. For the analysis of entropy generation due to material irreversibility. (16) for the whole configuration as (44) where (45) Equation (45) is the CHE material irreversibility obtained from Eq.where Ac. (14). Here ρm is the density of the heat exchanger material and tk is the thickness of the tube. (46) The entropy generation number due to material irreversibility of the NHE is obtained as (47) 50 . (12) for the whole configuration as (42) The pressure entropy generation number for the NHE is obtained as (43) The entropy generation number due to the material irreversibility of the CHE is obtained by the summation of local expression of Eq. we need to consider the effect of thickness of the tube material to obtain a more realistic material irreversibility value.

(32) as (55) The ratio of heat transfer entropy generation numbers of the CHE versus NHE is obtained by dividing Eq. the same fluid temperature difference. the same cold and hot inlet temperatures. The total entropy generation number of all three irreversibilities is obtained by the summation of all three entropy generation numbers. (31) by Eq. to compare the constructal heat exchanger (CHE) and the normal heat exchanger (NHE) based on second law analysis. The ratio of NTUs of the CHE versus NHE is obtained by dividing Eq. (43) as (57) The ratio of entropy generation numbers due to the material irreversibility of the CHE versus NHE is obtained by dividing Eq. given as (53) (54) 4. as (51) (52) Surface areas of the CHE and NHE are. which is given for the CHE and NHE. (42) by Eq. Based on these assumptions. Entropy Generation Number Ratios of the CHE and NHE As mentioned earlier. we consider the same heat transfer rate. (44) by Eq. (47) as 51 . respectively. the same type of fluid flow. (36) by Eq.where (48) Equation (48) is the NHE material irreversibility obtained from Eq. (14). as (49) (50) The thermo-economic cost (total cost) expressions for the CHE and NHE are obtained from procedures provided from Eqs. respectively. respectively. and the same material of construction in both exchangers. we are able to derive the ratios of entropy generation numbers of the CHE versus the NHE to study the behaviors. (18) to (20). (37) as (56) The ratio of pressure drop entropy generation numbers of the CHE versus NHE is obtained by dividing Eq.

5 times the material cost for a NHE and 0.. Cost of insulation is ignored. thickness of the tube (tk = 0.364) for a fully developed laminar flow and constant heat flux condition.001 m).o) value for an increase in the value of number of pairing levels (n). 46. we can observe that the pressure drop entropy number of the CHE (Nsp. [Here the value of n of the CHE is related to the NHE for obtaining the value of tube length of the NHE from Eq.n) and NHE (Nsh. primary processes like casting.o for a particular value of n.1). Input values considered for the analysis from Mohamed [47] are: initial tube inside diameter (Do = 0. assuming fabrication cost as 0. As we increase the value of Lo / Do.5). 48. the total value is given as Cex = 95 × 106 J/kg.005 m).1 $/kW-hr). and final manufacturing process like assembling. tube material (copper) density (ρm = 8933 kg/m3). there is an increase of both entropy generation 52 . reference pressure (Pr = 105 Pa).75 times the material cost for a CHE (for demonstration purpose). welding. cost of the material made of copper = 74 $/m2 (obtained from the London metal exchange website). analysis is carried out to study the variation of different entropy generation numbers and the ratio of entropy generation numbers.n and Nsh. This is due to the increase in the value of effectiveness for the case of the NHE compared to the CHE resulting from the same heat transfer rate considered as mentioned earlier. 41. Considering copper as the raw material. period of operation. The details of each of the values of exergy destruction are provided in Ref. 3.n compared to Nsh.(58) The ratio of thermo-economic cost (total cost) of the CHE versus NHE is obtained by dividing Eq.n) has a lower value compared to the NHE (Nsp. (29). 5.o) versus the number of pairing levels (n) for different values of initial tube length-todiameter ratio (Lo / Do). Reynolds number (Re = 1500). Nusselt number (Nu = 4. H = (317 days × 8 hours per day) hr/year. (52). 5. technical life (lc = 5 years). rolling. reference temperature (Tr = Tci). The cumulative exergy destruction associated with the production of material and manufacturing of tubes consists of exergy destruction occurring for obtaining the raw material from ore form. the value of n also affects the geometrical and operating parameters of the NHE]. Results and Discussion Considering the same heat transfer rate process for both CHE and NHE. and electricity cost (Cs = 0.1 Comparison of CHE and NHE Figure 2 shows the behavior of the heat transfer entropy generation number of CHE (Nsh. (51) by Eq. and secondary processes like bending. The two stream fluids in the heat exchanger are considered as air and its thermophysical properties are referenced at average temperature from Ref.o decrease indicating lower entropy generation for the higher pairing levels. inlet cold temperature (Tci = 300 K). both values of the heat transfer entropy generation numbers decrease. The reason for this behavior is specified in Ref. As the value of n increases. Referring to Fig. We can observe that there is an increase in the value of Nsh. extruding. The results are obtained by using engineering equation solver [49] software. the values of Nsh. temperature ratio (Thi / Tci = 1. effective rate of return (ie = 0. length-to-diameter ratio (Lo / Do = 120) which is for a fully developed laminar flow as specified by Ref. etc. As we increase the value of Lo / Do. 7: Constructal heat exchangers are designed for lower resistance to the flow of fluid and keeping the volume constraint. So.

53 Fig. Figure 4 shows the variation of entropy generation number due to the material irreversibility of CHE (Nsm.o) versus the number of pairing levels (n). Material irreversibility entropy generation number versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. This figure indicates the advantage of the constructal heat exchanger in decreasing the pumping power requirement.o) versus the number of pairing levels (n) for different values of length-to-diameter ratio (Lo / Do). 2. Fig. This results in the reduction of exergy destruction due to the heat exchanger material and manufacturing of constructal heat exchanger. 3. 4. This is due to the lower surface area required for the CHE as compared to NHE to achieve the same heat transfer rate. numbers due to an increase in the overall length of the heat exchangers. 5. As n and Lo / Do values increase. Total entropy generation number versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. the total entropy generation number decreases to a minimum value and then increases. Figure 5 shows the results of the total entropy generation number due to all three irreversibilities of the CHE (Ns. Heat transfer entropy generation number versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. For a particular value of n. As the value of n increases.Fig. Nsm. Pressure drop entropy generation number versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE.o.n has a lower value compared to Nsm.n) and NHE (Ns.n) and of NHE (Nsm. entropy generation increases due to an increase in material volume. . Fig.

the effectiveness of both the CHE and NHE increases and shows the same behavior. the CHE needs less NTU than the NHE. Figure 7 shows the increase in the effectiveness value for the NHE as compared to the CHE for a particular value of n.o indicating the advantage of reduction of total entropy generation in the case of the CHE. The higher value of effectiveness of the NHE as compared to the CHE does not indicate better performance. 6. then after that it attains a lower value than Ns.Fig. Although initially the value of Ns.n is slightly higher up to some value of n. This is due to an increase in the total entropy generation in the case of the NHE as shown earlier in Fig. We can observe a higher value of NTU for the NHE (NTUo) as compared to the value of the NTU for CHE (NTUn) for the same value of n as shown in the Fig. This minimum value is the same for different values of Lo / Do as shown in Fig. This indicates that to attain the same heat transfer rate (which is considered in the analysis). 6. 5. 7. Fig. 5 from the second law analysis. Number of transfer units versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. 54 . Also we can observe the increase in the NTU value for a particular value of n for an increase in the Lo / Do value. This minimum value of irreversibilties will provide the optimum value of n for the input parameters considered. As the values of n and Lo / Do increase. Effectiveness versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE.

As the value of n increases. Lo/Do = 120) 55 .n) and NHE (As. 9.o) versus n. From the results and discussion of the comparisons of the CHE and NHE by considering the same heat transfer rates and temperature difference between balanced streams. Corresponding to the minimum value of total cost. From Fig. n for the input parameters considered for lower irreversibilities. Comparison of Constructal Heat Exchanger (CHE) and Normal Heat Exchanger (NHE) (n = 2. we can obtain the optimum value of pairing level. Also we can observe the usefulness of CHE from Fig. the surface area needed by the CHE is lower than the NHE.o) for a change in the value of n. Surface area versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. 8. the value of the thermo-economic cost of the CHE is lower than the NHE. the surface area increases for both the CHE and NHE. 8 that after a particular value of n and above. Figure 8 shows the behavior of thermo-economic cost (total cost) of the CHE (Ctot. Figure 9 shows the surface area behavior of the CHE (As. For a particular value of n.n) and NHE (Ctot. we can also conclude that an increase in the number of pairing levels beyond n = 3 will lead to the effectiveness of the NHE approaching one. which may not be feasible. the thermo-economic cost initially decreases to a minimum value for a particular value of n and then increases. We can observe from Table 1 that although the effectiveness Table 1. Fig. Thermo-economic cost versus number of pairing levels for CHE and NHE. This is due to the reduction of surface area and mass in the case of the CHE compared to the NHE for attaining the same heat transfer rate. As n increases. 7. we can compile the overall results as provided in Table 1. surface area of the CHE is lower than the NHE. We can also observe from the figure that there is an increase in total cost behavior for an increase in Lo / Do value. This indicates that to achieve the same heat transfer rate in both the CHE and NHE.Fig.

10.R) for an increase in the value of n. Ratios of heat transfer. Nsh. 56 . Referring to Fig. 5. value is higher for the NHE as compared to the CHE. This is because of the decrease in the surface area in the case of the CHE compared to the NHE to attain the same heat transfer rate.R) versus the number of pairing levels (n). As the value of n increases. 10. referring to Fig. Ratios of NTUs and thermo-economic costs versus number of pairing levels of CHE and NHE. The thermo-economic cost (total cost) of the CHE is lower compared to the NHE which gives the overall advantages to the CHE over NHE in terms of not only a reduction in capital cost but also a reduction in costs associated with the irreversibilities (operating cost). there is the decreasing behavior of the ratio of pressure drop entropy generation numbers of the CHE and NHE (Nsp.2 Variation of entropy generation numbers of CHE and NHE Figure 10 shows the behavior of the ratio of the heat transfer entropy generation numbers of the CHE and NHE (Nsh. Also. Fig. as shown in Fig.Fig. That is. Also. This is due to the higher value of effectiveness in the case of the NHE as compared to the CHE. we can observe the decreasing behavior of the ratio of NTUs of the CHE and NHE (NTUR) for an increase in the value of n. This is due to a decrease in the volume of the CHE as compared to the NHE considering volume constraint as in constructal theory [1]. there is a decrease in pressure drop in the case of the CHE compared to the NHE.R increases indicating an increase in the heat transfer entropy generation of the CHE. 10. and material irreversibility entropy generation numbers versus number of pairing levels of CHE and NHE. Also.R) versus the number of pairing levels (n). 11. 11. the value of NTU for the NHE is higher compared to the CHE which is the reason for the higher effectiveness of the NHE. there is a decreasing trend of the ratio of entropy generation numbers due to the material irreversibility of the CHE and NHE (Nsm. the entropy generation number value of the NHE is higher. This is due to the fact that the design of the constructal heat exchanger is based on the objective to minimize the global flow resistance encountered by the streams [1]. pressure drop.

There is a decrease. Further. 2. This shows the reduction in the CHE total cost compared to the NHE for an increase in the number of pairing level values indicating the thermo-economic advantages of constructal heat exchangers. we can obtain an optimum value of number of the pairing level for the CHE thermal design. 6. For all the above results. comparison of the CHE and NHE based on second law analysis is carried out by the ratios of the CHE versus the NHE entropy generation numbers for each irreversibility. By considering the same heat transfer rates and temperature difference between balanced streams.Also. 5. attaining a minimum value and increasing the behavior of the total entropy generation number for an increase in the pairing level number. 11. the thermo-economic cost of the CHE is lower than the NHE for the input parameters considered. However. This is due to the lower value of surface area required for the CHE as compared to the NHE to attain the same heat transfer rate. the sum of all irreversibilities that is the total entropy generation number is lower for the CHE as compared to the NHE for a particular value of number of the pairing level and above. 4. 57 . 3. Due to the pressure drop and material irreversibility it increases as the number of pairing levels increases for both the CHE and NHE. although for a particular value of pairing level there is a higher value of heat transfer entropy generation number for the CHE as compared to the NHE. There is a decreasing behavior of the thermo-economic cost ratio for an increase in the number of pairing levels which indicates the advantages of the CHE over the NHE. After the optimum value of the pairing level number and above. there is an increase in the value of each of the entropy generation numbers for an increase in the initial length-to-diameter ratio value for a particular value of pairing level number. The entropy generation numbers due to pressure drop and material irreversibility have a lower value for the CHE. as shown in Fig. Total cost (thermo-economic cost) of heat exchanger also has the same behavior of attaining a minimum value for a particular value of pairing level number which provides an optimum thermoeconomic cost of the CHE for a particular value of the initial length-to-diameter ratio considered. initially the thermo-economic cost ratio of the CHE and NHE (CR) increases before n = 1 and then afterwards it decreases as n increases. the entropy generation number due to heat transfer decreases. This is due to an increase in effectiveness and the NTU in the case of the NHE as compared to the CHE. the pressure drop and material irreversibility entropy generation number ratios decreases as the number of the pairing level increases. Corresponding to the minimum value of the total entropy generation number. Conclusions The following conclusions can be drawn from the second law analysis of a balanced constructal heat exchanger (CHE) and comparison done with a balanced normal heat exchanger (NHE): 1. 6. Although the heat transfer entropy generation number ratio increases.

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