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Presented by: ShahabKhan

ReshadatAli

Sharib Husain

Contents

Power System Stability Overview Power System Stability: A Proposed Definition Need of Stability Classification Power System Stability Classification Rotor Angle Stability Voltage Stability Frequency Stability Rotor Angle Stability vs. Voltage Stability References

2

**Power System Stability Overview
**

Po w e r syste m i d e fi e d a s a n e tw o rk o f o n e o r s n

**m o re g e n e ra ti g u n i , l a d s a n d p o w e r n ts o tra n sm i o n l n e s i cl d i g th e a sso ci te d ssi i n u n a e q u i m e n ts co n n e cte d to i . p t
**

The stability of a power system is its ability to

develop restoring forces equal to or greater than the disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium.

Power system stability problem gets more

pronounced in case of interconnection of large

3

**Power System Stability: A Proposed Definition
**

Power system stability is the ability of an electric power system, for a given initial operating condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance, with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains intact.

4

**Need of Stability Classification
**

Stability analysis is easier. Also itleads to

p ro p e r a n d e ffe cti u n d e rsta n d i g o f ve n d i re n t p o w e r syste m i sta b i i e s. ffe n l ti easily identified.

** Key factors that leads to instability can be Methods
**

**can be devised for improving power system stability.
**

5

**Power System Stability Classification
**

Rotor angle stability. Small disturbance angle stability. Transient stability.

**Voltage stability. Small disturbance voltage stability. Large disturbance voltage stability.
**

**Frequency stability. Short term frequency stability. Long term frequency stability.
**

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Stability Classification at a Glance

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**Rotor Angle Stability
**

Rotor angle stability refers to the ability of

**synchronous machines of an interconnected power system to remain in synchronism after being subjected to a disturbance.
**

Rotor angle instability occurs due to angular

**swings of some generators leading to their loss of synchronism with other generators.
**

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**Rotor Angle Stability (contd.)
**

Depends on the ability to maintain/restore

equilibrium between electromagnetic torque and mechanical torque of each synchronous machine.

At equilibrium, Input mechanical torque equals

output electromagnetic torque of each generator. In case of any disturbance the above equality doesn’t hold leading to acceleration/ deceleration of rotors of

9

**Rotor Angle Stability
**

**Rotor Angle Stability Classification:
**

Small Disturbance Rotor Angle Stability:

It is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances. Disturbances are considered to be sufficiently small such that the linearization of system equations is permissible for purposes of analysis. The time frame of interest in small-disturbance stability studies is of the order of 10 to 20 seconds following a disturbance.

10

**Rotor Angle Stability
**

**Rotor Angle Stability Classification
**

Large Disturbance Rotor Angle Stability:

It is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under a severe disturbance, such as a short circuit on a transmission line. Disturbances are large so that the linearization of system equations is not permissible for purposes of analysis. The time frame of interest in small-disturbance stability studies is of the order of 3 to 5 seconds following a disturbance. 11

Voltage Stability

Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power

system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. the system, the voltage magnitude decreases as reactive power injection is increased. of voltages of some buses.

**A system is voltage instable if for atleast one bus in
**

**Voltage instability results in progressive fall or rise
**

12

Voltage Stability

Large scale effect of voltage instability leads to

Voltage collapse. It is a process by which the sequence of events accompanying voltage instability leads to a blackout or abnormally low voltages in a significant part of the power system.

The driving force for voltage instability is usually

the loads.

Voltage stability problems is also experienced at

terminals of HVDC links connected to weak ac systems.

13

Voltage Stability

**Voltage Stability Classification
**

Small Disturbance Voltage Stability:

Small-disturbance voltage stability refers to the system’s ability to maintain steady voltages when subjected to small disturbances such as incremental changes in system load. A combination of both linear and non-linear techniques are used for analysis.

14

Voltage Stability

**Voltage Stability Classification
**

Large Disturbance Voltage Stability:

Large-disturbance voltage stability refers to the system’s ability to maintain steady voltages following large disturbances such as system faults, loss of generation, or circuit contingencies. The study period of interest may extend from a few seconds to tens of minutes.

15

Frequency Stability

Frequency stability refers to the ability of a power

system to maintain steady frequency following a severe system upset resulting in a significant imbalance between generation and load.

Frequency instability leads to tripping of generating units and/or loads. Frequency stability may be a short-term phenomenon or a long-term phenomenon.

16

**Rotor Angle Stability vs. Voltage Stability
**

Rotor angle stability is basically a generator

**stability while voltage stability means load stability.
**

Rotor angle stability is mainly interlinked to

real power transfer whereas voltage stability is mainly related to reactive power transfer.

17

References

“Definition and Classification of Power System

**Stability”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 19, NO. 2, MAY 2004
**

Khan, Asfar Ali, “Determination of reactive power

**limit for voltage stability study in a grid system”, September 1999, M.Tech Dissertation, AMU, Aligarh
**

Kundur, P., “Power System Stability and Control”,

McGraw Hill, 1994.

18

References (contd.)

IEEE TF Report, “Proposed terms and definitions for

power system stability”, IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, pp. 1894– 1897, July 1982.

Gupta, B.R., “Power System Analysis And Design”,

S. Chand Group.

AIEE Subcommittee on Interconnections and

Stability Factors, “First report of power system stability”, AIEE Trans., pp. 51–80, 1926.

19

Thank You

20

Questions Please

21

A great presentation on Definition and classification of power system stability.

A great presentation on Definition and classification of power system stability.

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